Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pyrococcus horikoshii: Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Nanoarchaeota: A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Thermoproteaceae: A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Archaeal: The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Methanococcaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Korarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Haloarcula: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Halorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Thermosomes: Group II chaperonins found in species of ARCHAEA.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Methanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Ribonuclease P: An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Pyrobaculum: A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.

Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. (1/6)

Using a combination of 16S rRNA analysis and antigenic fingerprinting consisting of new and published data, the phylogenetic position of 18 thermophilic isolates currently classified as Methanobacterium species was reinvestigated. The results were verified by independent methods, including, where applicable, plasmid and phage typing. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA data for 30 strains belonging to the order Methanobacteriales strongly suggested that mesophilic and thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates are distantly related and should be assigned to separate genera. For the thermophilic strains the genus Methanothermobacter was initially proposed by Boone, Whitman and Rouviere. Furthermore, the results support a reclassification of 15 isolates in three species within the proposed genus: (i) Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., containing eight isolates, six of which are able to utilize formate (type strain deltaHT); (ii) Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., containing four formate-utilizing isolates (type strain DSM 2970T); (iii) Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov., containing three obligately autotrophic isolates (type strain MarburgT). Of the nine isolates formerly referred to as Methanobacterium thermoformicicum, six were reclassified as Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and three as Methanothermobacter wolfeii.  (+info)

Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity. (2/6)

To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance.  (+info)

Direct characterization of methanogens in two high-rate anaerobic biological reactors. (3/6)

The methanogenic flora from two types of turbulent, high-rate reactors was studied by immunologic methods as well as by phase-contrast, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The reactors were a fluidized sand-bed biofilm ANITRON reactor and an ultrafiltration membrane-associated suspended growth MARS reactor (both trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pa.). Conventional microscopic methods revealed complex mixtures of microbes of a range of sizes and shapes, among which morphotypes resembling Methanothrix spp. and Methanosarcina spp. were noticed. Precise identification of these and other methanogens was accomplished by antigenic fingerprinting with a comprehensive panel of calibrated antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra. The methanogens identified showed morphotypes and antigenic fingerprints indicating their close similarity with the following reference organisms: Methanobacterium formicicum MF and Methanosarcina barkeri W in the ANITRON reactor only; Methanosarcina barkeri R1M3, M. mazei S6, Methanogenium cariaci JR1, and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ in the MARS reactor only; and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in both reactors. Species diversity and distribution appeared to be, at least in part, dependent on the degree of turbulence inside the reactor.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills. (4/6)

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kingdom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.  (+info)

Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate. (5/6)

A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation.  (+info)

Diversity and population dynamics of methanogenic bacteria in a granular consortium. (6/6)

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor granules were used as an experimental model microbial consortium to study the dynamics and distribution of methanogens. Immunologic methods revealed a considerable diversity of methanogens that was greater in mesophilic granules than in the same granules 4 months after a temperature shift from 38 to 55 degrees C. During this period, the sizes of the methanogenic subpopulations changed with distinctive profiles after the initial reduction caused by the shift. Methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter smithii PS and ALI, Methanobacterium hungatei JF1, and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 increased rapidly, reached a short plateau, and then fell to lower concentrations that persisted for the duration of the experiment. A methanogen related to Methanogenium cariaci JR1 followed a similar profile at the beginning, but it soon diminished below detection levels. Methanothrix rods weakly related to the strain Opfikon increased rapidly, reaching a high-level, long-lasting plateau. Two methanogens related to Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH emerged from very low levels before the temperature shift and multiplied to attain their highest numbers 4 months after the shift. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed thick layers, globular clusters, and lawns of variable density which were distinctive of the methanogens related to M. thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, M. thermophila TM1, and M. arboriphilus AZ and M. soehngenii Opfikon, respectively, in thin sections of granules grown at 55 degrees C for 4 months. Mesophilic granules showed a different pattern of methanogenic subpopulations.  (+info)

Treatment of sulfite evaporator condensates for recovery of volatile components. Assay of condensate samples from supporting mills. Project 3100, report one : a progress report to members of Group Project 3100. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Methanothermobacter wolfeii.
Eloquent exploration of Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market 2019 including competitive, segmentation, forecast, and regional analysis.. The Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Report enlists several considerable facets in the global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators industry that holds the potential to fuel growth or declines in the market. The report enfolds valuable analysis of significant factors such as market size, share, sales volume, product demand, market value, revenue, and growth rate. The report also deeply considers influential factors including Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market trends, dynamics, growth driving forces, and other elements.. The global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market is exhibiting a substantial CAGR figure in 2018 and it is exacted to report more vigorous growth during the forecast period of 2019 to 2024. Market growth is being boosted by raw material affluence, product awareness, rapidly growing Anesthesia Gas Evaporators demand, financial stability, and favorable ...
China Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation, Find details about China Evaporator, Single Effect Evaporator from Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation - Shandong Wintech Technology Co., Ltd.
The four Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) evaporators supplied by Hamworthy Serck Como are designated MSF 825/8 units as each has eight evaporator stages and is rated at 825 tonnes/day of distillate. Sistership Allure of the Seas will feature the same fresh water makers.. Four Hamworthy fresh water generators on the 5,400-passenger Oasis of the Seas can produce a total of 3,300 tonnes a day. Hamworthy Serck Comos cruise ship desalination plant comprises one or more MSF evaporators. Steam, engine jacket water or a combination of these can be used for heating. "The thermal efficiency of this 8-stage MSF evaporator rated at less than 150 kWh per tonne of distillate is excellent in comparison to the more usual 190 kWh per tonne," says Udo Attermeyer, Hamworthy Serck Comos sales director. "The flash principle is also the most reliable evaporation principle in terms of malfunction or mal-operation, and has the lowest risk of scaling.". Capacities of tailor-made MSF evaporators range from 100 tonnes/day to ...
Reasons for Buying Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report:. Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth. It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors. This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics. With all the accumulated data analyzed using SWOT analysis, there is a clear interpretation of the competitive landscape of the United States Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market. Potential for the markets growth was unveiled and outlying competitive threats also transpired. There is a prominent strategic direction in the market and this is sighted in the key trends and developments studied. By obtaining market background and using prevailing norms, policies, and trends of other leading markets for cross-references, market data was achieved.. Complete Report Available @: ...
To regulate the magnitude and the direction of the heat flux in an exchanger-based methanol evaporator of a fuel cell system, thermoelectric (TE) modules can be deployed as active heat pumps. The performance of the TE-integrated evaporator is strongly influenced by its heat exchange structure. The structure transfers the fuel cell exhaust heat to the evaporation chamber to gasify the methanol, where TE modules are installed in between to facilitate the heat regulation. In this work, firstly, a numerical study is conducted to determine the working currents and working modes of the TE heat regulators under the system working condition fluctuations and during the system cold start. A 3-dimensional evaporator model is generated in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT® by combining a compact TE model with a number of various heat exchange structure geometries. The compact TE model adopts order-reduction technique in both gridding and computing to improve the computation ...
FIG. 1 is an exploded first perspective view of the substance evaporator of the instant invention showing the separation of the container and the upper portion of the substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 2 is a second perspective view of the assembled substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;. FIG. 4 is a back elevational view thereof;. FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof; and,. FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view thereof.. ...
Article DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator. DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator Suzhou Dalong & Ningbo Dahongying Bio-Engineering & Beijing Ginko Group & Wuxi Hexiang Chemical Machinery Separation techno...
China Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Evaporation, Ethanol Project from Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Product guide for selecting an evaporator or cencentrator and includes nitrogen blowdown, vortex, rotary evaporators and vacuum systems for solvent
China Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Alcohol, Effect from Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Evaporator System099A EV2012S [G099A EV2012S] - Heated single block 20 well evaporator system for 15-16mm tubes, includes block, 15ga needles, 1.5 LPDF Download
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Solar steam generation by heat localization is considered to be a highly efficient, sustainable way to alleviate water shortage in resource-limited regions. However, most of the interfacial photothermal evaporators demonstrated so far involve non-biodegradable nanoscale materials, which can quickly pose a si
A heat transfer system includes an evaporator having a heated wall, a liquid barrier wall containing working fluid, a primary wick positioned between the heated wall and an inner side of the liquid barrier wall, a vapor removal channel located at an interface between the primary wick and the heated wall, and a liquid flow channel located between the liquid barrier wall and the primary wick. Methods of transferring heat include applying heat energy to a vapor barrier wall, flowing liquid through a liquid flow channel, pumping the liquid from the liquid flow channel through a primary wick, and evaporating at least some of the liquid at a vapor removal channel.
kscs25inss00 thermistor The evaporator fan motor is cycling on and of rapidly every few seconds. The rate is - KitchenAid Superba KSRG25FK Side by Side question
In a rotary evaporator, the rotating speed of the rotating flask is automatically controlled or regulated dependent upon a detected process value, particularly the vibration behavior or the mass moment of inertia of the rotating flask.
Find wastewater treatment evaporator articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
PRINCIPLE OF WORKING :. The aim of evaporation is to concentrate a solution consisting of a volatile solvent and a non volatile solute. Climbing film evaporation is a continuous operation in which the solution is heated in a continuous jacketed stainless steel evaporator at high temperature. In the liquid - gas separator, the concentrate solution is collected and the vapour is evacuated, condensed and collected in the solvent receiver.. ...
The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.
I had a Bryant system (355CAV + 186B + CNPVP) installed recently and it passed the code inspection. However, I just realized there is no trap on the evaporator coil drain line and Im trying to figure out if my arrangement is as it should be. For now, the attached drawing will have to do. My furnace is configured for upflow. There appears to be that internal trap on the furnace drain line but there is no trap on the evaporator drain line. The two drain lines merge into one which runs
TOMY MV-100 Features MV-100 MicroVac Mini Vacuum-Centrifugal Evaporator The TOMY MV-100 MicroVac is a compact and complete vacuum centrifugal evaporator. This tiny... read more ...
At the 2013 Pittcon Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, USA, the SelectScience Editors filmed a series of interviews and product demonstrations to enable you to experience the meeting. Watch this report for a brief overview of some of the innovative technologies on display including new columns for trace level analysis, a new evaporator for sample preparation, new instruments for LC/MS, GCMS and ICP-MS, as well as an ATR accessory for infrared spectroscopy. Filmed by SelectScience at Pittcon 2013.
A Copeland EAV1 0200 TAC compressor and A Bohn (heatcraft) BME260CA evaporator Box would probably like to run about -10 F. or so. (just off the top of my head) 2 HP running a -20 suction might be 10,000 BTUs?
Chemistry diaphragm pump MV 10C EX - ATEX chemistry diaphragm pumps offer all advantages of oil-free chemistry diaphragm pumps. Typical applications are rotary evaporators and...
Organomation, a leading US manufacturer of nitrogen blowdown evaporators for sample concentrations will unveil a redesigned version of its nitrogen generator, branded as the NITRO-GEN™ at analytica 2020. Click to read more...
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China Concentration Equipment for Food Industry, Find details about China Evaporator, Plate Evaporator from Concentration Equipment for Food Industry - Shanghai Ruipai Machinery Co., Ltd.
Hard scales and organic deposits in evaporators and heat exchangers can require excessive acid and steam use and frequent, costly maintenance. Thats why Buckman developed a series of evaporator deposit control (EDC) products. Buckmans proprietary blend of inhibitors and dispersants effectively prevents mineral scaling and reduces organic fouling in the process, so you can scale back on acid use, cleaning frequency and all the related costs. W848. ...
... A predictive mathematical model for fixed-bed adsorber design which incorporates both liquid and solid phase resistances to mass transfer is formulated; numeric solutions are described and checked for accuracy. Laboratory bench scale studies used to estimate model parameters independently from adsorber break-through profiles are described, and experimental results presented. The bench scale tests involve both adsorption rate and isotherm measurements that are used to determine isotherm equation parameters and surface diffusion coefficients for model calibration. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for fixed-bed operation are obtained from literature correlations; parameter values used for model calibration are presented. This paper sets the stage for single- and multi-component model verifications to be presented in two subsequent papers.
As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
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AccuCold CP351WLLF2MEDADA 19 Inch Compact Top Freezer Refrigerator with Dual Evaporator Cooling, Combination Lock, High/Low Temperature Alarm, Access Port, Interior Light, Adjustable Shelves, Cycle Defrost and Medical Use Approved: White, Medical Unit, ADA Compliant
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Solar Powered Graphene Evaporator Zaps Dirty Water…With Bacteria?!? 2. 0. 10. 0. 1. Solar Powered Graphene Evaporator Zaps Dirty Water…With Bacteria?!?.Acinaces (also known. com/flygin/ zoloft coupon rebate B = Recipient. com/photo delivered bimatoprost If the camera head is set to the.. Ending a war: Inventing a movement: Mayday 1971. Youre not simply following a leadership up at the head of a march. These were called "zaps,"37 and entailed.zoloft 100mg high dose Those three-decade-old pieces have aged remarkably well,. Then head up to the lookout at Mount. mehr. 4.0. Frau Robbie Robbie , 2 Views.Adrenals good dosage clomid in qatar 200mg of zoloft while pregnant doctors who prescribe. Burping detox side effects zoloft mixed with caffeine and foot pain im on ...
How about Carbeurator jets? You could either go large with a set from "Holley" or go small with mikuni 2-Stroke carbs? Use an electric fuel pump for injected engines (high Pressure) and run the BD through steel or braided stainless fuel line. Try http://www.Jegs.com or http://www.Summitracing.com for all kinds of fuel pump jet/nozzle accessories. We are pumping fuel here so instead of modifying items that are not designed to do what you want, just get the items that have millions of dollars in engineering already done to produce your desired results. I am not trying to be a weiner here, but as I started reading this thread that is the first thing that came to mind. If you need smaller diameters than fuel jetting provides, take a look at some torch tips for Ox/acetylene torches. hell most even come with tip-cleaners, the are already threaded in NPT so there leak proof. Maybe even look into "NOS Systems" they are a Nitrous oxide kit company they have almost anything you could ever want for this ...
Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. This system combines the functions of the Space Shuttle flash evaporator and ammonia boiler into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale unit uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A four-core MFE prototype was built in 2007 ...
Organomations high temperature dry block MULTIVAP (http://bit.ly/2m2P5e0) products are an ideal choice for laboratories needing to gently and efficiently concentrate large batches of identical samples for a wide array of applications. The 100 position MULTIVAP comes with a heated aluminum dry block, which provides reliable uniform heat up to 120 degrees Celsius. Easily select the precise temperature needed for your procedure and the digital controller automatically maintains your chosen set point, ensuring consistent heating to delicate samples. The built-in timer allows the user to easily shut off the heat and nitrogen gas once the evaporation is complete. Nitrogen gas is delivered to samples through individual stainless steel needles connected to the hand built gas distribution manifold. The gas is controlled with the internally installed pressure reducing gas regulator and adjustable flow meter. When the user is operating the instrument with less than a full load, they can save valuable ...
View Website ». The Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) is focused on developing tools and processes to enable high-rate/high-volume bottom-up, precise assembly of nanoelements (such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles) and polymer nanostructures.. ...
China Stainless Steel Vacuum Juce Concentrator Evaporator, Find details about China Juce Concentrator Evaporator, Juce Concentrator from Stainless Steel Vacuum Juce Concentrator Evaporator - Wenzhou Kosun Fluid Equipment Co., Ltd.
A first evaporator evaporates refrigerant, which is outputted from an ejector. A refrigerant outlet of the first evaporator is connected to a suction inlet of a compressor, which is connected to a radiator. A branched passage branches a flow of the refrigerant at a corresponding branching point located between the radiator and the ejector. The branched passage conducts the branched flow of the refrigerant to a suction inlet of the ejector. A flow rate control valve is arranged in the branched passage between a radiator and an ejector on a downstream side of the radiator to depressurize refrigerant outputted from the radiator. A second evaporator is arranged in the first branched passage.
After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods.
The formyltransferase was assayed similarly to a method described before (14) by indirectly measuring H4MPT formation via its spontaneous reduction of cytochrome c. The assay mixture contained 50 mM tricine, 600 mM NaCl, 20 µM methenyl-H4MPT+, 50 µM cytochrome c, 13 µg/mL methenyl-H4MPT+ cyclohydrolase (Mch) and was at pH 8.0. A total assay volume of 70 µL was used, and the temperature was set to 28 °C. The reaction was started through the addition of 2.5 µL of 1.2 mg/mL Fhc (affinity purified) and followed photometrically at 550 nm.. Mch (Mext_1831) was cloned from M. extorquens PA1 with a C-terminal Strep-tag II into pCM80, similarly as described for Fhc. Expression and affinity purification were performed in small-scale as described for Fhc.. Methenyl-H4MPT+ was purified from Methanothermobacter marburgensis (42) and methenyl-dephosphoH4MPT was generated (43). LC-MS analysis showed that the sample was a ∼1:1 mixture of methenyl-dephosphoH4MPT and methenyl-H4MPT, both coenzymes work ...
A settlement has been reached between plaintiffs and Lennox Industries in a class action lawsuit over defective evaporator coils. Look inside for more info.
It takes approximately 40 liters (10 gal) of sap to be boiled down to 1 liter (1 quart) of syrup. A mature sugar maple produces about 40 liters of sap during the 4-6 week sugaring season. Trees are not tapped until they have a diameter of 25 cm (10 in) at chest-height and the tree is at least 40 years old. If the tree is more than 45 cm it can be tapped twice on opposite sides. It is recommended that the drilled tap hole have a width of 8 mm (⅓ in) and a depth of 25 to 40 mm (1.0 to 1.6 in). During cooking, the sap is fed automatically by pipe from a storage tank to a long and narrow ridged pan called the evaporator. The evaporator is usually divided into two sections, the front pan and the back pan. As the sap boils, the water evaporates; it becomes denser and sweeter. As the density of the sap increases, it works its way from the rear of the back evaporator pan to the front evaporator pan. The syrup is boiled until it reaches the correct density of maple syrup, 1333 kg/m3.[citation needed] ...
Auto-defrost, automatic defrost or self-defrosting is a technique which regularly defrosts the evaporator in a refrigerator or freezer. Appliances using this technique are often called frost free, frostless or no-frost. The defrost mechanism in a refrigerator heats the cooling element (evaporator coil) for a short period of time and melts the frost that has formed on it. The resulting water drains through a duct at the back of the unit. Defrosting is controlled by an electric or electronic timer: For every 6, 8, 10, 12 or 24 hours of compressor operation it turns on a defrost heater for 15 minutes to half an hour. The defrost heater, having a typical power rating of 350 W to 600 W, is mounted just below the evaporator in top- and bottom-freezer models and below and sometimes also in the middle of the evaporator in side-by-side models. It may be protected from short circuits by means of fusible links. In older refrigerators the timer ran continuously. In newer designs the timer only runs while ...
The Morning After.. Lots of glasses part filled with beer, wine, cider, spirits ... all going to be thrown away. Its a crying shame.. But not with the new BorgCo After-party alcohol recovery vacuum system.. Collect all the drinks and tip everything together into the stainless steel pot. Push the start button and an oil-free pump starts, exhausting the air from the vessel. Vapour is drawn from evaporator into the actively-cooled condenser chamber. Heat from pump motor warms the evaporator vessel. The whole system is pressure/temperature controlled at -0.5 Bar, +40C in the evaporator (stirred), +10C in condenser.. When the controller bleeps, discard the sludge from the evaporator and wash it. Detach the condenser bottle and pour the alcohol into a container for storage, or maybe just drink it ...
Recently interest has been increasing in these cycles because of their potential use as part of energy-saving plants and also because they use more environmentally friendly refrigerants than vapor-compression cycles. A basic vapor-absorption system is shown schematically in Figure 6. The condenser, throttling valve and evaporator are essentially the same as in the vapor compression system (Figure 3). The major difference is the replacement of the compressor with an absorber, a generator, and a solution pump. A second throttling valve is also used to maintain the pressure difference between the absorber (at the evaporator pressure) and the generator (at the condenser pressure).. The refrigerant on leaving the evaporator is absorbed in a low-temperature absorbing medium, some heat, QA, being rejected in the process. The refrigerant-absorbent solution is then pumped to the higher pressure and is heated in the generator, QG. Refrigerants vapor then separates from the solution due to the high ...
A loop thermosyphon system has a semiconductor die with a plurality of microchannels. A condenser is in fluid communication with the microchannels. A wicking structure wicks fluid between the condenser to the semiconductor die.
The conventional A/C cycle develops high pressure refrigerant that is throttled (via a small opening) to low pressure and temperature for cooling an evaporators airflow. This paper explores the conceptual and practical development of deriving useful work from that pressure potential by replacing the throttling device with an expander/motor. One key technical challenge is to maintain a large pressure drop across the expander/motor. This translates into a strict control requirement of the location of the refrigerant flows phase change within the motor. The cycles COP benefits from recovered work and the evaporators refrigerant energy content reduction while delivering conventional cooling performance ...
Organomations S-EVAP instruments are designed for easy solvent removal of up to 10 samples through a distillation process. The solvent can be evaporated into a fume hood or collected in an individual or central collection system.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Sample Preparation products, including dialysis membranes, automation and centrifugal evaporators, on SelectScience.
Understanding the evaporator, condenser, compressor, and other components in your reach-in refrigerator can help you take better care of the equipment.
Our Central A/C has been blowing warm air for about the past week or so. I have tested with a new thermostat, completely cleaned the outside unit, cleaned the evaporator coils/fins, and tested continuity and voltage on the wiring harnesses. All components appear to be running properly, although I have very little knowledge of A/C systems. I finally decided to fork out the cash for a service call and the technician came to the conclusion that the Expansion Valve was stuck in the closed
Bob, I compiled some information on this for one of the folks in our region who was looking into zero discharge. Some of the information that I found may be useful; Ive included it below. One other cavet: much of the information listed is more process-specific, but still may be helpful. Good luck. cmd ---------- Articles * Fosberg, Ted. "Using Evaporators to Achieve Zero Effluent at a BCTMP Pulp Mill." Seattle, WA: Resources Conservation Company; 1993 Aug. * Beroiz, Denny. "Zero Discharge Goal Setting: Does It Work?" Pico Rivera, CA: Northrop; 1991 conference. * Hennepin Paper Company. "Zero Discharge Program at an Uncoated Groundwood Paper Mill." St. Paul, MN: Hennepin Paper Company; 1993 Jun 11. * "Zero Discharge Wire Pickling Through Evaporative Recovery." Vendor information. * Spencer, Gary & Greg, Jim Miille, Greg White, and Pat Bennett. "Zero Water Discharge in the Metal Plating Industry using an Improved Ion Exchange Process." Sacramento, CA: California EPA, Department of Toxic ...
The most important thing about assembling the fireplace is that it has to be the exact right width to support whatever evaporator you own. The vent is on the side of her house and comes out the side wall about 20 feet up. The efficiency of stove combustion is therefore increased and provides significant savings on heating costs for the much does gas fireplace insert cost Theres no doubt that a nip of scotch and a crackling fireplace are a match made in heaven, and thats exactly what awaits you at this suave whisky bar.
Examination of food chain-derived Listeria monocytogenes strains of different serotypes reveals considerable diversity in inlA genotypes, mutability, and adaptation to cold temperatures.
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The Büchi R-300 rotary evaporator meets the highest expectations in convenience and versatility. Its modular design allows extensions of the R-300 to a fully integrated system in which a central interface regulates each component. It replaces the former Büchi R-210 model. With the I-300 or I-300 Pro interface the R-300 replaces the former R-215. The R-300 Rotavapor can be purchased with either a V-type Vertical Condenser, a C-type Dry-Ice Condenser, an A-type Diagonal Condenser or an S-type Vertical Reflux Condenser. The V-type or vertical condenser is the most common for standard applications and has a surface area of 1460 cm2. The C-type or Dry-Ice Condenser is ideally suited for the distillation of solvents with low boiling points and has a surface area of 500 cm2. The R-300 is available with a choice of two heating baths for exacting applications. The B-301 is a classical water bath that quickly goes up to 95ºC (4 minutes to reach 50ºC) and accommodates up to a 1 liter evaporation flask
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Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an environmentally hazardous, corrosive, and toxic gas, mostly generated in gas and oil industry. For small-scale natural gas processing sites (less than 10 tonne S/day), the use of regenerable iron oxide adsorbent to adsorb H2S from natural gas is still an economical and effective method. The objective of this research project was to understand the performance of an iron oxide adsorbent, recently emerging in the Canadian market, in removing H2S from gas streams. To accomplish this, the breakthrough behaviors of H2S adsorption in a fixed-bed reactor under elevated pressures were studied. The effects of variations in superficial velocity from 0.09 m/s to 0.26 m/s, operating pressure from 4 to 50 atm absolute, and the height of the fixed-bed from 11.7 cm to 24.5 cm on breakthrough curves and sulfur loading were investigated. In all the experiments, the H2S concentration profiles of the exiting gas from the reactor were measured until the bed was saturated. It was ...
0034] In this configuration, liquid CO2 from liquid CO2 source 23 is vaporized by vaporizer 24, and thus, even when the liquid CO2 contains moisture or organic matter, the moisture or organic matter is adsorbed and removed by adsorption device 27. Furthermore, adsorption device 27 may generate particles resulting from the adsorbent. However, the particles generated by adsorption device 27 are removed by filter 25 along with particles derived from liquid CO2 source 23, and particles having failed to be removed by filter 25 are removed by evaporator 16 and filter 17. Thus, moisture, organic matter, and particles are prevented from being fed to point-of-use 30. For example, refractory particles or particles which have a low vapor pressure and which are thus likely to be dispersed or dissolved into liquid CO2 are shifted to the liquid phase side in evaporator 16 and thus removed from the CO2 given that the evaporator has a gas-liquid separation function. The particles having shifted to the liquid ...
An anaerobic bioreactor allows the efficient degradation of HCH isomers in soil slurry.: The insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane), whi
Solar steam generation holds great promise for a broad range of important industrial processes including power generation, seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. As natural sunlight is too weak, solar steam generation usually requires pricey optical concentrators. Meanwhile, photo-thermal materials which can convert sunlight into heat are introduced to facilitate evaporation. Nevertheless, bulk water heating still has low efficiency because much heat is consumed to heat bulk water or is lost to the atmosphere.1,2 Recently, it has been recognized that confining the photo-thermal material generated heat at the air-water interface using a self-floating evaporator is an effective solution to this problem. Substantial progress has been made in the past 3 years by building efficient evaporators with plasmonic absorbers and carbon materials.3-16 For example, using airlaid paper as the substrate for assembled gold nanoparticles, an efficiency of 77.8% at 6 sun illumination was obtained.9 ...
Among alternative refrigerants, ammonia with zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP), and favorable thermodynamic properties is a sensible choice as a replacement for the synthetic refrigerants, which are powerful greenhouse gases.. In this paper, the results of experiments done on a new ammonia water-to-water heat pump prototype at different evaporation temperatures and compressor speeds are reported. The heat pump is designed to deliver 7 kW heat at evaporation temperature of -5°C and condensation temperature of 40°C. The hot discharge gas from compressor is utilized to provide sanitary hot water, and the rest of the heat is used for preheating the tap water and space heating of a single-family house. The compact design of the heat pump helps reducing the refrigerant charge. To reduce the charge further and to prevent oil accumulation at the bottom of evaporator, a minichannel aluminum heat exchanger is used as evaporator.. ...
using this info it is possible to guesstimate the flow for any given size orifice. There are a couple "rules of thumb" here that sort of cancel each other out. -- the oil burner gal/hour rating is based on 100 pounds pressure, I want to use 150 pounds pressure. The flow is doubled only if you apply 4 times the pressure. - SO- First rule of thumb - If you run an oil burner at 150 pounds you need to increase the gallon/hour rating by 20% to give you the rating at 150 pounds. -- unfortunatly there is another rule concerning the thickness of the metal plate that the orifice hole is placed in that says if the metal is thin the orifice will flow 1/4 to 1/3 more than if the same sized orifice hole is placed in a thick metal plate. -- The LP nozzles use a thick orifice plate but the oil burner nozzles use a thin orifice plate. -- -so- now we have to SUBTRACT 20%-30% of the flow we calculated for an oil burner nozzle with 150 pounds pressure to get the actual flow through a LP nozzle that has the same ...
LIQUID MATERIAL VAPORIZER AND FILM DEPOSITION APPARATUS USING THE SAME - The present invention is a liquid material vaporizer comprising a liquid-material supply part configured to make a liquid material into a droplet state and to discharge the same, and a vaporizing part configured to vaporize the liquid material in a droplet state so as to generate a source gas, the vaporizing part including: an inlet port to which the liquid material in a droplet state is introduced from the liquid-material supply part; a housing body of a bottomed tubular shape, the housing body having an opening end on a side of the inlet port; a columnar block having a flange for closing the opening end of the housing body, the columnar block being fitted in the housing body in such a manner that a gap serving as a vaporizing path is defined between the columnar block and an inside surface of the housing body; a breathable mist trap member disposed in the vaporizing path formed between the inside surface of the housing ...
S. S. Fabrication - Manufacturer of Formaldehyde Plant, Heterogeneous And Homogeneous Reactor & Evaporator And Crystallizer from Delhi, India
There are no specific diagnostic markers for functional dyspepsia. As with many other conditions, a thorough and detailed history taken by a physician is the most important component of the assessment and often leads to the correct diagnosis. The history needs to include dietary, psychological, and social factors.. A history may disclose a relationship between symptoms and food, activity, or stressors. It is often helpful for the child and parents to maintain a symptom diary detailing the time, location, intensity and character of the pain or discomfort, time and content of the meals, daily activities, and stool pattern.. Considerable diversity of opinion remains among physicians regarding the extent of diagnostic tests to perform in a child who seems to have a symptom constellation pointing towards a functional cause of the dyspepsia.. The diagnostic procedure needs to be individualized, according to the information obtained during the history taking and the physical examination. An upper ...
There are no specific diagnostic markers for functional dyspepsia. As with many other conditions, a thorough and detailed history taken by a physician is the most important component of the assessment and often leads to the correct diagnosis. The history needs to include dietary, psychological, and social factors.. A history may disclose a relationship between symptoms and food, activity, or stressors. It is often helpful for the child and parents to maintain a symptom diary detailing the time, location, intensity and character of the pain or discomfort, time and content of the meals, daily activities, and stool pattern.. Considerable diversity of opinion remains among physicians regarding the extent of diagnostic tests to perform in a child who seems to have a symptom constellation pointing towards a functional cause of the dyspepsia.. The diagnostic procedure needs to be individualized, according to the information obtained during the history taking and the physical examination. An upper ...
... ,The TurboVap Concentration Workstations from Caliper provide an automated alternative to Kuderna-Danish, Rotary, Vacuum-Style and Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators. For over ten years TurboVap concentration technology has received enormous acclaim with over 4,000 units in use around the world today.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
MBRAUN provides services and solutions for clean environments by specializing in gloveboxes, evaporators, gas purifiers, solvent purifiers and deposition tools.
Most of these tests, particularly repellent tests and the evaluation of attractants, are performed by our partner, Biogents AG. Evaluation of evaporators or aerosols are conducted in our own facilities at Insect Services.. ...
... ,The TurboVap Concentration Workstations from Caliper provide an automated alternative to Kuderna-Danish, Rotary, Vacuum-Style and Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators. For over ten years TurboVap concentration technology has received enormous acclaim with over 4,000 units in use around the world today.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
This study made it possible to determine by the application of thermodynamics in finished time, the points of instruction necessary to the development of a regulation system for the rationalization of the power consumption in a cold store. These points were obtained by determining the optimal variations of temperature as well to the condenser and the evaporator corresponding to the minimum capacity absorptive by the compressor for a maximum COP.
Serbuk tumbuhan Jambu Keling (Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce.), HCl (p), NH4OH, Khloroform, Metanol, Pereaksi Maeyer, Pereaksi Dragendorf. Alat Corong Pisah, Rotary Evaporator, Khromatografi kolom, I.R, HNMR, CNMR 82 FTIR Isolasi Daun Jambu endapan. Pada daerah paling utama dari senyawa alkaloid munculnya bilangan gelombang 1635. Destruksi Bagian daun tumbuhan jambu Keling (Eugenia cumini (L. Pemisahan dan Pemurnian Ekstrak pekat khloroform (2 g) dikhromatografi kolom dengan fasa diam silika gel 60 sebanyak 60 gram dengan fasa gerak khloroform: metanol dengan menaikkan kepolaran bertingkat.25 cm-1 dengan puncak melebar menunjukkan adanya vibrasi O-H dengan puncak tajam menunjukkan vibrasi C=O pada bilangan gelombang 2959.47 cm-1 dengan puncak lemah menunjukkan serapan kharakteristik -NH3.18 - 1. Gambar 2.97 -2. 1H.) Druce) didestruksi basah dengan HCl dalam metanol sebesar 2M kemudian dinetralisasi dengan penambahan basa NH4OH dan terjadi padatan berupa Gambar 1. Fraksi yang keluar kolom ...
China Cordyceps Mycelia Extraction Machine, Find details about China Solvent Herbal Evaporator, Extract Equipment from Cordyceps Mycelia Extraction Machine - Shanghai Better Industry Co., Ltd.
Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content
An analytical investigation was conducted to examine and predict the capillary dryout and rewetting behaviors occurring at the evaporator section of room-temperature heat pipes during startup. The physical model is based on the displacement of a leading-edge front of a thin liquid layer flowing on finite groove uniformly heated with a constant heat flux. Numerical solutions were obtained by a fully implicit Finite Difference Method, accounting for the movement of the liquid and a known time-variable temperature boundary condition at the liquid front. The velocity and position of the liquid front were found to vary with the applied heat flux, the initial conditions, and the thermophysical properties of the working fluid. The wall temperature distribution in the dried region was also predicted. The working fluid temperature compared well with experimental results. The analysis indicated that a partial or full dryout at the evaporator section may exist for certain heat fluxes.. Copyright © 2005 by ...
I am a semi-retired Virtual Assistant. I do transcription work when I am not writing mysteries and documenting my family history. I am a member of the Genealogy Club of Newtown, CT, Fredericksburg Regional Genealogical Society, Manatee (FL) Genealogical Society, Anna Maria (FL) Historical Society, Ulysses (NY) Historical Society, and Historic Fredericksburg Foundation, Inc. I am a member of the Central Virginia Chapter of Sisters in Crime, Old Town Sleuths, and the CRRL Inklings Writing Group ...
RN [1] RM PMID:12562787 RT CDP-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. RA Morii H, Koga Y RL J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb;185(4):1181-9 ...
Standard Specifications and Optional Features Chromatography units designed for the application of most separation equipment. System designed to operate @ +4C. Exceeding U.S. efficiency guidelines provides maximum energy savings. Non-conductive epoxy coated wire shelves with ½ adjustable increments State of the art construction materials include high density, CFC free closed cell, expanded polyurethane injected foam insulation. Copeland R-134a semi hermetic condensing units. (top mount standard) Condensate evaporator pan. Port holes with seals allow the insertion of thermocouples without disturbing settings.. Product URL : http://www.tempurescientific.com/medical- ...
At the present time, there is considerable diversity in the dietary reference values and recommendations used across Europe, both in terms of terminology and guideline values. Harmonization of dietary
comfort systems efficiency and reduce your cooling costs. Here are five ways proven to help lower your cooling load: • Clean the filter for your air handler. Nothing lowers your cooling efficiency faster than a dirty air filter. Dust and debris in the filter slow the passage of air through the air handler, making components work harder and longer. When dirt collects on the evaporator coil, it doesnt cool as quickly, which can lead to frozen coils. When this happens, the compressor continues to run and if it gets too hot, it can break, causing a repair or replace- ment. • Inspect the outdoor unit. Remove any vegetation from the sides of the unit, and be sure that all four sides are clear and nothing covers the top. The compressor blows heat away from your home, and when nothing obstructs it, it wont have to run as long, which will reduce cooling costs. • Check your ducts for leaks, even if your home is relatively new. If you have rooms that are too hot or cold, you might have problems ...
View of PTAC unit removed from wall sleeve-room side is to right. Inset in upper left shows front view of unit in sleeve with cover removed. Supply fan draws unconditioned outdoor air (red arrows) into supply fan plenum. Fan also draws room return air (yellow arrows) through evaporator coil cooling room air (blue arrows). Unconditioned outside air mixes with conditioned room air and discharges to room (green arrows) through supply air louvers.. ...
Harlows is still a family-run operation, four generations on now from when they opened over 80 years ago, and everyone is just as friendly now as they were when I first stumbled upon the place back in the 70s. They werent too busy at the time - probably because it was so early in the season - and everyone had plenty of time to chat and make us feel welcome. The two girls were invited in to see the evaporator running, and they stood in rapt wonder in an indoor cloud as the process was explained to them, culminating with a sip of still-warm syrup tapped right from the spigot at the end of the line. You can imagine how that made their day. The kids each got a serving of sugar on snow and sat on the floor of the showroom getting the maple candy stuck to their teeth and watching a video about syrup production while their mom and Maryanne and I poked around the sales area. I ended up buying a half gallon of first-of-the-season syrup and a bag of maple candies. (My grandmother passed away a few ...
To show why we designed our evaporator as we did, I offer the following assumptions that are based upon tests completed at the Ohio State University and the extension department of Virginia Tech.. Fact #1: It is generally accepted that evaporation is affected by humidity, temperature and wind conditions. The greater the temperature, the less the humidity and the greater the wind conditions (which lengthen hang time), the greater the amount of evaporation. We have accepted these factors as truths.. Fact #2: The smaller the droplet size, the faster it will evaporate and the greater the potential there is for drift.. ...
In this research project, a multifunctional catalytic reactor has been designed for producing green and renewable H2 from different types of feedstocks such as bio-derived ethanol and methane. The novel reactor system consists of gas manifold, liquid feedstock supplier, mixer and tubular fixed-bed reactor (the schematic diagram of reactor system is attached with this application). The gaseous reactants ...
Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry - Methanogen;Anaerobic Digester;16S rRNA;mcrA;Methanobacterium formicicum;
The research deals with the possibility of effective exploitation of low temperature geothermal energy resources, which are generally much more widespread worldwide compared to conventional high temperature ones, typically available only in limited areas of the Earth. The basic idea is the application of an advanced binary cycle, only thermally coupled to the primary endogen heat source. The selected reference-power cycle is the well-known Kalina, which gives the possibility of optimizing the matching between heat capacities of the geothermal fluid (i.e. typically hot water or saturated steam) and the cycle working fluid, which is a non azeotropic NH3-H2O mixture with variable vaporization temperature at a fixed pressure.. The heat transfer diagrams of the main Kalina heat exchangers, namely the condenser and the evaporator, are analysed with the aim of minimizing the irreversibilities related to the heat transfer. At different fixed NH3-H2O composition and condenser pressures, the evaporator ...
The 16S ribosomal RNAs from 10 species of methanogenic bacteria have been characterized in terms of the oligonucleotides produced by T1 RNase digestion. Comparative analysis of these data reveals the methanogens to constitute a distinct phylogenetic group containing two major divisions. These organisms appear to be only distantly related to typical bacteria.. ...
URN zum Zitieren dieses Dokuments: urn:nbn:de:bvb:355-epub-110183. Schallenberg, J., Thomm, Michael, Stetter, Karl Otto, Moes, M., Truss, M., Allmansberger, R., Bokranz, M., Muth, E. und Klein, A. (1986) ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONALLY RELATED GENE CROUPS IN METHANOGENIC BACTERIA. In: Dubourguier, H. C., (ed.) Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria: proceed. of the Internat. Seminar on Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria, Lille, France, June 17-18, 1986. Progress in biotechnology, 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam, S. 182-192. ISBN 0-444-42726-0. ...
An axial flow staged zone oligomerization reaction process includes the steps of passing a hydrocarbon feedstock into the lower portion of the axial flow staged zone reactor which includes axial circulation of the hydrocarbon reaction fluid serially in each of the reaction zones, passing catalyst through a constriction zone located between successive upper and lower catalytic reaction zones which includes heat exchanging of the fluids being the constriction zone within the reactor and further includes withdrawing the oligomerized product from the top of the reactor.
Adherent cell culture is often used in the manufacture of biologic products, including vaccines. Historically, the surface for cells to adhere to has been provided either by a two-dimensional (2D) system such as roller bottles, T-flasks, cell factories or cell stacks; or microcarrier beads within a traditional stirred tank bioreactor. However the need to increase product production and reduce manufacturing footprints have led to the creation of novel solutions.. One alternative solution to traditional 2D systems and to a microcarrier-stirred tank option is a fixed-bed disposable bioreactor, which can provide efficient scale-up and manufacturing with a small footprint.. Join Jose Castillo, Director of Cell Culture Technologies for Pall Life Sciences, to explore various options for utilizing fixed-bed bioreactors in adherent cell culture.. Jose Castillo transitioned into his role as Director of Cell Culture Technologies for Pall Life Sciences during the December 2013 acquisition of ATMI ...
FASTENERS BATTERY BOLT ACCESSORY STUD SUPER MS PAN COMBO NEW Overall Length 1 3 4 Diameter 5 16 Thread Pitch 18 Material Brass Long Side 1 1 4 Accessory Side 1 2 Hardware not included NUTS SQUARE ANSI ASME B18 2 2 UNC P N 320 01 14 320 01 516 320 01 38 320 01 716 320 01 12 320 01 58 320 01 34 Material Steel Plating Zinc A C SERVICE Part No 971 4696 6 Nissan O Ring 469 4901 91 Pieces GM Capillary Tube O Ring 469 4008 6 Hose Fitting O Ring 469 4011 Cross Section Cross Section 8 Hose Fitting O Ring 469 4013 Hitachi Suction Discharge Valve O Ring 469 2121 Height H 7 32 17 64 21 64 3 8 7 16 35 64 21 32 Measurement Inch Origin USA Thread Type Coarse Threads Per Inch 24 More sizes available see flyer or new catalog for complete list of sizes F A C EVAPORATOR CONDENSOR LEAK STOP W DYE Part No 528 1050 Cross Section 8 Nissan O Ring 469 4010 Cross Section 5 Hose Fitting Toyota Liquid Line O Ring 469 2102 Diesel Kiki Pressure Relief Valve O Ring 469 2122 Cross Section Nissan Liquid Line O Ring 469 4111 ...
Ive started a project which requires practical chromatography column, distillation and crystallisation experience, we have we hope lol all the right equipment i.e rotary evaporator, glassware etc and chemicals for the task we are based in croydon surrey, our aim is to single out compounds and crystallise them. we are looking for 1 person on a temp basis to help us with this project, this person must have practicable experience in the full process from separating to crystallisation, also the person must be good at problem solving, we can work around the persons uni schedule, wages negotiable ...
An air conditioner uses an evaporator coil to cool your home. This chilled coil collects water vapor from warm air as it passes over it. The water condenses and drips below into a drainage system.
1. Introduction. When new engines are developed, they will be expected to operate under severe conditions and demanding load profiles as studied by Kem and Abros (1997), thus, increasing the demand of effective engine cooling systems. The automotive industry is continuously involved in a strong competitive market to obtain the best automobile design in multiple aspects. Some of the aspect includes performance, low fuel consumption, aesthetics, safety,- cheaper and low maintenance.. According to Oliet et al., (2007), the air-cooled heat exchangers found in a vehicle radiator, Air-Conditioning (AC) condenser, evaporator and charge air cooler, has an important role in its weight and also in the design of its front-end module. In addition, it has a strong impact on the car aerodynamic behaviour. Looking at these challenges, the design process is optimized to obtain the optimum design.. The high working temperatures of the internal combustion engine which are the cause of its high efficiency are at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective adsorption of vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate on silica-packed fixed-bed columns. AU - Chu, Boon-Seang. AU - Baharin, Badlishah Sham. AU - Che Man, Yaakob B.. AU - Quek, Siew Young. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - Understanding the behavior of vitamin E adsorption during chromatographic separation was useful for a better control of the process. In this study, a pre-concentrated vitamin E fraction from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was subjected to a normal phase silica-packed fixed-bed column for further purification. The effect of various operational parameters i.e. column bed height, vitamin E inlet concentration, column temperature and flow rate on column performance were detailed. It appeared that the breakthrough curves of all systems showed a typical S-shaped profile. The service time of the column increased when increasing the column bed height, or reducing the inlet concentration, column temperature and flow rate. It was found that column ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of particle size and temperature on gasification performance of coconut and palm kernel shells in downdraft fixed-bed reactor. AU - Yahaya, Ahmad Zubair. AU - Somalu, Mahendra Rao. AU - Muchtar, Andanastuti. AU - Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar. AU - Wan Daud, Wan Ramli. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - Gasification of coconut shell (CS) and palm kernel shell (PKS) is conducted in a batch type downdraft fixed-bed reactor to evaluate the effect of particle size (1-3 mm, 4-7 mm, and 8-11 mm) and temperature (700, 800, and 900 °C) on gas composition and gasification performance. The response surface methodology integrated variance-optimal design is used to identify the optimum condition for gasification. Gas composition, which is measured using the biomass particle size of 1-11 mm at 700-900 °C, are 8.20-14.6 vol% (H 2 ), 13.0-17.4 vol% (CO), 14.7-16.7 vol% (CO 2 ), and 2.82-4.23 vol% (CH 4 ) for CS and 7.01-13.3 vol% (H 2 ), 13.3-17.8 vol% (CO), 14.9-17.1 vol% (CO 2 ), and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine by carbon nanotubes in fixed-bed columns. AU - Tian, Yuan. AU - Gao, Bin. AU - Morales, Veronica L.. AU - Chen, Hao. AU - Wang, Yu. AU - Li, Hui. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfapyridine (SPY), two representative sulfonamide antibiotics, have gained increasing attention because of the ecological risks these substances pose to plants, animals, and humans. This work systematically investigated the removal of SMX and SPY by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in fixed-bed columns under a broad range of conditions including: CNT incorporation method, solution pH, bed depth, adsorbent dosage, adsorbate initial concentration, and flow rate. Fixed-bed experiments showed that pH is a key factor that affects the adsorption capacity of antibiotics to CNTs. The Bed Depth Service Time model describes well the relationship between service time and bed depth and can be used to design appropriate column parameters. During ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ...
Oct1 and PIKA antigens associates with specific chromosomes early in the cell cycle". The EMBO Journal. 17 (6): 1768-78. doi: ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ...
Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank. *Structure of an archaeal exosome bound to RNA at the RCSB ... Targoff, IN; Reichlin, M (1985). "Nucleolar localization of the PM-Scl antigen". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 28 (2): 226-30. doi: ... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein.[10] ... Lorentzen, E; Walter, P; Fribourg, S; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E; Klug, G; Conti, E (2005). "The archaeal exosome core is a ...
Ori-Finder, an online software for prediction of bacterial and archaeal oriCs ... which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen is present. ...
Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation.[191] The production of interferon is an important ... Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for ... Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074 ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... are in good agreement with data from electron microscopy studies of archaeal and bacterial S-layers. ...
Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... "The Yeast tRNA Splicing Endonuclease: A Tetrameric Enzyme with Two Active Site Subunits Homologous to the Archaeal tRNA ...
Gaudet R, Wiley DC (2001). „Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... ABCdb Archaeal and Bacterial ABC Systems database, ABCdb. *MeSH ATP-Binding+cassette+transporters ...
LCR can be used to diagnose tuberculosis.[17] The sequence containing protein antigen B is targeted by four oligonucleotide ... which is part of every bacterial and archaeal genome and is highly conserved, bacteria can be taxonomically classified by ...
... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... "RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that catalyzes DNA strand exchange". Genes & Development. 12 (9): 1248-1253. ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
These may represent a valuable platform for antigen delivery, vaccine development, and other biomedical and environmental ... Berquist, Brian R.; DasSarma, Shiladitya (2003-10-15). "An Archaeal Chromosomal Autonomously Replicating Sequence Element from ... DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya (2015-09-07). "Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display". Vaccines. 3 (3): 686-702. ... 2015Haloarchaeal Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles Displaying Salmonella Antigens as a Novel Approach to Vaccine Development". Procedia ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9: 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576. ...
... which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen is present. OriDB the DNA Replication Origin Database Origin of ... an online software for prediction of bacterial and archaeal oriCs Replication Origin at the US National Library of Medicine ...
Yang, B; Sayers, S; Xiang, Z; He, Y (2011). "Protegen: A web-based protective antigen database and analysis system". Nucleic ... Goudenège D, Avner S, Lucchetti-Miganeh C, Barloy-Hubler F (2010). "CoBaltDB: Complete bacterial and archaeal orfeomes ...
... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.211 --- gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ... archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 --- gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 --- gene expression regulation, ... gamma-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.600.220 --- dna repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.220.865 --- trinucleotide repeat ... G05.330.801.261 --- gene rearrangement, delta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.311 --- gene rearrangement, ...
... antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 --- oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.770.800 --- sucrase-isomaltase complex ... archaeal MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300 --- dna topoisomerases, type ii, bacterial MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300.500 --- dna ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ...
A Tetrameric Enzyme with Two Active Site Subunits Homologous to the Archaeal tRNA Endonucleases". Cell. 89 (6): 849-858. doi: ... Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 -- antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107.288 -- antistreptolysin ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...
Matsumiya S, Ishino Y, Morikawa K (January 2001). "Crystal structure of an archaeal DNA sliding clamp: Proliferating cell ... "Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". Eur ... "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin ... nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843 . PMID 11266590. PDB: ...
Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for ... Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures. An enormous variety of ... Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. The production of interferon is an important host ... Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ...
They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation ... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor ... antigens and quinones. While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125.288 - antistreptolysin MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein. Located ... Targoff, IN; Reichlin, M (1985). "Nucleolar localization of the PM-Scl antigen". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 28 (2): 226-30. doi: ... Structure of the human exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank ... Koonin, EV; Wolf, YI; Aravind, L (2001). "Prediction of the archaeal exosome and its connections with the proteasome and the ...
The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. Some animal proteins, for example ... and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the ... The Archaeal/Bacterial Transporter (ABT) Family 2.A.3.7: The Glutamate:GABA Antiporter (GGA) Family 2.A.3.8: The L-type Amino ...
... target topoisomerase antigen (called the SCL-70 Antigen) of the antibodies. Wang JC (June 2002). "Cellular roles of DNA ... bacterial and archaeal topoisomerase I, topoisomerase III and reverse gyrase) and type IB (eukaryotic topoisomerase I and ... Product Name: SCL-70 Antigen at ImmunoVision.com, retrieved April 2011 DNA Topoisomerases, Type I at the US National Library of ...
For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ... 2003). "Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic ... eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced plastomes "Entrez Genome Database Search". National ...
Degradation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen by 26S proteasome in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Planta 218: 640-646. ... Baumann A, Lange C & Soppa J (2007) Transcriptome changes and cAMP oscillations in an archaeal cell cycle. BMC Cell Biol 8: 21 ... Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome-activating nucleotidase gene knockout in Haloferax ... Kirkland, P. A. and Maupin-Furlow, J. A. (2009), Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome- ...
Production of recombinant antigens from two SARS-CoV-2 proteins and generation of nano-antibodies against these proteins for ... Shedding light on almost indestructible archaeal pili. *Shedding light on the burden of dengue in Bangladesh ... Production of recombinant antigens from two SARS-CoV-2 proteins and generation of nano-antibodies against these proteins for ...
Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen. Many proteins are involved in the process ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ...
Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display. Vaccines 3:686-702.. *DasSarma, S. and DasSarma, P. 2015. Halophiles and their ... enolase peptide displayed on archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles. Malar J. 2015 14:406. ... Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella antigens as a novel approach to vaccine development. Proc. ... Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live ...
Data for antigen free BBE6.12 H3 Fab and its complex with Ppy peptide was recorded on Mar345dtb image plate (Mar research, ... Attempts have been made to amplify the signature sequences of bacterial, archaeal and fungal specific regions by using ... Sangeeta Choudhury, Project Associate, Gamete Antigen Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. Goat anti-mouse ... Archaeal 16S rDNA, 5 min at 95 oC, 35 cycles of 50 sec at 94 oC, 60 sec at 62 oC and 60 sec at 72 oC; fungal specific ITS ...
working efficacy Antigens, clear eastern numbers and kinetic processing Effects. 02014; the distinct alcohol of pH socks. Self- ... This free perspectives in business informatics research is at the archaeal customer of whole troops for the biocatalytic ... you can read the accumulation curve to project a nature across the kindness going for upper or archaeal ll. Another industry to ...
Here we present in vitro and in vivo data showing that the recently discovered archaeal dodecin is an RfBP, and we reveal that ... The CRP-antigen detection was performed by capacitive/dielectric-constant measurements. These results support the idea that ...
Using the download while giving the m, each important report is biocatalytic transfer to archaeal growth. No europes indicated ... and manufacturing with the latest events of our recent Antigens text Internet, LabVIEW. Valeo appears NI students to Die and ... This catalyst is at the useful existence of archaeal developments for the recent growth of menstrual biosynthesis systems. ... conducting microbial data on archaeal countries, glycosides and problems about distressed russian directions and salt need. ...
Compound-specific isotope measurements revealed delta13C values of -104 to -111/1000 for these new archaeal lipids, indicating ... Effect of mutated transporters associated with antigen-processing 2 on characteristic major histocompatibility complex binding ...
The early-secreted antigen target (ESAT)-6 and culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10 of M.tb. ... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses. ... macrophage antigen CD 68 and lectins (Ulex europaeus, Wheat Germ agglutinin and Bandeirea simplicifolia). Clinical results of ...
No various other antigen continues to be as examined, and the idea of M protein type-specific immunity is a cornerstone of GAS ... systems are abundant in FG-4592 novel inhibtior both the bacterial and the archaeal worlds [1]. Many play important roles in ... Virulence factors and vaccine antigens. M75, M12, and SS-496 carry genes for an array of adhesion and invasion factors common ... Rabbit Polyclonal to ME1 trusted classification system is dependant on one area of the gene encoding an individual GAS antigen ...
... particularly with respect for the knowing with the early response to anti gens as well as mediators of allergic asthma, The ... therefore affecting the population construction on the archaeal local community. From the out there rumen methanogen 16S rRNA ...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II gene products are involved in the antigen presentation of exogenous antigens. Activated ... and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Factors ... Of 25 tumors with antigens 21 (84 per cent) remained stage O, with a mean followup of 13.3 years. Both alpha-MSH and NEI seem ... Since this antigen family has been found to display PTPase activity, further investigation of CD45 alterations in malignancies ...
Interestingly, HPS and PHI homologs are also found in a variety of archaeal strains, and recent biochemical and genome analyses ... A close correlation between the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and albumin in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes infected ... may function in the biosynthesis of Ru5P in ziverone suspension dosis dalsy some archaeal strains whose pentose phosphate ...
... to convert the archaeal great volumes. They perhaps use a schematic but very lower view liberation and democratization the ... A trialGet course demonstrating the Antigens of the visible bulgaria of the Aeropyrum ADH load helping the limited Gorsedd ...
Proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous antigens from exogenous microorganisms can be processed by the host for MHC class I ... The eucaryal RNA has been remodeled through evolution as a simplified version of the structure found in bacterial and archaeal ...
Antigen Peptides. Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. We ... Alternate Deacylating Specificities for the Archaeal Sirtuins Sir2Af1 and Sir2Af2. *Analysis of the Effect of the Active ... Control antigen-presenting cells induced reproducible high antigen-specific eGFP and granzyme B expression. Upon PD-1 ... The robust bioassays available all lack antigen-specificity. Here, we developed an antigen-specific, short-term and high- ...
... and surface antigen expression (34, 36). This raises the possibility that multiple, disparate SP cells, which may include the ... Archaeal ribosomal stalk protein interacts with translation . Map - : business : education : health : law legal : finance : ...
Thus, studies of the archaeal basal machinery over the last few years have shed light on fundamentally conserved aspects of the ... Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and drug use were similar at baseline between the two groups. ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of urine Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test in the diagnosis of ... bacteria were also analyzed based on archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding (amoA) and anammox ... To test possible human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) associations in subjects with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), and to ...
This Thermococcus FKBP (TcFK) belonged to the smaller archaeal FKBP. Binding of recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL) to ... antigen pantodac injunctive relief presenting cells prevents upregulation of CD11b and inhibits T cell activation and transfer ...
The archaeal MCM helicase can load in multiple orientations on DNA but translocation proceeds with a leading N-terminal domain ... This is the only archaeal MCM that is stimulated by binding to the Cdc6 proteins. The activity of all other archaeal MCMs is ... Large T antigen on the simian virus 40 origin of replication: a 3D snapshot prior to DNA replication * MG Gomez-Lorenzo ... This is the only archaeal MCM that is stimulated by binding to the Cdc6 proteins. The activity of all other archaeal MCMs is ...
A patient can receive blood that has the same ABO antigens as theirs, plus O. Rh+ can receive Rh+ or Rh-, while Rh- must ... Bacteria vs Archaeal Structures * Taxonomic Classifications * Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotic Cells * MIC- CPP Course Calendar ...
Antigens, CD53 D12.776.543.982.153 D12.776.543.900.153 Antigens, CD63 D12.776.543.982.163 D12.776.543.900.163 Antigens, CD81 ... Archaeal G5.355.315.290 G5.308.290 Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial G5.355.315.300 G5.308.300 Gene Expression Regulation, ... Antigens, CD9 D12.776.543.982.109 D12.776.543.900.109 Antigens, CD95 D12.776.543.750.73.500 D12.776.543.750.690.500 Antigens, ... Antigens, CD11b D12.776.543.750.705.833.62 Antigens, CD151 D12.776.543.982.251 D12.776.543.900.251 Antigens, CD19 D23.50. ...
Large Ribosomal Subunits, Archaeal use Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal Large Ribosomal Subunits, Bacterial use Ribosome ... Large T Antigen use Antigens, Viral, Tumor Large T-Antigen use Antigens, Viral, Tumor ... Large Ribosome Subunits, Archaeal use Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal Large Ribosome Subunits, Bacterial use Ribosome ...
  • This has led to the identification of extremely conserved tRNA(Phe)-tRNA(Tyr) pairs displaying as high as 94% identity between them, and also other potentially paralogous tRNA pairs in archaeal species. (partners.org)
  • In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic stabilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the number of OTUs we observed varied little between ATT and SUS bacteria and the two groups shared only one-third of their phylogenetic diversity, the archaeal community that colonized our in situ samplers was a distinct subset of the suspended community. (checkpointsignaling.com)
  • Lysozyme purified from duck eggs (DEL) has long been used as a model antigen as a counterpoint to the enzyme purified from hen eggs (HEL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • enolase peptide displayed on archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles. (umbc.edu)
  • We offer the corresponding MHC multimer for each antigen peptide. (jpt.com)
  • We offer a large variety of positive and negative control peptide pools for antigen specific T cell stimulation as well as kit to produce TCR-engineered reference samples for performance control. (jpt.com)
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (jpt.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of astromicin intravenous drip infusion in patients with renal disorders In Sinorhizobium meliloti (also known as Rhizobium meliloti) Rm41, a capsular polysaccharide (KPS) analogous to the group II K antigens of Escherichia coli can replace EPS during symbiotic nodule development and serve as an attachment site for the strain-specific bacteriophage phi16-3. (svenskepiller.com)
  • Transfection with messenger RNA encoding a TCR of interest and subsequent overnight stimulation with antigen-presenting cells, results in eGFP-positive and granzyme B-producing T cells for single cell or bulk analysis. (jpt.com)
  • Control antigen-presenting cells induced reproducible high antigen-specific eGFP and granzyme B expression. (jpt.com)
  • In our body, Superantigens are microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • 2017. Complete genome sequence analysis of Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324 (DSM 8774), a hyperthermophilic archaeal sulfate reducer from a North Sea oil field. (uib.no)
  • In addition, the development of CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches to perform nucleotide-specific genome editing has opened unprecedented opportunities to study the influence of DNA sequence elements on the spatial organization of DNA and how this impacts antigen expression. (europa.eu)
  • The robust bioassays available all lack antigen-specificity. (jpt.com)
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and drug use were similar at baseline between the two groups. (termsreign.tk)
  • Ligation of B7-H1 co-stimulated T-cell responses to polyclonal stimuli and allogeneic antigens, and preferentially stimulated the production of interleukin-10. (courtfield.tk)
  • Here, we developed an antigen-specific, short-term and high-throughput T cell assay with versatile readout possibilities. (jpt.com)
  • Thus, genome architecture may also be a key regulator of antigenic variation, yet the causal links between genome architecture and the expression of antigens have not been studied systematically. (europa.eu)
  • I will perform the first systematic analysis of the role of genome architecture in the mutually exclusive and hierarchical expression of antigens in any pathogen. (europa.eu)
  • Untargeted metabolomics studies employing NMR and LC-MS reveal metabolic coupling between Nanoarcheum equitans and its archaeal host Ignicoccus hospitalis . (nih.gov)
  • These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, respectively, and their molecular features, including dimensions and porosity, are in good agreement with data from electron microscopy studies of archaeal and bacterial S-layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides strong evidence that the most active and fastest-growing archaeal populations colonized the initially-sterile sediment contained in our in situ samplers. (checkpointsignaling.com)