Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy. (1/8759)

Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (2/8759)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (3/8759)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (4/8759)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (5/8759)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. (6/8759)

A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed analyses are required to detect subtle alterations caused by the absence of NG2. Accordingly, dissociated cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells from null mice were compared to parallel cultures from wild-type mice for their ability to proliferate and migrate in response to specific growth factors. Both null and wild-type smooth muscle cells exhibited identical abilities to proliferate and migrate in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, only the wild-type cells responded to PDGF-AA in both types of assays. NG2 null cells failed to proliferate or migrate in response to PDGF-AA, implying a defect in the signaling cascade normally initiated by activation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor. In agreement with this idea, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to PDGF-AA treatment occured only in wild-type cells. Failure to observe autophosphorylation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor in PDGF-AA-treated null cells indicates that the absence of NG2 causes a defect in signal transduction at the level of (alpha)-receptor activation.  (+info)

Ma1, a novel neuron- and testis-specific protein, is recognized by the serum of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. (7/8759)

The identification of antineuronal antibodies has facilitated the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological disorders and the early detection of the associated tumours. It has also led to the cloning of possibly important neuron-specific proteins. In this study we wanted to identify novel antineuronal antibodies in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders and to clone the corresponding antigens. Serological studies of 1705 sera from patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological disorders resulted in the identification of four patients with antibodies that reacted with 37 and 40 kDa neuronal proteins (anti-Ma antibodies). Three patients had brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction, and one had dysphagia and motor weakness. Autopsy of two patients showed loss of Purkinje cells, Bergmann gliosis and deep cerebellar white matter inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive neuronal degeneration, gliosis and infiltrates mainly composed of CD8+ T cells were also found in the brainstem of one patient. In normal human and rat tissues, the anti-Ma antibodies reacted exclusively with neurons and with testicular germ cells; the reaction was mainly with subnuclear elements (including the nucleoli) and to a lesser degree the cytoplasm. Anti-Ma antibodies also reacted with the cancers (breast, colon and parotid) available from three anti-Ma patients, but not with 66 other tumours of varying histological types. Preincubation of tissues with any of the anti-Ma sera abrogated the reactivity of the other anti-Ma immunoglobulins. Probing of a human complementary DNA library with anti-Ma serum resulted in the cloning of a gene that encodes a novel 37 kDa protein (Mal). Recombinant Mal was specifically recognized by the four anti-Ma sera but not by 337 control sera, including those from 52 normal individuals, 179 cancer patients without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms, 96 patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and 10 patients with non-cancer-related neurological disorders. The expression of Mal mRNA is highly restricted to the brain and testis. Subsequent analysis suggested that Mal is likely to be a phosphoprotein. Our study demonstrates that some patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders develop antibodies against Mal, a new member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/8759)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Linkage assignment of the last unmapped cattle erythrocyte antigen system, EAF. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Evolution of the Human Leukocyte Antigen System. AU - Gaudieri, Silvana. AU - John, M. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Chapter. SN - 9780124201903. SP - 211. EP - 219. BT - On Human Nature. A2 - Tibayrenc, Michael A2 - Ayala, Francisco J.. PB - Academic Press. CY - London. ER - ...
05 considered statistically significant. An EV71 antigen standard preparation H07-0812-022 was produced. from a C4 subtype EV71 virus strain isolated in 2008 from Fuyang in Chinas Anhui Province. The virus was cultured in Vero cells and then inactivated by formalin (1:2000) and purified using column chromatography. A total of 500 g vaccine bulk was produced. HPLC results showed that EV71 virus particles appeared at the 12.5-min peak with an EV71 antigen purity of 98.68% (Supplementary Fig. 1) and this bulk material was used to prepare lyophilized EV71 antigen reference standards. A collaborative calibration of EV71 antigen content in lyophilized EV71 antigen standards was performed in four different labs using the EL-4 kits (Table 1). The means of EV71 antigen content was 1441.4 KU/ml which is close to the theoretical antigen content of 1396.0 KU/ml (20,744.6/7.43/1.2 × 0.6).. The overall variance coefficient was 6.2% (the CV from each lab was 5.4%, ...
Definition of THYMUS-DEPENDENT ANTIGEN: T-deyendent antigen. An antigen which fails to stimulate an antibody response if T-lymphocytes are absent. Co-operation between B- lymphocytes and helper T
We established previously that BXD2 mice spontaneously develop high levels of circulating high-affinity nephritogenic and arthrogenic pathogenic autoantibodies and that the spontaneous formation of GCs in the spleen is critical to the production of these high-affinity pathogenic autoantibodies (16-18). In the current study, we showed that there are increased counts of pDCs in the spleens of BXD2 mice. These pDCs exhibit significantly elevated expression of IFN-α and are the primary producers of this cytokine. We further showed that type I IFNs play a role in the development of lupus in the BXD2 mice by demonstrating that a deficiency of the IFN-αR in these mice leads to a reduction in the spontaneous formation of GCs. Strikingly, although the type I IFN signature and the expanded development of Th-17 cells were reported to be associated with lupus in humans (45-47), IFN-α by itself was found to suppress Th-17 development (48). Because IFN-α is mainly produced by pDCs that are located in the ...
We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface expression. The CD4-expressing transfectants have acquired an additional reactivity for pork insulin (PI), which was not detectable in the original recipient cell. The transfectants response to PI can be completely abrogated by anti-CD4 antibodies. The transfected clone showed a 50-fold increased sensitivity towards BI in comparison to the same CD4- hybridoma. These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a role in altering the T cell repertoire. ...
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
Adaptive immune responses often begin with the formation of a molecular complex between a T-cell receptor (TCR) and a peptide antigen bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. These complexes are highly variable, however, due to the polymorphism of MHC genes, the random, inexact recombination of TCR gene segments, and the vast array of possible self and pathogen peptide antigens. As a result, it has been very difficult to comprehensively study the TCR repertoire or identify and track more than a few antigen-specific T cells in mice or humans. For mouse studies, this had led to a reliance on model antigens and TCR transgenes. The study of limited human clinical samples, in contrast, requires techniques that can simultaneously survey TCR phenotype and function, and TCR reactivity to many T-cell epitopes. Thanks to recent advances in single-cell and cytometry methodologies, as well as high-throughput sequencing of the TCR repertoire, we now have or will soon have the tools needed ...
To optimize antigen specific immune responses, immunologists have been focusing on strategies based on targeting antigenic determinants to specific receptors expressed by defined subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs). For instance, the most efficient delivery systems rely on co-administration of both antigens and adjuvants to activate pAPCs cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and to improve their efficacy. Co-delivery of both antigen and adjuvant into the same cell allows for only cells which have internalised the antigen to receive the activation signal, avoiding induction of T cell anergy in the absence of co-stimuli and non-specific activation of APCs which have not seen the antigen. pAPCs, like DCs, also regulate innate immune responses through the expression and activation of various pattern recognition receptors (PRR), like Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and cytosolic DNA and/or RNA sensors. Therefore, the most efficient way to mount a sustained immune response is to
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
The Native Antigen Company was formed as a spin out from PsiOxus (formerly Hybrid BioSystems). Headquartered in Birmingham, with research offices in Oxford, The Native Antigen Company has expertise in the isolation and purification of both viral and bacterial native antigens. These antigens serve as key components for infectious disease testing kits - their function being to accurately detect pathogenic infection by capturing antibodies in patient samples. The company also offers adenovirus purification and production capabilities and a screening service for anticancer and antiviral drug compounds. The company has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the development, manufacture, and sale of native antigens as of November 2010. The company will specialise in manufacturing of native antigens but also offers a range of products and purities, from cell lysates to gradient purified pathogens, for a range of organisms. These include adenovirus types 3, 5, 11, 12, and type 5 hexon protein along ...
A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
The time saving and analytical benefits of using Antigen Plus software such as inventory control, documentation and quality control.
A method of enhancing an immune response is disclosed. Th method involves an initial priming of the animal with an inducing agent, subsequently followed by administration of an inducing agent-antigen mixture. The antigen may be a tumour associated antigen, pathogenic organism antigen, autoimmune antigen, immunogenic fragment thereof, or a nucleic acid coding therefor.
Alliance DNA is proud to offer the next generation of COVID-19 antigen testing: CareSmart by AccessBio.This test is effective, inexpensive, and available, providing a quick 10-minute turn-around process at your point of care facility. Antigen testing is recognized as a significant means of slowing the spread of COVID-19 because it is quick, accurate, and less expensive than most PCR testing.Antigen testing is also a diagnostic test, meaning it identifies the current presence of a virus.. What is an antigen test? ...
Under normal circumstances, the respiratory tract maintains immune tolerance in the face of constant antigen provocation. Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important contribution by CD4(+) T cells in the establishment and …
Hives, or uticaria, is an allergic reaction to various antigen triggers, causing raised welts called wheals on the surface of the skin. The wheals can be red or white in color; and they can be itchy and/or painful. In acute cases, the wheals tend to appear and disappear suddenly in response to antigen exposure, particularly dietary or drug-induced exposures. Chronic uticaria, however, can last up to 6 months or longer, and research suggests that autoimmunity activates ongoing mast-cell degranulation.. Read More ...
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen fell off after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
Get an answer for explain how antibodies can be specific to so many different antigens and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Antigen processing is a process that.... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Biomedilab Karawang. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang
Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading
I guess what confuses some is that they think T cells are all the same, they fail to realize that every cell is unique & different. There are different types of T cells & different ways to present antigens. ...
Adjuvants for administration, particularly for mucosal administration, of an antigen, are described, as well as compositions comprising the described adjuvant in combination with an antigen and a phys
The molecular basis of the HNA-3a/b (5b/a) leukocyte antigen system has not yet been defined despite evidence that HNA-3a… Expand ...
Myeloid specific antigen, 0.1 mg. BM-1 antigen is a 183 kD myeloid-specific-DNA-binding protein which is expressed in myeloid cells, including myeloid precursors and mature granulocytes.
Antigen binding to immune cells activates a complex network of receptors depending on the type of the antigen and other micro-environmental signals. These initial interactions determine the type of immune response that is subsequently generated. My research interest is in understanding how signals from different types of immune receptors and cytoskeletal molecules are integrated to produce an immune response tailored to the type of antigen encountered. B-lymphocytes provide an excellent model to study these kinds of signals because their stages of development and functional specialization during various types of immune responses have been well illustrated. Understanding how these early mechanistic events regulate recognition and processing of antigens would allow us to develop novel strategies to enhance B cell activation to antigens in vaccines, while preventing activation by self-antigens during autoimmunity.. Currently we are using a combination of cell biology, mouse models, human immunology ...
Antigen An atigen is any substance that cause your immune system to produce antibodies against it. The antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment Such as chemicals bacteria viruses, or pollen) or formed within the body
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen: a nonclassical MHC Ib antigen implicated in innate & adaptive immune responses as well as in embryonic development
Antigen uptake (FITC-OVA and FITC-DX) by D1 bulk population in the presence or absence of TNFα was analyzed by doublecolor FACS® analysis. The D1 cells that
Antigen - a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.. ...
The overriding performance driver for antigen capture microarrays is the functional integrity of the capture ligand on the surface of the assay device.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Antigens, CD57 by people in this website by year, and whether Antigens, CD57 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Antigens, CD81 by people in this website by year, and whether Antigens, CD81 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Antigen tests are faster, cheaper and more scalable than the familiar molecular test for COVID-19. A new multibillion market could open up if the health care industry manages to establish a threshold for test accuracy. Broader acceptance of antigen tests should also bring significant revenue growth for the handful of public companies that have such products in the market today.
Immune responses to the recall antigen SK/SD are increased at both weeks 1 and 12 in BCG primed subjects vaccinated with MVA85A (n = 9) (Wilcoxon). Box and wh
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
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Antigen presented by MHCII on MHCII APC Cells to specifically activate TCR on LAG-3 Effector Cells. For use with the LAG-3/MHCII Blockade Bioassay, a biologically relevant MOA-based assay that can be used to measure the potency and stability of antibodies and other biologics designed to block the LAG-3/MHCII interaction.
A volume in the popular FactsBook Series, the First Edition of The Leucocyte Antigen FactsBook was hugely successful. The new Second Edition has been.
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The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney. The gene encoding this protein is found on chromosome 18. Three Jk alleles are Jk (a), Jk (b)and Jk3. Jk (a) was discovered by Allen et al. in 1951 and is named after a patient (Mrs Kidd delivered a baby with a haemolytic disease of the newborn associated with an antibody directed against a new antigen Jk (a). Whereas Jk (b) was discovered by Plant et al. in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine. The Jk antigen is important in transfusion medicine. People with two Jk(a) antigens, for instance, may form antibodies against donated blood containing two Jk(b) antigens (and thus no Jk(a) antigens). This can lead to hemolytic anemia, in which the body destroys the transfused blood, ...
The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. Kell can be noted as K, k, or Kp. The Kell antigens are peptides found within the Kell protein, a 93-kilodalton transmembrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase which is responsible for cleaving endothelin-3. The KEL gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is the highly polymorphic Kell blood group antigen. The Kell glycoprotein links via a single disulfide bond to the XK membrane protein that carries the Kx antigen. The encoded protein contains sequence and structural similarity to members of the neprilysin (M13) family of zinc endopeptidases. There are several alleles of the gene which creates Kell protein. Two such alleles, K1 (Kell) and K2 (Cellano), are the most common. The kell protein is tightly bound to a second protein, XK, by a ...
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of antigen-specific B cells. T2 - role of T cells, cytokines, and antigen in induction of growth and differentiation. AU - Noelle, R. J.. AU - Snow, E. C.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - T cells and cytokines were used to activate highly enriched populations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-binding B cells (TNP-ABC). TNP-ABC did not proliferate or differentiate when they were cultured with thymus-dependent (TD) antigen, even in the presence of supernatants known to contain B-cell growth and differentiation factors. However, purified TNP-ABC did proliferate and differentiate when they were cultured with TD antigen in the presence of carrier-primed T cells and antigen (TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) i.e., linked recognition. TNP-ABC blasts generated under conditions of linked recognition proliferated and differentiated in response to cytokines in the absence of T cells and antigen. In contrast, under conditions of nonlinked recognition ...
A 17-amino acid tryptic peptide of chicken ovalbumin, designated P323-339, that substituted for processed antigen when presented by glutaraldehyde prefixed accessory cells to specific I-restricted T hybridomas was characterized. The peptide antigen could not be demonstrated to have any specific or stable interactions with accessory cell Ia antigens by either direct binding or functional assays for inhibition of specific T cell activation. In addition, the T cell receptor for I-restricted antigen had no affinity for free antigen alone. A rabbit antibody specific for the antigenic peptide inhibited presentation when introduced before but not after binding of the peptide to accessory cells. These results extend our earlier finding that accessory cell-mediated processing of chicken ovalbumin can be completely explained by the fragmentation of the native molecule into smaller m.w. peptides, and suggests that if an antigen/Ia complex is important in T cell activation, it forms significantly only in ...
Abstract(#br)Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) were investigated as potential vaccine formulations for a range of model antigens. Presentation of antigens as PCMCs increased the antigen-specific IgG responses for all antigens tested, compared to soluble antigens. When compared to conventional aluminium-adjuvanted formulations, PCMCs modified with calcium phosphate (CaP) showed enhanced antigen-specific IgG responses and a decreased antigen-specific IgG1:IgG2a ratio, indicating the induction of a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. The rate of antigen release from CaP PCMCs, in vitro , decreased strongly with increasing CaP loading but their immunogenicity in vivo was not significantly different, suggesting the adjuvanticity was not due to a depot effect. Notably, it was found that CaP... modification enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-PCMC particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen or soluble PCMCs. Thus, CaP PCMCs may provide an alternative to ...
A humoral immune response against blood-borne protein antigens is initiated in the white pulp of the spleen and requires activation of both B cells and helper T cells. Before a humoral immune response can be initiated, the antigen has to be transported to splenic follicles, because antigens have not access to the follicles by themselves. It has been shown that CD23+ B cells in vivo can transport IgE-antigen complexes into the follicles. CD23 is the low affinity receptor for IgE and is primarily expressed on B cells and follicular dendritic cells in mice. When mice are immunized with IgE-antigen complexes, an enhanced immune response can be seen. In the current study the transport function of CD23 on B cells was used to investigate whether ovalbumin conjugated to anti CD23 antibodies can facilitate antigen transport into the B cell follicles and enhance an antigen-specific immune response. Using CD23 as a transporting molecule, the ovalbumin conjugates can be efficiently transported to the ...
often used as a critical component of a non-animal laboratory test; for example, in immunoserology tests used to diagnose many diseases.. The response of animals to an injection of an antigen is the same as that of humans to a vaccine; that is, they produce antibodies. Virtually any laboratory animal species can be used to produce antibodies. The choice of species often relates to the properties of the antigen. Animals are given a series of injections of an antigen preparation, usually after a pre-immunization blood sample has been collected to be sure the animal does not already have antibodies that may complicate the study. About three weeks after the series of injections, blood is again collected, and the serum is evaluated for the presence of antibody. If the level of antibody is not adequate for research purposes, additional antigen injections, or boosters, are given. The serum antibody can be stored in a freezer for years, thus providing an ongoing supply of the needed experimental ...
The CA 19-9 assay detects a carbohydrate antigen on multiple protein carriers, some of which may be preferential carriers of the antigen in cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on individual proteins could improve performance over the standard CA 19-9 assay. We used antibody arrays to measure the levels of the CA 19-9 antigen on multiple proteins in serum or plasma samples from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis. Sample sets from three different institutions were examined, comprising 531 individual samples. The measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on any individual protein did not improve upon the performance of the standard CA 19-9 assay (82% sensitivity at 75% specificity for early-stage cancer), owing to diversity among patients in their CA 19-9 protein carriers. However, a subset of cancer patients with no elevation in the standard CA 19-9 assay showed elevations of the CA 19-9 antigen specifically on the proteins MUC5AC or MUC16 in ...
The invention relates to a set of novel immunological adjuvants based upon so called polyladder proteins of nematode worms. These proteins are typified by repeating units separated by a protease cleavage motif of RX(K/R)R or RXFR where R is arginine, X is any amino acid, K is lysine and F is phenylalanine. These motifs are preceded by a cysteine residue at around 7, 8 or 9 residues upstream. Polyladder proteins or fragments of polyladder proteins may be used as immunological adjuvants either mixed with, or conjugated to a vaccine antigen, and will strongly enhance the immune response against the antigen. Conjugation may take the form of a genetic fusion between adjuvant and antigen. Antigens may be derived from pathogens, or may be tumour antigens, autoantigens, or antigens of other kinds. Vaccines may be used for prophylaxis or therapy ...
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Endogenous antigens are generated inside the cells due to normal cellular metabolisms or due to an intracellular bacterial or a viral contamination. They may be observed inside the cytoplasm of APCs as self- cellular proteins that are covalently related to ubiquitin; therefore they do now not require lively phagocytosis. whilst antigen- processing pathways are initiated, endogenous antigens are degraded and generated peptides by means of proteases. those peptides are then offered by means of creating a complex with MHC elegance I molecules at the cellular surface. observed with the aid of the popularity, Tcyt cells start to secrete compounds that motive lysis or apoptosis of infected cells. some examples for endogenous antigens consist of self-antigens, tumor antigens, alloantigens, and a few viral antigens in which the viruses are capable of integrate proviral DNA into the hosts genome.. ...
If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, - posted in Immunology: If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, what could be problem? Thanks.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tolerance induced by inhaled antigen involves CD4+ T cells expressing membrane-bound TGF-β and FOXP3. AU - Ostroukhova, Marina. AU - Seguin-Devaux, Carole. AU - Oriss, Timothy B.. AU - Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara. AU - Yang, Liyan. AU - Ameredes, Bill. AU - Corcoran, Timothy E.. AU - Ray, Anuradha. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - Under normal circumstances, the respiratory tract maintains immune tolerance in the face of constant antigen provocation. Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important contribution by CD4+ T cells in the establishment and maintenance of tolerance. The CD4+ T cells expressed both cell surface and soluble TGF-β and inhibited the development of an allergic phenotype when adoptively transferred to naive recipient mice. While cells expressing cell surface TGF-β were detectable in mice with inflammation, albeit at a lower frequency compared with that in tolerized mice, only those from ...
Experimental work has shown that T cells of the immune system rapidly and specifically respond to antigenic molecules presented on the surface of antigen-presenting-cells and are able to discriminate between potential stimuli based on the kinetic parameters of the T cell receptor-antigen bond. These antigenic molecules are presented among thousands of chemically similar endogenous peptides, raising the question of how T cells can reliably make a decision to respond to certain antigens but not others within minutes of encountering an antigen presenting cell. In this theoretical study, we investigate the role of localized rebinding between a T cell receptor and an antigen. We show that by allowing the signaling state of individual receptors to persist during brief unbinding events, T cells are able to discriminate antigens based on both their unbinding and rebinding rates. We demonstrate that T cell receptor coreceptors, but not receptor clustering, are important in promoting localized rebinding, and show
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the bodys ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth. As such, understanding the processes and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation provides us with crucial insights necessary for the design of vaccines and therapeutic strategies to bolster T-cell responses.. ...
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
The retention of antigen in rabbit liver tissue, resulting from a primary intravenous injection, is influenced by immunization brought about by subsequent intravenous injections of the same antigen. In rabbits given a single primary intravenous injection of radioactive antigen, the retention of radioactivity in liver tissue, after a period of 21 days, was greater than when the primary injection was followed by secondary injections of the same, but non-radioactive antigen. The results were similar for both S35-azohemocyanin and S35-azo-bovine-serum-albumin, except the hemocyanin was retained to a greater extent than the albumin. There was very little if any correlation between the number of secondary injections and retention of the initial injection. Quantitative antibody nitrogen data, obtained for the serum of each rabbit showed, in general, an inverse relationship between circulating antibody and radioactivity retained, i.e. the higher the circulating antibody titer, the lower the retention of ...
This paper describes the detection of 13 lymphocyte antigens in sheep. The results obtained from family studies are consistent with the hypothesis that at least 12 antigens are under the control of a single genetic system. The distribution of antigens in the population suggests that the system contains two loci. The 13 antigens were compared with those previously reported. Only one additional specificity was found ...
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What is the difference between A and B Antigens? Antigen A is found in people having blood group A and AB; antigen B is found in people having B and AB blood...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells rapidly die when put in culture implying that microenvironmental signals delivered by accessory cells confer CLL cells with a growth advantage. Recent findings show that CLL cells are antigen experienced and antigen binding play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the influence of the microenvironment and antigen binding in CLL.. In paper I, we studied the influence of the small redox-regulatory molecule thioredoxin (Trx) on CLL cell survival and proliferation. We found Trx to be highly expressed in CLL lymph nodes (LNs), secreted from stromal cells surrounding proliferating CLL cells in proliferation centers, indicating growth promoting properties. Secreted Trx was also shown to protect CLL cells from apoptosis.. In paper II, oxidized LDL was added to subset #1 CLL cells. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, we could not observe activation and proliferation of CLL cells. Instead subset #1 CLL ...
Antibody vs Antigen concentration effect - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Someone once described to me that if there are too many non-specific bands when performing Western blot that a solution is to load more lysate? If this is true would one achieve the same effect if the lysate amount is held constant and the antibody concentration titrated? I have been trying to track down a literature article describing this. Hoping someone can shed some light. Thanks
Colnaghi, M I.; Pierotti, M A.; and Porta, G D., Humoral and cellular immune responses recognizing different antigens on murine lymphosarcomas. Abstr. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 1320 ...
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Vaccination is the process of administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. The material administered can either be li
This appendix presents several methods for using fluorescence to evaluate bacterial viability and to explore the cell surface for the presence of various antigens for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes
These markers make up the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system and are different than the blood types (A, B, O or AB). In order to determine the compatibility between a donor and a recipient, we perform HLA typing, which is an analysis of the characteristics of the antigens or proteins present on the surface of the white blood cells. If there are not enough similarities between the HLA characteristics of the donor and the recipient, we cannot transplant the stem cells because this procedure would most certainly be a failure ...
SARS-CoV-2 Antigen KitGoldsite COVID-19 Antigen kit is used for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen in human nasal, nasopharyngeal and orop...
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Find right answers right now! If were all born with the same set of immunoglobulin genes, how is it that we can respond to different antigens? More questions about Science & Mathematics, how
Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell activation research, including recombinant proteins, antibodies,and others. This page about the CD antigens that expressed on T cells.
The cleavage or denaturation of an antigen before it is presented, bound to either MHC class I or II molecules, to T cells. Extrinsic substances are endocytosed by accessory cells, processed and presented in association with MHC class II by antigen presenting cells. Cytoplasmic proteins are processed by the proteosome, and the peptides are presented in association with MHC class I. ...
Definition Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of cancer. Normally, its values range
Protein antigen (Ag)-based immunotherapies have the advantage to induce T cells with a potentially broad repertoire of specificities. However, soluble protein Ag is generally poorly cross-presented in
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Passmore, H C., An erythrocyte and serum antigen with a specificity antithetical to the mouse c4 associated h-2.7 Antigen. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2675 ...
Explains what are allergens and antigens, what is the difference between allergens and antigens and how do allergy sufferers come into contact with allergens.
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The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
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Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
... -antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen.[2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding ...
Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ... Escape loss variants (that target a single tumor antigen are likely to be less effective. Tumors are heterogeneous and antigen ... as sometimes an immune response to a single antigen can lead to immunity against other antigens on the same tumor.[11] ... "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ... and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. HNA-4 is located on the αM ... they change shape and become more amorphous or amoeba-like and can extend pseudopods as they hunt for antigens.[15] ...
Antigen i +. {\displaystyle +}. A. 1. +. {\displaystyle A1^{+}}. a. =. 376. {\displaystyle a=376}. b. =. 237. {\displaystyle b= ... frequency of antigen i. {\displaystyle i}. : p. f. i. =. C. N. =. 0.311. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{i}={\frac {C}{N}}=0.311;}. ... frequency of antigen j. {\displaystyle j}. : p. f. j. =. A. N. =. 0.237. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{j}={\frac {A}{N}}=0.237;}. ... Example: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles[edit]. HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens also known as the MHC of ...
Function in antigen presentation[edit]. HSPs are indispensable components of antigen presentation pathways - the classical ones ... Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... GroEL, 60kDa antigen Hsp60 Involved in protein folding after its post-translational import to the mitochondrion/chloroplast ...
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes.[21] While the Duffy antigen ...
Protein/gene/antigen Stage Description EBNA-1 latent+lytic EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin (oriP) within the viral ... Latent antigens[edit]. All EBV nuclear proteins are produced by alternative splicing of a transcript starting at either the Cp ... and early antigen complex EA-D (induced by Rta), however, the highly stable EBNA-1 gene found across all stages of EBV ... and blockade of antigen processing. Early lytic gene products include BNLF2.[21] Finally, late lytic gene products tend to be ...
Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is bound to the receptor and taken inside by endocytosis. The antigen is processed and ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Antigen discrimination[edit]. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ... Double-positive thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens. These ...
Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ... After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ...
O-antigen[edit]. A repetitive glycan polymer contained within an LPS is referred to as the O antigen, O polysaccharide, or O ... For example, there are over 160 different O antigen structures produced by different E. coli strains.[5] The presence or ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ... LPS final assembly: O-antigen subunits are translocated across the inner membrane (by Wzx) where they are polymerized (by Wzy, ...
"Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ... antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due to the accumulation of ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T-cell receptor. The T-cell receptor undergoes genetic ... Each T cell attacks a different antigen. T cells that attack the body's own proteins are eliminated in the thymus. Thymic ... This expression in the thymus, allows for the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes by exposing them to self-antigens during ... Allergy results from an inappropriate and excessive immune response to common antigens. Substances that trigger an allergic ...
"Tissue Antigens. 62 (5): 401-407. ISSN 0001-2815.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output . ...
B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.610103.x. PMID 12622774. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008- ... "Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMC 2396006. PMID 15787720.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... Ahn JK, Park YG (October 2007). "Human leukocyte antigen B27 and B51 double-positive Behçet uveitis". Arch. Ophthalmol. 125 (10 ...
antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib. • innate immune response. • defense ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent. • protection from natural ...
Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells after purification with a fluorescence- ... "Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types". Journal of Visualized ...
Thus, the B cell presents the foreign peptide (modified gliadin) but produces antibodies specific for the self-antigen (tTG). ... See also: List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions ... Tissue Antigens. 49 (1): 29-34. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02706.x. ISSN 0001-2815. PMID 9027962.. ... and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 along with coeliac disease and gluten ...
Tissue Antigens. 69 (1): 10-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00717.x. PMID 17212703.. ...
Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 ( ... Tissue Antigens. 66 (6): 656-65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682.. ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (1): 82-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00614.x. PMID 16774545.. ...
Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 363-6. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004363.x. PMID 11380948.. ...
Tissue Antigens. 57 (3): 192-199. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057003192.x. PMID 11285126.. ... Lin's research was based on the study of human tissue antigens (HLA) of Hoklo, Hakka and plains indigenous peoples. Through ...
"Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... "Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ...
It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by the transporter associated with antigen ... this will trigger an immediate response from the immune system against a particular non-self antigen displayed with the help of ...
Tissue Antigens. 51 (6): 649-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb03008.x. PMID 9694358. Steinle A, Groh V, Spies T (Oct 1998). " ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 166-70. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550210.x. PMID 10746790. Cerwenka A, Bakker AB, McClanahan T, ...
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration.[2] Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to be incorporated into another biochemical pathway.[2] In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters, and ion channels.. Receptor proteins can be classified by their location. Transmembrane ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Minimal enhancer/ ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ...
Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... Anti-sm (Smith Antigen) (SLE / Nuclear Marker) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / ... 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated from AbD Serotec. 11. Mouse Anti-Human B-Cells (FMC7 Antigen) Monoclonal ... Mouse Anti-HLA, Class II Antigen-DR+DP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 236-14240 from Meridian Life Science, Inc.. 4. ...
DCs, the most potent immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells known, activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells by ... tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses were assessed using cutaneous DTH testing against antigens present in autologous tumor ... prostate-specific antigen; PSMA, prostate-specific membrane antigen; RCR, replication-competent retrovirus. ... One of the antigen epitopes, present in a 150-kDa polypeptide, was expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as in ...
Candida Antigen and Arabinitol Levels in the Sera of Patients With Proven or Probable Invasive Candidosis ... Mannan Antigen of Candida Albicans and Cellular Immune Responses in Vitro and in Vivo ... Candida Mannan Antigen Detection Versus Quantitative Culture in urine, Sputum, Stool, and Vaginal Swabs ... Antigens for the Detection of Candidaguilliermondii var. Guilliermondii Infection in Ruminants ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of ... Antigen World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Antigen. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins ... Type A blood has one kind of antigen and type B another. A person with type AB blood has both the A and B antigen. Type O blood ...
A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 AntigenHLA-B14 AntigenHLA-B15 Antigen ... B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA-D Antigens ... A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 AntigenHLA-B14 AntigenHLA-B15 Antigen ... B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA-D Antigens ...
Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ... In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. The following is a ...
Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain ... three classes of surface antigens have been defined. ... Class III antigens are not tumor-specific and are found on both ... Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain ... Tumor-specific antigens Recent Results Cancer Res. 1980;75:1-9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-81491-4_1. ...
... CDC is expecting a 3-10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol, a product ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... 06/21/2019: Lab Advisory: Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. ... of Par Pharmaceuticals, and one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug ...
World Health Organization Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, Immunization schedules
Download CD Antigens Information Finder and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about CD Antigens Information Finder. ... The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al., 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies ... The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including ...
The first step of peptide selection in antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules Malgorzata A. Garstka, Alexander Fish, ... Cocapture of cognate and bystander antigens can activate autoreactive B cells Nicholas S. R. Sanderson, Maria Zimmermann, Luca ... Autophagy-related protein Vps34 controls the homeostasis and function of antigen cross-presenting CD8α+ dendritic cells Vrajesh ... MERS-CoV and H5N1 influenza virus antagonize antigen presentation by altering the epigenetic landscape Vineet D. Menachery, ...
An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ... that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and ... Other articles where Australia antigen is discussed: connective tissue disease: Necrotizing vasculitides: ... An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ...
Antigens with a high incidence.. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: (Published 12 July 1969) Cite this ...
... an antigen used in performing tuberculin skin tests. How long will the shortage last, and what alternatives are available in ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. CDC Recommendations for Patient Care and Public Health Practice. ... tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in performing tuberculin skin tests. This time ...
Cancer Tumor antigens.. Boon T1, Old LJ.. Author information. 1. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Avenue Hippocrate 74, UCL ...
New antigenic determinants can be attached to self proteins, or the shape of a self antigen can shift-for a variety of reasons- ... Alteration of self antigens: Various mechanisms can alter self components so that they seem foreign to the immune system. ... Other articles where Self antigen is discussed: immune system disorder: ... types of antigens. *. In antigen. …(or heteroantigens) and autoantigens (or self-antigens). Foreign antigens originate from ...
This article explains what antigen characteristics are and the best method to choose an antigen against which to raise an ... What is an Antigen?. An antigen is simply any substance foreign to the immune system that causes an immune response, such as ... Antigen-antibody interaction is optimal when the epitope, or antibody recognition/binding site on the antigen, is open to the ... Some epitopes are found to occur only in the native or unprocessed state of the antigen, while others require the antigen to be ...
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... you correctly express concern about the recent mixed public health messaging around the role of rapid antigen tests for the ... detection of Covid-19 ("The Irish Times view on antigen testing: A study in mixed messaging", May 11th). ...
... is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal ... It is also referred to as an oncofetal antigen because of its similarity to fetal tissue. ...
Evaluating Rapid Antigen Testing for SARS-CoV-2. *Reporting Rapid Antigen Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 to Health Departments and ... CDC recently issued new antigen testing guidance for evaluating and testing persons for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). This ... Performance of Rapid Antigen Tests for SARS-CoV-2. * ... Regulatory Requirements for Using Rapid Antigen Tests for SARS- ... LOCS message is intended to share the new guidance with clinical laboratories that might be asked to perform COVID-19 antigen ...
antigens synonyms, antigens pronunciation, antigens translation, English dictionary definition of antigens. Substances that on ... antigens. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to antigens: tumor antigens antigens. Substances ... In addition, each antigen fragment is fused to the ubiquitin protein to increase antigen expression and target these antigens ... To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen-presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these ...
... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc ... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is ... Tissue Antigens 2004; 64:631.. *Horton R, Wilming L, Rand V, et al. Gene map of the extended human MHC. Nat Rev Genet 2004; 5: ... Tissue Antigens 2011; 77:206.. *Erlich RL, Jia X, Anderson S, et al. Next-generation sequencing for HLA typing of class I loci ...
In a direct manner some of the MHC antigens, the class I molecules, seem to be involved in combatting... ... Evolutionary relationship between HLA-DR antigen ß chains, HLA-A, B, C antigen subunits and immunoglobulin chains. Scand J. ... Molecular association between transplantation antigens and a cell surface antigen in an adenovirus-transformed cell line. Proc ... A pseudogene homologous to mouse transplantation antigens: Transplantation antigens are encoded by eight exons that correlate ...
When antigens exist in candida bacteremia, both its sensitivity and specificity are over 80%. So fungal antigens test can be ... Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. ... How Important Fungal Antigens Test Are. By Thomas Schmitt. See all Articles by Thomas SchmittGet Updates on Alternative ... The fungal antigens test can be applied to the following diagnoses.. First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan ...
Antigens, and Molecular Mimicry, Volume 178 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121820794, 9780080882956 ... J. McCray and G. Werner, Production and Properties of Site-Specific Antibodies to Synthetic Peptide Antigens Related to ...
How to Lower Prostate-Specific Antigens (PSA). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate gland.[1] A PSA test measures PSA levels in ... Menurunkan Kadar Antigen Spesifik Prostat, Français: réduire le taux dantigènes prostatiques spécifiques (APS), العربية: خفض ...
... wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. ... The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical ... c) separating the antigen coated solid support from the specimen;. (d) treating the antigen coated solid support with labeled ... c) separating the antigen coated solid support from the specimen;. (d) treating the antigen coated solid support with ...
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. (
  • No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. (
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate gland. (
  • What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? (
  • Prostate -specific antigen ( PSA ) is something made by the prostate gland. (
  • When Should Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) Testing Be Stopped? (
  • New York, NY, 20 February 2009 - Although widespread Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) testing has undoubtedly decreased prostate cancer mortality, is there a point of diminishing returns? (
  • The article is "Prostate Specific Antigen Testing Among the Elderly: When To Stop? (
  • [3] Antigens are usually proteins , peptides (amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (
  • Most antigens have a large molecular weight and are chemically composed of proteins or polysaccharides, but may also be lipids, polypeptides, or nuclear acids, among others. (
  • These peptide antigens are sometimes superior to the whole proteins because they can produce antibodies that are directed against unique regions of the sequence, particularly when the proteins under study are part of a family of extremely homologous proteins. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a term used to describe a group of genes in animals and humans that encode a variety of cell surface markers, antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. (
  • A histocompatibility antigen blood test looks at proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). (
  • This spike fragment resembles the bacterial toxins known as super antigens-proteins that generate excessive reaction from T cells, a vital member of the immune system. (
  • The collection features a comprehensive collection of influenza antigens , an exclusive coronavirus catalog and many other hard-to-find viral proteins such as Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, RSV and Zika. (
  • Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its cognate T cell, allows the identification of neoepitopes targeted by T cell receptors with high sensitivity. (
  • SILVER SPRING, Md. , Oct. 10, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed marketing of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to detect Ebola virus antigens (proteins) in human blood from certain living individuals and samples from certain recently deceased individuals suspected to have died from Ebola (cadaveric oral fluid). (
  • From one mouse survivor, they isolated immune cells, called T cells, which play the most important role in protecting the body from cancer, and used them to pluck the antigen out of the many proteins in prostate cells. (
  • The exogenous pathway is utilized by specialized antigen-presenting cells to present peptides derived from proteins that the cell has endocytosed. (
  • In Cross-presentation , peptides derived from extracellular proteins are presented in the context of MHC class I. The cell starts off with the exogenous pathways but diverts the antigens (cytosolic diversion) to the endogenous pathway. (
  • Most antigens are high molecular weight substances, but low molecular weight substances will also act as antigens if they bind to proteins in the body. (
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (
  • The two classes of histocompatibility molecules allow an organism to in essence establish an inventory of what cells are "self" and to expose foreign antigens to the immune system so that antibodies to these antigens can be made. (
  • CD molecules are cell-surface antigens identifiable by their reactions with specific monoclonal antibodies, which represent an important system for identifying and differentiating human cells. (
  • In a direct manner some of the MHC antigens, the class I molecules, seem to be involved in combatting virus-infections inasmuch as MHC antigens on virus-infected cells are part of the target for T-killer cells. (
  • Antigens are molecules that immune systems can recognize as foreign and mark for destruction. (
  • The molecules themselves can have long and complicated scientific names, so antigens may be given short names for easy recall. (
  • Sometimes, the antigens are simply given letters to distinguish them from other molecules, and this may result in different antigens having the same name. (
  • By contrast, small molecules have been used to target those intracellular antigens with a functionality that is suitable for drug screening. (
  • subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. (
  • Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the endogenous pathway (e.g. proteolysis of antigens for binding to MHC I molecules). (
  • We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. (
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (
  • now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor exceptionally low concentrations of lysosomal proteases when these levels are compared with those of macrophages. (
  • Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, facilitating their dissemination to and survival in secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • In immunology , antigens ( Ag ) are structures (aka substances) specifically bound by antibodies (Ab) or a cell surface version of Ab ~ B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (
  • The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al. (
  • Antigens for the Detection of Candida guilliermondii var. (
  • Some antibodies are thus excellent for antibody detection in immunohistochemistry where the antigenic site is well maintained, but perform poorly in Western blotting, which requires sample preparation that changes the conformation of the protein and in so doing, alters the antigen site at which antibody binding occurs. (
  • Sir, - In your editorial, you correctly express concern about the recent mixed public health messaging around the role of rapid antigen tests for the detection of Covid-19 (" The Irish Times view on antigen testing: A study in mixed messaging ", May 11th). (
  • The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (
  • Adenovirus antigen detection is useful to confirm the diagnosis of adenovirus infection in patients with respiratory illness. (
  • The Rapid Antigen test is an immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of nucleocapsid protein antigen from SARS-CoV-2 in direct nasopharyngeal (NP) swab from individuals who are suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider. (
  • Even one species can produce different flagellar antigens that may help avoid detection by the immune system. (
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (
  • COVID-19 antigen tests are designed for the rapid diagnosis of active infection primarily by detecting the nucleocapsid protein antigen of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (the virus that causes COVID-19) via nasal swabs or similar clinical specimens. (
  • Libraries built with SABRs can screen thousands of epitopes for the discovery of T cell target antigens. (
  • 1) It is possible for antibodies (or their derivatives) to target antigens that are normally intracellular but become externalized (for example, during disease). (
  • All immunohistochemical techniques are based upon the same principle: a specific antibody binds with its specific antigen to produce a unique antigen-antibody complex. (
  • 2002). With the numerous antigens that can be used in immunotherapy the decision making process for researchers, hospitals, and companies, in whether or not invest resources in a specific antigen has been always a very complicated matter both for classic therapeutic vaccines and even more for anti-idiotype vaccines. (
  • 4. The device of claim 1 wherein said first zone consists of at least two individual layers, with one of said layers containing enzyme-linked antibodies and another layer containing specific antigen bound and immobilized in said layer. (
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (
  • In yet another aspect, compositions of antigens are prepared and provided to immunize animals and induce strong immune responses. (
  • 3 Humoral Immune Responses against Cancer Antigens: Serological Identification Methods. (
  • The major challenge of immunotherapy using -anti-idiotype vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-idiotype antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. (
  • The uptake and processing of antigens by macrophages in the tissue is an initial, critical step in most immune responses. (
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (
  • One of the caveats about this type of vaccine therapy, however, is that vaccines have the potential to attack not only cancerous tissue but also healthy tissue, since the antigens are often present on healthy as well as cancerous cells. (
  • Having already cloned the gene, he and his colleagues now are looking in other survivor mice for further antigens that could serve as targets for vaccines. (
  • Cancer antigen prioritization: a road map to work in defining vaccines against specific targets. (
  • A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging from the use of live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, vector vaccines and protein vaccines to RNA or DNA vaccines. (
  • Depending on the nature of the antigen, immunomodulation is required to create effective vaccines. (
  • Test fungal bacterial components and fungal antigens, which is a significant ways to diagnose fungal infection in modern clinics. (
  • This is the case for H antigen , which can either refer to a human blood antigen or a bacterial antigen. (
  • The priority is now to demonstrate that immunization against some of these antigens is clinically valuable for antitumor therapy, and the first results of clinical pilot studies are now emerging. (
  • Tissue homogenates from antibiotic-treated mice induced IgG reactive with B. burgdorferi antigens after immunization of naive mice and stimulated TNF-α production from macrophages in vitro. (
  • It can happen as a response to several different bacteria and parasites, as well as to the antigen/antibody reaction. (
  • An alternative type of H antigen can be found in some bacteria. (
  • The H antigen refers to the flagella, a propeller-like structure that many bacteria use to move around. (
  • We have multiple vaccine development strategies for antigen discovery of both viruses and bacteria, and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation. (
  • The scientists then followed up on these efforts by assembling antibiotic-antigen conjugates against gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The PMB-antigen conjugates successfully recruited the antibodies found in human serum, giving an indication that they may be capable of harnessing the immune system to eliminate dangerous, disease-causing bacteria. (
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. (
  • It is also referred to as an 'oncofetal antigen' because of its similarity to fetal tissue. (
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. (
  • A pattern of antigens, called a tissue type, is inherited from your parents. (
  • The presence of certain antigens is the criterion for typing in the ABO blood group system and is important in tissue cross-matching for transplants (e.g., the HLA antigen in kidney transplants). (
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (
  • Based on autologous serological typing of cultured astrocytoma cells from 30 patients, three classes of surface antigens have been defined. (
  • This analysis of human astrocytoma, with the recognition of three classes of surface antigens recognized by autologous sera, resembles the results of autologous typing of human malignant melanoma, acute leukemia, and renal carcinoma. (
  • 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Cell Surface Antigens. (
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (
  • F.S. Walsh, and M.,J. Crumpton, Orientation of cell-surface antigens in the lipid bilayer of lymphocyte plasma membrane. (
  • Chan, J.-A., Fowkes, F. J. I. & Beeson, J. G. Surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes as immune targets and malaria vaccine candidates. (
  • Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria. (
  • This viral capsid acts as a core antigen, the major immunodominant region lying at the tips of the alpha-helical hairpins that form spikes on the capsid surface. (
  • This system of blood typing separates people into A, B, AB, or O blood types, judging by the type of antigen the person has on the surface of the red blood cells. (
  • If someone has genes for A, B, or both, then enzymes work to finish off the raw material of the H antigens to make a new A or B antigen on the surface of the cell. (
  • Therefore, the H antigens present on the surface of the red blood cell remain unaltered. (
  • However, their target repertoire is limited as there are relatively few tumor-specific or tumor-associated cell surface or soluble antigens. (
  • Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. (
  • Amorphous GFP+ deposits were visualized by intravital microscopy in the entheses of antibiotic-treated mice infected with GFP-expressing spirochetes and on the ear cartilage surface in sites where immunofluorescence staining detected spirochete antigens. (
  • It is a blood test that identifies antigens on the surface of cells and tissues. (
  • hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ultrasound test normal.I wish to go abroad for a job and there Hep.B Surface antigen is tested.If one is positive, it is a sure rejection.Can inj. (
  • Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe me the (
  • Engineered, bifunctional receptors present antigens and initiate signaling in response to binding to the cognate T cell receptor. (
  • 1 - you have to have antibody and antigen parametrized using the same forcefield (FF). (
  • Hiv and Hcv Negative Antibody and Antigen Test At 15 Week conclusive? (
  • Thus phenomenon is referred to as antigen presentation. (
  • The number and location of the epitopes, along with the size, varies with the extent of antigen presentation during the process of antibody production. (
  • The specific function of the MHC system, including the mechanisms of antigen presentation, is discussed separately. (
  • To address one of the highest risk locations for transmission of COVID-19, the CDC also developed considerations for use and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing results in nursing homes , which includes testing information depending on the clinical presentation and the epidemiologic context. (
  • WBVR can monitor the effect of antigen presentation by studying host responses. (
  • In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. (
  • Please feel free to contact the experts of our contract research organization (CRO) if you have a question concerning antigen discovery and presentation. (
  • Antigen processing , or the cytosolic pathway , is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes . (
  • It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. (
  • MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation ) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing. (
  • [2] Not all antigen-presenting cells utilize cross-presentation. (
  • or heteroantigens) and autoantigens (or self-antigens). (
  • Furthermore, another characteristic of Th2 responses is the suppression of the immune response to bystander antigens, which may compromise the effectiveness of vaccination [ 7 ] and alter the immune response to several other antigens, even autoantigens. (
  • Autoantigens , for example, are a person's own self antigens. (
  • The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (
  • In this sense V1 is similar to the first generation of commercial Hepatitis B vaccine, which contained pooled viral antigens derived from the blood of hepatitis B carriers. (
  • The ProVir™ collection also includes 630+ ME, NA and HA antigens from more than 250 strains of influenza viruses, including vaccine strains and the pandemic strains. (
  • Recombinant flu antigens from all WHO-recommended vaccine strains in recent years are offered by Sino Biological. (
  • Although broadly reactive antibodies against these antigens could be useful as therapeutics and in vaccine design, their identification has proven elusive. (
  • If the protein, called an antigen, is truly unique to prostate cancer cells, it could lead to diagnostics for prostate cancer and a potential vaccine therapy against the disease, which is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, after lung cancer. (
  • And two, we can start thinking about using the antigens to develop a specific vaccine. (
  • The corresponding human prostate antigen is the protein that could be used to generate a vaccine against prostate cancer. (
  • This method of attack could lead researchers to other antigens involved in tumors and could make vaccine therapies against cancer more widespread. (
  • Vaccine development starts with antigen discovery. (
  • Vaccine antigens should evoke a protective immune response. (
  • An antigen ( Australia antigen ) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several persons with polyarteritis nodosa, raising the possibility that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and antibody. (
  • ProVir™ , the world's largest recombinant viral antigen collection, has been independently developed by Sino Biological. (
  • The ProVir™ viral antigen bank includes more than 1,000 antigens from 90 virus types/subtypes and 350 strains. (
  • The term antigen originally described a structural molecule that binds specifically to an antibody only in the form of native antigen. (
  • It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (
  • H antigen is a molecule that is present on most people's red blood cells. (
  • A antigens are produced by an enzyme adding an N-acetyl galactosamine molecule onto the H antigen, and enzymes add a D-galactose onto the H antigen to make a B antigen. (
  • So fungal antigens test can be used in early diagnosis of deep candida infections. (
  • It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of high-risk patients. (
  • The Giardia antigen test is used to make a diagnosis of giardiasis , the digestive tract illness caused by Giardia lamblia . (
  • It's important to remember that the Gardia antigen test detects the presence of only that specific parasite, so the doctor may order additional tests to reach a definitive diagnosis. (
  • Two testing modalities, molecular and antigen tests, are currently used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (
  • The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (
  • Essentially the different HLA arrangement on cells allows the immune system to develop an inventory of "self" antigens in the body. (
  • Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. (
  • Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain allogeneic tumors, but are not detected on normal cells. (
  • Class III antigens are not tumor-specific and are found on both normal and malignant cells. (
  • To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (
  • These are large white blood cells that ingest antigens and other foreign substances. (
  • Their major function is to obtain antigen in tissues, migrate to lymphoid organs and activate T cells . (
  • Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. (
  • Allison and his team are continuing to characterize the antigen gene, which they dubbed Stimulator of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Specific T Cells. (
  • Someone with A-type blood has red blood cells with only the A antigen, for example, and someone with O-type blood produces neither A nor B antigen. (
  • The antigen-presenting cells that initiate and maintain MHC class II-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (
  • The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that drive the various phases of MHC class II-dependent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thyroiditis, are not fully identified. (
  • We have developed a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model in which CD4 + cells are positively and negatively selected by endogenous peptides. (
  • Antibodies have been developed to target externalized antigens, have also been engineered to enter into cells or may be expressed intracellularly with the aim of binding intracellular antigens. (
  • It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because they must degrade protein antigens to perform their function. (
  • Heterophile antigens are identical antigens found in the cells of different species. (
  • Pan-T antigens are antigens found on all T cells. (
  • Knowing the "self" antigen allows the immune system to rapidly distinguish foreign antigens. (
  • 2009) was developed a method for prioritization of cancer antigens paving the way to take more rational, informed decisions. (
  • The fungal antigens test can be applied to the following diagnoses. (
  • As immunological testing technology advances, the application area of fungal antigens test are widening. (
  • One such type is the food-poisoning bacterium E. coli 0157:H7, which has the seventh type of H flagellar antigen of that species. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. (
  • In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Marker for Colorectal Cancer: Is It Clinically Useful? (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein normally found in very low levels in the blood of adults. (
  • As of May 27, 2021, twenty-five antigen tests have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • The Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency-use authorization to Quidel Corp. for the first antigen test for the Covid-19 virus -a step that could escalate the nation's ability to test for the disease. (
  • Photo (c) filadendron - Getty Images The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency use authorization (EAU) to a new antigen test that reportedly provides faster and more accurate results when patients are tested for the coronavirus (COVID-19). (
  • We also anticipate providing an emergency use authorization template for antigen tests, similar to ones we've released for other test types, to help manufacturers streamline submissions and help expedite our review and issuance of additional EUAs. (
  • Retrieved on August 01, 2021 from (
  • However, in late March / early April 2021, FDA issued multiple EUAs for serial antigen testing products. (
  • An increasing number of these antigens appear to result from tumor-specific mutations, and some of these mutations may be implicated in oncogenesis. (
  • Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (
  • Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (
  • Some epitopes are found to occur only in the native or unprocessed state of the antigen, while others require the antigen to be denatured before they are exposed. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans refers to a genetic region containing hundreds of genes, including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes ( figure 1 ). (
  • Adapative immunity: Histocompatibility antigens and immune response genes. (
  • Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. (
  • It is commonly accepted that most of these changes in leukocyte phenotype and activation, as well as in the induction of the inflammatory milieu, are dependent upon the ability of the parasite to excrete/secrete antigens with immunoregulatory properties [ 8 - 12 ]. (
  • The antigen test is more sensitive in detecting Giardia lamblia than the ova and parasite (O&P) exam, but it can't identify any other organisms or conditions that cause gastrointestinal distress. (
  • The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens. (
  • When Antigen 7.5 for Microsoft Exchange is installed on Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003, the Library registry entry will have a value of ANTIGENVSAPI.DLL . (
  • KINDERHOOK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / December 14, 2020 / American Bio Medica Corporation (OTCQB:ABMC), a manufacturer of accurate, cost-effective immunoassay test kits, announced today that it is now distributing a Rapid Covid-19 Antigen test. (
  • Antigen-antibody interaction is optimal when the epitope, or antibody recognition/binding site on the antigen, is open to the surroundings and therefore available for the antibody to bind it. (
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (
  • As a leading technology provider, Creative Biolabs has established CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology platform. (
  • A T-cell receptor can now recognise the antigen linked with the MHC and thus binds to it. (
  • Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. (
  • For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not all) with ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter syndrome . (
  • This is the first prostate cancer antigen found. (
  • Allison and his colleagues found the cancer antigen by looking in a strain of mice prone to prostate cancer. (
  • Once they found the protein, and then the gene for this antigen, they looked in databases and found a corresponding gene in the human prostate that had not been identified before. (
  • To date, only a few antigens unique to tumors have been found, limiting the usefulness of vaccination against cancer. (
  • Test manufacturer's Instructions for Use (IFU) can be found on FDA's website on antigen diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 . (
  • Alloantigens are antigens found in different members of the same species (the red blood cell antigens A and B are examples). (
  • In the future, an invading organism that possesses one or some of these "non-self" antigens will be swiftly recognized as an invader and will be dealt with. (
  • Substance (e.g., a toxin) or organism (e.g., an amoeba) that, when entering the body, causes the production of an antibody that reacts specifically with the antigen to neutralize, destroy, or weaken it. (
  • Critical reagents in infectious disease research are recombinant antigens. (
  • T lymphocytes are part of the immune system involved in identifying antigens . (
  • The resulting conjugate may induce an immune response directed against the antigen. (
  • Forth, enolase of molecular weight 48kD can be detected by ELISA kits and WB, which is beneficial to test antigen with candida specificity. (
  • The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens - new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases. (
  • This review will summarize multiple approaches to targeting intracellular antigens with therapeutic antibodies, in particular describing the production and characterization of TCRm antibodies, the factors influencing their target identification, their advantages and disadvantages in the context of TCR therapies, and the potential to advance TCRm-based therapies into the clinic. (
  • In general terms, the antigen mimicry by anti-Id antibodies has reflected structural homology in the most of the cases, and amino acid sequence homology in a minority of them. (
  • First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan antigens which exist in yeast cell wall. (
  • Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. (
  • Think of antigens as the locks (or gates) to a cell, and antibodies as the weapon (or key). (
  • This can be due to the natural life-span of a red blood cell, or it may be as a result of an antigen-antibody interaction. (
  • T cell defined antigens have now been characterized in a large variety of tumor types, in both mice and humans. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is synonymous with the human MHC. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen: the major histocompatibility complex of humans. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen and human neutrophil antigen systems. (
  • This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human pathogen. (
  • Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are important mediators of alloresponses, but structural insights on antibody:HLA interaction are still lacking. (
  • We think this method of using mouse models to track down human antigens might be a general method for identifying targets for immunological attack in many different kinds of human tumors, Allison said. (
  • The human H antigen forms part of the ABO blood system. (
  • A number of monoclonal anti-Id antibodies that mimic different human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed and tested in the clinic, demonstrating interesting. (
  • The Proceedings of the 7th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA) Workshop are about to be published, detailing more than 80 new CD specificities. (