Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Group II chaperonins found in species of ARCHAEA.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.

Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. (1/6)

Using a combination of 16S rRNA analysis and antigenic fingerprinting consisting of new and published data, the phylogenetic position of 18 thermophilic isolates currently classified as Methanobacterium species was reinvestigated. The results were verified by independent methods, including, where applicable, plasmid and phage typing. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA data for 30 strains belonging to the order Methanobacteriales strongly suggested that mesophilic and thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates are distantly related and should be assigned to separate genera. For the thermophilic strains the genus Methanothermobacter was initially proposed by Boone, Whitman and Rouviere. Furthermore, the results support a reclassification of 15 isolates in three species within the proposed genus: (i) Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., containing eight isolates, six of which are able to utilize formate (type strain deltaHT); (ii) Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov., containing four formate-utilizing isolates (type strain DSM 2970T); (iii) Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov., containing three obligately autotrophic isolates (type strain MarburgT). Of the nine isolates formerly referred to as Methanobacterium thermoformicicum, six were reclassified as Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and three as Methanothermobacter wolfeii.  (+info)

Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity. (2/6)

To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance.  (+info)

Direct characterization of methanogens in two high-rate anaerobic biological reactors. (3/6)

The methanogenic flora from two types of turbulent, high-rate reactors was studied by immunologic methods as well as by phase-contrast, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The reactors were a fluidized sand-bed biofilm ANITRON reactor and an ultrafiltration membrane-associated suspended growth MARS reactor (both trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pa.). Conventional microscopic methods revealed complex mixtures of microbes of a range of sizes and shapes, among which morphotypes resembling Methanothrix spp. and Methanosarcina spp. were noticed. Precise identification of these and other methanogens was accomplished by antigenic fingerprinting with a comprehensive panel of calibrated antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra. The methanogens identified showed morphotypes and antigenic fingerprints indicating their close similarity with the following reference organisms: Methanobacterium formicicum MF and Methanosarcina barkeri W in the ANITRON reactor only; Methanosarcina barkeri R1M3, M. mazei S6, Methanogenium cariaci JR1, and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ in the MARS reactor only; and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in both reactors. Species diversity and distribution appeared to be, at least in part, dependent on the degree of turbulence inside the reactor.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills. (4/6)

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kingdom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.  (+info)

Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate. (5/6)

A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation.  (+info)

Diversity and population dynamics of methanogenic bacteria in a granular consortium. (6/6)

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor granules were used as an experimental model microbial consortium to study the dynamics and distribution of methanogens. Immunologic methods revealed a considerable diversity of methanogens that was greater in mesophilic granules than in the same granules 4 months after a temperature shift from 38 to 55 degrees C. During this period, the sizes of the methanogenic subpopulations changed with distinctive profiles after the initial reduction caused by the shift. Methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter smithii PS and ALI, Methanobacterium hungatei JF1, and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 increased rapidly, reached a short plateau, and then fell to lower concentrations that persisted for the duration of the experiment. A methanogen related to Methanogenium cariaci JR1 followed a similar profile at the beginning, but it soon diminished below detection levels. Methanothrix rods weakly related to the strain Opfikon increased rapidly, reaching a high-level, long-lasting plateau. Two methanogens related to Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH emerged from very low levels before the temperature shift and multiplied to attain their highest numbers 4 months after the shift. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed thick layers, globular clusters, and lawns of variable density which were distinctive of the methanogens related to M. thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, M. thermophila TM1, and M. arboriphilus AZ and M. soehngenii Opfikon, respectively, in thin sections of granules grown at 55 degrees C for 4 months. Mesophilic granules showed a different pattern of methanogenic subpopulations.  (+info)

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.

Matsumiya S, Ishino Y, Morikawa K (January 2001). "Crystal structure of an archaeal DNA sliding clamp: proliferating cell ... February 2005). "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale ... Pan M, Kelman LM, Kelman Z (January 2011). "The archaeal PCNA proteins". Biochemical Society Transactions. 39 (1): 20-24. doi: ... "Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". ...
The ability of Affitins to selectively bind antigens is used to target specific proteins. Scientists have been able to purify ... Pacheco, S; Béhar, G; Maillasson, M; Mouratou, B; Pecorari, F (2014). "Affinity transfer to the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d ... Affitins (commercial name Nanofitins) are artificial proteins with the ability to selectively bind antigens. They are ... a microorganism belonging to the archaeal domain. By randomizing the amino acids on the binding surface of Sac7d and subjecting ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (6): 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576 ...
One is concerned with lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (undecaprenol pyrophosphate-linked O-antigen repeat unit) export (flipping ... However, archaeal and eukaryotic homologues are now recognized. The mechanism of energy coupling is not established, but ... The lipopolysaccharide exporters may function specifically in the translocation of the lipid-linked O-antigen side chain ... polymerase and chain length regulator proteins in the translocation and periplasmic assembly of lipopolysaccharide o antigen". ...
The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. Some animal proteins, for example ... and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the ... The Archaeal/Bacterial Transporter (ABT) Family 2.A.3.7: The Glutamate:GABA Antiporter (GGA) Family 2.A.3.8: The L-type Amino ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107.288 - antistreptolysin MeSH ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
Realm Adnaviria unifies archaeal filamentous viruses with linear A-form double-stranded DNA genomes and characteristic major ... Additional common features include a rod-like structure and a RNA-binding "delta antigen" encoded in the genome. In general, ... Six virus realms are recognized and united by specific highly conserved traits: Adnaviria, which contains archaeal filamentous ... Monodnaviria is polyphyletic and appears to have emerged multiple times from bacterial and archaeal circular plasmids, which ...
Human GroEL is the immunodominant antigen of patients with Legionnaire's disease, and is thought to play a role in the ... While there are differences between eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal chaperonins, the general structure and mechanism are ...
The smith antigen was found to be a complex of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and multiple proteins. A set of uridine-rich ... The three archaeal LSm proteins (Sm1, Sm2 and Sm3) also cluster as a group, distinct from the eukaryote LSm proteins. Both the ... One of the two main branches of archaea, the crenarchaeotes have a third known type of archaeal LSm protein, Sm3. This is a two ... The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of systemic ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125.288 - antistreptolysin MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
... antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 - oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.770.800 - sucrase-isomaltase complex MeSH ... archaeal MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300 - dna topoisomerases, type ii, bacterial MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300.500 - dna gyrase ... prostate-specific antigen MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.442.875 - tissue kallikreins MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.501 - mannose- ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.200 - carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.250 - carboxypeptidase h MeSH ...
... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.211 - gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330. ... archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 - gene expression regulation, developmental ... 801.261 - gene rearrangement, delta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.311 - gene rearrangement, gamma-chain t-cell ... antigen receptor MeSH G05.600.220 - dna repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.220.865 - trinucleotide repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.315 ...
Sauguet L, Raia P, Henneke G, Delarue M (2016). "Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA ... Boehm EM, Powers KT, Kondratick CM, Spies M, Houtman JC, Washington MT (April 2016). "The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ( ... which in this case is placed into the Asgard group with archaeal B3 polymerase. Pol η (eta), Pol ι (iota), and Pol κ (kappa), ... and POLD4 creating the other subunits that interact with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), which is a DNA clamp that ...
For example, using the 16S rRNA gene, which is part of every bacterial and archaeal genome and is highly conserved, bacteria ... The sequence containing protein antigen B is targeted by four oligonucleotide primers-two for the sense strand, and two for the ...
Although the evolutionary kinship of archaeal and eukaryotic initiators and replicative helicases indicates that archaeal MCM ... which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen is present. Although DNA replication is essential for genetic ... Like the archaeal replicative helicase core, Mcm2-7 is loaded as a head-to-head double hexamer onto DNA to license origins. In ... Archaeal replication origins share some but not all of the organizational features of bacterial oriC. Unlike bacteria, Archaea ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Maupin-Furlow JA (2013). "Archaeal proteasomes and sampylation". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. 66: 297-327. doi:10.1007/978-94-007 ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ... The ubiquitination system functions in a wide variety of cellular processes, including: Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis ...
These nanoparticles may represent a valuable platform for antigen delivery, vaccine development, and other biomedical and ... Berquist, Brian R.; DasSarma, Shiladitya (2003-10-15). "An Archaeal Chromosomal Autonomously Replicating Sequence Element from ... DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya (2015-09-07). "Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display". Vaccines. 3 (3): 686-702. ... 2015Haloarchaeal Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles Displaying Salmonella Antigens as a Novel Approach to Vaccine Development". Procedia ...
Čuboňováa L, Katano M, Kanai T, Atomi H, Reeve JN, Santangelo TJ (December 2012). "An archaeal histone is required for ... November 2012). "Comparative analyses of the two proliferating cell nuclear antigens from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, ... Amenábar MJ, Flores PA, Pugin B, Boehmwald FA, Blamey JM (2013). "Archaeal diversity from hydrothermal systems of Deception ...
Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y (October 2008). "T antigen mutations are a human tumor- ... Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures. An enormous variety of ... Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. The production of interferon is an important host ... Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses, viral proteins (antigens), or RNA. Live vaccines contain weakened ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex. The proteasome ...
Smith GP (June 1985). "Filamentous fusion phage: novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface". ... "Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids". Nature ... Prisco A, De Berardinis P (24 April 2012). "Filamentous bacteriophage fd as an antigen delivery system in vaccination". ...
Seitz EM, Brockman JP, Sandler SJ, Clark AJ, Kowalczykowski SC (1998). "RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that ... Nucleoproteins are often the major antigens for viruses because they have strain-specific and group-specific antigenic ...
... hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (50): 50101-11. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "The cutting edge of archaeal transcription". Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. 2 (4): 517-533. doi:10.1042/ETLS20180014. PMC ...
... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein. Located ... Targoff, IN; Reichlin, M (1985). "Nucleolar localization of the PM-Scl antigen". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 28 (2): 226-30. doi: ... Structure of the human exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank ... Koonin, EV; Wolf, YI; Aravind, L (2001). "Prediction of the archaeal exosome and its connections with the proteasome and the ...
Cell lines expressing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) or the SV40 large-T antigen, allow episomal ... For work with bacterial and archaeal cells transfection retains its original meaning as a special case of transformation. ...
... a tetrameric enzyme with two active site subunits homologous to the archaeal tRNA endonucleases". Cell. 89 (6): 849-58. doi: ... post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ...
They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation ... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor ... antigens and quinones. While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear ...
Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (December 2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics ... A Potent Approach for Antigen Delivery". Vaccines. 8 (3): 504. doi:10.3390/vaccines8030504. ISSN 2076-393X. PMC 7565293. PMID ...
Yang B, Sayers S, Xiang Z, He Y (January 2011). "Protegen: a web-based protective antigen database and analysis system". ... Goudenège D, Avner S, Lucchetti-Miganeh C, Barloy-Hubler F (March 2010). "CoBaltDB: Complete bacterial and archaeal orfeomes ...
... target topoisomerase antigen (called the SCL-70 Antigen) of the antibodies. Wang JC (June 2002). "Cellular roles of DNA ... bacterial and archaeal topoisomerase I, topoisomerase III and reverse gyrase) and type IB (eukaryotic topoisomerase I and ... Product Name: SCL-70 Antigen Archived 2006-03-19 at the Wayback Machine at, retrieved April 2011 Wikimedia ...
Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... Classification of ABC transporters in TCDB ABCdb Archaeal and Bacterial ABC Systems database, ABCdb ATP-Binding+cassette+ ...
Oct1 and PIKA antigens associates with specific chromosomes early in the cell cycle". Primary. The EMBO Journal. 17 (6): 1768- ... may have served to protect the genome from damaging reactive oxygen species produced by the protomitochondria.The archaeal ...
For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ... 2003). "Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic ... eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced plastomes "Entrez Genome Database Search". National ...
Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity.. Terms. Antigens, Archaeal Preferred Term Term UI T059047. Date01/ ... Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity.. Entry Term(s). Archaeal Antigens Registry Number. 0. Previous ... Archaeal Antigens Term UI T059046. Date01/16/1997. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1998). ... Antigens, Archaeal Preferred Concept UI. M0029455. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. ...
Antigens, Archaeal - Preferred Concept UI. M0029455. Scope note. Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity. ...
Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity.. Terms. Antigens, Archaeal Preferred Term Term UI T059047. Date01/ ... Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity.. Entry Term(s). Archaeal Antigens Registry Number. 0. Previous ... Archaeal Antigens Term UI T059046. Date01/16/1997. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1998). ... Antigens, Archaeal Preferred Concept UI. M0029455. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. ...
Cann, I.K. and Y. Ishino, Archaeal DNA replication: identifying the pieces to solve a puzzle. Genetics, 1999. 152: p. 1249-1267 ... Focher, F., et al., Calf thymus DNA polymerase δ independent of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Nucleic Acids Res, ... An ability to replicate both damaged and undamaged DNA templates was detected in PrimPol, an enzyme belonging to the archaeal- ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) belongs to the DNA sliding clamp family. Via interacting with various partner ... Unlike eukaryotic and archaeal PCNAs, AsfvPCNA possesses high double-stranded DNA-binding affinity. Besides DNA binding, ... Compared to the eukaryotic and archaeal PCNAs and the sliding clamp structural homologs from other viruses, AsfvPCNA possesses ... IMPORTANCE Two high-resolution crystal structures of African swine fever virus proliferating cell nuclear antigen (AsfvPCNA) ...
Type IV N0000171168 Antigen-Antibody Complex N0000011350 Antigens N0000171156 Antigens, Archaeal N0000011417 Antigens, ... HLA-A Antigens N0000171097 HLA-A1 Antigen N0000183461 HLA-A11 Antigen N0000171096 HLA-A2 Antigen N0000183462 HLA-A24 Antigen ... HLA-A3 Antigen N0000171098 HLA-B Antigens N0000183463 HLA-B13 Antigen N0000183464 HLA-B14 Antigen N0000183465 HLA-B15 Antigen ... HLA-B40 Antigen N0000183469 HLA-B44 Antigen N0000183470 HLA-B51 Antigen N0000183471 HLA-B52 Antigen N0000171099 HLA-B7 Antigen ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex. *Antigens, Archaeal. *Antigens, Bacterial. *Antigens, Dermatophagoides. *Antigens, Fungal. *Antigens ... "Antigens, Protozoan" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, Protozoan" by people in this website by year, and ... Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the ...
Archaeal DinB homologue DNA polymerase IV [ (PUBMED:11595188) ]. * Eukaryotic DinB homologue DNA polymerase kappa [ (PUBMED: ... beta-clamp or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which are also essential for the function of replicative DNA ...
in fluids from the nose, bronchi and lungs (indicating mucosal immunity). The two adjuvantsCholera toxin (CT) and the archaeal ... based on an adjuvanted spike protein led to higher mucosal IgA responses than the one based on the adjuvanted RBD antigen. ... and an archaeal lipid mucosal adjuvant (AMVAD). resulted in significant levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) GIgG is the most common ... or an archaeal lipid mucosal adjuvant (AMVAD) to elicit superior and long-lasting immune responses. administered intranasally ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex [D23.050.101] * Antigens, Archaeal [D23.050.140] * Antigens, Bacterial [D23.050.161] ... Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).. Terms. Allergens Preferred Term ... Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).. Entry Term(s). Allergen ...
Archaeal G5.360.340.24.340.200 G5.360.340.24.340.364.124 G5.360.340.50.500 G5.360.340.358.24.124 G5.360.340.358.50.500 Genes, ... C5.550.353 CTLA-4 Antigen D23.50.301.264.35.281 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 D8.811.641.752 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors D27.505. ... Archaeal G5.360.340.50 G5.360.340.358.50 Genome, Bacterial G5.360.340.300 G5.360.340.358.207 Genome, Fungal G5.360.340.325 ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens. Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical ... They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as ... When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.. ... Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of ...
Archaeal Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, CD Antigens, CD1 Antigens, CD11 Antigens, CD11a Antigens, CD11b Antigens, CD11c Antigens ... Antigens, CD2 Antigens, CD20 Antigens, CD24 Antigens, CD27 Antigens, CD274 Antigens, CD28 Antigens, CD29 Antigens, CD3 Antigens ... Antigens, CD34 Antigens, CD36 Antigens, CD38 Antigens, CD4 Antigens, CD40 Antigens, CD43 Antigens, CD44 Antigens, CD45 Antigens ... Antigens, CD5 Antigens, CD53 Antigens, CD55 Antigens, CD56 Antigens, CD57 Antigens, CD58 Antigens, CD59 Antigens, CD63 Antigens ...
The contents focus on the selection of powerful archaeal and eubacterial production strains, genetic engineering as a tool for ... Topics covered in this volume include the development of vaccines and antibodies against tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens ...
Archaeal chromatin slinkies are inherently dynamic complexes with deflected DNA wrapping pathways 2021 ... Ubiquilin1 promotes antigen-receptor mediated proliferation by eliminating mislocalized mitochondrial proteins 2017 ...
Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection. Cross Robert W et ... Community Structures Showed High Reproducibility within and Low Comparability between Datasets Generated with Multiple Archaeal ... Serology in the Digital Age: Using Long Synthetic Peptides Created from Nucleic Acid Sequences as Antigens in Microarrays. ...
Boleij A, Roelofs R, Schaeps RM, Schülin T, Glaser P, Swinkels DW, Kato I, Tjalsma H. Increased exposure to bacterial antigen ... colonic shifts associated with the development of colorectal cancer reveal the presence of different bacterial and archaeal ...
Archaeal G5.360.340.24.340.200 G5.360.340.24.340.364.124 G5.360.340.50.500 G5.360.340.358.24.124 G5.360.340.358.50.500 Genes, ... C5.550.353 CTLA-4 Antigen D23.50.301.264.35.281 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 D8.811.641.752 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors D27.505. ... Archaeal G5.360.340.50 G5.360.340.358.50 Genome, Bacterial G5.360.340.300 G5.360.340.358.207 Genome, Fungal G5.360.340.325 ...
Antigens, CD53 D12.776.543.982.153 D12.776.543.900.153 Antigens, CD63 D12.776.543.982.163 D12.776.543.900.163 Antigens, CD81 ... Archaeal G5.355.315.290 G5.308.290 Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial G5.355.315.300 G5.308.300 Gene Expression Regulation, ... Antigens, CD9 D12.776.543.982.109 D12.776.543.900.109 Antigens, CD95 D12.776.543.750.73.500 D12.776.543.750.690.500 Antigens, ... Antigens, CD11b D12.776.543.750.705.833.62 Antigens, CD151 D12.776.543.982.251 D12.776.543.900.251 Antigens, CD19 D23.50. ...
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid ... caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of ...
Antigen Receptor Nanoclusters: Small Units with Big Functions.. Liu W, Wang H, Xu C. Trends Immunol. 2016 Oct;37(10):680-689. ... Electrophysiological characterization of the archaeal transporter NCX_Mj using solid supported membrane technology. ...
Shah, Riddhi (2014). Functional analysis of Group 2 chaperonins from archaeal species in E. coli. University of Birmingham. Ph. ... Leonard, Henry (2014). Factors affecting CD4 T cell recognition of the EBV-encoded tumour antigen EBNA1. University of ... Williams, Luke (2014). Autophagy and antigen processing: strategies to enhance T cell recognition of cancer cells. University ...
One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen ... The core archaeal community consisted of Parvarchaeota (mainly in the tributaries of drinking water reservoirs) and ... The core archaeal community consisted of Parvarchaeota (mainly in the tributaries of drinking water reservoirs) and ... Immunization by oral feeding only resulted in development of weak serum levels of anti-HCV IgM for both antigens; however, the ...
Butyrophilin-like 3 Directly Binds a Human Vγ4+ T Cell Receptor Using a Modality Distinct from Clonally-Restricted Antigen. ... Archaeal Cas3 and Cas5, the Chromosomal passenger complex and Wallerian Degeneration and since joining the facility has ... vaccinia Ankara prime-boost vaccination generates strong CD8+ T cell responses against minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1. ...
Antibodies, Archaeal [D12.776.124.486.485.114.089] * Antibodies, Bacterial [D12.776.124.486.485.114.107] ... Antigen-Antibody Complex [D12.776.124.486.485.114.257] * Autoantibodies [D12.776.124.486.485.114.323] ...
DHS homologs are present in all sequenced archaeal genomes; however to date no DOHH orthologue has been identified in any ... TNF-like molecule DTL CD257 antigen) TNFSF14 (ENSG00000125735 LIGHT LTg TR2 Herpesvirus entry mediator-ligand CD258) TNFSF15 ( ... suggesting that the archaeal deoxyhypusine pathway is essential as in eukaryotes.S. acidocaldariusaIF5A is to date the just ... More generally while archaeal polyamine metabolic pathways have been partially elucidated in thermophilic Archaea [35 45 little ...
archaeal EAAT homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii, we used limited trypsin proteolysis experiments to identify a site in the ... Kv1.3, KCa3.1, STIM1, and Orai1 cluster at the immunological synapse following contact with an antigen-presenting cell and ...
An edible vaccine is when the antigen is expressed in the edible part of the plant. This reduces the cost of production of the ... This review summarizes current knowledge of archaeal enzymes with biotechnological applications, including two extremozymes ... about these microorganisms isolated from Antarctica and very little is known about thermophilic or hyperthermophilic archaeal ...
  • Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity. (
  • Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity ( HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE ). (
  • Evaluation of 16S rRNA Gene Primer Pairs for Monitoring Microbial Community Structures Showed High Reproducibility within and Low Comparability between Datasets Generated with Multiple Archaeal and Bacterial Primer Pairs. (
  • is a compilation of bacterial and archaeal glycoproteins for which at least one site of glycosylation is validated experimentally using one or multiple methods like, site directed mutagenesis, Edman degradation, mass spectroscopy etc. (
  • is a compilation of bacterial and archaeal glycoproteins that are known to be glycosylated from experiments like PAS staining, abberant migration on SDS-PAGE, lectin binding etc. but yet not mapped for the precise position of glycosylated residue (s) in a protein sequence. (
  • is a compilation of bacterial and archaeal protein glycosyltransferases for which at least one genetic or biochemical evidence of glycosyltransferase activity is validated in the published literature. (
  • is a compilation of such bacterial and archaeal proteins/enzyme that have miscellaneous accessory roles in a given protein glycosylation pathway of a characterized protein glycosyltransferases compiled in ProGT_Main. (
  • His experience prior to joining the facility supported research in Cyanobacterial proteins and Photosystem II, Archaeal Cas3 and Cas5, the Chromosomal passenger complex and Wallerian Degeneration and since joining the facility has supported colleagues in the college of MDS, LES and School of Chemistry. (
  • Antigens, Protozoan" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • In humans, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamps encircling DNA coordinate various aspects of DNA metabolism throughout the cell cycle. (
  • There are several pre-coordinated archaeal terms such as ARCHAEAL PROTEINS and GENES, ARCHAEAL and CHROMOSOMES, ARCHAEAL in other trees which should be used when appropriate with the specific Archaea. (