Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.UridineRespiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.TritiumProtein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Protein PrecursorsSimian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.AcrylatesEncephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glucosamine
... virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern ... seven antigenic types) Middelburg virus complex Middelburg virus Ndumu virus complex Ndumu virus Semliki Forest virus complex ... virus Western equine encephalitis complex Aura virus Babanki virus Kyzylagach virus Sindbis virus Ockelbo virus Whataroa virus ... virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus ...
"Electron microscopy and antigenic studies of uncharacterized viruses. I. Evidence suggesting the placement of viruses in ... Quaranfil virus was initially isolated in 1953 from two children with mild fever in the villages of Quaranfil and Sindbis, near ... and Johnston Atoll virus. The species or strains Cygnet River virus, Lake Chad virus, Tyulek virus and Wellfleet Bay virus have ... The two viruses are closely related and might be strains of the same virus; they are also related to Quaranfil virus. Lake Chad ...
"Isolation and Antigenic Characterization of Lassa Virus". Nature. 227 (5254): 174-174. doi:10.1038/227174a0.. ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
WNV is one of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic serocomplex of viruses. Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence. West Nile virus is ... "West Nile Virus". Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC-West Nile Virus ...
Casals J (May 1969). "Antigenic similarity between the virus causing Crimean hemorrhagic fever and Congo virus". Proc Soc Exp ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed the name Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus, but the Soviets ...
Three genotypes of this virus have been described, each with a distinct genotype and antigenic character: West African, East/ ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
Alternative forms of a strain-specific neutralizing antigenic site on the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein.. Davis NL1, Pence DF, ... Experiments with monoclonal antibodies raised against two laboratory strains of Sindbis virus, SB and SIN, suggested the ... The E2-b site is contrasted with the E2-c neutralizing antigenic site described previously (R.A. Olmsted, W.J. Meyer, and R.E. ... mutants selected with E2-b-specific antibodies confirmed that amino acid 216 is a major determinant of the E2-b antigenic site ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Sindbis appears to be essentially a bird virus transmitted mainly by Culex mosquitoes, but man and other mammals may become ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
... a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern ... Diagnostics of Pogosta disease: antigenic properties and evaluation of Sindbis virus IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays.Vector ... Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK.J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2807- ... Sindbis virus infection in man. Report of a case with recovery of virus from skin lesions.S Afr Med J. 1963;37:547-52. ...
In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in ... This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be ... acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were ... Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six ...
A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) was compared with the vaccine strain ... Deletion and duplication mutations in the C-terminal nonconserved region of Sindbis virus nsP3: effects on phosphorylation and ... Genomic, pathogenic, and antigenic comparisons of Getah virus strains isolated in 1978 and 2014 in Japan. ... Identification and amplification of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus propagated from a single porcine serum sample: ...
In addition sequence data were retrieved from GenBank for another 23 WNV isolates and Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses ... No strict correlation existed between grouping and source of virus isolate, pathogenicity, geographic distribution, or year of ... formal name West Nile virus [WNV]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. ... Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern African West Nile virus ( ...
Initial cross-neutralization studies revealed antigenic similarity to the Sindbis virus (SINV)-like Whataroa virus (WHAV), ... Although these viruses displayed a similar binding pattern to prototype WHAV, three monoclonal antibodies discriminated them ... from the New Zealand virus. Our results suggest that these novel alphaviruses are antigenic variants of WHAV and represent the ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to SINV showed that the novel WHAV-like viruses ...
... virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern ... seven antigenic types) Middelburg virus complex Middelburg virus Ndumu virus complex Ndumu virus Semliki Forest virus complex ... virus Western equine encephalitis complex Aura virus Babanki virus Kyzylagach virus Sindbis virus Ockelbo virus Whataroa virus ... virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus ...
Analysis of Sindbis virus promoter recognition in vivo, using novel vectors with two subgenomic mRNA promoters. R Raju, H V ... Identification of neutralizing antigenic sites on VP1 and VP2 of type A5 foot-and-mouth disease virus, defined by ... Antigenic and protein sequence homology between VP13/14, a herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein, and gp10, a ... Antigenic and genetic variation in influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates recovered from a persistently infected immunodeficient ...
the new antigenic properties conferred by the Sindbis-like. glycoproteins of this predominantly EEEV-like hybrid were. ... related viruses, positive-sense and negative-sense viruses, DI. RNAs and viruses, satellite RNAs and viruses, and even with. ... capsid protein evolved to become more like a Sindbis-virus. capsid, possibly because it needs to interact with Sindbis-like. ... occurred between Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and. a Sindbis-like virus, probably within the last 2000 years. ( ...
Genetic and antigenic variations among geographical isolates of Sindbis virus. The dynamics of potential distribution of ...
Biology of Mouse Thymic Virus, a Herpesvirus of Mice, and the Antigenic Relationship to Mouse Cytomegalovirus S. S. Cross, J. C ... Virulence of temperature-sensitive mutants of Sindbis virus in neonatal mice. P N Barrett, G J Atkins ... Evaluation of the Immune Response Directed Against the Salmonella Antigenic Factors O4,5 and O9 M. B. Lyman, B. A. D. Stocker, ... Antigenic heterogeneity of the non-serogroup antigen structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipopolysaccharides. M A Apicella, N C ...
SAG1 was extensively studied and was expressed in CHO cells and by use of the Sindbis virus expression system (11, 29). ... The most important antigenic domain of GRA7 for human sera was localized between residues 97 and 146. The epitope for the ... Expression of Toxoplasma gondii P30 as fusions with glutathione S-transferase in animal cells by Sindbis recombinant virus. Mol ... 1996) Analysis of antigenic domain of GST fused major surface protein (P30) fragments of Toxoplasma gondii. Korean J. Parasitol ...
virus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... Sindbis virus. An Alphavirus typically found in South Africa or Oceania and disseminated to humans by mosquitoes of the genus ... A virus whose genetic material has been recombined or reshuffled so that it contains new nucleic acid sequences, new antigenic ... tumor virus. A virus that causes malignant neoplasms. Viruses suspected of causing tumors in humans include Epstein-Barr virus ...
Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases,... ... Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9: 55PubMedCrossRef ... Activation of the classical and alternative complement pathways by Sindbis virus. J Immunol 124: 2507PubMedGoogle Scholar ... thus blurring the distinctions between foreign antigenic structures and host antigens on the surface of viruses or virus- ...
... vesicular stomatitis virus; SIN, Sindbis virus; RLU, relative light unit; HVR, hypervariable region. ... Future experiments should address the antigenic conformation of the gps on infectious particles compared with soluble E2. ... Plasmids expressing the HCV Sindbis virus (SIN) and VSV G chimeric constructs, VSV G and SF162 gp160, have been described (13, ... Pseudotype Virus Infection Is Neutralized by E2-Specifc mAbs. To confirm the specificity of HIV-H E1E2 virus infection, a panel ...
Type species Sindbis virus. Distinguishing features. Alphaviruses are transmitted between vertebrate hosts via the bite of a ... Antigenic properties. The alphaviruses were originally described as Group A arboviruses based upon their antigenic cross- ... The E1/E2 heterodimers of Sindbis virus (SINV) have been shown to be capable of producing three distinct morphological ... List of other related viruses which may be members of the genus Rubivirus but have not been approved as species. None reported. ...
Antigenic site II of the rabies virus glycoprotein: structure and role in viral virulence. C Prehaud, P Coulon, F LaFay, C ... Effects of 5-terminal modifications on the biological activity of defective interfering RNAs of Sindbis virus. M Tsiang, B G ... Suppression of RNA synthesis by a specific antiviral activity in Sindbis virus-infected Aedes albopictus cells. L D Condreay, D ... Distinct epitopes recognized by I-Ad-restricted T-cell clones within antigenic site E on influenza virus hemagglutinin. L E ...
The compositions may include one or more of the immunogenic polypeptides either alone or with other antigenic components. For ... Infectious Sindbis virus vectors CA2006700A1 (en) 1989-01-17. 1990-07-17. Antonello Pessi. Synthetic peptides and their use as ... Synthetic antigenic, process for their production and their use US5238944A (en) 1988-12-15. 1993-08-24. Riker Laboratories, Inc ... Sindbis virus vectors US4861719A (en) 1986-04-25. 1989-08-29. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. DNA constructs for ...
... and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... Antigenic structure of human hepatitis A virus defined by analysis of escape mutants selected against murine monoclonal ... Antiidiotypic antibodies as probes for the Sindbis virus receptor. Wang, K-S; Schmalgohn, AL; Kuhn, RG ... Mimicry of the immunodominant conformation-dependent antigenic site of hepatitis A virus by motifs selected from synthetic ...
Alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus are medically relevant ... Using approaches in silico, we identified an antigenic and specific epitope (p_MAYV4) in domain A of the E2 glycoprotein of the ... Three strains of viruses belonged to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), with the other one as Getah virus (GETV). Five pools of ... Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the Ross River virus (RRV) and the Mayaro virus (MAYV) have ...
Expression of Toxoplasma gondii P30 as fusions with glutathione S-transferase in animal cells by Sindbis recombinant virus. Mol ... et al.mProtection of mice and nude rats againstmtoxoplasmosis by a multiple antigenic peptide construction derived from ...
  • The E2-b site is contrasted with the E2-c neutralizing antigenic site described previously (R.A. Olmsted, W.J. Meyer, and R.E. Johnston, 1986, Virology 148, 245-254). (
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 2 VP22 Phosphorylation Induced by Cellular and Viral Kinases Does Not Influence Intracellular Localization Virology. (
  • A finding that was later to have great importance in veterinary virology was the discovery by Maurice Nicolle and Adil Mustafa in Turkey in 1902 , that rinderpest or cattle plague was caused by a virus. (
  • In addition, a diverse array of other viruses also induce autophagy (reviewed in [ 4 ]), including members of the paramyxoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, togaviridae, and herpesviridae. (
  • Rubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the Togaviridae family. (
  • Signature)( FIV-bDepartment of TA-1-tvi__06, The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ^L4C_7.0 2 6/5 \DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTRubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus withinthe Togaviridae family. (
  • Manning, Jessica E;Morens, David M;Kamhawi, Shaden;Valenzuela, Jesus G;Memoli, Matthew 2018-03-29 00:00:00 Abstract Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are taxonomically diverse causes of significant morbidity and mortality. (
  • These systems have provided powerful tools to study all aspects of the virus biology and virus-host interactions but also gave the opportunity to use these viruses as live vaccines or as gene vectors. (
  • It is a re-emerging virus that has a risk to spread globally, given the expanding dissemination of its mosquito vectors. (
  • These mosquitoes function as span vectors, reassigning the virus from septic birds to clean mammals, reptilians, and amphibious vehicles ( Schmitt et al. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced ribonucleotide reductase activity is dispensable for virus growth and DNA synthesis: isolation and characterization of an ICP6 lacZ insertion mutant. (
  • Antigenic characterization of secreted E2 661 suggests that it folds in a way comparable to that observed in E1-E2 complexes and therefore makes an ideal soluble mimic of a viral ligand to study cellular receptor interactions. (
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (
  • 1997) presented evidence for a splicing-like, transesterication mechanism to explain the in vitro generation of recombinants between RNAs associated with Qb bacteriophage ± a possible exception to the copy±choice model of recombination in RNA viruses. (
  • In vitro mutagenesis identifies a region within the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus that is critical for infectivity. (
  • Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. (
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting. (
  • On-duty services and emergencies augmentin es in psychiatry and medical psychology (adults and children) In vitro differentiation and antigenic changes in human melanoma cell lines. (
  • All mutations that resulted in at least partial cleavage in vitro were incorporated into a full-length clone of Sindbis virus and an attempt was made to recover mutant virus. (
  • In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. (
  • Tajima S, Kotaki A, Yagasaki K, Taniwaki T, Moi ML, Nakayama E, Saijo M, Kurane I, Takasaki T (2014) Identification and amplification of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus propagated from a single porcine serum sample: a case of coinfection. (
  • In J.S. Mackenzie, A.D.T. Barrett and V. Deubel (Ed.), Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses 1st ed. (pp. 49-73) Germany: Springer-Verlag. (
  • Several reports have demonstrated that intracellularly expressed ScFvs may reduce the susceptibility of transfected cells to viral infections or disturb viral enzymes within the life cycles of human immunodeficiency virus type ( 9 , 20 ), tick-borne encephalitis virus ( 5 ), and murine coronavirus ( 8 ). (
  • Licensed and widely used arbovirus vaccines exist for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and YFV, although shortages occur with the YFV vaccine supply . (
  • Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases, represent a major category of such pathogens. (
  • Berry DM, Almeida JD (1968) The morphological and biological effects of various antisera on avian infectious bronchitis virus. (
  • Localization of sequences responsible for trans-activation of the equine infectious anemia virus long terminal repeat. (
  • In this article, we describe how to handle, process, and screen field-collected mosquitoes for infectious virus by Vero cell culture assay. (
  • Major viral diseases are mainly due to two antigenetically distinct Novirhabdoviruses which can coexist in the same fish farms: the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). (
  • Even in such a fundamental monograph as Evolution of pathogens of infectious diseases, written by the very well-known virologists V.M. Zhdanov and D.K. L'vov in 1984, virtually nothing is mentioned of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) . (
  • Viruses were discovered as an excluded entity rather than by being seen or cultured, due to the invention of efficient filters: the fact that cell-free extracts from diseased plants and animals could still cause disease led people to theorise that an unknown infectious agent - a "filterable virus" - was responsible. (
  • Again, their "sterile" filtered liquid proved infectious in calves, providing the first proof of viruses infecting animals. (
  • Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. (
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (
  • The virus is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and Europe and was recently spread to the Western Hemisphere, where its presence was recognized in the northeastern United States in 1999 ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In southern Africa, WNV was found to be widely endemic in areas where the principal vector, Culex univittatus , and avian hosts of the virus are present. (
  • By 1972, the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, was found to be the main reservoir of the virus in West Africa, able to shed virus in its urine and feces without exhibiting visible symptoms. (
  • However, in rubiviruses (Rubella virus, RUBV), the core particle consists of multiple CP disulfide-linked homodimers with the genomic RNA. (
  • Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope (a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane). (
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (
  • Herpes simplex virus is encased in a lipid bilayer envelope that is derived from internal membranes of the host cell. (
  • 11. A process according to claim 1 further comprising conducting said contacting in the presence of lipid coated virus inactivating agent selected from the group consisting of ethers and alcohols. (
  • Furthermore, domains B on the E2 glycoproteins have less freedom of movement in the immature virus, keeping the fusion loops protected under domain B. (
  • Progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Difference in capacity of Sendai virus envelope components to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes in primary and secondary immune responses. (
  • Because of these many features, it is likely that viruses are largely responsible for driving the immune system to ever greater diversity through evolution. (
  • The explanation is multifactorial, determined by the complex interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment, the virus, and the host immune response. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines provide immune protection against diseases that affect both the young and the elderly. (
  • B19 virus infects erythrocyte precursors, and if the infected individual has pre-existing hemolytic anemia a transient aplastic crisis occurs which usually lasts for 7 days, before a humoral immune response is mounted. (
  • Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. (
  • Several laboratories have reported on the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes expressing chimeric HCV E1E2 gps encoding the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of VSV G gps, but with conflicting results ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • Construction and properties of retrovirus packaging cells based on gibbon ape leukemia virus. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected tumor xenografts as an in vivo model for antiviral therapy: role of alpha/beta interferon in restriction of tumor growth in nude mice injected with HIV-infected U937 tumor cells. (
  • Comparison of natural killer cells induced by Kunjin virus and Corynebacterium parvum with those occurring naturally in nude mice. (
  • SAG1 was extensively studied and was expressed in CHO cells and by use of the Sindbis virus expression system ( 11 , 29 ). (
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (
  • Through several different mechanisms viruses have the potential to become latent in cells and to emerge at a later time and directly or indirectly produce disease. (
  • HCV purified from plasma has been reported to exist in association with plasma lipoproteins, suggesting that the virus may use the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to gain entry into cells ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Regulation of adeno-associated virus gene expression in 293 cells: control of mRNA abundance and translation. (
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (
  • This antigenic loop mediates binding to cellular receptors, an essential step for viral entry into host cells. (
  • It has been known for many years that viruses have the ability to replicate in and lyse cancer cells. (
  • The ability of viruses to kill cancer cells has been recognized for more than a century [ 1 ]. (
  • Oncolytic viruses are genetically modified viruses capable of delivering therapeutic gene payload to cancer cells. (
  • This virus-associated enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by fractions containing membrane material from ruptured leaf cells of both healthy and virus-infected plants. (
  • Apoptosis is a morphologically and biochemically defined form of cell death that plays a significant role in the deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes, removal of cells infected with virus, elimination of cancerous cells, and embryogenesis of complex multicellular organisms. (
  • Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. (
  • B95-8 cells An Epstein-Barr virus transformed marmoset B-lymphocyte cell line. (
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (
  • Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. (
  • Role of biased hypermutation in evolution of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus from progenitor acute measles virus. (
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (
  • Assembly and transcription of synthetic vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids. (
  • Beebe DP, Cooper NR (1981) Neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by human complement requires a natural IgM antibody present in human serum. (
  • Phylogenetic distance between serotypes correlates reasonably well with antigenic distance measured by cross-reactivity to polyclonal antisera-in other words, phylogeny roughly matches serology at a broad scale of sequence divergence ( Mateu 1995 ). (
  • The virus circulating in the United States was found to be most closely related genetically to a WNV isolate associated with goose deaths in Israel in 1998, suggesting that the virus was imported into America from the Near East, either in an infected bird, mosquito, human, or other animal. (