Antigenic Modulation: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dyscalculia: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.BooksHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.GlyceraldehydeGlyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Establishment of a human thymic myoid cell line. Phenotypic and functional characteristics. (1/22)

The subset of myoid cells is a normal component of the thymic stroma. To characterize these cells, we immortalized stromal cells from human thymus by using a plasmid vector encoding the SV40 T oncogene. Among the eight cell lines obtained, one had myoid characteristics including desmin and troponin antigens. This new line was designated MITC (myoid immortalized thymic cells). These cells expressed both the fetal and adult forms of muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the mRNA level, as well as the myogenic transcription factor MyoD1. alpha-Subunit AChR protein expression was detected by flow cytometry and the AChR was functional in patch-clamp studies. In addition, AChR expression was down-modulated by myasthenia gravis sera or by monoclonal antibody anti-AChR on MITC line similarly to TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, making the MITC line an interesting tool for AChR antigenic modulation experiments. Finally, the MITC line expressed LFA-3, produced several cytokines able to act on T cells, and protected total thymocytes from spontaneous apoptosis in vitro. These results are compatible with a role of thymic myoid cells in some steps of thymocyte development. Therefore MITC line appears to be a useful tool to investigate the physiological role of thymic myoid cells.  (+info)

Nematode infection enhances survival of activated T cells by modulating accessory cell function. (2/22)

The type of immune response generated following exposure to Ag depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the Ag, the type of adjuvant used, the site of antigenic entry, and the immune status of the host. We have previously shown that infection of rodents with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) shifts the development of type 1 allo-specific responses toward type 2 immunity, suggesting nematode modulation of T cell activation. In this report we explore the immunomodulatory effects of Nb on T cell activation. We found that spleen cells from Nb-infected mice exhibited dramatically increased proliferation in response to Con A and anti-CD3. This hyperproliferation could be transferred in vitro to naive splenocytes by coculture with mitomycin C-treated cells from Nb-infected animals. The transfer was mediated by non-T accessory cells and supernatants derived from Con A-activated non-T cells, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor secreted by accessory cells. The accessory cells secreted high levels of IL-6, and anti-IL-6 treatment abrogated the supernatant-induced hyperproliferation, thus confirming that IL-6 was mediating the effect. Further, spleen cells from Nb-infected mice were more resistant to activation-induced cell death (AICD) following mitogenic stimulation. Reduced AICD was also transferable and IL-6 dependent. Thus, the hyperproliferation was in part due to enhanced activated T cell survival. These phenomena mediated by accessory cells may contribute to the powerful polyclonal activation of type 2 immunity caused by nematode infection.  (+info)

Modulation of multiple experimental arthritis models by collagen-induced arthritis quantitative trait loci isolated in congenic rat lines: different effects of non-major histocompatibility complex quantitative trait loci in males and females. (3/22)

OBJECTIVE: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a model of inflammatory arthritis with many similarities to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously mapped in F(2) offspring of CIA-susceptible DA and CIA-resistant F344 rats, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for which F344 alleles were associated with reduced CIA severity. In the present study, we sought to characterize the independent arthritis-modulating effects of these 5 QTLs. METHODS: CIA-regulatory regions were transferred from the F344 genome to the DA background or vice versa by repeated backcrossing. The arthritis-modulating effects of the transferred alleles were determined by comparing the severity of experimentally induced arthritis in congenic rats with that in DA rats. RESULTS: Congenic lines with either the F344 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the DA background or the DA MHC on the F344 background were resistant to CIA, confirming both MHC and non-MHC contributions to the genetic regulation of CIA. F344 alleles at the Cia3 and Cia5 regions of chromosomes 4 and 10 reduced CIA severity relative to that observed in DA rats. F344 Cia4 and Cia6 regions of chromosomes 7 and 8 failed to significantly alter CIA severity. Arthritis-modifying effects of Cia4 and Cia6 were, however, detected in pristane-induced and/or Freund's incomplete adjuvant oil-induced arthritis. The arthritis-modifying effects of the non-MHC CIA-regulatory loci differed in males and females. CONCLUSION: These congenic lines confirmed the existence and location of genes that regulate the severity of experimental arthritis in rats. Mechanisms responsible for the sex-specificity of individual arthritis-regulatory loci may explain some of the sex differences observed in RA and other autoimmune diseases in humans.  (+info)

Cell membrane modification for rapid display of proteins as a novel means of immunomodulation: FasL-decorated cells prevent islet graft rejection. (4/22)

Long-term display of exogenous proteins on the cell surface may have important research and therapeutic implications. We report a novel method for the cell-surface display of proteins that involves generation of a chimeric protein with core streptavidin, biotinylation of cells, and "decoration" with the protein. A chimeric protein with the extracellular portions of FasL (SA-FasL) was efficiently displayed on the cell surface within 2 hr without detectable cellular toxicity. Biotin and SA-FasL persisted on the cell surface for weeks in vitro and in vivo. Immunomodulation with SA-FasL-decorated splenocytes effectively blocked alloreactive responses in naive and presensitized rodents and prevented the rejection of allogeneic pancreatic islets. This approach may serve as an alternative to gene transfer-based expression with broad research and therapeutic applications.  (+info)

T-cell subset analysis of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor rejection: heterogeneity of effectors and evidence for negative regulatory lymphocytes correlating with metastasis. (5/22)

We have analyzed the phenotypes of the T-cell subsets generated in response to Lewis lung carcinoma clones in C57BL/6J recipients. The metastatic derivative, which expresses low levels of H-2Kb gene, predominantly elicited CD8, V beta 8, and V beta 9+ T-cells. The nonmetastatic clone expressing high levels of H-Kb gene triggered a more heterogeneous response of V beta-5, -6, -8, -9, and -11 CD8+ T-cells. Comparison of the T-cell receptor (TCR) expression of the T-cells infiltrating the tumor site with the lymphocytes in the periphery of tumor-bearing animals revealed a pattern of homing of CD4+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, and -11 TCR chains and CD8+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, -9, and -11. Depletion of V beta 5 or V beta 6+ T-cells correlated with accelerated tumor growth, implying their protective role as tumor-specific effectors and consistent with the cytotoxicity of T-cells with this TCR phenotype. V beta 11 TCR expression in the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes increased with the tumor size. Depletion of V beta 11+ T-cells enhanced resistance to primary tumor growth and conferred protection from metastasis in recipients cleared of V beta 5 and V beta 6 T-cell subsets. Those results suggest that tumor-specific effectors as well as negative regulator T-cells home, infiltrate, and coexist in the tumor site.  (+info)

Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro. (6/22)

Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.  (+info)

Mutational escape from CD8+ T cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man. (7/22)

The mechanisms by which the hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistence are not yet fully understood. Previous chimpanzee and now human studies suggest that mutations within MHC class I-restricted HCV epitopes might contribute to viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, there are several outstanding questions regarding the role of escape mutations in viral persistence and their fate in the absence of immune selection pressure.  (+info)

Identification of an altered peptide ligand based on the endogenously presented, rheumatoid arthritis-associated, human cartilage glycoprotein-39(263-275) epitope: an MHC anchor variant peptide for immune modulation. (8/22)

We sought to identify an altered peptide ligand (APL) based on the endogenously expressed synovial auto-epitope of human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HC gp-39) for modulation of cognate, HLA-DR4-restricted T cells. For this purpose we employed a panel of well-characterized T cell hybridomas generated from HC gp-39-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The hybridomas all respond to the HC gp-39(263-275) epitope when bound to HLA-DR4(B1*0401) but differ in their fine specificities. First, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) contact residues were identified by analysis of single site substituted analogue peptides for HLA-DR4 binding and cognate T cell recognition using both T hybridomas and polyclonal T cells from peptide-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Analysis of single site substituted APL by cognate T cells led to identification of Phe265 as the dominant MHC anchor. The amino acids Ala268, Ser269, Glu271 and Thr272 constituted the major TCR contact residues, as substitution at these positions did not affect HLA-DR4(B1*0401) binding but abrogated T cell responses. A structural model for visualisation of TCR recognition was derived. Second, a set of non-classical APLs, modified at the MHC key anchor position but with unaltered TCR contacts, was developed. When these APLs were analysed, a partial TCR agonist was identified and found to modulate the HC gp-39(263-275)-specific, pro-inflammatory response in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. We identified a non-classical APL by modification of the p1 MHC anchor in a synovial auto-epitope. This APL may qualify for rheumatoid arthritis immunotherapy.  (+info)

  • The present invention relates to an antigenic product for inducing an immune response to a deposit-forming polypeptide, such as amyloid ss, which antigenic product is a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) that contains multiple copies of an epitope of a deposit-forming polypeptide involved in a plaque-forming disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bjaring, B. and Klein, G.: Antigenic characterization of heterozygous mouse lymphomas after immunoselection in vivo . (springer.com)
  • In addition to antigenic characterization with MAbs, these methods include restriction endonuclease analysis of small hydrophobic and nucleocapsid RS virus protein genes ( 8 ), restriction endonuclease analysis of G-protein gene cDNA ( 5 , 24 ), RNase protection analysis ( 11 , 21 ), and nucleotide sequence analysis of the G-protein gene ( 5 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The gene expression profile of preclinical autoimmune arthritis and its modulation by a tolerogenic disease-protective antigenic challenge. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Manzano-Moreno FJ, Ramos-Torrecillas J, Melguizo-Rodríguez L, Illescas-Montes R, Ruiz C, García-Martínez O. Bisphosphonate Modulation of the Gene Expression of Different Markers Involved in Osteoblast Physiology: Possible Implications in Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. (medsci.org)
  • International Patent Publication WO 91/01751 discloses the use of antigenic and/or immunoregulatory material from M. vaccae as animmunoprophylactic to delay and/or prevent the onset of AIDS. (patentgenius.com)
  • International Patent Publication WO 94/06466 discloses the use of antigenic and/or immunoregulatory material derived from M. vaccae for therapy of HIV infection, with or without AIDS and withor without associated tuberculosis. (patentgenius.com)
  • The immunoregulatory events described could participate in the modulation of immunopathology, the maintenance of chronic adult worm survival, and the prevention of full expression of protective immune responses. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the relative importance of modulation and shaving in the downregulation of surface mAb:CD20. (jimmunol.org)
  • Suppression of phagocytosis with bead treatment decreased shaving and increased modulation, suggesting that the two compete for surface rituximab:CD20. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, in vivo binding of a therapeutic mAb to a cancer cell may also promote loss of the targeted Ag and bound mAb from the cell surface, an effect called antigenic modulation ( 2 , 3 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several cell adhesion molecules involved in neuron-neuron and neuron- glia interactions have been identified in our laboratory and have been shown to undergo cell surface modulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The modulation of the IgE-binding of the recombinant allergens rPru av 1 from cherry, rAra h 2 from peanut as well as peanut lectin after thermal treatment, Maillard reaction an enzymatic browning was studied. (tum.de)
  • Two explanations for this have been proposed: antigenic modulation whereby mAb:CD20 complexes are internalized in a B cell intrinsic process and shaving, in which mAb:CD20 complexes undergo trogocytic removal by effector cells, such as macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similar CD2 m.RNA levels in anti-CD2 mAb treated and control cells show that down modulation of CD2 is the result of an alteration of translation or trafficking as opposed to a decrease in the level of transcription . (musc.edu)
  • Such antigenic modulation can severely compromise therapeutic efficacy, and we postulated that B cells had been stripped (shaved) of the rituximab/CD20 complex by monocytes or macrophages in a reaction mediated by FcγR. (jimmunol.org)
  • Monocytes and monocytic cell lines can efficiently induce antigenic modulation on certain mAb-targeted cancer cells ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Despite the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to internalize IgG-opsonized substrates ( 23 , 24 , 25 ), the mechanism of antigenic modulation promoted by monocytes has been generally presumed to be due to internalization of IgG Ab/target Ag immune complexes by the cancer cells, rather than by monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Figure 5: Analysis of TCR down-modulation in the dKO T cells. (nature.com)
  • Timo Burster, "Processing and Regulation Mechanisms within Antigen Presenting Cells: A Possibility for Therapeutic Modulation", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2013) 19: 1029. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Antigenic modulation did not occur, and sustained reduction of circulating tumor cells was observed throughout the duration of the infusions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The MHC-I processing pathway is altered in a large number of malignancies and modulation of antigen generation is one strategy employed by cells to evade immune control. (ovid.com)
  • Modulation of cancer-conditioned myeloid cells may provide therapeutic benefit alone or in combination with other modalities. (bmj.com)
  • Both tolerance and immunopathology may be observed in Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE), the disease due to E. multilocularis [ 4 ], and most of the mechanisms occurring seem to be triggered by a sophisticated modulation born out of a stage-specific parasite metabolism and respective immunomodulating strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • As the number of diagnosed patients increases, there is a need for the development of improved and specific therapeutic approaches for MG. Our studies involve mainly a) the thorough understanding of the antigenic structure of muscle AChR, b) the pathogenic mechanisms in MG, c) efforts to develop novel immunospecific therapeutic approaches and d) the better diagnosis of the disease. (pasteur.gr)
  • 1. An antigenic product, comprising a dendritic polymer, built on a core molecule which is at least difunctional so as to provide branching and containing up to 16 terminal functional groups to which an antigenic peptide, that comprises an epitope of a deposit-forming polypeptide involved in plaque-forming disease or disorder, is joined by covalent bonds. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • M vaccae is believed to contain antigenic compounds that are recognized by the immunesystem of individuals exposed to infection with M. tuberculosis and other infectious and/or inflammatory disorders. (patentgenius.com)
  • The data indicate that during S. mansoni infection patients develop serum component(s) which specifically interfere with the responsiveness of their lymphocytes in regard to certain schistosome-derived antigenic preparations. (ajtmh.org)
  • Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C -terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. (mdpi.com)
  • The viruses ( n = 174) were characterized as to major antigenic group (group A or B) by a PCR-based assay. (asm.org)
  • Epidemiologic studies conducted in the United States with MAbs to define the antigenic groups showed that there are three types of RS virus epidemics: those in which group A or group B viruses were dominant and those in which both groups circulate concurrently ( 2 , 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • This modulation seems to be a necessary component of immunosuppression and the mechanism of this phenomenon was further defined in vitro . (musc.edu)
  • These responses, induced by the schistosome-derived antigenic preparations, were suppressed if the homologous-normal serum supplement of the culture medium was replaced with either the patient's own (autologous) serum, or that of another S. mansoni patient. (ajtmh.org)
  • Antidepressant drugs are recommended for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated depression but their role in the modulation of L-DOPA-induced behavioral and neurochemical markers is poor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we use sequential cloning of P. falciparum by micromanipulation to investigate the ability of a parasite to switch antigenic and cytoadherence phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • E. Borda, D. Passafaro, S. Reina and L. Sterin-Borda, "Modulation of c-Jun NH 2 -Terminal (JNK) by Cholinergic Autoantibodies from Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome," Pharmacology & Pharmacy , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 256-265. (scirp.org)
  • Therefore, shaving may represent an important mechanism of resistance when modulation is curtailed, and glycoengineering mAb to increase affinity for FcγR may enhance resistance because of shaving. (jimmunol.org)
  • The result of this antigenic modulation is that the cancer cell escapes and the therapy becomes ineffective. (jimmunol.org)
  • The specific objective was to evaluate the effect on osteoblasts of two nitrogen-containing BPs (zoledronate and alendronate) and one non-nitrogen-containing BP (clodronate) by analyzing modulations in their expression of genes essential for osteoblast physiology. (medsci.org)
Detection of anti-adalimumab antibodies in a RA responsive cohort of patients using three different techniques.
Detection of anti-adalimumab antibodies in a RA responsive cohort of patients using three different techniques. (bioportfolio.com)
Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease, Book by Nancy Cummings (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca
Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease, Book by Nancy Cummings (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca (chapters.indigo.ca)
Denise M. Monack | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Denise M. Monack | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)
Characterization of a TL−variant of a homozygous TL+ mouse lymphoma | SpringerLink
Characterization of a TL−variant of a homozygous TL+ mouse lymphoma | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
GAPDH: Biological Properties and Diversity (ebook) by Norbert W. Seidler | 9789400747166
GAPDH: Biological Properties and Diversity (ebook) by Norbert W. Seidler | 9789400747166 (ebooks.com)
Complement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells | SpringerLink
Complement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
JCI -
The Staphylococcus aureus Map protein is an immunomodulator that interferes with T cell-mediated responses
JCI - The Staphylococcus aureus Map protein is an immunomodulator that interferes with T cell-mediated responses (jci.org)
Fc gamma receptor IIb on target B cells promotes rituximab internalization and reduces clinical efficacy | Blood Journal
Fc gamma receptor IIb on target B cells promotes rituximab internalization and reduces clinical efficacy | Blood Journal (bloodjournal.org)
Multidimensional analyses reveal modulation of adaptive and innate immune subsets by tuberculosis vaccines | Communications...
Multidimensional analyses reveal modulation of adaptive and innate immune subsets by tuberculosis vaccines | Communications... (nature.com)
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell Responses Identified in Merkel Cell Carcinomas and Blood | Clinical...
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell Responses Identified in Merkel Cell Carcinomas and Blood | Clinical... (clincancerres.aacrjournals.org)
The BvgAS Regulon of Bordetella pertussis | mBio
The BvgAS Regulon of Bordetella pertussis | mBio (mbio.asm.org)
Borrelia burgdorferi Alters Its Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile in Response to CO2 Levels | Journal of Bacteriology
Borrelia burgdorferi Alters Its Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile in Response to CO2 Levels | Journal of Bacteriology (jb.asm.org)
Antigenic Variation in Vector-Borne Pathogens - Volume 6, Number 5-October 2000 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Antigenic Variation in Vector-Borne Pathogens - Volume 6, Number 5-October 2000 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Differential Presentation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) T Cell Epitopes Among HLA-DRB1*0401-Positive Individuals |...
Differential Presentation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) T Cell Epitopes Among HLA-DRB1*0401-Positive Individuals |... (jimmunol.org)
Nelson Teng | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Nelson Teng | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)
Acute Leukemia: Biology and Treatment | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Acute Leukemia: Biology and Treatment | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians (annals.org)
T14, A Non-modulating 150-Kd T Cell Surface Antigen | SpringerLink
T14, A Non-modulating 150-Kd T Cell Surface Antigen | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
C-Cbl and Cbl-b regulate T cell responsiveness by promoting ligand-induced TCR down-modulation | Nature Immunology
C-Cbl and Cbl-b regulate T cell responsiveness by promoting ligand-induced TCR down-modulation | Nature Immunology (nature.com)
Interaction with FcγRIIB Is Critical for the Agonistic Activity of Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody | The Journal of Immunology
Interaction with FcγRIIB Is Critical for the Agonistic Activity of Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody | The Journal of Immunology (jimmunol.org)
The PI3Kδ-Selective Inhibitor Idelalisib Minimally Interferes with Immune Effector Function Mediated by Rituximab or...
The PI3Kδ-Selective Inhibitor Idelalisib Minimally Interferes with Immune Effector Function Mediated by Rituximab or... (jimmunol.org)
Species- and Strain-Specific Control of a Complex, Flexible Regulon by Bordetella BvgAS | Journal of Bacteriology
Species- and Strain-Specific Control of a Complex, Flexible Regulon by Bordetella BvgAS | Journal of Bacteriology (jb.asm.org)
HMGB2 Gene - GeneCards | HMGB2 Protein | HMGB2 Antibody
HMGB2 Gene - GeneCards | HMGB2 Protein | HMGB2 Antibody (genecards.org)
Roeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Roeland Nusse | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)
Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
ASMscience | Bacterial Metabolism in the Host Environment: Pathogen Growth and Nutrient Assimilation in the Mammalian Upper...
ASMscience | Bacterial Metabolism in the Host Environment: Pathogen Growth and Nutrient Assimilation in the Mammalian Upper... (asmscience.org)
Bisphosphonate Modulation of the Gene Expression of Different Markers Involved in Osteoblast Physiology: Possible Implications...
Bisphosphonate Modulation of the Gene Expression of Different Markers Involved in Osteoblast Physiology: Possible Implications... (medsci.org)
Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a Humanized Anti-Semaphorin 4D Antibody, in a First-In-Human Study of...
Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a Humanized Anti-Semaphorin 4D Antibody, in a First-In-Human Study of... (clincancerres.aacrjournals.org)
Items where Year is 1979 - Enlighten: Theses
Items where Year is 1979 - Enlighten: Theses (theses.gla.ac.uk)
Study: History Of Cannabis Use Associated With Reduced Cancer Risk - NORML
Study: History Of Cannabis Use Associated With Reduced Cancer Risk - NORML (norml.org)
Frontiers | Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Virulent and Attenuated Ehrlichia ruminantium Strains Highlighted Strong...
Frontiers | Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Virulent and Attenuated Ehrlichia ruminantium Strains Highlighted Strong... (frontiersin.org)