One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Amino Acid Sequence
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Blood Group Antigens
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Hepatitis B Antigens
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Ribosome Subunits, Small, Archaeal
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Simian virus 40
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Nucleic Acid Conformation
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
gp100 Melanoma Antigen
Lewis Blood-Group System
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. (1/6)Using a combination of 16S rRNA analysis and antigenic fingerprinting consisting of new and published data, the phylogenetic position of 18 thermophilic isolates currently classified as Methanobacterium species was reinvestigated. The results were verified by independent methods, including, where applicable, plasmid and phage typing. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA data for 30 strains belonging to the order Methanobacteriales strongly suggested that mesophilic and thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates are distantly related and should be assigned to separate genera. For the thermophilic strains the genus Methanothermobacter was initially proposed by Boone, Whitman and Rouviere. Furthermore, the results support a reclassification of 15 isolates in three species within the proposed genus: (i) Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., containing eight isolates, six of which are able to utilize formate (type strain deltaHT); (ii) Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., containing four formate-utilizing isolates (type strain DSM 2970T); (iii) Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov., containing three obligately autotrophic isolates (type strain MarburgT). Of the nine isolates formerly referred to as Methanobacterium thermoformicicum, six were reclassified as Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and three as Methanothermobacter wolfeii. (+info)
Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity. (2/6)To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance. (+info)
Direct characterization of methanogens in two high-rate anaerobic biological reactors. (3/6)The methanogenic flora from two types of turbulent, high-rate reactors was studied by immunologic methods as well as by phase-contrast, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The reactors were a fluidized sand-bed biofilm ANITRON reactor and an ultrafiltration membrane-associated suspended growth MARS reactor (both trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pa.). Conventional microscopic methods revealed complex mixtures of microbes of a range of sizes and shapes, among which morphotypes resembling Methanothrix spp. and Methanosarcina spp. were noticed. Precise identification of these and other methanogens was accomplished by antigenic fingerprinting with a comprehensive panel of calibrated antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra. The methanogens identified showed morphotypes and antigenic fingerprints indicating their close similarity with the following reference organisms: Methanobacterium formicicum MF and Methanosarcina barkeri W in the ANITRON reactor only; Methanosarcina barkeri R1M3, M. mazei S6, Methanogenium cariaci JR1, and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ in the MARS reactor only; and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in both reactors. Species diversity and distribution appeared to be, at least in part, dependent on the degree of turbulence inside the reactor. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills. (4/6)Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kingdom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified. (+info)
Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate. (5/6)A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation. (+info)
Diversity and population dynamics of methanogenic bacteria in a granular consortium. (6/6)Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor granules were used as an experimental model microbial consortium to study the dynamics and distribution of methanogens. Immunologic methods revealed a considerable diversity of methanogens that was greater in mesophilic granules than in the same granules 4 months after a temperature shift from 38 to 55 degrees C. During this period, the sizes of the methanogenic subpopulations changed with distinctive profiles after the initial reduction caused by the shift. Methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter smithii PS and ALI, Methanobacterium hungatei JF1, and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 increased rapidly, reached a short plateau, and then fell to lower concentrations that persisted for the duration of the experiment. A methanogen related to Methanogenium cariaci JR1 followed a similar profile at the beginning, but it soon diminished below detection levels. Methanothrix rods weakly related to the strain Opfikon increased rapidly, reaching a high-level, long-lasting plateau. Two methanogens related to Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH emerged from very low levels before the temperature shift and multiplied to attain their highest numbers 4 months after the shift. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed thick layers, globular clusters, and lawns of variable density which were distinctive of the methanogens related to M. thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, M. thermophila TM1, and M. arboriphilus AZ and M. soehngenii Opfikon, respectively, in thin sections of granules grown at 55 degrees C for 4 months. Mesophilic granules showed a different pattern of methanogenic subpopulations. (+info)
Treatment of sulfite evaporator condensates for recovery of volatile components. Assay of condensate samples from supporting...
Treatment of sulfite evaporator condensates for recovery of volatile components. Assay of condensate samples from supporting mills. Project 3100, report one : a progress report to members of Group Project 3100. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Methanothermobacter wolfeii.
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Thermal management optimization of a thermoelectric-integrated methanol evaporator using a compact CFD modeling approach -...
To regulate the magnitude and the direction of the heat flux in an exchanger-based methanol evaporator of a fuel cell system, thermoelectric (TE) modules can be deployed as active heat pumps. The performance of the TE-integrated evaporator is strongly influenced by its heat exchange structure. The structure transfers the fuel cell exhaust heat to the evaporation chamber to gasify the methanol, where TE modules are installed in between to facilitate the heat regulation. In this work, firstly, a numerical study is conducted to determine the working currents and working modes of the TE heat regulators under the system working condition fluctuations and during the system cold start. A 3-dimensional evaporator model is generated in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT® by combining a compact TE model with a number of various heat exchange structure geometries. The compact TE model adopts order-reduction technique in both gridding and computing to improve the computation ...
Patent USD510423 - Substance evaporator - Google Patents
FIG. 1 is an exploded first perspective view of the substance evaporator of the instant invention showing the separation of the container and the upper portion of the substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 2 is a second perspective view of the assembled substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;. FIG. 4 is a back elevational view thereof;. FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof; and,. FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view thereof.. ...
WJJeeps.com - A/C evaporator odor service
10. When the can is empty, turn the ignition switch to the OFF position and let the vehicle sit for 20 minutes. This time will allow the cleaner to flow over and coat the evaporator fins and case assembly. 11. Re-install the blower motor resistor in the HVAC housing. The housing is indexed to allow mounting in only one position. Tighten the mounting screws to 2.2 N m (20 in. lbs.). 12. Open all of the vehicle windows about 13mm ( in.). Start the engine and let idle for a MINIMUM of 30 minutes with the temperature control to full hot, blower speed to HIGH, PANEL and RE-CIRCULATE modes selected. This will dry and cure the evaporator cleaner onto the evaporator coil. 13. Connect the wiring disconnected in step 2 to re-enable the A/C compressor clutch. 14. Verify proper A/C operation. 15. Owners of vehicles that operate in conditions where the air inlet to the hvac housing is subject to foreign material, debris or other airborne contaminates, may want to consider having a mopar accessory cabin air ...
Storm Chemicals Evaporator - Cleaner & Disinfectant | Hawco
Get effective cleaning of evaporators and condensate trays with Storm Chemicals evaporator cleaner and disinfectant, specially formulated to eliminate odours, available in a variety of solutions and powders - Buy online today at Hawco
Evaporators | Product Finder | Lab Manager
Product guide for selecting an evaporator or cencentrator and includes nitrogen blowdown, vortex, rotary evaporators and vacuum systems for solvent
China Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator - China Evaporation, Ethanol Project
China Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Evaporation, Ethanol Project from Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Rotary Evaporators Control Manufacturer, Rotary Evaporators Control Supplier, Exporter From New Delhi
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Evaporator System099A EV2012S [G099A EV2012S] - $2,759.90 Equl offers Enzyme Assay Kits, Reagent Mixtures, Enzymes,...
Evaporator System099A EV2012S [G099A EV2012S] - Heated single block 20 well evaporator system for 15-16mm tubes, includes block, 15ga needles, 1.5 LPDF Download
China Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator - China Alcohol, Effect
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DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator on Environmental XPRT
Article DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator. DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator Suzhou Dalong & Ningbo Dahongying Bio-Engineering & Beijing Ginko Group & Wuxi Hexiang Chemical Machinery Separation techno...
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JUAL AUTOMATIC NITROGEN EVAPORATOR 20 POSITION | Jual Alat Laboratorium ,Services Alat Laboratorium Jakarta
AUTOMATIC NITROGEN EVAPORATOR 20 POSITION AUTO NITROGEN EVAPORATOR 20 POSITION adalah Organomation instrumen tercanggih yang telah dikembangkan hingga saat ini.
Start-up Power Requirements of Ammonia Filled Aerospace Thermosyphon H by Eric Chu
Boiling and condensing of internal working fluids are essential heat transfer concepts which heat pipe technology relies on for transporting a large amount of heat between two distanced points effectively. Tilt angle and working fluid saturation temperature have a direct impact on how well the evaporator is flooded. This paper focuses on how the tilt angle and the working fluid saturation temperature affect the start-up heat input requirements for an S shaped axial grooved ammonia thermosyphon heat pipe. A series of experiments was performed by supplying and extracting heat to the evaporator and condenser of the thermosyphon heat pipe. Temperature of the evaporator and condenser was monitored to capture start-up behavior upon heat input. The evaporator temperature was found to be slightly elevated before the internal working fluid begins to boil. It decreased once boiling starts and initiates the thermosyphon process. The test results showed that the evaporator start-up temperature difference was
P80305 | SWISS-MODEL Repository
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P80305 (TYSY_METTM), Putative thymidylate synthase. Methanothermobacter marburgensis (strain ATCC BAA-927 / DSM 2133 / JCM14651 / NBRC 100331 / OCM 82 / Marburg) (Methanobacteriumthermoautotrophicum)
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Single Effect Evaporator Qingdao - ECeurope Market
Industrial process machinery China, Single Effect Evaporator, Material: Stainless304, 316L, 2205 Application field: Food Concentration(Dairy, Starch, Sugar, Beverage and Fruit Juice)...
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Polydopamine-filled bacterial nanocellulose as a biodegradable interfacial photothermal evaporator for highly efficient solar...
Solar steam generation by heat localization is considered to be a highly efficient, sustainable way to alleviate water shortage in resource-limited regions. However, most of the interfacial photothermal evaporators demonstrated so far involve non-biodegradable nanoscale materials, which can quickly pose a si
CLIMBING FILM EVAPORATOR MP1050
PRINCIPLE OF WORKING :. The aim of evaporation is to concentrate a solution consisting of a volatile solvent and a non volatile solute. Climbing film evaporation is a continuous operation in which the solution is heated in a continuous jacketed stainless steel evaporator at high temperature. In the liquid - gas separator, the concentrate solution is collected and the vapour is evacuated, condensed and collected in the solvent receiver.. ...
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Patent US8136580 - Evaporator for a heat transfer system - Google Patents
A heat transfer system includes an evaporator having a heated wall, a liquid barrier wall containing working fluid, a primary wick positioned between the heated wall and an inner side of the liquid barrier wall, a vapor removal channel located at an interface between the primary wick and the heated wall, and a liquid flow channel located between the liquid barrier wall and the primary wick. Methods of transferring heat include applying heat energy to a vapor barrier wall, flowing liquid through a liquid flow channel, pumping the liquid from the liquid flow channel through a primary wick, and evaporating at least some of the liquid at a vapor removal channel.
Wastewater Treatment Evaporator Articles on Environmental XPRT
Find wastewater treatment evaporator articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Patente US7153396 - Rotating evaporator with process-dependent rotating speed regulation - Google Patentes
In a rotary evaporator, the rotating speed of the rotating flask is automatically controlled or regulated dependent upon a detected process value, particularly the vibration behavior or the mass moment of inertia of the rotating flask.
20 Ton Per Day Flake Ice Machine Evaporator With Ammonia System
গুণ ফিতে আইস বায়োপ্যাটার্টার নির্মাতারা & রপ্তানিকারক - কেনা 20 Ton Per Day Flake Ice Machine Evaporator With Ammonia System চীন থেকে উত্পাদক.
Heat Recovery System Series Arrangements - Energy Innovation Portal
The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.
Bryant Evolution system condensate drainage
I had a Bryant system (355CAV + 186B + CNPVP) installed recently and it passed the code inspection. However, I just realized there is no trap on the evaporator coil drain line and Im trying to figure out if my arrangement is as it should be. For now, the attached drawing will have to do. My furnace is configured for upflow. There appears to be that internal trap on the furnace drain line but there is no trap on the evaporator drain line. The two drain lines merge into one which runs
NanoPhotometer NP60/NP50 - Genecraft Labs
TOMY MV-100 Features MV-100 MicroVac Mini Vacuum-Centrifugal Evaporator The TOMY MV-100 MicroVac is a compact and complete vacuum centrifugal evaporator. This tiny... read more ...
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11- 80245-220 - BioAutomation
220vAC, 24 Well Evaporator for auto sampler vials up to 15mm in diameter. Heats both sample and gas stream for fast dry down time in minutes. Has fixed 2, 16 gauge SS needles.
Will Copeland and Bohn play nice together ?
A Copeland EAV1 0200 TAC compressor and A Bohn (heatcraft) BME260CA evaporator Box would probably like to run about -10 F. or so. (just off the top of my head) 2 HP running a -20 suction might be 10,000 BTUs?
Redesigned Nitrogen Generator to Unveil at analytica 2020 Labmate Online
Organomation, a leading US manufacturer of nitrogen blowdown evaporators for sample concentrations will unveil a redesigned version of its nitrogen generator, branded as the NITRO-GEN™ at analytica 2020. Click to read more...
Pittcon 2013 Show Overview | SelectScience
At the 2013 Pittcon Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, USA, the SelectScience Editors filmed a series of interviews and product demonstrations to enable you to experience the meeting. Watch this report for a brief overview of some of the innovative technologies on display including new columns for trace level analysis, a new evaporator for sample preparation, new instruments for LC/MS, GCMS and ICP-MS, as well as an ATR accessory for infrared spectroscopy. Filmed by SelectScience at Pittcon 2013.
MV 10C EX Chemistry diaphragm pump - VACUUBRAND, INC.
Chemistry diaphragm pump MV 10C EX - ATEX chemistry diaphragm pumps offer all advantages of oil-free chemistry diaphragm pumps. Typical applications are rotary evaporators and...
lab evaporation distillation recovery rotary solvent evaporator
How to use rotary evaporator for cannabis distillation . Compared with wiped film evaporator rotary evaporator is more economical for cbd oil solvent removal and for rota evaporator its very easily scalable 1L 3L 5L 10L 20L 50L 100L Lab - Pilot - Industry wide capacity range such as 50L rotary evaporator you could choose 5L 10L 20L 30L evaporation flask this flexibility makes it very .. ...
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China Concentration Equipment for Food Industry - China Evaporator, Plate Evaporator
China Concentration Equipment for Food Industry, Find details about China Evaporator, Plate Evaporator from Concentration Equipment for Food Industry - Shanghai Ruipai Machinery Co., Ltd.
Evaporator Deposit Control Products for Fuel Ethanol - Buckman
Hard scales and organic deposits in evaporators and heat exchangers can require excessive acid and steam use and frequent, costly maintenance. Thats why Buckman developed a series of evaporator deposit control (EDC) products. Buckmans proprietary blend of inhibitors and dispersants effectively prevents mineral scaling and reduces organic fouling in the process, so you can scale back on acid use, cleaning frequency and all the related costs. W848. ...
Predictive Model for Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorbers: Parameter Estimation and Model Development
Predictive Model for Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorbers: Parameter Estimation and Model Development. A predictive mathematical model for fixed-bed adsorber design which incorporates both liquid and solid phase resistances to mass transfer is formulated; numeric solutions are described and checked for accuracy. Laboratory bench scale studies used to estimate model parameters independently from adsorber break-through profiles are described, and experimental results presented. The bench scale tests involve both adsorption rate and isotherm measurements that are used to determine isotherm equation parameters and surface diffusion coefficients for model calibration. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for fixed-bed operation are obtained from literature correlations; parameter values used for model calibration are presented. This paper sets the stage for single- and multi-component model verifications to be presented in two subsequent papers.
Rotary Evaporators | Mandel Scientific
A rotary evaporator is a device used in chemical laboratories for the efficient and gentle removal of solvents from samples by evaporation. Rotary evaporation is most often and conveniently applied to separate low boiling solvents such a n-hexane or ethyl acetate from compounds which are solid at room temperature and pressure. However, careful application also allows removal of a solvent from a sample containing a liquid compound if there is minimal co-evaporation (azeotropic behavior), and a sufficient difference in boiling points at the chosen temperature and reduced pressure.. ...
Listings in Tanks & other liquid storage vessels, Design of experiments, Equipment, process, custom, Evaporators, agitated film...
Listings in Tanks & other liquid storage vessels, Design of experiments, Equipment, process, custom, Evaporators, agitated film and Mixers, slurry
HOSE Suction Line evaporator to compressor replacement rubber - #19867-5D - National Parts Depot
Buy part #19867-5D HOSE Suction Line evaporator to compressor replacement rubber for your classic vehicle from National Parts Depot. Free shipping on orders over $300, fast delivery & everyday low pricing! Order now!
AccuCold CP351WLLF2MEDADA 19 Inch Compact Top Freezer Refrigerator with Dual Evaporator Cooling, Combination Lock, High/Low...
AccuCold CP351WLLF2MEDADA 19 Inch Compact Top Freezer Refrigerator with Dual Evaporator Cooling, Combination Lock, High/Low Temperature Alarm, Access Port, Interior Light, Adjustable Shelves, Cycle Defrost and Medical Use Approved: White, Medical Unit, ADA Compliant
China 100% Pure Natural Sex Medicine Maca Extraction Machine - China Solvent Herbal Evaporator, Extract Equipment
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6.7 Operating point - SWEP
As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
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Search - SAE International
Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. This system combines the functions of the Space Shuttle flash evaporator and ammonia boiler into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale unit uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A four-core MFE prototype was built in 2007 ...
A small electric flash evaporator to dewater WVO. - Topic
How about Carbeurator jets? You could either go large with a set from Holley or go small with mikuni 2-Stroke carbs? Use an electric fuel pump for injected engines (high Pressure) and run the BD through steel or braided stainless fuel line. Try http://www.Jegs.com or http://www.Summitracing.com for all kinds of fuel pump jet/nozzle accessories. We are pumping fuel here so instead of modifying items that are not designed to do what you want, just get the items that have millions of dollars in engineering already done to produce your desired results. I am not trying to be a weiner here, but as I started reading this thread that is the first thing that came to mind. If you need smaller diameters than fuel jetting provides, take a look at some torch tips for Ox/acetylene torches. hell most even come with tip-cleaners, the are already threaded in NPT so there leak proof. Maybe even look into NOS Systems they are a Nitrous oxide kit company they have almost anything you could ever want for this ...
100 Position MULTIVAP® Nitrogen Evaporator | Organomation Video | LabTube
Organomations high temperature dry block MULTIVAP (http://bit.ly/2m2P5e0) products are an ideal choice for laboratories needing to gently and efficiently concentrate large batches of identical samples for a wide array of applications. The 100 position MULTIVAP comes with a heated aluminum dry block, which provides reliable uniform heat up to 120 degrees Celsius. Easily select the precise temperature needed for your procedure and the digital controller automatically maintains your chosen set point, ensuring consistent heating to delicate samples. The built-in timer allows the user to easily shut off the heat and nitrogen gas once the evaporation is complete. Nitrogen gas is delivered to samples through individual stainless steel needles connected to the hand built gas distribution manifold. The gas is controlled with the internally installed pressure reducing gas regulator and adjustable flow meter. When the user is operating the instrument with less than a full load, they can save valuable ...
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This is a good Mechanical project report on design and fabrication of domestic refrigeration unit and submitted in partial fulfillment of award of bachelor of technology Degree in Mechanical Engineering. The objective of the project is to design, fabricate and assemble an economically priced domestic refrigeration unit having, aesthetic look efficient and small in size. This unit is unique in the sense that it body is in the form of a bucket which works as an evaporator and easy in transport from one place to another place. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECTS by Email for more such projects and seminar ...
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Household refrigerator : if I install a defrost bimetal in the inlet of evaporator what will happen ? It means next to capilary tube inlet It should be in the outlet , not in the inlet , what will happen ? Many thanks :confused:
Household refrigerator : if I install a defrost bimetal in the inlet of evaporator what will happen ? It means next to capilary tube inlet It should be in the outlet , not in the inlet , what will happen ? Many thanks :confused:
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... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51. The protein is highly conserved ... "RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that catalyzes DNA strand exchange". Genes & Development. 12 (9): 1248-1253. ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex. ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... are in good agreement with data from electron microscopy studies of archaeal and bacterial S-layers. ...
LCR can be used to diagnose tuberculosis. The sequence containing protein antigen B is targeted by four oligonucleotide ... which is part of every bacterial and archaeal genome and is highly conserved, bacteria can be taxonomically classified by ...
Oct1 and PIKA antigens associates with specific chromosomes early in the cell cycle". The EMBO Journal. 17 (6): 1768-78. doi: ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ...
Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... "The Yeast tRNA Splicing Endonuclease: A Tetrameric Enzyme with Two Active Site Subunits Homologous to the Archaeal tRNA ...
Virus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cells such as macrophages are specialists at this antigen presentation.. Evading the immune systemEdit. Not all virus ... "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration (hiding away); blocking antigen presentation; cytokine ...
پروتئین - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. The production of interferon is an important ... Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for ... Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074 ...
Origin of replication
Ori-Finder, an online software for prediction of bacterial and archaeal oriCs ... which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen is present. ...
Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank. *Structure of an archaeal exosome bound to RNA at the RCSB ... Targoff, IN; Reichlin, M (1985). "Nucleolar localization of the PM-Scl antigen". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 28 (2): 226-30. doi: ... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein. ... Lorentzen, E; Walter, P; Fribourg, S; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E; Klug, G; Conti, E (2005). "The archaeal exosome core is a ...
The smith antigen was found to be a complex of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and multiple proteins. A set of uridine-rich ... The three archaeal LSm proteins (Sm1, Sm2 and Sm3) also cluster as a group, distinct from the eukaryote LSm proteins. Both the ... One of the two main branches of archaea, the crenarchaeotes have a third known type of archaeal LSm protein, Sm3. This is a two ... The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic ...
... antigens and quinones. While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was ... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ... They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation ...
ABC proteini - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Gaudet R, Wiley DC (2001). „Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... ABCdb Archaeal and Bacterial ABC Systems database, ABCdb. *MeSH ATP-Binding+cassette+transporters ...
These nanoparticles may represent a valuable platform for antigen delivery, vaccine development, and other biomedical and ... Berquist, Brian R.; DasSarma, Shiladitya (2003-10-15). "An Archaeal Chromosomal Autonomously Replicating Sequence Element from ... DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya (2015-09-07). "Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display". Vaccines. 3 (3): 686-702. ... 2015Haloarchaeal Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles Displaying Salmonella Antigens as a Novel Approach to Vaccine Development". Procedia ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Maupin-Furlow, JA (2013). "Archaeal proteasomes and sampylation". Sub-cellular Biochemistry. 66: 297-327. doi:10.1007/978-94- ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ... The ubiquitination system functions in a wide variety of cellular processes, including: Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis ...
Seitz EM, Brockman JP, Sandler SJ, Clark AJ, Kowalczykowski SC (1998). "RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that ... Nucleoproteins are often the major antigens for viruses because they have strain-specific and group-specific antigenic ...
... hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (50): 50101-11. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "The cutting edge of archaeal transcription". Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. 2 (4): 517-533. doi:10.1042/ETLS20180014. ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (6): 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576 ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.4184.108.40.2068 - antistreptolysin MeSH ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
Human GroEL is the immunodominant antigen of patients with Legionnaire's disease, and is thought to play a role in the ... While there are differences between eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal chaperonins, the general structure and mechanism are ...
Sauguet L, Raia P, Henneke G, Delarue M (2016). "Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA ... Boehm EM, Powers KT, Kondratick CM, Spies M, Houtman JC, Washington MT (April 2016). "The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ( ... which in this case is placed into the Asgard group with archaeal B3 polymerase. Pol η (eta), Pol ι (iota), and Pol κ (kappa), ... and POLD4 creating the other subunits that interact with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), which is a DNA clamp that ...
List of sequenced bacterial genomes
For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ... 2003). "Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic ... eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced plastomes "Entrez Genome Database Search". National ...
The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. Some animal proteins, for example ... and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the ... The Archaeal/Bacterial Transporter (ABT) Family 2.A.3.7: The Glutamate:GABA Antiporter (GGA) Family 2.A.3.8: The L-type Amino ...
List of MeSH codes (D08)
... antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 - oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.770.800 - sucrase-isomaltase complex MeSH ... archaeal MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300 - dna topoisomerases, type ii, bacterial MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300.500 - dna gyrase ... prostate-specific antigen MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.442.875 - tissue kallikreins MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.501 - mannose- ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.200 - carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.250 - carboxypeptidase h MeSH ...
One is concerned with lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (undecaprenol pyrophosphate-linked O-antigen repeat unit) export (flipping ... However, archaeal and eukaryotic homologues are now recognized. The mechanism of energy coupling is not established, but ... The lipopolysaccharide exporters may function specifically in the translocation of the lipid-linked O-antigen side chain ... polymerase and chain length regulator proteins in the translocation and periplasmic assembly of lipopolysaccharide o antigen". ...
Smith GP (June 1985). "Filamentous fusion phage: novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface". ... "Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids". Nature ... Prisco A, De Berardinis P (24 April 2012). "Filamentous bacteriophage fd as an antigen delivery system in vaccination". ...
List of MeSH codes (G05)
... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.211 - gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330. ... archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 - gene expression regulation, developmental ... 801.261 - gene rearrangement, delta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.311 - gene rearrangement, gamma-chain t-cell ... antigen receptor MeSH G05.600.220 - dna repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.220.865 - trinucleotide repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.315 ...
... a tetrameric enzyme with two active site subunits homologous to the archaeal tRNA endonucleases". Cell. 89 (6): 849-58. doi: ... post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ...
Antigens, archaeal | Article about Antigens, archaeal by The Free Dictionary
... archaeal? Find out information about Antigens, archaeal. see Archaebacteria Archaebacteria , diverse group of bacteria , ... Antigens, archaeal , Article about Antigens, archaeal by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ... redirected from Antigens, archaeal). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical. archaea:. see ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria. , diverse ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2c+archaeal,archaea,/a,. *Facebook ...
Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus<...
Matsumiya S, Ishino Y, Morikawa K. Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from ... Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp : Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus. / Matsumiya, ... title = "Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus", ... Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus. ...
RrIowa 0797 - 120 kDa antigen - Rickettsia rickettsii (strain Iowa) - RrIowa 0797 gene & protein
Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblBacteriai. ABY72640; ABY72640; RrIowa_0797. ... 120 kDa antigenARBA annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ... tr,B0BXR4,B0BXR4_RICRO 120 kDa antigen OS=Rickettsia rickettsii (strain Iowa) OX=452659 GN=RrIowa_0797 PE=1 SV=1 ...
SUN 1124 - Myosin-crossreactive antigen - Sulfurovum sp. (strain NBC37-1) - SUN 1124 gene & protein
Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblBacteriai. BAF72079; BAF72079; SUN_1124. ... Myosin-crossreactive antigenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,A6Q9C0,A6Q9C0_SULNB Myosin-crossreactive antigen OS=Sulfurovum sp. (strain NBC37-1) OX=387093 GN=SUN_1124 PE=4 SV=1 ...
POLE3 Gene - GeneCards | DPOE3 Protein | DPOE3 Antibody
Protein-protein interactions in the archaeal core replisome | Biochemical Society Transactions
... proliferating-cell nuclear antigen; PIP, PCNA-interacting protein; PolB, DNA polymerase B; PolD, DNA polymerase D; RFC, ... Protein-protein interactions in the archaeal core replisome. Stuart A. MacNeill. Biochemical Society Transactions Jan 19, 2011 ... Protein-protein interactions in the archaeal core replisome Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The present review summarizes current knowledge of how the core components of the archaeal chromosome replication apparatus ...
Frontiers | Host Specificity of the Dickeya Bacteriophage PP35 Is Directed by a Tail Spike Interaction With Bacterial O-Antigen...
2017). Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2016 update from the ICTV bacterial and archaeal viruses subcommittee. Arch. Virol. 162 ... O-antigen receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 10584-10588. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.20.10584 ... Host Specificity of the Dickeya Bacteriophage PP35 Is Directed by a Tail Spike Interaction With Bacterial O-Antigen, Enabling ... Depolymerization of the O-antigen launches the phage infection process, and the metabolic differences between Dickeya and ...
Recombinant Human Soluble Liver/Pancreas Antigen protein (ab102021)
DNA clamp - Wikipedia
Matsumiya S, Ishino Y, Morikawa K (January 2001). "Crystal structure of an archaeal DNA sliding clamp: Proliferating cell ... "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin ... "Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". ... nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843. PMID 11266590. PDB: ...
MAGE cancer-testis antigens protect the mammalian germline under environmental stress | Science Advances
OrthoDB v9.1: Cataloging evolutionary and functional annotations for animal, fungal, plant, archaeal, bacterial and viral ... MAGE cancer-testis antigens protect the mammalian germline under environmental stress. By Klementina Fon Tacer, Marhiah C. ... MAGE cancer-testis antigens protect the mammalian germline under environmental stress. By Klementina Fon Tacer, Marhiah C. ... MAGE cancer-testis antigens protect the mammalian germline under environmental stress Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Similarities and Differences in the Glycosylation Mechanisms in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
The elucidation of archaeal N-biosynthetic pathways is still in its infancy (see Calo et al.  for an in-depth review of ... Translocation to the periplasm is thought to be mediated by the O-antigen flippase (Wzx, see Figure 2). However, there is no ... As shown in Figure 4, glucose has been observed as a linking sugar in some archaeal N-glycans, but it is likely that the N-OST ... A similar degree of homology was found in archaeal N-OST genes (which are called aglB) when their identity was confirmed a few ...
Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome-activating nucleotidase gene knockout in Haloferax...
Degradation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen by 26S proteasome in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Planta 218: 640-646. ... Baumann A, Lange C & Soppa J (2007) Transcriptome changes and cAMP oscillations in an archaeal cell cycle. BMC Cell Biol 8: 21 ... Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome-activating nucleotidase gene knockout in Haloferax ... Kirkland, P. A. and Maupin-Furlow, J. A. (2009), Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome- ...
ASMscience | DNA Replication and Cell
While an ever-growing body of data has yielded considerable insight into the form and function of the archaeal DNA replication ... The current state of knowledge of the machineries that drive the archaeal cell cycle is discussed. In bacteria, the functional ... machinery, much less is known about the details of the archaeal cell cycle and its control. Indeed, what little is known ... the biochemical players that facilitate the complex macromolecular process that mediates faithful replication of archaeal ...
METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR SEQUENCING IN CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBODY BINDING BEHAVIOR - uBiome, Inc.
In sequencing, Block S150 thus allows the method 100 to enable identifying of any molecule (e.g., target, antigen) bound to an ... the method 100 can enable simultaneous amplification of all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the ... Then, a second antibody group could be applied and allowed to bind to an antigen, followed by a wash step to remove unbound ... In binding the first subset of the set of oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies to a set of targets (e.g., antigens), Block S ...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm6/2 and Mcm5/3 ATPase active sites contribute to the function of the putative Mcm2-7 'gate'
6. Pape T, Meka H, Chen S, Vicentini G, van Heel M, Onesti S. Hexameric ring structure of the full-length archaeal MCM protein ... Mechanisms of conformational change for a replicative hexameric helicase of SV40 large tumor antigen. Cell. 2004;119:47-60. [ ... Wessel R, Schweizer J, Stahl H. Simian virus 40 T-antigen DNA helicase is a hexamer which forms a binary complex during ... ATPase site architecture and helicase mechanism of an archaeal MCM. Mol. Cell. 2007;28:304-314. [PubMed] ...
DasSarma Lab Home
DasSarmas presentation, Archaeal Nanoparticles for Therapeutics and Vaccines.. WATCH VIDEO about Institute of Marine and ... Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella antigens as a novel approach to vaccine development. Proc. ... Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live ... enolase peptide displayed on archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles. Malar J. 2015 14:406. ...
Model for a novel membrane envelope in a filamentous hyperthermophilic virus | eLife
Sequences and replication of genomes of the archaeal rudiviruses SIRV1 and SIRV2: relationships to the archaeal lipothrixvirus ... antigens, genes, etc. (Kaur et al., 2016) remarkably little is known about the actual structure of membranes in Acidianus ... Since the archaeal lipids have been shown to resist phospholipases, extremes of temperature and pH, and can even survive ... A number of in vitro studies have described archaeal lipids forming U-shaped structures at an air-water interface (Gliozzi et ...
TCDB » SEARCH
Induction of strong and specific humoral and 1-helper 1 cellular responses by HBsAg entrapped in the methanobrevibacter...
Archaeal lipids were extracted and antigen free and antigen containing archaeosomes were prepared as previously described (6). ... The advantage of archaeosomes to induce strong humoral responses to entrapped antigen has been confirmed for various antigens ( ... immunopotent interaction with Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) and most importantly shifting and leading the antigen processing ... Archaeo-somes are liposomes made of polar lipids obtained from archaeal (archaebacterial) cells. The mammalian-like archaeal ...
Evolution of DNA Replication Protein Complexes in Eukaryotes and Archaea
Primase and GINS are essential factors for chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe a ... including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) ... The archaeo-eukaryotic GINS proteins and the archaeal primase catalytic subunit PriS share a common domain. Swiatek, Agnieszka ... In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Jing Huang (Translated to Portuguese)
... we show that FANCM and its archaeal homolog Hef from Thermoplasma acidophilum interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... and a tumor antigen, a Wilms Tumor antigen-1 (WT-1), together with 7DW8-5 and MPLA, as an adjuvant. These immunization regimens ... as well as to elucidate the most immunogenic tumor associated antigens (TAAs), multiple antigen stimulating cellular therapy ( ... The antigen tag can be displayed by conventional IF, as can the recruitment and accumulation of DNA damage response proteins to ...
A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral...
T antigen (4, 5, 13). These are thought to have retained the origin binding activity of Rep but have lost any catalytic role. ... Sequences and replication of genomes of the archaeal rudiviruses SIRV1 and SIRV2: relationships to the archaeal lipothrixvirus ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... The genome of the archaeal virus SIRV1 has features in common with genomes of eukaryal viruses. Virology 281:6-9. ...
I and i antigens of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cocap with receptors for concanavalin A | Meta
Archaeal RNA Polymerase. Archaeal RNA polymerases are most similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II but require the support of ... Calf heart lectin reacts with blood group Ii antigens and other precursor chains of the major blood group antigens. (opens in ... Calf heart lectin reacts with blood group Ii antigens and other precursor chains of the major blood group antigens. ... I and i antigens of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cocap with receptors for concanavalin A. Proceedings of the National ...
S-layer - Wikipedia
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (6): 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576 ...
POLR2K Gene - GeneCards | RPAB4 Protein | RPAB4 Antibody
Antibodies, Archaeal | Colorado PROFILES
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to ARCHAEAL ANTIGENS. Descriptor ID. D019844 MeSH Number(s). D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 ... "Antibodies, Archaeal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antibodies, Archaeal" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antibodies, Archaeal" by people in Profiles. ...
The highly conserved nuclear lamin Ig-fold binds to PCNA: its role in DNA replication | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller...
... molecular dynamics simulations of eukaryotic and archaeal proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ... molecular dynamics simulations of eukaryotic and archaeal proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ... Mechanism of elongation of primed DNA by DNA polymerase delta, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and activator 1. Proc. Natl ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a dancer with many partners. J. Cell Sci. ...
Oligomerization and Activity of the Helicase Domain of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus 126- and 183-Kilodalton Replicase Proteins |...
A double-hexamer archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein is an ATP-dependent DNA helicase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: ... Preformed hexamers of SV40 T antigen are active in RNA and origin-DNA unwinding. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:3192-3201. ... the helicase activity of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein is dependent upon the formation of a double hexamer ... protein of hepatitis C virus is active as an oligomer while the RNA helicase function of Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen ...
SMART: KH domain annotation
Archaeal exosome (Rrp4-Rrp41(D182A)-Rrp42) bound to inorganic phosphate. 4ba2. Archaeal exosome (Rrp4-Rrp41(D182A)-Rrp42) bound ... Human onconeural ventral antigen-1 (NOVA-1) [(PUBMED:10368286)].. According to structural analyses [(PUBMED:9302998), (PUBMED: ... Structure of a 9-subunit archaeal exosome bound to Mn ions. 2jvz. Solution NMR Structure of the Second and Third KH Domains of ... Crystal structure of the S. solfataricus archaeal exosome. 3oto. Crystal Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from a KsgA ...
A Superfamily 3 DNA Helicase Encoded by Plasmid pSSVi from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Unwinds DNA...
Large T-antigen double hexamers imaged at the simian virus 40 origin of replication. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 : 34-41. ... Archaeal MCM proteins are known to contain a distinct miscellaneous HTH (mHTH) domain at the C terminus (2). MCM proteins from ... Six molecules of SV40 large T antigen assemble in a propeller-shaped particle around a channel. J. Mol. Biol. 268 : 15-20. ... Archaeal species abbreviations: Ph, Pyrococcus horikoshii; Mj, Methanococcus jannaschii; Af, Archaeoglobus fulgidus; Mth, ...
PCNAProteinsProteinArchaeaBacterial and archaealPolymeraseReplicationMammalianAntibodiesExpression of antigensAntibodyHelicaseTumor antigenGenesViralCharacterizationExosomesVesicle nanoparticlesNanoparticlesGenomeVaccinesSubunitGenomesCellsGenePotentComplexesTransmembraneVirusesImmunologicalPathwaySpeciesSuperfamilyRecombinantImmuneEnzyme
- The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is now recognized as one of the key proteins in DNA metabolic events because of its direct interactions with many proteins involved in important cellular processes. (elsevier.com)
- The sliding clamp in eukaryotes is assembled from a specific subunit of DNA polymerase delta called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (wikipedia.org)
- Background: The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. (ebscohost.com)
- Our data demonstrate that the Ig-fold motif located in the lamin C terminus binds directly to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor necessary for the chain elongation phase of DNA replication. (rupress.org)
- The bacterial clamp does not share readily detectable sequence similarity with the trimeric proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamps of eukaryotes and archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
- In eukaryotes and archaea the sliding clamp is PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- Here I review three recently characterised non-core archaeal PCNA binding proteins NusS, NreA/NreB and TIP, highlighting what is known of their interactions with PCNA and their functions in vivo and in vitro. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- Gaining a detailed understanding of the non-core PCNA interactome will provide significant insights into key aspects of chromosome biology in divergent archaeal lineages. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- Most importantly, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was identified as an interaction partner of Hef. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a highly conserved protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp that coordinates multiple DNA replication and repair processes by orchestrating the activity of various essential proteins. (pnas.org)
- The homotrimeric sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mediates Okazaki fragment maturation through tight coordination of the activities of DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase I (Lig1). (pnas.org)
- In contrast to the "toolbelt" model, which was demonstrated for bacterial and archaeal sliding clamps, our results suggest a mechanism of sequential switching of partners on the eukaryotic PCNA trimer during DNA replication and repair. (pnas.org)
- Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. (ebscohost.com)
- The archaeo-eukaryotic GINS proteins and the archaeal primase catalytic subunit PriS share a common domain. (ebscohost.com)
- The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. (tcdb.org)
- Since the first report of the biochemical properties of an archaeal MCM protein ( Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum MCM) in 1999 ( 25 ), much progress has been made in elucidating the structure and function of archaeal MCM proteins ( 41 ). (asm.org)
- Archaeal ubiquitin-like SAMP3 is isopeptide-linked to proteins by a UbaA-dependent mechanism. (genscript.com)
- Cellâ€ free production of trimeric influenza hemagglutinin head domain proteins as vaccine antigens. (genscript.com)
- The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
- However, Dr. Kunkel and Dr. Tan found in 1966 that Ms. Smith produced antibodies to a set of nuclear proteins, which they named the 'smith antigen' (Sm Ag). (wikipedia.org)
- The smith antigen was found to be a complex of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- In the development of antibody-mediated therapies targeted to human cancer cells, including cancer stem/progenitor cells, the extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins specifically expressed on cancer cells are promising candidates for antigens against which to be immunized [ 1 ], but the high homology of amino acid sequences between human antigens and their homologues in animals to be immunized often hamper efficient antibody production because of immunological tolerance. (hindawi.com)
- To obtain antibodies reactive to the native extracellular structure of such membrane proteins, immunization by injection of cultured cells expressing the antigen has been used [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Sequence comparison of lumazine synthases from archaea, bacteria, plants, and fungi suggests a family of proteins comprising archaeal lumazine and riboflavin synthases, type I lumazine synthases, and the eubacterial type II lumazine synthases. (omicsonline.org)
- Simian Virus 40 (SV40) encoded Large Tumor Antigen (LT) is a superfamily III helicase, belonging to the AAA+ ( A TPase a ssociated with various cellular a ctivities) family of proteins and contains 708 amino acids that fold into multiple domains. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hef from the archaeal organism Thermoplasma acidophilum (taHef) differs from other archaeal Hef proteins and exclusively comprises an N-terminal helicase entity with two RecA and a thumb-like domain while others additionally contain a nuclease portion at the C-terminus. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Because the 1st report from the biochemical properties of the archaeal MCM proteins (MCM) in 1999 (25) very much progress continues to be manufactured in elucidating the framework and function of archaeal MCM protein (41). (technumber.com)
- Fructosylation of proteins leads to autoimmune disease with glycolytic enzymes as antigens. (openscienceonline.com)
- Matsumiya, S , Ishino, Y & Morikawa, K 2001, ' Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus ', Protein Science , vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-23. (elsevier.com)
- Most of the core components of the archaeal chromosomal DNA replication apparatus share significant protein sequence similarity with eukaryotic replication factors, making the Archaea an excellent model system for understanding the biology of chromosome replication in eukaryotes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- We show how the OST-mediated N- and O-glycosylation pathways share cytoplasmic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, flipping across the ER/periplasmic/cytoplasmic membranes, and transferring " en bloc " to the protein acceptor. (hindawi.com)
- Nevertheless, it was as long ago as 1976 that Mescher and Strominger reported that the S-layer protein from an archaeal prokaryote, Halobacterium salinarum , contained glycans covalently linked to asparagine residues [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein family and a bacterial S-layer protein (SbsB), from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72, have recently been determined by X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
- These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). (tcdb.org)
- HBsAg is an antigenically heterogeneous protein, with a common antigen designated a, and two pairs of mutually exclusive antigens, d and y, and w and r, resulting in 4 major subtypes, namely adw, ayw, adr and ayr (7). (thefreelibrary.com)
- In addition, each antigen fragment is fused to the ubiquitin protein to increase antigen expression and target these antigens to the proteasome to enhance cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
- DCs were transduced with genes encoding the human six transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 1 (STEAP1), STEAP4, and seven transmembrane prostate specific G-protein coupled receptor (PSGR). (hindawi.com)
- Moreover, the protein was found to be an immunodominant Brucella antigen and was able to generate strong humoral as well as cellular immunity against Brucella abortus in mice. (omicsonline.org)
- To date, there is no effective screening method for early detection of OC and current diagnostic armamentarium may include sonographic grading of the tumor and analyzing serum levels of tumor markers, Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125) and Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4). (bvsalud.org)
- The structures of the bacterial and archaeal genomes are circular, and the mechanism of replication initiation, by the binding of the initiator protein to the replication origin (oriC), is conserved in the two domains. (kyushu-u.ac.jp)
- A Mr 32,000 integral membrane protein has previously been identified on erythrocytes bearing the Rh(D) antigen and is thought to contain the antigenic variations responsible for the different Rh phenotypes. (jhu.edu)
- While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
- Archaeal CRISPR/Cas has been shown to confer almost 100% immunity in cases where spacers were identical to the target sequence, but partial matches also provide substantial immunity in archaea [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we surveyed all archaeal spacers in order to gain insights into the mobile elements that infect archaea and how DNA is transferred among different species and strains. (biomedcentral.com)
- Samples were quantified with transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometer immunolabeled with anti-archaemetzincin-1 antibody (AMZ 1, archaea collagenase) and probe anti-archaeal DNA and zymography to determine AMZ1 (Archaeal metalloproteinase) activity. (bvsalud.org)
- Functional interactions of a homolog of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with DNA polymerases in Archaea. (neb.com)
Bacterial and archaeal1
- 4. The method of claim 1, wherein conjugating each of the set of antibodies with the synthetic oligonucleotide includes conjugating each of the set of antibodies with a synthetic oligonucleotide having at least a 16S V4-like region, and wherein the method further includes simultaneously amplifying all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the synthetic oligonucleotides, with 16S-compatible primers, prior to sequencing. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Functional interactions of an archaeal sliding clamp with mammalian clamp loader and DNA polymerase delta. (neb.com)
- The present review summarizes current knowledge of how the core components of the archaeal chromosome replication apparatus interact with one another to perform their essential functions. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- This chapter describes the recent advances that have been made in understanding the biochemical players that facilitate the complex macromolecular process that mediates faithful replication of archaeal chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
- While an ever-growing body of data has yielded considerable insight into the form and function of the archaeal DNA replication machinery, much less is known about the details of the archaeal cell cycle and its control. (asmscience.org)
- Sequence conservation of ORM and mini-ORB (m-ORB) elements at archaeal origins of replication. (asmscience.org)
- Primase and GINS are essential factors for chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. (ebscohost.com)
- For example, the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is responsible for the recognition as well as the unwinding of the viral replication origin ( 9 - 11 ). (asm.org)
- Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Large Tumor Antigen (LT) is an essential enzyme that plays a vital role in viral DNA replication in mammalian cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Physical interaction between proliferating cell nuclear antigen and replication factor C from Pyrococcus furiosus. (neb.com)
- Including the simian disease 40 (SV40) huge T antigen is in charge of the recognition aswell as the unwinding from the viral replication source (9-11). (technumber.com)
- The mammalian-like archaeal lipids consist of isoprenoid chain glycerolipids. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Mammalian Nova antigens (1 and 2) constitute an important family of regulators of RNA metabolism in neurons, first identified using sera from cancer patients with the autoimmune disorder paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (POMA). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is home to a complex and intimately associated microbial ecosystem (microbiota) comprised of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, protist and viral components. (biomedcentral.com)
- Antibodies, Archaeal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antibodies, Archaeal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antibodies, Archaeal" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Antibodies, Archaeal" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
- As those with an autoimmune disease, SLE patients produce antibodies to antigens in their cells' nuclei, most frequently to their own DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies. (uchicago.edu)
Expression of antigens3
- These include the mutually exclusive expression of antigens and the periodic, nonrandom switching in the expression of different antigens during the course of an infection. (europa.eu)
- Thus, genome architecture may also be a key regulator of antigenic variation, yet the causal links between genome architecture and the expression of antigens have not been studied systematically. (europa.eu)
- I will perform the first systematic analysis of the role of genome architecture in the mutually exclusive and hierarchical expression of antigens in any pathogen. (europa.eu)
- The appropriate concentrations may be affected by secondary antibody affinity, antigen concentration, the sensitivity of the method of detection, temperature, the length of the incubations, and other factors. (genscript.com)
- DCs can also release exosomes containing intact antigen, which induces activation of antigen specific B cells antibody responses [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Antigen-Antibody Complex" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
- The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. (uchicago.edu)
- The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES. (uchicago.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigen-Antibody Complex" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
- Structural details of HIV-1 recognition by the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2F5: epitope conformation, antigen-recognition loop mobility, and anion-binding site. (sickkids.ca)
- To decipher the underlying process of FA initiation by FANCM, this thesis mainly focuses on the archaeal FANCM homolog helicase-associated endonuclease for fork-structured DNA (Hef). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- The potency of DCs was demonstrated in previous studies to disrupt immunological tolerance against a tumor antigen and induce tumor antigen specific T cells [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Here, we describe a family of genes called melanoma antigens (MAGEs) that evolved in eutherian mammals and are normally restricted to expression in the testis ( http://MAGE.stjude.org ) but are often aberrantly activated in cancer. (sciencemag.org)
- The TATA box is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of archaeal and eukaryotic genes. (antibodies-online.com)
- Background: Archaeal genes present in Trypanosoma cruzi may represent symbionts that would explain development of heart failure in 30% of Chagas disease patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Physical characterization of the manganese-sensing pneumococcal surface antigen repressor from Streptococcus pneumoniae. (umassmed.edu)
- biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of the dutpase from the archaeal virus sirv. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- The archaeal DNA primase: biochemical characterization of the p41-p46 complex from Pyrococcus furiosus. (neb.com)
- Archaeal microvesicles and their exosomes, possibly associated with release of archaeal AMZ1 in heart failure, are future candidates of heart failure biomarkers if confirmed in larger series, and the therapeutic focus in the treatment of Chagas disease. (bvsalud.org)
- 2014. Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live attenuated bacteria. (umaryland.edu)
- enolase peptide displayed on archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles. (umbc.edu)
- 2015. Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella antigens as a novel approach to vaccine development. (umbc.edu)
- Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display. (umbc.edu)
- Watch Dr. DasSarma's presentation, 'Archaeal Nanoparticles for Therapeutics and Vaccines. (umaryland.edu)
- These nanoparticles may represent a valuable platform for antigen delivery, vaccine development, and other biomedical and environmental applications "Extreme Halophiles Are Models for Astrobiology" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- Archaeal viruses display tremendous diversity of both morphology and genome content. (asm.org)
- In addition, the development of CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches to perform nucleotide-specific genome editing has opened unprecedented opportunities to study the influence of DNA sequence elements on the spatial organization of DNA and how this impacts antigen expression. (europa.eu)
- 5). Available vaccines are mostly designed according to the immunostimulatory properties of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) which is also called envelope antigen. (thefreelibrary.com)
- As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Here we describe a previously undetected relationship between the C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit (PriS) of archaeal primase and the B-domains of the archaeo-eukaryotic GINS. (ebscohost.com)
- The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. (asm.org)
- Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
- CRISPR/Cas systems are found across all archaeal phyla, yet CRISPR spacers are distributed unevenly among CRISPR-positive genomes (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Archaeo-somes are liposomes made of polar lipids obtained from archaeal (archaebacterial) cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Some immunologically important features of archaeosomes include high stability of ar-chaeal lipids as building blocks of archaeo-somes which leads to long-lasting memory of immune responses, immunopotent interaction with Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) and most importantly shifting and leading the antigen processing pathway to MHC class I mechanisms and subsequently intensifying CD8 + T-cell responses (3). (thefreelibrary.com)
- To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and robustly induce adaptive immunity mediated by T cells and B cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The activation of cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses requires antigen presentation by professional antigen presenting cells. (queensu.ca)
- Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (umassmed.edu)
- Microorganisms (bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells) residing in mucosal tissues including the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts can be altered by different disease states, and these shifts in microbial dynamics may help to diagnose disease states. (bvsalud.org)
- In particular, infected bacterial or archaeal cells can activate toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems to induce dormancy or cell death. (the-scientist.com)
- In our body, Superantigens are microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. (wellnessadvocate.com)
- In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. (ebscohost.com)
- Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. (biomedcentral.com)
- The intestinal microbiota is also a potent source of antigens and potentially harmful compounds, including carcinogens [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methodology/Principal Findings: While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. (ebscohost.com)
- In this study, we focused on an immunization method using DCs expressing human tumor transmembrane antigens. (hindawi.com)
- One example is provided by hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses of the order Ligamenvirales ( Prangishvili and Krupovic, 2012 ) which contain non-enveloped, rigid rod-shaped viruses of the family Rudiviridae and enveloped, flexible filamentous viruses of the family Lipothrixviridae . (elifesciences.org)
- In the case of the 2 that occurred within the era of modern virology (1957 and 1968), the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen of the causative viruses showed major changes from the corresponding antigens of immediately antecedent strains. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The objectives of the present study were to examine the diversity of UreC in the rumen, identify an antigen that has high immunological homology with rumen UreC, develop an anti-urease vaccine from bacterial UreC, and evaluate anti-urease immunization as an approach to decrease ruminal ureolysis. (beds.ac.uk)
- Journal Article] Archaeal Type III Rubiscos function in a pathway for AMP metabolism. (nii.ac.jp)
- In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic stabilization. (wikipedia.org)
- The Alba superfamily contains two eukaryote-specific families and one archaeal family. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the present study, recombinant HBsAg (Recombinant HBV HBsAg Antigen, Subtype adw, Acrobiosystems, USA) was encapsulated into M. smithii archaeosomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens - new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This is a preliminary report on the use of a relatively new technique--enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD)--that utilizes a mixture of extremely dilute antigens mixed with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. (thefreedictionary.com)