Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Maackia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.

*Equine influenza

... undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and vaccine protection from immunogenic stimulation is maximised when vaccines strains ... Avian influenza Canine influenza Human influenza "Equine Influenza". www.aaep.org. Retrieved 2016-12-04. Paillot, Romain (2014 ... Equine influenza is caused by several strains of the influenza A virus endemic to horses. Viruses that cause equine influenza ... Equine influenza (horse flu) is the disease caused by strains of influenza A that are enzootic in horse species. Equine ...

*Antigenic drift

"Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift". Vaccine. 25 (39-40): 6852-62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.027. PMID ... To meet the challenge of antigenic drift, vaccines that confer broad protection against heterovariant strains are needed ... All influenza viruses experience some form of antigenic drift, but it is most pronounced in the influenza A virus. Antigenic ... "Vaccination and antigenic drift in influenza". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 3: C8-14. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.011. PMC 2603026 . ...

*OIE/FAO Network of Expertise on Animal Influenza

To date, these Technical Activities have delivered guidance on diagnostic protocols, antigenic matching of vaccine strains with ... surveillance and control of animal influenza. • To exchange scientific data and biological materials (including virus strains) ... including pandemic preparedness for early preparation of human vaccine. • To highlight influenza surveillance and research ... This includes animal influenza experts from the OIE and FAO Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, and from other ...

*H5N1 clinical trials

... a universal vaccine requires that researchers identify conserved regions of the influenza virus that do not exhibit antigenic ... Such a vaccine would not need to be reengineered each year and could protect against an emergent pandemic strain. Developing ... "A universal influenza vaccine could provide protection against all types of influenza and would eliminate the need to develop ... pandemic influenza vaccine Phase I trials meet primary objectives. On April 17, 2007 the US FDA approved "Influenza Virus ...

*Viral shift

... strain of influenza in which the change is known as an antigenic shift. Existing vaccines or natural antibodies cannot produce ... A viral shift is the sudden emergence of a seemingly novel strain of a virus. It is a prerequisite viral condition for ... an immune response to the new strain. Viral shift is caused by viral subunit reassortment, as opposed to simple random mutation ...

*Influenza A virus subtype H2N2

... and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak. The Asian flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift ... H2N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian flu strain (now extinct ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... accidentally released Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic ...

*Antigenic shift

... or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza ... Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift, which is the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or ... Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem) can infect pigs or other ... One increasingly worrying situation is the possible antigenic shift between avian influenza and human influenza. This antigenic ...

*Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

"WHO changes H5N1 strains for pandemic vaccines, raising concern over virus evolution". CIDRAP. August 18, 2006. "Antigenic and ... The current strain of H5N1 responsible for the deaths of birds across the world is an HPAI strain; all other current strains of ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... while vaccines can sometimes provide cross-protection against related flu strains, the best protection would be from a vaccine ...

*Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

Because of a striking similarity in the viral RNA of both strains - one which is unlikely to appear in nature due to antigenic ... The virus was included in the 1978-1979 influenza vaccine. See also 1889-1890 flu pandemic for the earlier Russian flu pandemic ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). In June 2009, the World Health ...

*Original antigenic sin

2009 Vaccine after Recent Seasonal Influenza Vaccination". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 18 (9): 1519-1523. doi:10.1128/CVI. ... The specificity and the quality of the immune response against novel strains of influenza is often diminished in individuals ... than those in a viral vaccine) would fail to be controlled by the vaccine. In fact, the vaccine might make the infection even ... Original antigenic sin is of particular importance in the application of vaccines. In dengue fever, the effect of original ...

*Historical annual reformulations of the influenza vaccine

... featuring an additional B-strain. The following is a list of WHO recommended strains for the Northern Hemisphere influenza ... vaccine component because of antigenic changes in earlier A/Victoria/361/2011-like vaccine viruses (such as IVR-165) resulting ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 influenza season" (PDF). WHO. Retrieved 18 October 2012 ... "Recommended viruses for influenza vaccines for use in the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. Retrieved 14 ...

*Host (biology)

An influenza vaccine produced against an existing viral strain might not be effective against this new strain, which then ... For instance, the production of antigenic shifts in Influenza A virus can result from pigs being infected with the virus from ... "The Influenza (Flu) Viruses: Transmission of Influenza Viruses from Animals to People". Centers for Disease Control and ... requires a new influenza vaccine to be prepared for the protection of the human population. Some hosts participate in fully ...

*Human mortality from H5N1

... influenza/country/en/ Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) A strain ... WHO (August 18, 2006). "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... For example, no influenza vaccine specific to H5N1 could be produced when it emerged in Hong Kong in 1997, because it was ... and DNA-based vaccines, as well as stockpiling available vaccines and antivirals and increasing vaccine manufacturing capacity ...

*Swine influenza

Swine can be infected by both avian and human flu strains of influenza, and therefore are hosts where the antigenic shifts can ... Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-2120. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... Influenza B has not been reported in pigs. Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ...

*National Influenza Centers

They ship newly isolated strains to WHO CCs for high level antigenic and genetic analysis, the result of which forms the basis ... Influenza Centers are the WHO Collaborating Centres and reference laboratories that are involved in annual influenza vaccine ... National Influenza Centers (also called National Influenza Centres) are institutions which are formally recognized as such by ... for WHO recommendations on the composition of influenza vaccine for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere each year." Among the ...

*H5N1 vaccine

Vaccines against Avian Influenza - A Race against Time CIDRAP News article WHO changes H5N1 strains for pandemic vaccines, ... article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as ... A H5N1 vaccine is an influenza vaccine intended to provide immunization to influenza A virus subtype H5N1. Vaccines have been ... Vaccine experts aren't sure if a vaccine effective against known H5N1 viral strains would be effective against future strains. ...

*Antigenic variation

A new vaccine is required every year because influenza virus has the ability to undergo antigenic drift. Antigenic shift occurs ... This occurs in influenza every couple of decades. Antigenic sift: direct transmission with a zoonotic strain of a virus. This ... The influenza-specific memory B-cells reach their maxima at day 14-21. The secreted antibodies are specific to the vaccine ... "Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antibody Escape Promotes Neuraminidase Antigenic Variation and Drug Resistance". PLoS ONE. 6 (2 ...

*Influenza vaccine

They ship newly isolated strains to WHO CCs for high level antigenic and genetic analysis, the result of which forms the basis ... PATH's Vaccine Resource Library influenza resources CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement Vaccines and ... Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses. A ... Recently,[when?] the US FDA approved influenza vaccines made by growing virus in cell cultures and influenza vaccines made from ...

*Influenza A virus subtype H3N2

Sixty-one influenza B viruses tested belong to the B/Yamagata lineage and are related to the vaccine strain (B/Florida/04/2006 ... The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal Hot topic - Fujian-like strain A influenza New Scientist: Bird Flu Influenza Research ...

*Fujian flu

Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2) isolates characterized, 106 (11.2%) were similar antigenically to the vaccine strain A/Panama/ ... "WHO changes H5N1 strains for pandemic vaccines, raising concern over virus evolution". CIDRAP. 18 August 2006. "Antigenic and ... "WHO changes H5N1 strains for pandemic vaccines, raising concern over virus evolution". CIDRAP. 2006-08-18. "Antigenic and ... He said if an avian influenza pandemic emerges, a strain-specific vaccine will need to be developed to treat the disease. ...

*Evolution of influenza

... is the antigenic drift of the HA and NA genes that allow for the virus to infect humans that receive vaccines for other strains ... vaccine strain selection, and of future possible influenza strains. By looking at how previous strains have evolved and gained ... The mechanism of the evolutionary force of antigenic shift allows influenza viruses to exchange genes with strains that infect ... Under this mechanism, a human influenza virus could exchange genes with an avian strain, and that is how pandemic strains arise ...

*Influenza pandemic

Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which ... 1889-90 flu pandemic Spanish flu Influenza vaccines Timeline of influenza List of epidemics - contains within it, influenza ... Pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process and timeline". www.WHO.int. Retrieved 19 January 2018. "Influenza vaccine ...

*Reassortment

If a single host (a human, a chicken, or other animal) is infected by two different strains of the influenza virus, then it is ... avian and human influenza genetic sequences. Antigenic shift Alberts, B.; Bray, D.; Roberts, K.; Lewis, J.; Raff, M. (1997). ... An animation from hhmi.org illustrating the process Hood E (February 2006). "Flu Vaccine Production Gets a Shot in the Arm". ... The new reassortant strain will share properties of both of its parental lineages. Reassortment is responsible for some of the ...

*Herd immunity

Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... For both influenza and norovirus, epidemics temporarily induce herd immunity until a new dominant strain emerges, causing ... At the molecular level, viruses escape from herd immunity through antigenic drift, which is when mutations accumulate in the ... Kim, T. H. (2014). "Seasonal influenza and vaccine herd effect". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 3 (2): 128-32. doi ...

*Influenzavirus C

Influenza viruses A, B and C represent the three antigenic types of influenza viruses. Of the three antigenic types, influenza ... The strains expected to be most harmful are put into the vaccine for that year's flu vaccine. These vaccines are more commonly ... antigenic shift). Influenza virus C is only capable of antigenic drift whereas type A undergo antigenic shift, as well. When ... Influenza viruses A and B also cause seasonal epidemics every year due to their ability to antigenic shift. Influenza virus C ...
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenzaInfluenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed ...
Lancet Infectious Diseases Jan 2018 Volume 18 Number 1 p1-122 e1-e32 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against…
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based ...
Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human ...
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (66.6%), more ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split ...
Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and stepwise backward selection method for ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine against all-cause acute otitis media in childre were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called "universal" influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on "Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines" was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell ...
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an ...
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant ...
The early onset of the 2012-13 influenza season offered an opportunity to provide an early VE estimate. Overall, the estimate suggests that the 2012-13 influenza vaccine has moderate effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses, similar to a summary VE estimate from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trial data (2). Influenza vaccination, even with moderate effectiveness, has been shown to reduce illness, antibiotic use, doctor visits, time lost from work, hospitalizations, and deaths (6). Results for the 2012-13 season indicate that vaccination has reduced the risk for influenza-associated medical visits by approximately 60%, demonstrating the benefits of influenza vaccination during the current season. Influenza activity is likely to continue for ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Looking for online definition of influenza vaccine in the Medical Dictionary? influenza vaccine explanation free. What is influenza vaccine? Meaning of influenza vaccine medical term. What does influenza vaccine mean?
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title "Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast" cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • ...
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly ...
No safety signals were observed with the administration of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine, according to a large population study.
Vol 5: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This report summarizes recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) concerning influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) in the United States. These recommendations apply to HCP in acute care hospitals, nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, physicians offices, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics, and to persons who provide home health care and emergency medical services. The recommendations are targeted at health-care facility administrators, infection-control professionals, and occupational health professionals responsible for influenza vaccination programs and influenza infection-control programs in their institutions. HICPAC and ACIP recommend that all HCP be vaccinated annually against influenza. Facilities that employ HCP are strongly ...
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed ...
During weeks 22 and 23 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity remained low in many parts of the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere the influenza season started in some countries with local outbreaks reported. Globally, A(H3N2) viruses remained the dominant virus followed by influenza B and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses respectively. In Asia, influenza A(H3N2) activity has remained high in the China Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. In week 23, a detection of an oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, the 20th case since 2009, was reported. In Europe, influenza activity was low with sporadic detections reported.. In North America, among the continuing declining detections of influenza viruses, ...
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire ...
This report updates 1999 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-4]: 1-29). These recommendations include five principal changes: a) the age for universal vaccination has been lowered to 50 years from 65 years; b) scheduling of large, organized vaccination campaigns after mid-October may be considered because the availability of vaccine in any location cannot be assured consistently in the early fall; c) 2000-2001 trivalent vaccine virus strains are A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like, and B/Beijing/184/93-like strains; d) information on neuraminidase-inhibitor antiviral drugs has been added; and e) a list of other influenza-related infection control documents for special populations has been added. This report and other information on ...
We therefore evaluated the efficacy of influenza vaccination in SLE patients in several ways. With respect to the percentage of patients who achieved seroconversion or a fourfold titre rise we found that influenza vaccination was less effective for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in SLE patients. Accordingly, fewer SLE patients achieved a protective titre after vaccination against both the influenza A strains together when compared with healthy controls, despite the fact that more patients than controls had received a vaccination with the same viral antigens the year before. We suggest that the GMT in SLE patients after vaccination did not differ from the controls because GMT before vaccination was higher in the patients-which can easily be accounted for by their higher rate of previous vaccination. The conclusion that SLE patients appear to have a decreased immune response compared with healthy controls ...
Influenza remains a potentially significant and largely preventable source of morbidity and mortality, yet vaccine coverage is low. Young children are at particular risk for underimmunization because they may need to receive 2 doses in a current season. Even among those young children that initiate vaccination, only 40% receive the important second dose, yet one dose does not confer adequate protection. Low-income, urban children may be at particular risk of not receiving two doses. While traditional mail and phone immunization reminders notifying families that a vaccine is due have had limited efficacy in low-income, urban populations, we have demonstrated the success of using text messages. Comparing the effectiveness of different forms of reminders on receipt of this critical second dose of influenza vaccine has not been studied. Besides failure to remember to return for subsequent doses, receipt of 2 doses of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine administration in older adults. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Tsai, T. F.. AU - Chang, Hyun ah. AU - Choi, Min Joo. AU - Jeon, Ji Ho. AU - Kang, Seong Hee. AU - Jeong, Eun Ju. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines facilitates their uptake by older adults; however, data on immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) have not been reported. Methods: Subjects aged ≥65 years (. N=. 224) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive MF59-aIIV3 alone, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in contralateral arms, MF59-aIIV3. +. ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, ...
Latest industry research report on Influenza Vaccines Market. Influenza is a type of seasonal or pandemic condition causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. The severity of influenza symptoms varies across age groups and type of influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately, 3 to 5 million people are prone to seasonal epidemics, annually.. The growing number of ageing population and an increase in the frequency of seasonal influenza outbreak supplement the demand for influenza vaccines across the healthcare industry. Intellectual property rights are providing security to the patent holders, thereby, increases their market share. However, the upcoming patent expirations for top influenza ...
[177 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report...
Abstract. Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
The aim of the study is to demonstrate safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent influenza intradermal (QIV-ID) vaccine compared to the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing the B strain from the primary (Yamagata) lineage (TIV-ID1) and the trivalent influenza vaccine containing B strain from the alternate (Victoria) lineage (TIV-ID2) vaccines in producing protection against four strains of influenza virus.. Primary Objective:. ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could ...
Intercell Supports the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination Recommendations of CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - Expanded Guidelines to include availability of IXIARO(R) vaccine for
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in the United States. AU - Weinberger, Daniel M.. AU - Simonsen, Lone. AU - Jordan, Richard. AU - Steiner, Claudia. AU - Miller, Mark. AU - Viboud, Cecile. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - BACKGROUND:Infection with influenza virus increases the risk for developing pneumococcal disease. The A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in autumn 2009 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this relationship.METHODS:Using weekly age-, state-, and cause-specific hospitalizations from the US State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003-2009, we quantified the increase in pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates above a seasonal baseline during the pandemic period.RESULTS:We found a significant increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations from late August to mid-December 2009, which corresponded to the ...
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According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its "Prevention and Control of Influenza" guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or "bird flu," is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are ...
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). ...
Health care providers should not use live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the upcoming 2016-17 season due to poor effectiveness, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee said Wednesday.. Academy leaders say they support the interim recommendation by the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. "We agree with ACIPs decision today to recommend health care providers and parents use only the inactivated vaccine for this influenza season," said AAP President Benard Dreyer, M.D., FAAP.. The AAP recommends children ages 6 months and older be immunized against influenza every year. Previously, the CDC and AAP had recommended either form of flu vaccine - the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) that is given by injection and is approved for all patients older than 6 months, or LAIV which is given by intranasal spray and is approved for ...
Influenza B viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics. This property may be a consequence of the limited host range of the virus - humans and seals - which limits the generation of new strains by reassortment. The virus causes significant morbidity: in the US in 2008, approximately one-third of all laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were caused by influenza B (as shown on the first graph on this CDC page). Consequently the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains an influenza B virus component. ...
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of laboratory-confirmed ...
The World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Department of Health, and Human Services (HHS) and other like-minded organizations and governments are committed to assisting in the creation of regionally-based, independent and sustainable vaccine production capacity in developing and emerging economy countries through capacity building and technology transfer. As a means of initiating a coordinated discussion among the international community regarding this shared goal, WHO and HHS convened the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop in Washington D.C. in January 2010. A key theme that emerged during the workshop discussions was the fact that sustainable vaccine production capacity cannot be achieved in the absence of robust national regulatory systems. A robust regulatory system is one the exhibits the capability to perform their regulatory functions with consistency under a wide range of conditions. There is a need to increase the current ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting ...
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during infection. We found a large increase in influenza-specific T cell responses by day 7, when virus was completely cleared from nasal samples and serum antibodies were still undetectable. Preexisting CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells responding to influenza internal proteins were associated with lower virus shedding and less severe illness. These CD4+ cells also responded to pandemic H1N1 (A/CA/07/2009) peptides and showed evidence of cytotoxic activity. These cells ...
EFSAs role is to provide EU risk managers with independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the animal health and welfare dimension of avian influenza and any possible food safety issues. Since the risk of avian influenza was first identified, EFSA has issued a substantial body of scientific advice to assist risk managers in making appropriate decisions and actions. To carry out its scientific work, EFSA exchanges information with national food safety authorities, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and other international organisations active in this field.. EFSA has provided scientific advice on the food safety aspects of avian influenza confirming that there is no available epidemiological evidence that avian influenza can be transmitted to humans through consumption of food.. EFSA has also issued advice on ...
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various ...
Three main research products are reported in this dissertation. This research focused on estimation of the seroprevalence rates in agricultural workers with exposure to pigs and poultry, and determination of risk factors for infection. Chapter 2, Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus?, reports controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among farmers, meat processing workers, veterinarians, and control subjects. Using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against six influenza A virus isolates, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Chapter 3, Infection due to 3 avian influenza subtypes in United States veterinarians, describes a controlled, ...
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is the main member of the immunophilin superfamily that has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. CypA participates in protein folding, cell signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Further, CypA plays critical roles in the replication of several viruses. Upon influenza virus infection, CypA inhibits viral replication by interacting with the M1 protein. In addition, CypA is incorporated into the influenza virus virions. Finally, Cyclosporin A (CsA), the main inhibitor of CypA, inhibits influenza virus replication through CypA-dependent and -independent pathways. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of CypA during influenza virus infection.
Diversity, flexibility, adaptability: three key features that contribute to the efficient transmission and continued existence of influenza A viruses.. Influenza A viruses (IVA) are enveloped viruses, classified as a genus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. This virus family includes seven genera housing viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates (Influenza A-D), infect salmon (ISAvirus) or that are arboviruses (Thogotovirus) infecting vertebrates and invertebrates such as ticks and mosquitoes. In humans and farm animals IVA is the most important group, inducing dramatic diseases in humans and other mammals as well as in birds. Based on the variability of the two viral surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, IVA can be divided into 16 HA- and 9 NA-subtypes, with the recent addition of two new subtypes detected in tropical bats (H17N10, H18N11). In birds, 16 HA ...
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle ...
In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 ...
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated influenza virus ...
The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demand on public health authorities and the vaccine industry. Efforts were coordinated internationally to maximise the speed of vaccine development, distribution, and delivery, and the European Unions novel fast-track authorisation procedures mandated increased postmarketing surveillance to monitor vaccine safety. Clinicians in Finland and Sweden later identified an apparent increase in the incidence of narcolepsy associated with a specific adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. After extensive review, the European Medicines Agency confirmed the existence of this association, which has since been detected in England, Ireland, France, and Norway. Assessments of the causal mechanisms continue. In this Review, we discuss how the narcolepsy association was detected, and we present the evidence according to the causality assessment criteria for adverse events following immunisation. The ...
Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted highly-pathogenic ...
Canine influenza H3N8 virus originated in horses, has spread to dogs, and can now spread between dogs. The H3N8 equine influenza (horse flu) virus has been known to exist in horses for more than 40 years. In 2004, however, cases of an unknown respiratory illness in dogs (initially greyhounds) were reported in the United States. An investigation showed that this respiratory illness was caused by the equine influenza A H3N8 virus. Scientists believe this virus jumped species (from horses to dogs) and has adapted to cause illness in dogs and spread among dogs, especially those housed in kennels and shelters. This is now considered a dog-specific H3N8 virus. In September 2005, this virus was identified by experts as a "newly emerging pathogen in the dog population" in the United States.. The H3N2 canine influenza virus is an avian flu virus that adapted to infect dogs. This ...
http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/clinician_pregnant.htm (2 of 4) [4/28/2009 4:21:44 PM] CDC - Influenza (Flu) , Interim Guidance Pregnant Women and Swine Influenza: Considerations for Clinicians The risk for swine influenza A (H1N1) might be reduced by taking steps to reduce the chance of being exposed to respiratory infections. There is no vaccine available yet to prevent swine influenza A (H1N1). These actions include frequent handwashing, covering coughs, and having ill persons stay home, except to seek medical care, and minimize contact with others in the household who may be ill with swine flu. Additional measures that can limit transmission of a new influenza strain include voluntary home quarantine of members of households with confirmed or probable swine influenza cases, reduction of unnecessary social ...
Influenza A and B viruses cause a pandemic threat to human health throughout the world [1]. Sporadic transmission of influenza viruses from birds to humans could lead to unpredictable pandemic outbreaks. Influenza is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract that can infect millions of people and kills hundreds of thousands of them [2]. Humans, infected with influenza A, manifest typically an acute upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, and sore throat. Disease severity depends mainly on the virulence of the influenza virus strain and immune competence of the patients [3]. Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and they are further classed as A, B, and C viruses [4]. Until now, 17 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes ...
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt ...
Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the pulmonary route with live nonpathogenic influenza virus, strain Udorn (H3N2), survived challenge with mouse-adapted pathogenic influenza virus, strain PR/8/34 (H1N1). These mice developed strong heterosubtypic CTL responses in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLN), and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Alternately, only 20% of mice immunized intravenously, intraperitoneally, or intranasally survived the challenge; all of these developed CTL responses in spleen and CLN, but not in MLN. Direct correlation between short-term and long-term memory heterosubtypic CTL ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were ...
What Can Traditional Chinese Medicine Do For You During The Flu Season? The flu season is hitting us particularly hard this season. Its been everywhere in the news. Some hospitals are making it mandatory that workers in high-risk areas receive the flu vaccine. Generally, most flu activity in the US occurs from November through March. The best way to treat a disease is to prevent it. It is absolutely a bad idea to wait to dig a well until you are thirsty. So, do something to enhance your qi now, before the influenza virus shoots you down. In China, special anti-virus teas are usually given in public schools to help prevent illness during the flu season. Chinese herbs such as Huang Qi (Astralagus) and Dang Shen (Codonopsis) are used to strengthen qi and to boost the immune system. Herbs such as Ban Lan Gen (Isatis) and Da Qing Ye (Daqingye) are commonly used as anti-virus herbs. ...
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid ...
Since prehistoric times, the Bering Strait area (Beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the Old and the New Worlds. On a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and Pt. Barrow, Alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. Four of 202 samples (2%) from Alaska were positive for influenza A virus RNA in two independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening assays, while all shorebird samples from the Chukchi Peninsula were negative. Subtypes H3N8 and H6N1 were recorded once, while subtype H8N4 was found in two samples. Full-length sequences were obtained from the three unique isolates, and phylogenetic analysis with representative sequences for the Eurasian and North American lineages of influenza A virus showed that one HA gene clustered with the ...
Influenza Influenza virus got first acknowledged in 1933. There are two main types of influenza: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A usually causes a more severe illness than influenza B. So what is influenza exactly? Influenza or flu (as we know it commonly) is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Some of the symptoms of influenza are headache, fever, cough, cold, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. Though, these symptoms are mild, there may arise serious complications like bronchitis and secondary bacterial pneumonia. However you dont need to worry if you are attacked by the ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could ...
UF College of Veterinary Medicine officials have confirmed more than one dozen cases of canine influenza A virus, a.k.a. "dog flu." The first twelve dogs tested have been confirmed with the strain of influenza A known as H3N2 CIV. Dogs testing positive for the H3N2 strain were either at the Perry, Georgia dog show May 19-21 or the Deland, Florida dog show the following weekend, or were exposed to dogs who were present at these shows. This is the same strain responsible for the severe outbreak of canine influenza in Chicago in 2015.. Veterinarians in central and north Florida are treating many dogs that are suspected to have dog flu. All dogs being treated are in stable condition. Common symptoms of dog flu include sneezing, nasal discharge and frequent coughing. If your dog exhibits any of these symptoms, please call your pets veterinarian before taking your pet in for treatment.. There is no evidence that ...
Public Health in the National News - During the recent government shutdown, news media frequently mentioned that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had stopped surveillance testing for the influenza virus. What is surveillance testing and why is tracking influenza outbreaks important? The Nebraska Public Health Labs assistant director, Anthony Sambol, and state training coordinator, Karen Stiles, help shed some light on the process recommended by the CDC.. The Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services Office of Epidemiology has had a comprehensive, statewide influenza surveillance testing system in place since 1999. This system actively tracks the type and incidence of influenza infections in our state. When a patient is diagnosed by the Rapid Influenza Detection Test as having an ...
Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is little information concerning the efficacy of vaccination in specific groups of patients. In this study, 52 patients underwent vaccination against influenza, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as they attended hospital outpatient clinics. Serum was analysed prior to vaccination and 4-6 weeks afterwards. Antibody titres against S. pneumoniae and Hib were compared with reference values corresponding to the geometric mean titres of a healthy UK population. For influenza vaccination, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres were measured against three inactivated strains; a titre of , or = 1/40 was considered protective. No patient had protective titres to all three antigens prior to vaccination and 41 ...
Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus (AIV) and at least 105 species of wild birds have been reported to harbor these viruses [1]. The migratory nature of these bird populations may help disseminate AIV across countries and continents. Most of the wild birds have been reported to harbor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses [2-5] although highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have also been isolated from some species [6]. To understand how AIV is evolving in nature, it is important to identify the AIV subtypes circulating within wild bird populations.. A number of surveillance programs have been undertaken to isolate and identify the subtypes of AIV present in wild bird species e.g., waterfowl and geese [3, 7, 8] with limited reports in raptors. Thus, van Borm et al [9] detected HPAI H5N1 in Thai eagles that were smuggled into Belgium and Ducatez et al [10] ...
We at Bernville Veterinary Clinic - Pet Spa & Resort are now recommending that our dog patients be vaccinated for Canine Influenza and will require it for our Spa guests. Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) is an influenza virus that is relatively new and highly contagious. It can be a part of a complex of viral and bacterial upper respiratory agents causing illness in dogs. Different parts of the country have experienced outbreaks, including the northeast and Pennsylvania. Signs of Canine Flu are very similar to Kennel Cough except usually more severe. These signs include coughing mainly; fever, ocular & nasal discharge, and sneezing. The disease can progress to pneumonia in severe cases. About 80% of dogs exposed to the virus will show signs of the Flu and up to 8% can die from infection. The 20% who show no signs will still shed and spread the virus. The virus can remain active on hands for up to 12 hours and ...
Overwhelming inflammatory responses leading to neutrophil invasion are hypothesised to be the main cause of mortality in influenza virus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previously, pulmonary surfactant has been shown to modulate inflammatory responses to bacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant on innate immune responses in an in vitro model of influenza virus infected human airway epithelial cells. Human lung type II alveolar epithelial cells A549 and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were infected with influenza A virus H1N1 strains A/Swine/1976/31, A/WSN/33 and A/PR/8/34. Poly I:C, Escherichia coli Ol 11 :B4 LPS and measles virus strain Edmonston were used as cytokine stimulation controls. The effect of pulmonary surfactant was compared to that of dexamethasone. This in vitro study showed that ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can ...
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with ...
CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low WASHINGTON, April 6, 2015 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a third commercial turkey flock in Stearns County, Minnesota. This is the sixth confirmation in a commercial flock in Minnesota. The flock of 76,000 turkeys is located within the Mississippi flyway where this strain of avian influenza has previously been identified. CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low. No human infections with the virus have been detected at this time.. This flock is in the control area for a previous detection. As part of our response protocol, samples were tested by the University of Minnesota ...
While many connect flu vaccine time with October or November, its not too late to get inoculated in December or even in January.. Just this week, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported widespread flu activity in Georgia, Florida and Alabama. Regional flu activity was reported this week in South Carolina, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas.. These reports indicate that the flu has taken hold in the South, said Curtis Allen, a spokesman for the CDC.. "Getting vaccinated in December or even later can still be beneficial because most influenza activity occurs in January or later in most years," he said.. Right after Thanksgiving, the CDC launched its first-ever National Influenza Vaccination Week. Public service announcements urged the populace to "catch the holiday spirit, not the flu.". And it looks like the chances of finding sites with vaccine available are good in the ...
While many connect flu vaccine time with October or November, its not too late to get inoculated in December or even in January.. Just this week, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported widespread flu activity in Georgia, Florida and Alabama. Regional flu activity was reported this week in South Carolina, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas.. These reports indicate that the flu has taken hold in the South, said Curtis Allen, a spokesman for the CDC.. "Getting vaccinated in December or even later can still be beneficial because most influenza activity occurs in January or later in most years," he said.. Right after Thanksgiving, the CDC launched its first-ever National Influenza Vaccination Week. Public service announcements urged the populace to "catch the holiday spirit, not the flu.". And it looks like the chances of finding sites with vaccine available are good in the ...
As of Sunday at 9 a.m., the CDC confirmed 20 swine flu cases - seven in California, two in Kansas, eight in New York City, one in Ohio and two in Texas.. To date, confirmed swine flu cases in the United States have been relatively mild, causing one hospitalization. Swine flu cases in Mexico have been more severe, resulting in 59 deaths so far.. New York Governor David Paterson on Saturday directed the New York State Department of Health to activate its infectious disease, epidemiology, laboratory, disaster preparedness and health systems staff to coordinate efforts across the state, as eight cases of probable swine influenza were identified in New York City earlier in the day.. "I want to reassure all New Yorkers that we are taking appropriate measures to address these probable cases of swine flu," Paterson said. "The New York State Department of Health is working closely with the CDC, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, all local health departments ...
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
The growing range of influenza viruses has many people concerned about their risk of infection and the risk level of their pets. Private practitioners bear the brunt of inquiries and are being asked to make determinations of viral spread that stump virologists and epidemiologists.. What is known about the canine influenza virus is that the countrys shelter populations and boarding facilities are at the highest risk. Experts say the virus could spread in a shelter environment as readily as other respiratory infections, including canine infectious tracheobronchitis, or kennel cough.. But show dogs, race dogs, boarded dogs and even those that frequent dog parks are at heightened risk of exposure as well.. "This is an emerging disease which is the impetus for all of the funding dollars going toward research," says Wayne A. Jensen, DVM, Ph.D., MBA, chief scientific officer for Morris Animal Foundation.. "There are all sorts of questions about ...
Canine Influenza Virus (CIV), a highly contagious virus, has been identified in two dogs in Canada. The dogs were imported as part of rescue program and were brought to Canada from South Korea (via the United States) in late December.. Two dogs in Essex County (a community in Southwestern Ontario bordering Detroit, Michigan) have the H3N2 strain of the virus. Several other dogs that were in contact with the affected dogs are showing signs of infection as well, but the H3N2 virus has not been confirmed in these dogs.. There are primarily two strains of influenza that affect dogs: H3N8 (a strain originating with horses) and H3N2 (a strain originating with birds). H3N2 was identified in the United States in 2015 when an outbreak of respiratory illness in dogs occurred in Chicago. Previous to this, the H3N2 virus was only found in Asia. A more recent outbreak of H3N2 was reported in May 2017 in Florida. By mid-June, H3N2 had ...

PLOS ONE: Low 2012-13 Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Associated with Mutation in the Egg-Adapted H3N2 Vaccine Strain Not...PLOS ONE: Low 2012-13 Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Associated with Mutation in the Egg-Adapted H3N2 Vaccine Strain Not...

... shows that low VE was instead related to mutations in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain rather than antigenic drift in ... Conclusions These findings underscore the need to monitor vaccine viruses as well as circulating strains to explain vaccine ... as well as the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. Among the total of 1501 participants, influenza ... Influenza A viruses were characterized genotypically by amino acid (AA) sequencing of established haemagglutinin (HA) antigenic ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092153.t005

Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... Moreover, preparedness for upcoming pandemics is challenging because we can predict neither the strain that will cause the next ... novel vaccines that evoke broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, ... Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. Vaccination is available, ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/2/18-0359

Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... Moreover, preparedness for upcoming pandemics is challenging because we can predict neither the strain that will cause the next ... novel vaccines that evoke broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, ... Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. Vaccination is available, ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/2/18-0359_article

Editorials: Influenza Vaccine: Got It, Give It! - American Family PhysicianEditorials: Influenza Vaccine: Got It, Give It! - American Family Physician

To adjust for the changing epidemiology of influenza infection, this years vaccines contain three new antigenic strains and ... Such an endeavor can strain an already overburdened vaccine delivery system. Given an historic abundance of vaccine this year, ... Vaccine. In Press.. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Health care personnel initiative to improve influenza ... Influenza is coming. Effective vaccines are abundantly available. So this season, if youve got it, give it … to your patients ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p923.html

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines in the severe 2017-2018 epidemic season: a step towards improved influenza vaccine ... HINT is a valuable new antigenic analysis tool for vaccine strain selection. ... Influenza A(H3N2) viruses evade human immunity primarily by acquiring antigenic changes in the haemagglutinin (HA). HA receptor ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/76687/Print

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... New-generation live, attenuated viral vaccines, such as the cold-adapted, recombinant nasal influenza and oral rotavirus ... Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union ... A novel and powerful method for vaccine research, colloquially known as DNA vaccines, involves the deliberate introduction into ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/14956

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 17064823) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 17064823) - PubMed - NCBI

Low 2012-13 influenza vaccine effectiveness associated with mutation in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain not antigenic drift ... Influenza vaccine effectiveness among 50-64-year-old persons during a season of poor antigenic match between vaccine and ... Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006 ... Influenza vaccine effectiveness among children 6 to 59 months of age during 2 influenza seasons: a case-cohort study. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=17064823

Frontiers | Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin...Frontiers | Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin...

Germinal centers were formed in vaccine-draining lymph nodes along with an increase in circulating H10-specific ICOS+PD-1+ ... Germinal centers were formed in vaccine-draining lymph nodes along with an increase in circulating H10-specific ICOS+PD-1+ ... Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In ... Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01539/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Immunology&id=310678

Prevention and Control of Influenza:
Recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

... similarity between the virus strains in the vaccine and those in circulation. When the antigenic match between vaccine and ... Effectiveness of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Influenza vaccine now contains three virus strains (usually two type A and one ... Influenza Strains Contained in the 1999-2000 Vaccine The trivalent influenza vaccine prepared for the 1999-2000 season will ... large increase in GBS associated with influenza vaccines (other than the swine influenza vaccine in 1976) and that if influenza ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00057028.htm

Science Clips - Volume 10, Issue 6, February 20, 2018Science Clips - Volume 10, Issue 6, February 20, 2018

... antigenic composition to match the predicted circulating influenza strains. Recently, novel influenza vaccine types were ... Influenza vaccines are unique in requiring annual changes in the vaccines ... For the vaccine impact assessment, pre-rotavirus vaccine introduction (July 2010-June 2014) and post-rotavirus vaccine ... US-licensed influenza vaccines; vaccine immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety; and recent updates relevant to use of these ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/library/sciclips/issues/v10issue6.html

Influenza Virus Titration, Antigenic Characterization, and Serological Methods for Antibody Detection | SpringerLinkInfluenza Virus Titration, Antigenic Characterization, and Serological Methods for Antibody Detection | SpringerLink

... antigenic characterization, and serological methods by antibody detection. These methods are essential not only for... ... This chapter describes some commonly used methods of influenza virus titration, ... These methods are essential not only for virus characterization but also for identifying new antigenic variants, vaccine strain ... 2012) Influenza Virus Titration, Antigenic Characterization, and Serological Methods for Antibody Detection. In: Kawaoka Y., ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-61779-621-0_3

Influenza Pandemics | History of VaccinesInfluenza Pandemics | History of Vaccines

It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B. (Influenza C causes upper… ... Influenza is an infectious disease commonly characterized by fever, muscles aches, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. ... An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype or strain of influenza virus develops from antigenic shift and spreads globally ... It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B. (Influenza C causes upper ...
more infohttps://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/influenza-pandemics

Influenza VaccineInfluenza Vaccine

... , Trivalent Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine, Fluzone, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine, TIV ... of the vaccine is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains; the ... Influenza virus vaccine, FLU - Influenza vaccine, Influenza vaccine, Influenza virus vaccine (product), Influenza virus vaccine ... flu vaccine, influenza vaccines, flu vaccines, Influenza vaccines, Influenza vaccine (substance), Influenza vaccine (product), ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/ID/Immunize/InflnzVcn.htm

Browse by Authors and Editors - Nottingham ePrintsBrowse by Authors and Editors - Nottingham ePrints

Potential of a sequence-based antigenic distance measure to indicate equine influenza vaccine strain efficacy. Vaccine, 31 (51 ... Barba, Marta and Daly, Janet M. (2016) The influenza NS1 protein: what do we know in equine influenza virus pathogenesis? ... The genetics of virus particle shape in equine influenza A virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7 (s4). pp. 81-89. ... diversity and vaccine cross-reactivity. Vaccine, 35 (20). pp. 2753-2760. ISSN 0264-410X ...
more infohttp://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/view/people/Daly=3AJanet_M=2E=3A=3A.html

Another Epic Fail for Influenza Vaccine - NVIC NewsletterAnother Epic Fail for Influenza Vaccine - NVIC Newsletter

... public health officials admit that the ineffective influenza vaccine is once again an epic fail. ... Flu vaccine effectiveness is measured from 0-62 percent as U.S. ... Mutations in the Egg Adapted H3N2 Vaccine Strain Not Antigenic ... I abstained from the influenza vaccine strain selection vote because the influenza A strain being recommended was not a match ... States with Influenza Vaccine Mandates for Childcare Dec. 1, 2010. States of Influenza Vaccine Mandates for Residents in Long ...
more infohttps://www.nvic.org/nvic-vaccine-news/january-2015/another-epic-fail-for-influenza-vaccine.aspx

JCI -
Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy...JCI - Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy...

The current inactivated influenza virus vaccines induce antibodies that protect against closely related virus strains. They do ... Antigenic differences between H5N1 human influenza viruses isolated in 1997 and 2003. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 66:303-305. View this ... Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains ... A pandemic strain may even be of another subtype. Thus, antibody-based vaccines developed against current H5N1 strains alone ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/32460

Influenza | The BMJInfluenza | The BMJ

... antigenic drift, and waning immunity. Influenza vaccines are updated annually to include the viral strains that are predicted ... to a previous influenza vaccine or to any component of the vaccine.23 Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) should not be ... 2 Current circulating influenza strains in humans include influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and both influenza B ... What is influenza virus?. There are four types of influenza viruses: influenza A, B, C, and D,3 4 5 6 but only influenza A and ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i6258

Antigenic drift - WikipediaAntigenic drift - Wikipedia

"Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift". Vaccine. 25 (39-40): 6852-62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.027. PMID ... To meet the challenge of antigenic drift, vaccines that confer broad protection against heterovariant strains are needed ... "Vaccination and antigenic drift in influenza". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 3: C8-14. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.011. PMC 2603026 . ... Antigenic drift occurs in both influenza A and influenza B viruses.. The immune system recognizes viruses when antigens on the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigenic_drift

Department of Health | Influenza outbreak preparedness: lessons from outbreaks in residential care facilities in 2014Department of Health | Influenza outbreak preparedness: lessons from outbreaks in residential care facilities in 2014

... describes the experience of managing six outbreaks at the public health unit level and the implications for future vaccine ... Low 2012-13 influenza vaccine effectiveness associated with mutation in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain not antigenic drift ... Carrat F, Flahault A. Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift. Vaccine 2007;25(39-40):6852-6862. ... Keywords: influenza A virus, H3N2 subtype, residential care facility,vaccine effectiveness, antigenic drift, outbreak ...
more infohttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi3902d.htm

Influenza virus vaccines definition | Drugs.comInfluenza virus vaccines definition | Drugs.com

Definition of influenza virus vaccines. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... because of the marked and progressive antigenic variation of the influenza viruses, the strains included are regularly changed ... influenza virus vaccines. Definition: influenza virus grown in embryonated eggs and inactivated, usually by the addition of ... various outbreaks of influenza to include most recently isolated epidemic strains of both type A influenza and type B influenza ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/influenza-virus-vaccines.html

Animal viruses : catalogue of the sources of virus strains and antisera / prepared by V. Pleva and A. ParavanovaAnimal viruses : catalogue of the sources of virus strains and antisera / prepared by V. Pleva and A. Paravanov'a

Antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza A(‎H5N1)‎ viruses and candidate vaccine viruses developed for potential use ... Zoonotic influenza viruses: antigenic and genetic characteristics and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic ... Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre- ... pandemic vaccines, March 2007 = Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses ...
more infohttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/60966?locale-attribute=zh

Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

INACTIVATED VACCINE FOR INFLUENZA A AND B Each years influenza vaccine contains three virus strains (usually two type A and ... Although influenza B viruses have shown more antigenic stability than influenza A viruses, antigenic variation does occur. For ... However, influenza vaccine is administered each year, whereas pneumococcal vaccine is not. Children at high risk for influenza- ... Persons for Whom Influenza Vaccine Is Contraindicated Chemoprophylaxis throughout the influenza season or during peak influenza ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0052500/m0052500.asp

WO2009016639A2 - Multimeric multiepitope influenza vaccines 
        - Google PatentsWO2009016639A2 - Multimeric multiepitope influenza vaccines - Google Patents

... invention relates to the use of multimeric multi-epitope peptide-based vaccines eliciting protective immunity to influenza. ... The present invention relates to multimeric multi-epitope peptide-based vaccines. In particular, the present ... This process, known as antigenic shift, results in new strains different from both parent viruses, which can be lethal ... Influenza virus vaccine compositions, and methods of use thereof Adar et al. 2009. A universal epitope-based influenza vaccine ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009016639A2/en

Influenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use.  - PubMed - NCBIInfluenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use. - PubMed - NCBI

... world-wide efforts of the WHO to optimise the chance of an adequate antigenic match between vaccine and epidemic strains each ... Influenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use.. Palache AM1.. Author information. 1. Department of Virology, Erasmus ... Yearly updated influenza vaccines are available to combat the disease and its consequences. In many countries, less than half ... Scientific evidence on the safety, tolerance, efficacy and effectiveness of currently existing inactivated influenza vaccines ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9421692?dopt=Abstract

Influenza Vaccine Composition for the 1989-90 SeasonInfluenza Vaccine Composition for the 1989-90 Season

The antigenic characteristics of current strains provide the basis for selecting virus strains included in each years vaccine. ... than to the vaccine strain.. Most influenza B strains isolated this season, particularly in the United States, are similar to ... Antigenic analysis of type A(H1N1) viruses from outbreaks indicates that most strains are closely related to the U.S. vaccine ... Therefore, the decisions on which strains to include in the vaccine formulation for the 1989-90 influenza season must be ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000270/p0000270.asp
  • 1 Influenza A viruses cause the most severe clinical disease and are the commonest cause of seasonal epidemics and pandemics in human populations. (bmj.com)
  • Influenza can cause severe illness or death, particularly in high risk populations (box 1). (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, preparedness for upcoming pandemics is challenging because we can predict neither the strain that will cause the next pandemic nor the severity of the pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • How do influenza epidemics and pandemics occur? (bmj.com)
  • To date, several epidemics and four major influenza pandemics have been recorded. (atcc.org)
  • When such a change occurs, people who have had the illness in the past are therefore not immune to the new strain of the virus (as the new strain of the virus has a different antigen which the body cell cannot recognise) and thus the vaccines against the original virus will be less effective against the illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical influenza illness is characterized by abrupt onset of fever, myalgia, sore throat, and nonproductive cough. (cdc.gov)
  • More severe illness can result if either primary influenza pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia occurs. (cdc.gov)
  • 23 Mortality is higher among individuals with complicated influenza (illness necessitating hospital admission, or an exacerbation of an underlying chronic illness) across all age groups, but is highest in infants aged 6 months or younger. (bmj.com)
  • We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. (nih.gov)
  • Influenza viruses have caused an estimated 3 million cases of serious illness and around 500,000 deaths annually worldwide. (atcc.org)
  • Three genera of influenza viruses (A, B, and C) have infective capacity in humans, although A and B are the most common circulating strains. (cdc.gov)
  • mRNA vaccines delivered in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are well tolerated and highly immunogenic in mice, ferrets, non-human primates, and humans ( 5 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For the MP gene, it was noted that all samples contained the S31N mutation that may confer adamantane resistance as determined by the Genbank Influenza Viral Resource Annotation tool . (nih.gov)
  • After two relatively mild years, the 2007-08 influenza season was marked by significant morbidity and mortality, further compounded by the mismatch between the circulating viruses and the vaccine strains. (aafp.org)
  • Influenza can spread rapidly through residential care facilities (RCFs) resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • In February 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that all children-from six months to 18 years of age-be immunized against influenza. (aafp.org)
  • Although the annual American Academy of Family Physicians immunization survey typically reveals high levels of immunization among family physicians, health care professionals generally have an overall vaccine coverage rate below 40 percent. (aafp.org)
  • If those patients are simply not seeking health care, is it logical to assume that they will just have an influenza immunization? (aafp.org)
  • In all persons 65 years of age or older, influenza-associated hospitalization rates have ranged from approximately 200 to more than 1,000 per 100,000 population. (aafp.org)
  • Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Emerging infections such as Ebola, Zika, Chikungunya, and pandemic influenza virus need vaccines that can be rapidly produced with antigen precision. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have constructed a recombinant viral vector based on potato X virus that provides for expression in the Nicotiana benthamiana plants of a hybrid protein M2eHBc consisting of an extracellular domain of influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) fused to hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). (chemweb.com)
  • There were several amino acid changes among the sequenced samples occurring in antigenic sites, polymorphic sites or which resulted in a change of glycosylation (Table 5). (nih.gov)
  • For the NA gene, several amino acid substitutions resulted in addition/loss of glycosylation sites, or were found in polymorphic or antigenic/catalytic sites (epitopes) (Table 5). (nih.gov)