Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy. (1/8759)

Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (2/8759)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (3/8759)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (4/8759)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (5/8759)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. (6/8759)

A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed analyses are required to detect subtle alterations caused by the absence of NG2. Accordingly, dissociated cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells from null mice were compared to parallel cultures from wild-type mice for their ability to proliferate and migrate in response to specific growth factors. Both null and wild-type smooth muscle cells exhibited identical abilities to proliferate and migrate in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, only the wild-type cells responded to PDGF-AA in both types of assays. NG2 null cells failed to proliferate or migrate in response to PDGF-AA, implying a defect in the signaling cascade normally initiated by activation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor. In agreement with this idea, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to PDGF-AA treatment occured only in wild-type cells. Failure to observe autophosphorylation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor in PDGF-AA-treated null cells indicates that the absence of NG2 causes a defect in signal transduction at the level of (alpha)-receptor activation.  (+info)

Ma1, a novel neuron- and testis-specific protein, is recognized by the serum of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. (7/8759)

The identification of antineuronal antibodies has facilitated the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological disorders and the early detection of the associated tumours. It has also led to the cloning of possibly important neuron-specific proteins. In this study we wanted to identify novel antineuronal antibodies in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders and to clone the corresponding antigens. Serological studies of 1705 sera from patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological disorders resulted in the identification of four patients with antibodies that reacted with 37 and 40 kDa neuronal proteins (anti-Ma antibodies). Three patients had brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction, and one had dysphagia and motor weakness. Autopsy of two patients showed loss of Purkinje cells, Bergmann gliosis and deep cerebellar white matter inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive neuronal degeneration, gliosis and infiltrates mainly composed of CD8+ T cells were also found in the brainstem of one patient. In normal human and rat tissues, the anti-Ma antibodies reacted exclusively with neurons and with testicular germ cells; the reaction was mainly with subnuclear elements (including the nucleoli) and to a lesser degree the cytoplasm. Anti-Ma antibodies also reacted with the cancers (breast, colon and parotid) available from three anti-Ma patients, but not with 66 other tumours of varying histological types. Preincubation of tissues with any of the anti-Ma sera abrogated the reactivity of the other anti-Ma immunoglobulins. Probing of a human complementary DNA library with anti-Ma serum resulted in the cloning of a gene that encodes a novel 37 kDa protein (Mal). Recombinant Mal was specifically recognized by the four anti-Ma sera but not by 337 control sera, including those from 52 normal individuals, 179 cancer patients without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms, 96 patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and 10 patients with non-cancer-related neurological disorders. The expression of Mal mRNA is highly restricted to the brain and testis. Subsequent analysis suggested that Mal is likely to be a phosphoprotein. Our study demonstrates that some patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders develop antibodies against Mal, a new member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/8759)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

  • We think that as the cell tries each of the thousands of different antigens found on an invading microbe, DM monitors how well each antigen fits by somehow disrupting this special chemical bond," says Sadegh-Nasseri. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (uniba.sk)
  • Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. (uniba.sk)
  • γσT cells differ from their counterparts, they respond to various exogenous and endogenous antigens that for their activation do not require the processing in APCs. (uniba.sk)
  • The Leucocyte Antigen FactsBook, Second Edition contains more than entries, with approximately 70 new entries, on all the molecules specifically expressed in the surface of cells of the haematopoietic system, including all characterized CD antigens, antigen receptors, MHC antigens, adhesion molecules, and cytokine receptors. (fyjuqixekazo.ga)
  • In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says. (emaxhealth.com)
  • To uncover DM's expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. (emaxhealth.com)
  • When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Somehow, the better fitting ones are resistant to DM's assault and stay stuck-these antigens ultimately are presented to immune cells to start the infection-fighting battle. (emaxhealth.com)
  • They remember their inducers and subsequent introduction of the antigens induces very prompt and extensive immune response. (uniba.sk)
  • The structural resemblance between molecules of an antigen and molecules of the corresponding antibody may be visualized as analogous to the relationship between a mould and its replica or casting. (enotes.com)
  • Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. (uniba.sk)
  • When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Explore more about antigens, pathogens or other related topics by registering with BYJU'S Biology. (byjus.com)
  • Antigens are usually present on the microorganisms, however, other substances such as chemicals, pollens or even autoimmune diseases can form antigens in the body. (byjus.com)
  • BEOOGD GEBRUIK SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG ELISA-kit is een enzymgebonden immunosorbentassay (ELISA) voor de detectie en kwalitatieve meting van IgG-klasse-antilichamen tegen het nucleocapside-eiwit (NP) van het SARS-CoV-2-virus in menselijk bloed. (gentaur.be)
  • Broader acceptance of antigen tests should also bring significant revenue growth for the handful of public companies that have such products in the market today. (ssga.com)
  • We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor exceptionally low concentrations of lysosomal proteases when these levels are compared with those of macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, facilitating their dissemination to and survival in secondary lymphoid organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the caveats about this type of vaccine therapy, however, is that vaccines have the potential to attack not only cancerous tissue but also healthy tissue, since the antigens are often present on healthy as well as cancerous cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • Having already cloned the gene, he and his colleagues now are looking in other survivor mice for further antigens that could serve as targets for vaccines. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cancer antigen prioritization: a road map to work in defining vaccines against specific targets. (issuu.com)
  • The major challenge of immunotherapy using -anti-idiotype vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-idiotype antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. (issuu.com)
  • 2002). With the numerous antigens that can be used in immunotherapy the decision making process for researchers, hospitals, and companies, in whether or not invest resources in a specific antigen has been always a very complicated matter both for classic therapeutic vaccines and even more for anti-idiotype vaccines. (issuu.com)
  • A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging from the use of live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, vector vaccines and protein vaccines to RNA or DNA vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • Depending on the nature of the antigen, immunomodulation is required to create effective vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions of such antigens and/or vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An antigen ( Australia antigen ) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several persons with polyarteritis nodosa, raising the possibility that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and antibody. (britannica.com)
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this sense V1 is similar to the first generation of commercial Hepatitis B vaccine, which contained pooled viral antigens derived from the blood of hepatitis B carriers. (prweb.com)
  • This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human pathogen. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This viral capsid acts as a core antigen, the major immunodominant region lying at the tips of the alpha-helical hairpins that form spikes on the capsid surface. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (apple.com)
  • It is also referred to as an 'oncofetal antigen' because of its similarity to fetal tissue. (healthcentral.com)
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (uptodate.com)
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (pnas.org)
  • Tissue homogenates from antibiotic-treated mice induced IgG reactive with B. burgdorferi antigens after immunization of naive mice and stimulated TNF-α production from macrophages in vitro. (jci.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. (cancer.ca)
  • A pattern of antigens, called a tissue type, is inherited from your parents. (cancer.ca)
  • The presence of certain antigens is the criterion for typing in the ABO blood group system and is important in tissue cross-matching for transplants (e.g., the HLA antigen in kidney transplants). (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • As a leading technology provider, Creative Biolabs has established CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology platform. (slideshare.net)
  • This would also enhance the effectiveness of newer cancer immunotherapies like Chimeric-Antigen Receptor T cell (CAR-T). (news-medical.net)
  • ISCT, the International Society for Cell and Gene Therapy, the global professional society of clinicians, researchers, regulatory specialists, technologists and industry partners in the cell and gene therapy sector, today announces its objection to linking the benefits of cellular immunotherapy, in particular Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, with recent market offerings for third party cryopreserving and banking of T-cells for future therapeutic use. (news-medical.net)
  • A decade ago researchers announced development of a cancer immunotherapy called CAR (for chimeric antigen receptor)-T, in which a patient is re-infused with their own genetically modified T cells equipped to mount a potent anti-tumor attack. (news-medical.net)
  • Antigens for the Detection of Candida guilliermondii var. (springer.com)
  • The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (google.ca)
  • Adenovirus antigen detection is useful to confirm the diagnosis of adenovirus infection in patients with respiratory illness. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based on autologous serological typing of cultured astrocytoma cells from 30 patients, three classes of surface antigens have been defined. (nih.gov)
  • This analysis of human astrocytoma, with the recognition of three classes of surface antigens recognized by autologous sera, resembles the results of autologous typing of human malignant melanoma, acute leukemia, and renal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • F.S. Walsh, and M.,J. Crumpton, Orientation of cell-surface antigens in the lipid bilayer of lymphocyte plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • Chan, J.-A., Fowkes, F. J. I. & Beeson, J. G. Surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes as immune targets and malaria vaccine candidates. (nature.com)
  • Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria. (nature.com)
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (nature.com)
  • Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen will reflex to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmatory neutralization test for an additional charge. (legacyhealth.org)
  • However, their target repertoire is limited as there are relatively few tumor-specific or tumor-associated cell surface or soluble antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. The isolated antigen of claim 7, wherein the lichenase protein comprises the N-terminal domain, the C-terminal domain, and the surface loop domain of lichenase LicB. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. The isolated antigen of claim 1, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein fused to lichenase is one or more of an N-terminal fusion, a C-terminal fusion, or a surface loop insertion fusion protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Amorphous GFP+ deposits were visualized by intravital microscopy in the entheses of antibiotic-treated mice infected with GFP-expressing spirochetes and on the ear cartilage surface in sites where immunofluorescence staining detected spirochete antigens. (jci.org)
  • It is a blood test that identifies antigens on the surface of cells and tissues. (cancer.ca)
  • hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ultrasound test normal.I wish to go abroad for a job and there Hep.B Surface antigen is tested.If one is positive, it is a sure rejection.Can inj. (medhelp.org)
  • Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe me the inj.Interferon.pl.advise. (medhelp.org)
  • The best-characterized of these is known as merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA1) (185-200 kDa) (Ref. 1). (nih.gov)
  • The other merozoite surface antigen, MSA2 (35-48 kDa) (Ref. 2), is distinct from MSA1 but is equally polymorphic. (nih.gov)
  • It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (springer.com)
  • A T-cell receptor can now recognise the antigen linked with the MHC and thus binds to it. (hon.ch)
  • In the future, an invading organism that possesses one or some of these "non-self" antigens will be swiftly recognized as an invader and will be dealt with. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Autoantigens , for example, are a person's own self antigens. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Test fungal bacterial components and fungal antigens, which is a significant ways to diagnose fungal infection in modern clinics. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The fungal antigens test can be applied to the following diagnoses. (selfgrowth.com)
  • So fungal antigens test can be used in early diagnosis of deep candida infections. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of high-risk patients. (selfgrowth.com)
  • As immunological testing technology advances, the application area of fungal antigens test are widening. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? (enotes.com)
  • When Should Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) Testing Be Stopped? (elsevier.com)
  • New York, NY, 20 February 2009 - Although widespread Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) testing has undoubtedly decreased prostate cancer mortality, is there a point of diminishing returns? (elsevier.com)
  • The article is "Prostate Specific Antigen Testing Among the Elderly: When To Stop? (elsevier.com)
  • To evaluate prognostic markers, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate health index (PHI) and prostate volume indexed measures (PSAD and PHID) for predicting positive prostate cancer biopsies in magnetic resonance (MR) transrectal ultrasound fused versus non-fused transrectal ultrasonography biopsy. (urotoday.com)
  • Until recently, digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen have been used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. (urotoday.com)
  • Prognostic significance of prostate-specific antigen in defining indications for initial prostate biopsy]. (urotoday.com)
  • The indication for the procedure is an elevated level of the serum level of the total prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (urotoday.com)
  • The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has previously demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening decreases prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. (urotoday.com)
  • The present invention provides methods for the production of Y. pestis protein antigens in plants, as well as methods for their use in the treatment and/or prevention of Y. pestis infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Giardia antigen test is used to make a diagnosis of giardiasis , the digestive tract illness caused by Giardia lamblia . (kidshealth.org)
  • It's important to remember that the Gardia antigen test detects the presence of only that specific parasite, so the doctor may order additional tests to reach a definitive diagnosis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Nevertheless, many antigens were conserved in the core genome, and strains' antigenic profiles were generally stable. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. (selfgrowth.com)
  • And two, we can start thinking about using the antigens to develop a specific vaccine. (berkeley.edu)
  • The corresponding human prostate antigen is the protein that could be used to generate a vaccine against prostate cancer. (berkeley.edu)
  • This method of attack could lead researchers to other antigens involved in tumors and could make vaccine therapies against cancer more widespread. (berkeley.edu)
  • Vaccine development starts with antigen discovery. (wur.nl)
  • Vaccine antigens should evoke a protective immune response. (wur.nl)
  • In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. (wur.nl)
  • Other antigens were conserved across the population and may be better candidates for simple vaccine formulations. (pnas.org)
  • We think this method of using mouse models to track down human antigens might be a general method for identifying targets for immunological attack in many different kinds of human tumors, Allison said. (berkeley.edu)
  • When Antigen 7.5 for Microsoft Exchange is installed on Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003, the Library registry entry will have a value of ANTIGENVSAPI.DLL . (microsoft.com)
  • Origimm ('Origins of Immunity') is an Austrian biotechnology company, which specializes in discovery of antigens and functional drug targets for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and dermatological conditions associated with various microbial species. (bionity.com)
  • Consistent with this train of thought, the targets of approved antibody therapies are predominantly extracellular antigens ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, another characteristic of Th2 responses is the suppression of the immune response to bystander antigens, which may compromise the effectiveness of vaccination [ 7 ] and alter the immune response to several other antigens, even autoantigens. (hindawi.com)
  • Seven antigens were significantly more reactive to the blood of mothers of children with autism than to that of the control mothers. (redorbit.com)
  • It is commonly accepted that most of these changes in leukocyte phenotype and activation, as well as in the induction of the inflammatory milieu, are dependent upon the ability of the parasite to excrete/secrete antigens with immunoregulatory properties [ 8 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The antigen test is more sensitive in detecting Giardia lamblia than the ova and parasite (O&P) exam, but it can't identify any other organisms or conditions that cause gastrointestinal distress. (kidshealth.org)
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Antigen
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Schistosome egg antigens, including the glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, trigger the development of regulatory B cells
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In Vivo Suppression of HIV by Antigen Specific T Cells Derived from Engineered Hematopoietic Stem Cells (journals.plos.org)
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Tumor-associated antigen | tebu-bio's blog (tebu-bio.com)
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T Cell Responses Induced by Adenoviral Vectored Vaccines Can Be Adjuvanted by Fusion of Antigen to the Oligomerization Domain...
T Cell Responses Induced by Adenoviral Vectored Vaccines Can Be Adjuvanted by Fusion of Antigen to the Oligomerization Domain... (journals.plos.org)
The αGal Epitope of the Histo-Blood Group Antigen Family Is a Ligand for Bovine Norovirus Newbury2 Expected to Prevent Cross...
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Libreng prostate specific antigen test, handog ng GMA Kapuso Foundation sa higit 100 kalalakihan | Video | GMA News Online
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Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens Induce Expression of the Negative Regulators SOCS1 and SHP1 in Human Dendritic Cells...
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শীত আসছে! করোনা সংক্রমণ বৃদ্ধির আশঙ্কায় নজিরবিহীন সিদ্ধান্ত স্বাস্থ্য দফতরের | Mamata Banerjee decided to 5 lakh rapid antigen...
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