Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy. (1/8759)

Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (2/8759)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (3/8759)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (4/8759)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (5/8759)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. (6/8759)

A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed analyses are required to detect subtle alterations caused by the absence of NG2. Accordingly, dissociated cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells from null mice were compared to parallel cultures from wild-type mice for their ability to proliferate and migrate in response to specific growth factors. Both null and wild-type smooth muscle cells exhibited identical abilities to proliferate and migrate in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, only the wild-type cells responded to PDGF-AA in both types of assays. NG2 null cells failed to proliferate or migrate in response to PDGF-AA, implying a defect in the signaling cascade normally initiated by activation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor. In agreement with this idea, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to PDGF-AA treatment occured only in wild-type cells. Failure to observe autophosphorylation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor in PDGF-AA-treated null cells indicates that the absence of NG2 causes a defect in signal transduction at the level of (alpha)-receptor activation.  (+info)

Ma1, a novel neuron- and testis-specific protein, is recognized by the serum of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. (7/8759)

The identification of antineuronal antibodies has facilitated the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological disorders and the early detection of the associated tumours. It has also led to the cloning of possibly important neuron-specific proteins. In this study we wanted to identify novel antineuronal antibodies in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders and to clone the corresponding antigens. Serological studies of 1705 sera from patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological disorders resulted in the identification of four patients with antibodies that reacted with 37 and 40 kDa neuronal proteins (anti-Ma antibodies). Three patients had brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction, and one had dysphagia and motor weakness. Autopsy of two patients showed loss of Purkinje cells, Bergmann gliosis and deep cerebellar white matter inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive neuronal degeneration, gliosis and infiltrates mainly composed of CD8+ T cells were also found in the brainstem of one patient. In normal human and rat tissues, the anti-Ma antibodies reacted exclusively with neurons and with testicular germ cells; the reaction was mainly with subnuclear elements (including the nucleoli) and to a lesser degree the cytoplasm. Anti-Ma antibodies also reacted with the cancers (breast, colon and parotid) available from three anti-Ma patients, but not with 66 other tumours of varying histological types. Preincubation of tissues with any of the anti-Ma sera abrogated the reactivity of the other anti-Ma immunoglobulins. Probing of a human complementary DNA library with anti-Ma serum resulted in the cloning of a gene that encodes a novel 37 kDa protein (Mal). Recombinant Mal was specifically recognized by the four anti-Ma sera but not by 337 control sera, including those from 52 normal individuals, 179 cancer patients without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms, 96 patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and 10 patients with non-cancer-related neurological disorders. The expression of Mal mRNA is highly restricted to the brain and testis. Subsequent analysis suggested that Mal is likely to be a phosphoprotein. Our study demonstrates that some patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders develop antibodies against Mal, a new member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/8759)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

*CD79B

It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ... This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding ...

*Carcinoembryonic antigen

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ... In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. The following is a ...

*HLA-DPB1

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... Eiermann TH, Uhl S, Fakler J, Goldmann SF (1992). "A novel HLA-DPB1 sequence, DPB1*2301". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 108-10. doi: ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...

*CEACAM8

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a ... 2002). "Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and signaling in human, mouse, and rat leukocytes ... 1990). "Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a new species of the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a member of ... 1992). "Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family". Genomics. 14 (2 ...

*CEACAM1

... and a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. This gene encodes a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA ... "Immunochemical analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related antigens differentially localized in intracellular granules ... Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein) (CEACAM1) also known as CD66a (Cluster of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000079385 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...

*CEACAM6

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen) (CEACAM6) also known as CD66c ( ... 1988). "Primary structure of nonspecific crossreacting antigen (NCA), a member of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, ... CEACAM6 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen)". Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, ... "Distribution of surface nonspecific cross-reacting antigen and influence of proteolytic enzymes on this antigen in myeloid cell ...

*CD74

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... 1992). "HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides". Nature. 360 ... Machamer CE, Cresswell P (1983). "Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens". J. ... Claesson L, Peterson PA (1983). "Association of human gamma chain with class II transplantation antigens during intracellular ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Tumor cells, however are highly abnormal, and many display unusual antigens. Some such tumor antigens are inappropriate for the ... Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been achieved by introducing mutations into the complementarity determining ... The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens presented on ...

*HLA-DOB

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...

*HLA-DOA

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... "Isolation and characterization of the cDNA clone and genomic clones of a new HLA class II antigen heavy chain, DO alpha". J. ...

*HLA-F

... of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on ... Zhang X, Lin A, Zhang JG, Bao WG, Xu DP, Ruan YY, Yan WH (January 2013). "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in ... Xu Y, Han H, Zhang F, Lv S, Li Z, Fang Z (January 2015). "Lesion human leukocyte antigen-F expression is associated with a poor ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. The Major ...

*CEACAM7

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEACAM7 gene. ... 2000). "Carcinoembryonic antigen family members CEACAM6 and CEACAM7 are differentially expressed in normal tissues and ... 1998). "Expression of four CEA family antigens (CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2) in normal and cancerous gastric epithelial cells: up- ... 1989). "Analysis of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family: isolation and sequencing of N-terminal domain ...

*Cancer/testis antigens

Important CT antigens in cancer therapy include MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, CT83 and SSX2. Scanlan, MJ; Gure, ... Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are a group of proteins united by their importance in development and in cancer immunotherapy. In ... CT antigens have been described in melanoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and pediatric tumors such as ... However, in cancer these developmental antigens are often re-expressed and can serve as a locus of immune activation. Thus, ...

*Pan-T antigens

... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ...

*Extractable nuclear antigens

... are over 100 different soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens. Autoantibodies to these antigens ... The six main antigens used in immunological laboratories for detection are Ro, La, Sm, RNP, Scl-70 and Jo1, which are screened ... On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. ENAs originally referred to proteins found in a saline ... Two proteins associated with Sjogren's Syndrome were independently described as antigens A and B, but are now known to be ...

*Human red cell antigens

All that remains are the Csa and Csb antigens. Csa is a very high frequency (>98%) antigen and Csb is not uncommon (~34%). The ... In addition to the defined human blood group systems, there are erythrocyte antigens which do not meet the definition of a ... Reagents to test for these antigens are difficult to find and many cannot be purchased commercially. These three groups are ... antigens with shared characteristics but do not meet the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) definition of a ...

*Antigen

A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the ... T-independent antigen - Polysaccharides (usually) that stimulate B cells directly. Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that ... Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the surface of tumor cells. ...

*AB(O)H antigens secretion

Blood group antigen protein ISBT Table of blood group antigens within systems. BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database ... BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens National Center for ... Compatibility of ABH antigens has important impacts on the prognoses of transplants of kidneys, livers and hearts, but less so ... The secretion of water-soluble A, B and H antigens in the saliva most widely was studied. A wide variation in the frequency of ...

*H antigen

... can refer to one of various types of antigens having diverse biological functions. H antigen is located on the 19th ... minor H antigens "present polymorphic self peptides to T cells". Includes, e.g. the H-Y antigen a bacterial flagellar antigen ... H antigen is a precursor to each of the ABO blood group antigens, apparently present in all people except those with the Bombay ... Blood phenotype (see Hh antigen system) Histocompatibility antigen, a major factor in graft rejection. Even when Major ...

*Somatic antigen

A somatic antigen is an antigen located in the cell wall of a gram-positive or gram-negative bacterium. "somatic antigen." The ... 2010 http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/somatic+antigen Lipopolysaccharide. ...

*Forssman antigen

The Forssman Antigen is a glycolipid heterophil protein and a type of heterogenetic antigen found in certain animals like dogs ... The Forssman antigen is distinct from the Paul-Bunnell antigen, antibodies to which are diagnostic of glandular fever ( ... "Forssman antigen - definition of Forssman antigen in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus ... Both antigens are present on the red blood cells of horse and sheep but guinea pig kidney cells have only the Forssman antigen ...

*CD59 antigen

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex ( ...

*CD36 antigen

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, ...

*CDw17 antigen

... is a lactosylceramide. A4GALT acts upon it. CDw17 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Tumor antigen

... mutant protein antigens, oncogenic viral antigens, cancer-testis antigens and vascular or stromal specific antigens. Tissue ... and some viral antigens are also cancer antigens. Cancer-testis antigens are antigens expressed primarily in the germ cells of ... Certain tumor antigens are thus used as tumor markers. More importantly, tumor antigens can be used in cancer therapy as tumor ... Oncofetal antigens are another important class of tumor antigens. Examples are alphafetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic ...
The B cell receptor (BCR) serves as both signal-transducer and antigen-transporter. Binding of antigens to the BCR induces signaling cascades and antigen-processing and presentation, two essential cellular events for B cell activation. BCR-initiated signaling increases BCR-mediated antigen-processing efficiency by increasing the rate and specificity of antigen transport. Previous studies showed a critical role for the actin cytoskeleton in these two processes. Here I found that actin-binding protein 1 (Abp1/HIP-55/SH3P7) functioned as an actin-binding adaptor protein, coupling BCR signaling and antigen-processing pathways with the actin cytoskeleton. Gene knockout of Abp1 and over-expression of the SH3 domain of Abp1 inhibited BCR-mediated antigen internalization, consequently reducing the rate of antigen transport to processing compartments and the efficiency of BCR-mediated antigen-processing and presentation. BCR activation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Abp1 and translocation of both ...
There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
05 considered statistically significant. An EV71 antigen standard preparation H07-0812-022 was produced. from a C4 subtype EV71 virus strain isolated in 2008 from Fuyang in Chinas Anhui Province. The virus was cultured in Vero cells and then inactivated by formalin (1:2000) and purified using column chromatography. A total of 500 g vaccine bulk was produced. HPLC results showed that EV71 virus particles appeared at the 12.5-min peak with an EV71 antigen purity of 98.68% (Supplementary Fig. 1) and this bulk material was used to prepare lyophilized EV71 antigen reference standards. A collaborative calibration of EV71 antigen content in lyophilized EV71 antigen standards was performed in four different www.selleckchem.com/products/Decitabine.html labs using the EL-4 kits (Table 1). The means of EV71 antigen content was 1441.4 KU/ml which is close to the theoretical antigen content of 1396.0 KU/ml (20,744.6/7.43/1.2 × 0.6).. The overall variance coefficient was 6.2% (the CV from each lab was 5.4%, ...
Definition of THYMUS-DEPENDENT ANTIGEN: T-deyendent antigen. An antigen which fails to stimulate an antibody response if T-lymphocytes are absent. Co-operation between B- lymphocytes and helper T
We established previously that BXD2 mice spontaneously develop high levels of circulating high-affinity nephritogenic and arthrogenic pathogenic autoantibodies and that the spontaneous formation of GCs in the spleen is critical to the production of these high-affinity pathogenic autoantibodies (16-18). In the current study, we showed that there are increased counts of pDCs in the spleens of BXD2 mice. These pDCs exhibit significantly elevated expression of IFN-α and are the primary producers of this cytokine. We further showed that type I IFNs play a role in the development of lupus in the BXD2 mice by demonstrating that a deficiency of the IFN-αR in these mice leads to a reduction in the spontaneous formation of GCs. Strikingly, although the type I IFN signature and the expanded development of Th-17 cells were reported to be associated with lupus in humans (45-47), IFN-α by itself was found to suppress Th-17 development (48). Because IFN-α is mainly produced by pDCs that are located in the ...
We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface expression. The CD4-expressing transfectants have acquired an additional reactivity for pork insulin (PI), which was not detectable in the original recipient cell. The transfectants response to PI can be completely abrogated by anti-CD4 antibodies. The transfected clone showed a 50-fold increased sensitivity towards BI in comparison to the same CD4- hybridoma. These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a role in altering the T cell repertoire. ...
Transfer of antigen presenting cells in vivo is a method used by immunologists to examine the potency of antigen presentation by a selected population of cells. This method is most commonly used to analyze presentation of protein antigens to MHC class I or II restricted T cells, but it can also be used for studies of nonconventional antigens such as CD1-presented lipids. In a recent study focusing on CD1d-restricted glycolipid antigen presentation to Natural Killer T cells, we compared antigen presenting properties of splenic B cells, CD8αPos dendritc cells (DCs) and CD8αNeg DCs (Arora et al., 2014). This protocol describes the detailed method used for isolation of these cell populations, and their transfer into recipient mice to analyze their antigen presenting properties.As a percentage of total mononuclear cells, an average spleen contains approximately 1-3% myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). In absolute numbers, this translates to approximately 0.6-1.8 x 106 DCs. To enhance the number of DCs in
To optimize antigen specific immune responses, immunologists have been focusing on strategies based on targeting antigenic determinants to specific receptors expressed by defined subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs). For instance, the most efficient delivery systems rely on co-administration of both antigens and adjuvants to activate pAPCs cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and to improve their efficacy. Co-delivery of both antigen and adjuvant into the same cell allows for only cells which have internalised the antigen to receive the activation signal, avoiding induction of T cell anergy in the absence of co-stimuli and non-specific activation of APCs which have not seen the antigen. pAPCs, like DCs, also regulate innate immune responses through the expression and activation of various pattern recognition receptors (PRR), like Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and cytosolic DNA and/or RNA sensors. Therefore, the most efficient way to mount a sustained immune response is to
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
A method of enhancing an immune response is disclosed. Th method involves an initial priming of the animal with an inducing agent, subsequently followed by administration of an inducing agent-antigen mixture. The antigen may be a tumour associated antigen, pathogenic organism antigen, autoimmune antigen, immunogenic fragment thereof, or a nucleic acid coding therefor.
biochemistry) In the testing of cell surface antigens, a serological specificity that is poor or broad relative to other specificities and can be defined as 2 or more split antigens.(Example: HLA-B51 and HLA-B52 are split antigens of the HLA-B5 broad antigen)[1] ...
Hives, or uticaria, is an allergic reaction to various antigen triggers, causing raised welts called "wheals" on the surface of the skin. The wheals can be red or white in color; and they can be itchy and/or painful. In acute cases, the wheals tend to appear and disappear suddenly in response to antigen exposure, particularly dietary or drug-induced exposures. Chronic uticaria, however, can last up to 6 months or longer, and research suggests that autoimmunity activates ongoing mast-cell degranulation.. Read More ...
Antigen presenting cells (APC) are able to process and present to T cells antigens from different origins. This mechanism is highly regulated, in particular by Patter Recognition Receptor (PRR) signals. Here, I detail a protocol designed to assess in vitro the capacity of APC to present antigens derived from bacteria, apoptotic and infected apoptotic cells.
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen "fell off" after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. "DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
Get an answer for explain how antibodies can be specific to so many different antigens and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen" (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
I guess what confuses some is that they think T cells are all the same, they fail to realize that every cell is unique & different. There are different types of T cells & different ways to present antigens. ...
Adjuvants for administration, particularly for mucosal administration, of an antigen, are described, as well as compositions comprising the described adjuvant in combination with an antigen and a phys
Myeloid specific antigen, 0.1 mg. BM-1 antigen is a 183 kD myeloid-specific-DNA-binding protein which is expressed in myeloid cells, including myeloid precursors and mature granulocytes.
Antigen An atigen is any substance that cause your immune system to produce antibodies against it. The antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment Such as chemicals bacteria viruses, or pollen) or formed within the body
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen: a nonclassical MHC Ib antigen implicated in innate & adaptive immune responses as well as in embryonic development
Antigen uptake (FITC-OVA and FITC-DX) by D1 bulk population in the presence or absence of TNFα was analyzed by doublecolor FACS® analysis. The D1 cells that
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Masaaki Murakami, Yuko Okuyama, Hideki Ogura, Shogo Asano, Yasunobu Arima, Mineko Tsuruoka, Masaya Harada, Minoru Kanamoto, Yukihisa Sawa, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Daisuke Kamimura, Toshio Hirano].
Study Flashcards On Other other antigens at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Immune responses to the recall antigen SK/SD are increased at both weeks 1 and 12 in BCG primed subjects vaccinated with MVA85A (n = 9) (Wilcoxon). Box and wh
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
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A volume in the popular FactsBook Series, the First Edition of The Leucocyte Antigen FactsBook was hugely successful. The new Second Edition has been.
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Microbix produces one of the worlds largest range of infectious disease antigens. These viral, bacterial and parasitic products are used in applications like I
I am nearing my preparation for my next LDA (low dose antigen) therapy. I start the protocol in three days. I have mentioned this therapy in past posts and will attempt to explain it this weekend when I start.
Sel endotel pada dinding pembuluh darah menghasilkan sitokin eselektin yang menyebabkan PMN terhenti, aktivasi oleh jaringan gingiva dengan mengeluarkan sitokin. leukosit dan PMN masuk kedalam jaringan yang terinfeksi, komplemen akan menyebabkan kemotaksis PMN dan melisiskan antigen. PMN akan memfagositosis antigen dan mengeluarkan sitokin kolagenase. Respon Imun Non- spesifik jaringan akan mengalami proses penyembuhan.jika respon imun non- spesifik tidak dapat mengeliminasi antigen, maka respon imun akan dilanjutkan oleh respon imun spesifik ...
Immune-mediated inflammation, a major cause of vision loss, is not fully understood. This project is aimed at collecting new information concerning the mechanis...
Beautiful 33 Sample How Do I Add A Chart Title In Excel 2019 add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in excel add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in office 2010 when the values in a 2 d chart vary widely from data series to data series or when… Read More ». ...
Vaksin -Vaksin dalah substansi biologik yg dapat meningkatkan sistem imun untk penyakit tertentu -Vaksin mengandung sejumlah kecil agen yg menyerupai mikroorganisme tertentu Agen akan menstimulir sistem imun tubuh untk mengenal agen asing tersebut , membunuhnya , dan mengingatnya, Sehingga bila ada agen yg sama tersebut masuk kedalam tubuh dengan mudah akan dibunuhnya
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The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney. The gene encoding this protein is found on chromosome 18. Three Jk alleles are Jk (a), Jk (b)and Jk3. Jk (a) was discovered by Allen et al. in 1951 and is named after a patient (Mrs Kidd delivered a baby with a haemolytic disease of the newborn associated with an antibody directed against a new antigen Jk (a). Whereas Jk (b) was discovered by Plant et al. in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine. The Jk antigen is important in transfusion medicine. People with two Jk(a) antigens, for instance, may form antibodies against donated blood containing two Jk(b) antigens (and thus no Jk(a) antigens). This can lead to hemolytic anemia, in which the body destroys the transfused blood, ...
The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. Kell can be noted as K, k, or Kp. The Kell antigens are peptides found within the Kell protein, a 93-kilodalton transmembrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase which is responsible for cleaving endothelin-3. The KEL gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is the highly polymorphic Kell blood group antigen. The Kell glycoprotein links via a single disulfide bond to the XK membrane protein that carries the Kx antigen. The encoded protein contains sequence and structural similarity to members of the neprilysin (M13) family of zinc endopeptidases. There are several alleles of the gene which creates Kell protein. Two such alleles, K1 (Kell) and K2 (Cellano), are the most common. The kell protein is tightly bound to a second protein, XK, by a ...
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of antigen-specific B cells. T2 - role of T cells, cytokines, and antigen in induction of growth and differentiation. AU - Noelle, R. J.. AU - Snow, E. C.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - T cells and cytokines were used to activate highly enriched populations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-binding B cells (TNP-ABC). TNP-ABC did not proliferate or differentiate when they were cultured with thymus-dependent (TD) antigen, even in the presence of supernatants known to contain B-cell growth and differentiation factors. However, purified TNP-ABC did proliferate and differentiate when they were cultured with TD antigen in the presence of carrier-primed T cells and antigen (TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) i.e., linked recognition. TNP-ABC blasts generated under conditions of linked recognition proliferated and differentiated in response to cytokines in the absence of T cells and antigen. In contrast, under conditions of nonlinked recognition ...
A 17-amino acid tryptic peptide of chicken ovalbumin, designated P323-339, that substituted for processed antigen when presented by glutaraldehyde prefixed accessory cells to specific I-restricted T hybridomas was characterized. The peptide antigen could not be demonstrated to have any specific or stable interactions with accessory cell Ia antigens by either direct binding or functional assays for inhibition of specific T cell activation. In addition, the T cell receptor for I-restricted antigen had no affinity for free antigen alone. A rabbit antibody specific for the antigenic peptide inhibited presentation when introduced before but not after binding of the peptide to accessory cells. These results extend our earlier finding that accessory cell-mediated processing of chicken ovalbumin can be completely explained by the fragmentation of the native molecule into smaller m.w. peptides, and suggests that if an antigen/Ia complex is important in T cell activation, it forms significantly only in ...
Abstract(#br)Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) were investigated as potential vaccine formulations for a range of model antigens. Presentation of antigens as PCMCs increased the antigen-specific IgG responses for all antigens tested, compared to soluble antigens. When compared to conventional aluminium-adjuvanted formulations, PCMCs modified with calcium phosphate (CaP) showed enhanced antigen-specific IgG responses and a decreased antigen-specific IgG1:IgG2a ratio, indicating the induction of a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. The rate of antigen release from CaP PCMCs, in vitro , decreased strongly with increasing CaP loading but their immunogenicity in vivo was not significantly different, suggesting the adjuvanticity was not due to a depot effect. Notably, it was found that CaP... modification enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-PCMC particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen or soluble PCMCs. Thus, CaP PCMCs may provide an alternative to ...
A humoral immune response against blood-borne protein antigens is initiated in the white pulp of the spleen and requires activation of both B cells and helper T cells. Before a humoral immune response can be initiated, the antigen has to be transported to splenic follicles, because antigens have not access to the follicles by themselves. It has been shown that CD23+ B cells in vivo can transport IgE-antigen complexes into the follicles. CD23 is the low affinity receptor for IgE and is primarily expressed on B cells and follicular dendritic cells in mice. When mice are immunized with IgE-antigen complexes, an enhanced immune response can be seen. In the current study the transport function of CD23 on B cells was used to investigate whether ovalbumin conjugated to anti CD23 antibodies can facilitate antigen transport into the B cell follicles and enhance an antigen-specific immune response. Using CD23 as a transporting molecule, the ovalbumin conjugates can be efficiently transported to the ...
often used as a critical component of a non-animal laboratory test; for example, in immunoserology tests used to diagnose many diseases.. The response of animals to an injection of an antigen is the same as that of humans to a vaccine; that is, they produce antibodies. Virtually any laboratory animal species can be used to produce antibodies. The choice of species often relates to the properties of the antigen. Animals are given a series of injections of an antigen preparation, usually after a pre-immunization blood sample has been collected to be sure the animal does not already have antibodies that may complicate the study. About three weeks after the series of injections, blood is again collected, and the serum is evaluated for the presence of antibody. If the level of antibody is not adequate for research purposes, additional antigen injections, or boosters, are given. The serum antibody can be stored in a freezer for years, thus providing an ongoing supply of the needed experimental ...
The invention relates to a set of novel immunological adjuvants based upon so called polyladder proteins of nematode worms. These proteins are typified by repeating units separated by a protease cleavage motif of RX(K/R)R or RXFR where R is arginine, X is any amino acid, K is lysine and F is phenylalanine. These motifs are preceded by a cysteine residue at around 7, 8 or 9 residues upstream. Polyladder proteins or fragments of polyladder proteins may be used as immunological adjuvants either mixed with, or conjugated to a vaccine antigen, and will strongly enhance the immune response against the antigen. Conjugation may take the form of a genetic fusion between adjuvant and antigen. Antigens may be derived from pathogens, or may be tumour antigens, autoantigens, or antigens of other kinds. Vaccines may be used for prophylaxis or therapy ...
Endogenous antigens are generated inside the cells due to normal cellular metabolisms or due to an intracellular bacterial or a viral contamination. They may be observed inside the cytoplasm of APCs as self- cellular proteins that are covalently related to ubiquitin; therefore they do now not require lively phagocytosis. whilst antigen- processing pathways are initiated, endogenous antigens are degraded and generated peptides by means of proteases. those peptides are then offered by means of creating a complex with MHC elegance I molecules at the cellular surface. observed with the aid of the popularity, Tcyt cells start to secrete compounds that motive lysis or apoptosis of infected cells. some examples for endogenous antigens consist of self-antigens, tumor antigens, alloantigens, and a few viral antigens in which the viruses are capable of integrate proviral DNA into the hosts genome.. ...
If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, - posted in Immunology: If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, what could be problem? Thanks.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tolerance induced by inhaled antigen involves CD4+ T cells expressing membrane-bound TGF-β and FOXP3. AU - Ostroukhova, Marina. AU - Seguin-Devaux, Carole. AU - Oriss, Timothy B.. AU - Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara. AU - Yang, Liyan. AU - Ameredes, Bill. AU - Corcoran, Timothy E.. AU - Ray, Anuradha. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - Under normal circumstances, the respiratory tract maintains immune tolerance in the face of constant antigen provocation. Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important contribution by CD4+ T cells in the establishment and maintenance of tolerance. The CD4+ T cells expressed both cell surface and soluble TGF-β and inhibited the development of an allergic phenotype when adoptively transferred to naive recipient mice. While cells expressing cell surface TGF-β were detectable in mice with inflammation, albeit at a lower frequency compared with that in tolerized mice, only those from ...
Experimental work has shown that T cells of the immune system rapidly and specifically respond to antigenic molecules presented on the surface of antigen-presenting-cells and are able to discriminate between potential stimuli based on the kinetic parameters of the T cell receptor-antigen bond. These antigenic molecules are presented among thousands of chemically similar endogenous peptides, raising the question of how T cells can reliably make a decision to respond to certain antigens but not others within minutes of encountering an antigen presenting cell. In this theoretical study, we investigate the role of localized rebinding between a T cell receptor and an antigen. We show that by allowing the signaling state of individual receptors to persist during brief unbinding events, T cells are able to discriminate antigens based on both their unbinding and rebinding rates. We demonstrate that T cell receptor coreceptors, but not receptor clustering, are important in promoting localized rebinding, and show
Synonyms for CD antigen in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for CD antigen. 15 words related to antigen: substance, immunizing agent, immunogen, immunology, agglutinogen, fetoprotein, foetoprotein, anatoxin, toxoid.... What are synonyms for CD antigen?
After you stop the AntigenService service, Antigen Scheduled Tasks remain on the server. This is particularly poignant on a cluster server. When Antigen Scheduled Tasks run on a passive node, they start up Antigen services, which try to connect to Exchange on the local node and access Antigen database files on the shared drive. The Antigen services are unable to achieve any of this and there is no immediate danger to the live nodes activities, but they will cause various errors in the Windows Application event log ...
... is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the bodys ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth. As such, understanding the processes and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation provides us with crucial insights necessary for the design of vaccines and therapeutic strategies to bolster T-cell responses.. ...
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
This paper describes the detection of 13 lymphocyte antigens in sheep. The results obtained from family studies are consistent with the hypothesis that at least 12 antigens are under the control of a single genetic system. The distribution of antigens in the population suggests that the system contains two loci. The 13 antigens were compared with those previously reported. Only one additional specificity was found ...
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What is the difference between A and B Antigens? Antigen A is found in people having blood group A and AB; antigen B is found in people having B and AB blood...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells rapidly die when put in culture implying that microenvironmental signals delivered by accessory cells confer CLL cells with a growth advantage. Recent findings show that CLL cells are antigen experienced and antigen binding play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the influence of the microenvironment and antigen binding in CLL.. In paper I, we studied the influence of the small redox-regulatory molecule thioredoxin (Trx) on CLL cell survival and proliferation. We found Trx to be highly expressed in CLL lymph nodes (LNs), secreted from stromal cells surrounding proliferating CLL cells in proliferation centers, indicating growth promoting properties. Secreted Trx was also shown to protect CLL cells from apoptosis.. In paper II, oxidized LDL was added to subset #1 CLL cells. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, we could not observe activation and proliferation of CLL cells. Instead subset #1 CLL ...
Antibody vs Antigen concentration effect - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Someone once described to me that if there are too many non-specific bands when performing Western blot that a solution is to load more lysate? If this is true would one achieve the same effect if the lysate amount is held constant and the antibody concentration titrated? I have been trying to track down a literature article describing this. Hoping someone can shed some light. Thanks
Colnaghi, M I.; Pierotti, M A.; and Porta, G D., "Humoral and cellular immune responses recognizing different antigens on murine lymphosarcomas. Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 1320 ...
Vaccination is the process of administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. The material administered can either be li
This appendix presents several methods for using fluorescence to evaluate bacterial viability and to explore the cell surface for the presence of various antigens for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes
These markers make up the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system and are different than the blood types (A, B, O or AB). In order to determine the compatibility between a donor and a recipient, we perform HLA typing, which is an analysis of the characteristics of the antigens or proteins present on the surface of the white blood cells. If there are not enough similarities between the HLA characteristics of the donor and the recipient, we cannot transplant the stem cells because this procedure would most certainly be a failure ...
A subgroup" antigens are inherited, as are other ABO antigens with A1 being dominant over A2. Individuals who are phenotypically A1 may be genotypically A1O, A1A1, or A1A2. A phenotypically A2 individual may be genotypically A2A3. These alleles are passed to offspring in the same manner as other ABO antigens ...
Looking for the definition of h-2 antigens? Find out what is the full meaning of h-2 antigens on Abbreviations.com! Viral Capsid Antigens is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
An effective way to generate human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses is by presenting antigens on dendritic dells (DCs), a system of antigen presenting cells (APCs...
Find right answers right now! If were all born with the same set of immunoglobulin genes, how is it that we can respond to different antigens? More questions about Science & Mathematics, how
The cleavage or denaturation of an antigen before it is presented, bound to either MHC class I or II molecules, to T cells. Extrinsic substances are endocytosed by accessory cells, processed and presented in association with MHC class II by antigen presenting cells. Cytoplasmic proteins are processed by the proteosome, and the peptides are presented in association with MHC class I. ...
Definition Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of cancer. Normally, its values range
Protein antigen (Ag)-based immunotherapies have the advantage to induce T cells with a potentially broad repertoire of specificities. However, soluble protein Ag is generally poorly cross-presented in
[48 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Interleukin 1 Receptor Type 1 (CD121 Antigen Like Family Member A or Interleukin 1 Receptor Alpha or p80 or CD121a or IL1R1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Interleukin 1 Receptor Type 1 (CD121 Antigen Like Family Member...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Passmore, H C., "An erythrocyte and serum antigen with a specificity antithetical to the mouse c4 associated h-2.7 Antigen." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2675 ...
Explains what are allergens and antigens, what is the difference between allergens and antigens and how do allergy sufferers come into contact with allergens.
Looking for the meaning of ca-19-9 antigen? Find out what is the meaning of ca-19-9 antigen on Phrases.net! The Webs largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
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The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
I need some HLA-I ANTIGEN ,who can tell me where have the antigen= in commercially or who can give me some ,thanks. my E-mail: sdwcy at yesky.com =D6=C2 =C0=F1=A3=A1 sdwcy sdwcy at yesky.com ...
Have you tried doing the two antibodies in reverse order? Sometimes the two antigens are configured such that the binding of antibodies to one blocks the access of antibodies to the other. Picture it as one antigen protruding farther from the cell surface than the other. If you stain the taller antigen first, it can form a protective shield, so to speak, that prevents antibodies from penetrating to the underlying shorter antigen. But, if you stain the shorter antigen first, then the taller one may still protrude far enough for its anitibody to find it. _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Paper I Heier I, Malmström K, Pelkonen AS, Malmberg LP, Kajosaari M, Turpeinen M, Lindahl H, Brandtzaeg P, Jahnsen FL, Mäkelä MJ. Bronchial response pattern of antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells in children less than 2 years of age. Thorax. 2008 Aug;63(8):703-9.Published Online First 4 February 2008. The paper is removed from the thesis in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2007.082974 ...
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Paradigm: Immunity is the result of co-evolution of microorganisms and the immune system Gram-Gram+Fungi INFECTIOUS NON SELF Virus Parasites Dendritic cells (DC): the sentinels of the immune system
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The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cel…
The process in which a dendritic cell expresses antigen (peptide or lipid) on its cell surface in association with an MHC protein complex.
Ongoing studies to develop immunologic or other diagnostic markers as cancer screening tests are described. A test for leukemias and lymphomas involved preparation of heterologous antisera, primarily in rabbits, that reacted against antigens associated with different types of human leukemias. Attempts to improve specificity and develop large amounts of reagents have involved the production of mono
Separation of antigens of low electrophoretic mobility by the method of immunofiltration 的翻译是:采用免疫渗滤法分离电泳迁移率较低的抗原 是什么意思?英文翻译中文,中文翻译英文,怎么说?-我要翻译网
What does Ag stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of Ag. The Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang Ag means Antigen. by AcronymAndSlang.com
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Learn how to reduce the risk of infection to other pets and family members through early, definitive detection with Fecal Dx antigen testing.
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What is vaccination?. Vaccination provides immunity to specific diseases. A person who had been vaccinated has artificial immunity. This is created by deliberate exposure to antigenic material that has been rendered harmless. The immune system treats the antigenic material, as a real disease. As a result, the immune system manufactures antibodies and memory cells. The memory cells provide the long-term immunity.. The antigenic material used in vaccinations can take a variety of forms:. · Whole, live microorganisms - usually ones that are not as harmful as those that cause the real disease. But they must have similar antigens so that the antibodies produced will be effective against the real pathogen (e.g. the smallpox vaccine).. · A harmless or attenuated version of the pathogenic organism (e.g. measles and TB vaccines). · A dead pathogen (e.g. typhoid and cholera vaccines).. · A preparation of the antigens from a pathogen (e.g. hepatitis B vaccine).. · Some harmless toxin (called a toxoid) ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Transplantation, Urology & Nephrology, TRANSPLANTATION, UROLOGY & NEPHROLOGY, chronic renal disease, dyslipidaemia, factor VII genotype, factor VII coagulant activity (VIIc), interleukin 6, prothrombin fragment F1+2, TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS, ISCHEMIC-HEART-DISEASE, ACTIVATED FACTOR-VII, UREMIC PATIENTS, GEMFIBROZIL, FAILURE, POLYMORPHISM, THROMBOSIS, STATE ...
Red blood cells contain various antigens in its surface. RBC containing antigen A, B, and AB in its surface are designated as blood group A, B and AB respectively. Blood group O do not contain both antigen A and antigen B in its surface. These blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecule. Our immune system usually makes IgM class of antibodies against carbohydrate antigen (as it gets no sufficient signals for class switching). These IgM antibodies (which are pentameric in nature) can bind specific antigens present in the surface of RBCs and can agglutinate RBC. So antibodies against ABO blood group antigens are called complete antibodies. RBC also contains another antigen in its surface, which is called Rh antigen. Rh antigens are protein in nature. When a person lacking Rh antigen (e.g. having negative blood group) is exposed to Rh antigen (during blood transfusion or mother during delivery of children having positive blood group), his/her immune system makes antibodies against Rh ...
A 16-year-old boy had IIB von Willebrands disease. The disorder is characterized by prolonged bleeding times; normal plasma levels of factor VIII-coagulant activity, factor VIII-ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII-related antigen; abnormal (anodal) mobility of plasma factor VIII-related antigen on two-dimensional crossed Immunoelectrophoresis; and enhanced binding of plasma factor VIII-related antigen to normal platelets in the presence of ristocetin. These variables were measured at time periods after an infusion of normal cryoprecipitate into the patient. The electrophoretic mobility of his plasma factor VIII-related antigen was normal 15 minutes after the infusion but became abnormal (anodal) by 4 hours. His bleeding times were normal after 24 hours and did not correlate with plasma levels of factor VIII-coagulant activity, factor VIII-ristocetin cofactor, factor VIII-related antigen, or the electrophoretic mobility of his plasma factor VIII-related antigen. These results imply ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Platelets and Factor VIII in von Willebrands Disease. AU - Green, D.. AU - Potter, E. V.. PY - 1977/6/9. Y1 - 1977/6/9. N2 - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor VIII antigen content of the two platelet pools when patients with von Willebrands disease of severe degree are given transfusions of plasma factor VIII?" We have performed in vitro and in vivo studies to answer his question. Immunofluorescent staining of platelets of patients with von Willebrands disease incubated with normal plasma indicated that factor VIII antigen did not become platelet bound unless aggregation was induced by ristocetin.2 Likewise, platelets obtained from such patients after cryoprecipitate infusion showed minimal or no staining before but intense staining. No extract is available for articles shorter than 400 words.. AB - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor VIII antigen content of the two platelet pools when ...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma in gynaecomastia and its immunohistochemical profile in this setting. METHODS: Eighty eight cases of gynaecomastia recovered from the files of the department of pathology, Botucatu School of Medicine from 1976 to 1996 were studied. In the cases associated with pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma, immunoreactivity for cytokeratins (CAM 5.2), vimentin, CD34, factor VIII related antigen, and the oestrogen and progesterone receptors were studied. RESULTS: Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma was found in 21 of 88 cases of gynaecomastia (23.8%). In all cases, the cells lining the spaces were positive for vimentin, whereas CAM 5.2 and factor VIII related antigen were consistently negative. Nineteen of the 21 cases showed immunoreactivity for CD34. Ductal epithelial cells were positive for both the oestrogen receptor and the progesterone receptor, whereas stromal cells were negative. CONCLUSIONS: ...

Indirect haemagglutination test using gonococcal pilus antigen: how useful to diagnose gonorrhoea? | Sexually Transmitted...Indirect haemagglutination test using gonococcal pilus antigen: how useful to diagnose gonorrhoea? | Sexually Transmitted...

In 1979 an indirect haemagglutination test (gonococcal antibody test) using gonococcal pilus antigen replaced the gonococcal ... Indirect haemagglutination test using gonococcal pilus antigen: how useful to diagnose gonorrhoea? ... Indirect haemagglutination test using gonococcal pilus antigen: how useful to diagnose gonorrhoea? ...
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HBc IgM ELISA Screening 96 wells, Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen, Elisa KitsHBc IgM ELISA Screening 96 wells, Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen, Elisa Kits

... for determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus core Antigen in plasma and sera with the capture system. ... An Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus core Antigen in plasma and sera ...
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Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: A randomised, prospective, controlled multi...Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: A randomised, prospective, controlled multi...

N2 - Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... AB - Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... abstract = "Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ...
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Antigen - WikipediaAntigen - Wikipedia

Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen

Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive...Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive...

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Minimal enhancer/ ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/57/13/2559

Anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICONAnti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON

Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... Anti-sm (Smith Antigen) (SLE / Nuclear Marker) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / ... 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated from AbD Serotec. 11. Mouse Anti-Human B-Cells (FMC7 Antigen) Monoclonal ... Mouse Anti-HLA, Class II Antigen-DR+DP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 236-14240 from Meridian Life Science, Inc.. 4. ...
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Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous...Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous...

DCs, the most potent immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells known, activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells by ... tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses were assessed using cutaneous DTH testing against antigens present in autologous tumor ... prostate-specific antigen; PSMA, prostate-specific membrane antigen; RCR, replication-competent retrovirus. ... One of the antigen epitopes, present in a 150-kDa polypeptide, was expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as in ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/59/20/5160

Fungal Antigens | SpringerLinkFungal Antigens | SpringerLink

Candida Antigen and Arabinitol Levels in the Sera of Patients With Proven or Probable Invasive Candidosis ... Mannan Antigen of Candida Albicans and Cellular Immune Responses in Vitro and in Vivo ... Candida Mannan Antigen Detection Versus Quantitative Culture in urine, Sputum, Stool, and Vaginal Swabs ... Antigens for the Detection of Candidaguilliermondii var. Guilliermondii Infection in Ruminants ...
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Hla Antigens | Encyclopedia.comHla Antigens | Encyclopedia.com

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of ... Antigen World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Antigen. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins ... Type A blood has one kind of antigen and type B another. A person with type AB blood has both the A and B antigen. Type O blood ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/hla-antigens

Antigens - ConservapediaAntigens - Conservapedia

The presence of antigens in the body triggers an immune response, usually the production of antibodies."[1] ... According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Antigens are "foreign substances (e.g. bacteria or viruses) in the ... Retrieved from "https://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Antigens&oldid=1510146" ...
more infohttps://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Antigens&printable=yes

Antigens: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageAntigens: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. ... An antigen is a substance that can provoke an immune response. ... An antigen is a substance that can provoke an immune response. Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/9071.htm

Sensitivity to mycobacterial antigensSensitivity to mycobacterial antigens

Damluji, Salem F. (‎1974)‎. Sensitivity to mycobacterial antigens. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 51 (‎3)‎, 279 - ...
more infohttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260758

Carcinoembryonic antigen - WikipediaCarcinoembryonic antigen - Wikipedia

Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ... In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. The following is a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinoembryonic_antigen

AntigensAntigens

Cookies are important for the proper functioning of a website. In order to improve your experience, we use cookies to keep the login information and provide a secure connection, collect the statistics to optimize the functionality of the website and adapt the content to your interests. Click on "Accept and Continue" to accept cookies and access to the website or you can refer to our Privacy Policy.. ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/diagnostics/infectious-disease/antigens

Australia antigen | BritannicaAustralia antigen | Britannica

An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ... that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and ... Other articles where Australia antigen is discussed: connective tissue disease: Necrotizing vasculitides: ... An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/Australia-antigen

AntigensAntigens

An easy-to-use directory for life science and biomedical research products. Find special deals on products, order catalogs and browse product lines from suppliers of reagents, antibodies, laboratory equipment, and more.
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Antigen - WikipediaAntigen - Wikipedia

Hentet fra «https://no.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antigen&oldid=17089410» ...
more infohttps://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen

Tissue Antigens: Ingenta Connect PublicationTissue Antigens: Ingenta Connect Publication

Tissue Antigens. ISSN 0001-2815 (Print); ISSN 1399-0039 (Online) Visit publication homepage ...
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Carcinoembryonic AntigenCarcinoembryonic Antigen

... is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal ... It is also referred to as an oncofetal antigen because of its similarity to fetal tissue. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/carcinoembryonic-antigen

Cancer Tumor antigens.  - PubMed - NCBICancer Tumor antigens. - PubMed - NCBI

Cancer Tumor antigens.. Boon T1, Old LJ.. Author information. 1. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Avenue Hippocrate 74, UCL ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9438857?dopt=Abstract

Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test AntigensNationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens

... CDC is expecting a 3-10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol, a product ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... 06/21/2019: Lab Advisory: Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. ... of Par Pharmaceuticals, and one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug ...
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Antigens, CD34 - MeSH - NCBIAntigens, CD34 - MeSH - NCBI

All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsAntigensAntigens, SurfaceAntigens, DifferentiationAntigens, CD ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsBiomarkersAntigens, DifferentiationAntigens, CDAntigens, CD34 ... Antigens, CD34. Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Antigens,+CD34%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

Antigen Processing | SpringerLinkAntigen Processing | SpringerLink

Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for the presentation to special cells in the immune system ... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for the presentation to special cells in the immune system ... In Antigen Processing: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide a comprehensive set of protocols for ... Authoritative and practical, Antigen Processing: Methods and Protocols is designed for beginners and experts interested in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-62703-218-6

CD Antigens Information Finder on the App StoreCD Antigens Information Finder on the App Store

Download CD Antigens Information Finder and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about CD Antigens Information Finder. ... The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al., 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies ... The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including ...
more infohttps://itunes.apple.com/us/app/cd-antigens-information-finder/id408368311?mt=8
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Antigens are "foreign substances (e.g. bacteria or viruses ) in the body that are capable of causing disease. (conservapedia.com)
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (uptodate.com)
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In Antigen Processing: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers in the field provide a comprehensive set of protocols for studying presentation of antigens produced in the standard processing pathways for MHC class I and class II molecules. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Granulysin is a member of the saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) family and is released from cytotoxic T cells upon antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CT antigens have been described in melanoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and pediatric tumors such as neuroblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific function of the MHC system, including the mechanisms of antigen presentation, is discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (apple.com)
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed much of the early knowledge of the antigen complex came from work on mice in the early decades of the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is synonymous with the human MHC. (uptodate.com)
  • First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan antigens which exist in yeast cell wall. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Third, capsular polysaccharide antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans can be tested through latex agglutination test or ELISA. (selfgrowth.com)
  • However, in cancer these developmental antigens are often re-expressed and can serve as a locus of immune activation. (wikipedia.org)