Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.

Establishment of a human thymic myoid cell line. Phenotypic and functional characteristics. (1/22)

The subset of myoid cells is a normal component of the thymic stroma. To characterize these cells, we immortalized stromal cells from human thymus by using a plasmid vector encoding the SV40 T oncogene. Among the eight cell lines obtained, one had myoid characteristics including desmin and troponin antigens. This new line was designated MITC (myoid immortalized thymic cells). These cells expressed both the fetal and adult forms of muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the mRNA level, as well as the myogenic transcription factor MyoD1. alpha-Subunit AChR protein expression was detected by flow cytometry and the AChR was functional in patch-clamp studies. In addition, AChR expression was down-modulated by myasthenia gravis sera or by monoclonal antibody anti-AChR on MITC line similarly to TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, making the MITC line an interesting tool for AChR antigenic modulation experiments. Finally, the MITC line expressed LFA-3, produced several cytokines able to act on T cells, and protected total thymocytes from spontaneous apoptosis in vitro. These results are compatible with a role of thymic myoid cells in some steps of thymocyte development. Therefore MITC line appears to be a useful tool to investigate the physiological role of thymic myoid cells.  (+info)

Nematode infection enhances survival of activated T cells by modulating accessory cell function. (2/22)

The type of immune response generated following exposure to Ag depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the Ag, the type of adjuvant used, the site of antigenic entry, and the immune status of the host. We have previously shown that infection of rodents with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) shifts the development of type 1 allo-specific responses toward type 2 immunity, suggesting nematode modulation of T cell activation. In this report we explore the immunomodulatory effects of Nb on T cell activation. We found that spleen cells from Nb-infected mice exhibited dramatically increased proliferation in response to Con A and anti-CD3. This hyperproliferation could be transferred in vitro to naive splenocytes by coculture with mitomycin C-treated cells from Nb-infected animals. The transfer was mediated by non-T accessory cells and supernatants derived from Con A-activated non-T cells, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor secreted by accessory cells. The accessory cells secreted high levels of IL-6, and anti-IL-6 treatment abrogated the supernatant-induced hyperproliferation, thus confirming that IL-6 was mediating the effect. Further, spleen cells from Nb-infected mice were more resistant to activation-induced cell death (AICD) following mitogenic stimulation. Reduced AICD was also transferable and IL-6 dependent. Thus, the hyperproliferation was in part due to enhanced activated T cell survival. These phenomena mediated by accessory cells may contribute to the powerful polyclonal activation of type 2 immunity caused by nematode infection.  (+info)

Modulation of multiple experimental arthritis models by collagen-induced arthritis quantitative trait loci isolated in congenic rat lines: different effects of non-major histocompatibility complex quantitative trait loci in males and females. (3/22)

OBJECTIVE: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a model of inflammatory arthritis with many similarities to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously mapped in F(2) offspring of CIA-susceptible DA and CIA-resistant F344 rats, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for which F344 alleles were associated with reduced CIA severity. In the present study, we sought to characterize the independent arthritis-modulating effects of these 5 QTLs. METHODS: CIA-regulatory regions were transferred from the F344 genome to the DA background or vice versa by repeated backcrossing. The arthritis-modulating effects of the transferred alleles were determined by comparing the severity of experimentally induced arthritis in congenic rats with that in DA rats. RESULTS: Congenic lines with either the F344 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the DA background or the DA MHC on the F344 background were resistant to CIA, confirming both MHC and non-MHC contributions to the genetic regulation of CIA. F344 alleles at the Cia3 and Cia5 regions of chromosomes 4 and 10 reduced CIA severity relative to that observed in DA rats. F344 Cia4 and Cia6 regions of chromosomes 7 and 8 failed to significantly alter CIA severity. Arthritis-modifying effects of Cia4 and Cia6 were, however, detected in pristane-induced and/or Freund's incomplete adjuvant oil-induced arthritis. The arthritis-modifying effects of the non-MHC CIA-regulatory loci differed in males and females. CONCLUSION: These congenic lines confirmed the existence and location of genes that regulate the severity of experimental arthritis in rats. Mechanisms responsible for the sex-specificity of individual arthritis-regulatory loci may explain some of the sex differences observed in RA and other autoimmune diseases in humans.  (+info)

Cell membrane modification for rapid display of proteins as a novel means of immunomodulation: FasL-decorated cells prevent islet graft rejection. (4/22)

Long-term display of exogenous proteins on the cell surface may have important research and therapeutic implications. We report a novel method for the cell-surface display of proteins that involves generation of a chimeric protein with core streptavidin, biotinylation of cells, and "decoration" with the protein. A chimeric protein with the extracellular portions of FasL (SA-FasL) was efficiently displayed on the cell surface within 2 hr without detectable cellular toxicity. Biotin and SA-FasL persisted on the cell surface for weeks in vitro and in vivo. Immunomodulation with SA-FasL-decorated splenocytes effectively blocked alloreactive responses in naive and presensitized rodents and prevented the rejection of allogeneic pancreatic islets. This approach may serve as an alternative to gene transfer-based expression with broad research and therapeutic applications.  (+info)

T-cell subset analysis of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor rejection: heterogeneity of effectors and evidence for negative regulatory lymphocytes correlating with metastasis. (5/22)

We have analyzed the phenotypes of the T-cell subsets generated in response to Lewis lung carcinoma clones in C57BL/6J recipients. The metastatic derivative, which expresses low levels of H-2Kb gene, predominantly elicited CD8, V beta 8, and V beta 9+ T-cells. The nonmetastatic clone expressing high levels of H-Kb gene triggered a more heterogeneous response of V beta-5, -6, -8, -9, and -11 CD8+ T-cells. Comparison of the T-cell receptor (TCR) expression of the T-cells infiltrating the tumor site with the lymphocytes in the periphery of tumor-bearing animals revealed a pattern of homing of CD4+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, and -11 TCR chains and CD8+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, -9, and -11. Depletion of V beta 5 or V beta 6+ T-cells correlated with accelerated tumor growth, implying their protective role as tumor-specific effectors and consistent with the cytotoxicity of T-cells with this TCR phenotype. V beta 11 TCR expression in the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes increased with the tumor size. Depletion of V beta 11+ T-cells enhanced resistance to primary tumor growth and conferred protection from metastasis in recipients cleared of V beta 5 and V beta 6 T-cell subsets. Those results suggest that tumor-specific effectors as well as negative regulator T-cells home, infiltrate, and coexist in the tumor site.  (+info)

Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro. (6/22)

Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.  (+info)

Mutational escape from CD8+ T cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man. (7/22)

The mechanisms by which the hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistence are not yet fully understood. Previous chimpanzee and now human studies suggest that mutations within MHC class I-restricted HCV epitopes might contribute to viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, there are several outstanding questions regarding the role of escape mutations in viral persistence and their fate in the absence of immune selection pressure.  (+info)

Identification of an altered peptide ligand based on the endogenously presented, rheumatoid arthritis-associated, human cartilage glycoprotein-39(263-275) epitope: an MHC anchor variant peptide for immune modulation. (8/22)

We sought to identify an altered peptide ligand (APL) based on the endogenously expressed synovial auto-epitope of human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HC gp-39) for modulation of cognate, HLA-DR4-restricted T cells. For this purpose we employed a panel of well-characterized T cell hybridomas generated from HC gp-39-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The hybridomas all respond to the HC gp-39(263-275) epitope when bound to HLA-DR4(B1*0401) but differ in their fine specificities. First, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) contact residues were identified by analysis of single site substituted analogue peptides for HLA-DR4 binding and cognate T cell recognition using both T hybridomas and polyclonal T cells from peptide-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Analysis of single site substituted APL by cognate T cells led to identification of Phe265 as the dominant MHC anchor. The amino acids Ala268, Ser269, Glu271 and Thr272 constituted the major TCR contact residues, as substitution at these positions did not affect HLA-DR4(B1*0401) binding but abrogated T cell responses. A structural model for visualisation of TCR recognition was derived. Second, a set of non-classical APLs, modified at the MHC key anchor position but with unaltered TCR contacts, was developed. When these APLs were analysed, a partial TCR agonist was identified and found to modulate the HC gp-39(263-275)-specific, pro-inflammatory response in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. We identified a non-classical APL by modification of the p1 MHC anchor in a synovial auto-epitope. This APL may qualify for rheumatoid arthritis immunotherapy.  (+info)

Draber, P and Viklicky, V, The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3118 ...
Anti-CD2 mAb suppresses cell mediated immunity in vivo with a concommittant down modulation of. CD2 cell surface expression. This modulation seems to be a necessary component of immunosuppression and the mechanism of this phenomenon was further defined in vitro. Methods: Nylon wool purified murine spleen cells were stimulated in culture with supernatant of Concanavalin A stimulated murine (BALBc/ByJ) spleen cells, cultured with aCD2 mAb and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry. Northern hybridization was performed on cultured cells by probing for CD2 mRNA. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to reveal the fate of cell surface CD2 9ound by anti-CD2 mAb. Results: Anti-CD2 caused CD2 expression to decrease from a mean channel fluorescence (MCF) of 74.3 to 58.1 and CD3 to decrease from 67.0 to 56.5. The expression of the adhesion molecules LFA-la (CDlla), LFA-1~ (CD18), ICAM-1 (CD54), Pgp-1 (CD44) and VLA-4a (CD49d) were up regulated. CD4, CDS, IL-2R (CD25), CD45 and MEL-14 were ...
Structural component of specialized membrane microdomains known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TERMs), which act as platforms for receptor clustering and signaling. Essential for trafficking and compartmentalization of CD19 receptor on the cell surface of activated B cells (PubMed:23499492). Upon initial encounter with a microbial pathogen, enables the assembly of CD19-CR2 and B cell receptor complexes at signaling TERMs, lowering the threshold dose of antigen required to trigger B cell clonal expansion and humoral immune response (By similarity). In T cells, associates with CD4 or CD8 coreceptors and defines the maturation state of antigen-induced synapses with B cells (By similarity). Facilitates localization of CD3 in these immune synapses, required for costimulation and sustained activation of T cells, preferentially triggering T helper type 2 immune response (PubMed:11046035). Can act both as positive and negative regulator of homotypic or heterotypic cell-cell fusion processes. In myoblasts
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Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean?
CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which can exist in a multitude of isoforms due to alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to several of these variant regions, which are encoded by 10 additional exons in the extracellular part of the molecule. CD44 variant isoforms have been reported to be involved in the malignant progression of rat and human tumours. The precise localization of CD44 variant isoforms in normal developmental and morphogenetic processes is essential for diagnostic studies of human tumorigenesis. Therefore, we have analysed a large number of different human tissues by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD44 isoforms containing either exons 4v, 6v or 9v. Expression of exon 9v-isoforms was detected in almost all epithelia analysed, with a few exceptions. Exon 6v isoforms are expressed only in squamous and glandular epithelial, e.g. skin epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands, oesophagus, ducts of the mammary gland, salivary and ...
Herpesviruses characteristically transmit infection from immune hosts. Although their success in escaping neutralization by pre-formed antibody is indisputable, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Glycoprotein B (gB) is the most conserved component of the herpesvirus entry machinery and its N terminus (gB-NT) is a common neutralization target. We used murid herpesvirus-4 to determine how gB-NT contributes to the virus-antibody interaction. Deleting gB-NT had no obvious impact on virus replication, but paradoxically increased virion neutralization by immune sera. This reflected greater antibody access to neutralization epitopes on gH/gL, with which gB was associated. gB-NT itself was variably protected against antibody by O-linked glycans; on virions from epithelial cells it was protected almost completely. gB-NT therefore provides a protective and largely protected cover for a vulnerable part of gH/gL. The conservation of predicted glycosylation sites in other mammalian ...
MalaCards based summary : Immunodeficiency 7, Tcr-Alpha/beta Deficient, also known as t-cell receptor-alpha/beta deficiency, is related to cr2-related common variable immune deficiency, and has symptoms including failure to thrive, recurrent infections and lymphadenopathy. An important gene associated with Immunodeficiency 7, Tcr-Alpha/beta Deficient is TRAC (T-Cell Receptor Alpha Constant). The drug Liver Extracts has been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells and liver ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Antigenic Modulation;Immunosuppression;Mice;Antigenic Modulation;Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized;Antibodies, Monoclonal;T-Lymphocytes;Microscopy, ...
en] Herpesviruses consistently transmit from immunocompetent carriers, implying that their neutralization is hard to achieve. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) exploits host IgG Fc receptors to bypass blocks to cell binding, and pH-dependent protein conformation changes to unveil its fusion machinery only after endocytosis. Nevertheless neutralization remains possible by targeting the virion glycoprotein H (gH) / gL heterodimer, and the neutralizing antibody responses of MuHV-4 carriers are improved by boosting with recombinant gH/gL. We analysed here how gH/gL-directed neutralization works. The MuHV-4 gH/gL binds to heparan sulfate. However most gH/gL-specific neutralizing antibodies did not block this interaction. Nor did they act directly on fusion. Instead they blocked virion endocytosis and transport to the late endosomes where membrane fusion normally occurs. The poor endocytosis of gH/gL-neutralized virions was recapitulated precisely by virions genetically lacking gL. Therefore driving virion ...
Upon the addition of antibody to measles virus, measles virus antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells can be modulated from the cells membrane in vitro. Removal of measles virus antigens from the surface of cells occurs relatively rapidly and is accompanied by a parallel reduction in the ability of antibody and complement to lyse these cells. Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus antibodies are removed from culture medium. Protracted exposure of acutely infected cells to measles virus antibodies results in a population of cells that exhibit normal cytomorphology and growth behavior. These cells continue to express measles virus antigens internally, but not at the cell surface, and are refractory to immune lysis. Once antiviral antibody is removed, measles virus antigens again appear on the cell surface, giant cell and syncytial formation occur, and cell death follows. These observations may explain ...
Many acute viral infections can be controlled by vaccination; however, vaccinating against persistent infections remains problematic. Herpesviruses are a classic example. Here, we discuss their immune control, particularly that of gamma-herpesviruses, relating the animal model provided by murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) to human infections. The following points emerge: (i) CD8+ T-cell evasion by herpesviruses confers a prominent role in host defence on CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells inhibit MuHV-4 lytic gene expression via gamma-interferon (IFN-γ). By reducing the lytic secretion of immune evasion proteins, they may also help CD8+ T cells to control virus-driven lymphoproliferation in mixed lytic/latent lesions. Similarly, CD4+ T cells specific for Epstein-Barr virus lytic antigens could improve the impact of adoptively transferred, latent antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. (ii) In general, viral immune evasion necessitates multiple host effectors for optimal control. Thus, subunit vaccines, which tend to prime
Antibody is an important antiviral defence. However, it is considered to do little against human gamma-herpesviruses, which establish predominantly latent infections regulated by T cells. One limitation on analysing these infections has been that latency is already well-established at clinical presentation; early infection may still be accessible to antibody. Here, using murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), we tested the impact of adoptively transferred antibody on early gamma-herpesvirus infection. Immune sera and neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) all reduced acute lytic MuHV-4 replication. The reductions, even by neutralizing mAbs, were largely or completely dependent on host IgG Fc receptors. Therefore, passive antibody can blunt acute gamma-herpesvirus lytic infection, and does this principally by IgG Fc-dependent functions rather than by neutralization ...
In this study we demonstrate that LC and DC during in vitro activation and during their in vivo migration to the peripheral LN differentially upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and sequences encoded by variant exons CD44v4, v5, v6, and v9. Thus LC and DC activation or migration is accompanied by increased synthesis of CD44 and by a change of either epitope accessibility or splicing. The mechanisms underlying this change remain to be elucidated: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β, secreted by keratinocytes in response to antigen application to the skin, play a role in LC-maturation, emigration, and accumulation in LN (9, 11, 16). Furthermore, the generation of activated DC from peripheral blood precursors depends upon the presence of GM-CSF (35). However, at present we have no evidence that GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factorα are involved in CD44 modulation by LC or DC, since biologically active mAbs neutralizing these cytokines added ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Hu, Ms. Application: IHC-P. Specificity: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). Higher molecular weight isoforms are described in epithelial cells (CD44v), which are believed to function in intercellular adhesion and stromal binding. CD44 immunostaining is commonly used for the discrimination of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in-situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.. Package: 100μg. ...
Heavy metal (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+) ion:H+ symporter, Nramp2 or divalent metal transporter, DMT1 (Garrick et al. 2003). A 12 TMS topology with intracellular N- and C- termini is established. Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc11 hydrophobic core) is suggested (Czachorowski et al., 2009). A conserved motif in a central flexible region of TMS1 (DPGN) binds the metal ion (Wang et al. 2011). Upregulated by iron deficiency and downregulated by iron loading (Nam et al. 2013). NRAMP2 also serves as the Sindbis alpha virus receptor (Rose et al. 2011). DMT1 interacts with the iron chaparone protein, PCBP2 (Q15366), in an iron-dependent fashion, and may be essential for iron uptake (Lane and Richardson 2014). Mutations cause a syndrome of congenital microcytic hypochromic anemia, poorly responsive to oral iron treatment, with liver iron overload associated paradoxically with normal to moderately elevated serum ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Chun-Shu Lin, Ying-Chin Lin, Bamodu Oluwaseun Adebayo, Alexander Wu, Jia-Hong Chen, Yi-Jen Peng, Ming-Fang Cheng, Wei-Hwa Lee, Michael Hsiao, Tsu-Yi Chao, Chi-Tai Yeh].
The residues in an influenza nucleoprotein (NP) cytotoxic T cell determinant necessary for cytotoxic T cell (CTL) recognition, were identified by assaying the ability of hybrid peptides to sensitize a target cell to lysis. The hybrid peptides were formed by substituting amino acids from one determinant (influenza NP 147-158) for the corresponding residues of a second peptide (HLA CW3 171-182) capable of binding to a common class I protein (H-2Kd). Six amino acids resulted in partial recognition; however, the presence of a seventh improved the potency of the peptide. Five of the six amino acids were shown to be required for recognition. The spacing of the six amino acids was consistent with the peptide adopting a helical conformation when bound. The importance of each amino acid in CTL recognition and binding to the restriction element was investigated further by assaying the ability of peptides containing point substitutions either to sensitize target cells or to compete with the natural NP ...
A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
Structural characterization of peptides restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has identified residues critical for MHC class I binding and for T-cell receptor recognition. For example, optimal peptides fitting into the murine MHC class I Db groove are 9 to 11 amino acids long and require as MHC anchor residues an Asn (N) at position 5 and also either a hydrophobic residue, a Met (M) or a Cys (C), at the carboxy terminus. The three known Db-restricted peptides of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are glycoproteins GP1 (amino acids [aa] 33 KAVYNFATC), GP2 (aa 276 SGVENPGGYCL), and nucleoprotein NP (aa 396 FQPQNGQFI). In addition to these two GP and one NP peptides, computer search revealed 11 other GP peptide sequences and 20 additional NP sequences that contained the Db binding motif. By Db competitive binding analysis, only two of these 11 GP peptides and 1 of these 20 NP peptides bound to the MHC Db molecule with an affinity equivalent to the measured ...
The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
CD44 refers to a multifunctional family of type I transmembrane proteins. The CD44 gene contains at least 21 exons, 11 of which can be variably spliced and produce a variety of heavily glycosylated cell surface proteins, known as CD44 variant isoforms. These proteins have been implicated in many biological processes, such as cell adhesion, cell substrate, cell to cell interactions, including lymphocyte homing haemopoiesis, cell migration and metastasis. These abilities are of great importance in chronic inflammation and in cancer. Published data have shown that CD44 has the ability to recruit leucocytes to vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation, which is one of the first steps in the inflammatory response. In cancer, deregulation of the adhesion mechanisms increases the ability of tumor cells to metastasis. This behavior seems to be explained by the existing relationship between hyaluronan, a basic component of the extracellular matrix and CD44, which is its major cell surface receptor. ...
The presence of the HGF/Met system in the testicular myoid cells was first discovered by our group. However, the physiological role of this pathway remains poorly understood. We previously reported that HGF increases uPA secretion and TGF-β activation in cultured tubular fragments and that HGF is maximally expressed at Stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, when myoid cell contraction occurs. It is well known that the HGF/Met pathway is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling; moreover, the interaction of uPA with its receptor, uPAR, as well as the activation of TGF-β have been reported to be related to the actin cytoskeleton contractility of smooth muscle cells. Herein, we report that HGF induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling in vitro in isolated myoid cells and myoid cell contraction in cultured seminiferous tubules. To better understand these phenomena, we evaluated: (1) the regulation of the uPA machinery in isolated myoid cells after HGF administration; and (2) the effect of uPA or
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Antigenic modulation and turnover in human neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1979; 64:321-325. 45. Hartwig JH, Stossel TP. ... Modulation of gelsolin function by phosphatidylinositol-4, 5- bisphosphate. Nature. 1987; 325:362-364. 98. Ito T, Zaner KS, ...
This effect leads to tumors cell escape by antigenic modulation. Reducing the dose of therapeutic antibodies to limit the ... Major findings along these lines are: cytotoxic T lymphocytes having captured antigenic peptide-MHC complexes can be killed by ... through trogocytosis contribute to affinity maturation of T cell response by selecting high-affinity T cell down-modulation of ... are involved in a negative regulatory feed-back loop leading to their inactivation dendritic cells stripped of antigenic ...
Modulation of inflammation and immunity by cyclic AMP. Science 184: 19 28, 1974. Shearer GM. Cell mediated cytotoxicity to ... Antigenic peptides recognized by T helper lymphocytes from asymptomatic, HIV seropositive individuals. Nature 339: 383 385, ... Type 1/Type 2 cytokine modulation of T cell programmed cell death as a model for HIV pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: ...
... an example of modulation of antigenic properties of peptide by its glycosylation". Blood. 84 (7): 2340-2345. doi:10.1182/blood. ... Lisowska, Elwira (2002-10-11). "The role of glycosylation in protein antigenic properties". Cellular and Molecular Life ... Lisowska, Elwira (2001), Wu, Albert M. (ed.), "Antigenic Properties of Human Glycophorins - An Update", The Molecular ... These studies were important in characterization of antigenic properties of human glycophorins. She became head of Laboratory ...
Lee's clinical trial is the first to test the modulation of immune-checkpoint activity by increasing the antigenic ...
NS5A is a hydrophilic phosphoprotein which plays an important role in viral replication, modulation of cell signaling pathways ... It appears to be antigenic but its function is unknown. Replication[edit]. ...
"The cell division cycle of Trypanosoma brucei brucei: timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations". Philos. Trans. R ... "Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: molecular mechanisms and phenotypic complexity". Cell. Microbiol. 11 (12): ...
Morrison LJ, Marcello L, McCulloch R; Marcello; McCulloch (December 2009). "Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: ... timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 323 (1218): 573-88. ...
Welling GW, Wiejer WJ, van der Zee R, Welling-Werster S. (1985). "Prediction of sequential antigenic regions in proteins". J ... Spelman, K (2006). "Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators". ... "Immune Modulation of Stem Cells and Regeneration". Cell Stem Cell (dalam bahasa English). 15 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... "Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic modulation of tumor cells enhances killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is distinct from ...
"Modulation of TCRβ surface expression during TCR revision". Cellular Immunology. 272 (2): 124-129. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm. ... is a process in the peripheral immune system which is used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity ... which are able to recognize almost any antigenic structure/sequence. The paradigm of adaptive immunity is that a single T cell ...
More specifically, this receptor may contribute to the proper positioning of activated T cells within the antigenic challenge ... "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor modulation". Curr. HIV Res. 2 (1): 39-50. doi:10.2174/1570162043484997. PMID 15053339. ...
Vaccines rely on immune modulation or augmentation. Vaccination either excites or reinforces the immune competence of a host to ... and there is the additional concern of uncertain immune responses to these large antigenic cocktails. There are considerable ...
Idiotype Cross-Reaction - Idiotypes are antigenic epitopes found in the antigen-binding portion (Fab) of the immunoglobulin ... The details of parasite immune modulation are not yet known, but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or ... against a backdrop of genetic predisposition and environmental modulation. It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss ...
Do Carmo, S; Forest, JC; Giguère, Y; Masse, A; Lafond, J; Rassart, E (2 September 2009). "Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels ... "Protein polymorphism of a human plasma apolipoprotein D antigenic epitope". Journal of Lipid Research. 30 (6): 865-75. PMID ... Do Carmo, S; Séguin, D; Milne, R; Rassart, E (15 February 2002). "Modulation of apolipoprotein D and apolipoprotein E mRNA ... Terrisse, L; Séguin, D; Bertrand, P; Poirier, J; Milne, R; Rassart, E (18 June 1999). "Modulation of apolipoprotein D and ...
Lineage and antigenic phenotype[edit]. These have been established by classic work by Raff et al. in early 1980s on Rat optic ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ... Santello M, Volterra A (2008). "Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent glutamate release". Neuroscience. Mar. 158 ... "Acute Cannabinoids Impair Working Memory through Astroglial CB1 Receptor Modulation of Hippocampal LTD". Cell. 148 (5): 1039-50 ...
Antigenic properties[edit]. Serological Relationships: Antigen determinants are type-specific and group-specific. Antigen ... a paradigm for the modulation of cell surface receptors". Immunological Reviews. 168: 51-63. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065x.1999. ... Glycosylation seems to play a structural role in the concealment and variation of antigenic sites necessary for the host to ... Classification of members of this taxon is infrequently based on their antigenic properties. ...
When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, ... The TCR affinity for peptided/MHC has a direct impact on modulation of T-cell function. T cells are very sensitive to their ... although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to interact with the N-terminal part of the antigenic peptide, whereas ... which accounts for the even greater diversity of T-cell receptor specificity for processed antigenic peptides. ...
The antigenic determinant for the blood group Ss is located at residue 29 where S has a methionine and s a threonine. This is ... multiple gene rearrangements and modulation of splice site usage result in extensive diversification". Hum. Mutat. 6 (3): 199- ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ...
Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2008;325:263- ... Discordant antigenic drift of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin in H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses. Proceedings of the National ... These include a process called antigenic drift where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases. Most of these ... How antigenic shift, or reassortment, can result in novel and highly pathogenic strains of human flu ...
Fimbriae are formed of a protein called pilin (antigenic) and are responsible for the attachment of bacteria to specific ... Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and maintenance of cellular activities. ...
Park S, Liu G, Topping TB, Cover WH, Randall LL (February 1988). "Modulation of folding pathways of exported proteins by the ... The permissive sites that were internal to MBP, were used to insert antigenic peptides and challenge the immune response in ...
De Giorgi, C.; De Luca, F.; Di Vito, M.; Lamberti, F. (20 February 1997). "Modulation of expression at the level of splicing of ... "Ultrastructural immuno-localization of CUT-1 and CUT-2 antigenic sites in the cuticles of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...
This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby ... June 2020). "Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLOS Biology. 18 (6): ... June 2020). "Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLOS Biology. 18 (6): ...
Antigenic shift occurs when there is a major change in the genome of the virus. This can be a result of recombination or ... Alwine JC (2008). "Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus". Current Topics in Microbiology and ... These include a process called antigenic drift where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases. Most of these ... December 2011). "Discordant antigenic drift of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin in H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses". Proceedings ...
Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... multiple gene rearrangements and modulation of splice site usage result in extensive diversification". Hum. Mutat. 6 (3): 199- ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... are major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane which bear the antigenic determinants for the MN and Ss blood ...
Moreover, oxidative DNA damage like 8-oxo-dG contributes to carcinogenesis through the modulation of gene expression, or the ... quadruplexes have also been reported in allowing programmed recombination of immunologlobin heavy genes and the pilin antigenic ... or the modulation of gene expression. Upon insertion of 8-oxo-dG into thymidine kinase gene of humans, it was determine that if ... "Characterization of the G-quadruplexes in the duplex nuclease hypersensitive element of the PDGF-A promoter and modulation of ...
"Erythromycin and clarithromycin modulation of growth factor-induced expression of heparanase mRNA on human lung cancer cells in ... "Overexpression of heparanase multiple antigenic peptide 2 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer: Potential for ...
2018). "Modulation of Dengue/Zika Virus Pathogenicity by Antibody-Dependent Enhancement and Strategies to Protect Against ... The viruses that can cause ADE frequently share some common features such as antigenic diversity, abilities to replicate and ... Janoff, E. N.; Wahl, S. M.; Thomas, K.; Smith, P. D. (September 1995). "Modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Original antigenic sin Other ways in which antibodies can (unusually) make an infection worse instead of better Blocking ...
Its function and significance are poorly understood but it is suspected to be associated with host gene expression modulation. ...
Watzl C (2014). How to trigger a killer: modulation of natural killer cell reactivity on many levels. Advances in Immunology. ... even in the absence of surface adhesion molecules and antigenic peptides. This role of NK cells is critical to immune success ... Lodoen MB, Lanier LL (2005). "Viral modulation of NK cell immunity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (1): 59-69. doi:10.1038/ ...
Accurate definition of the antigenic site around the disulphide bridge 30-115 (site 3) by 'surface-simulation' synthesis". The ... "Load-dependent modulation of non-muscle myosin-2A function by tropomyosin 4.2". Scientific Reports. 6: 20554. doi:10.1038/ ...
Fimbriae are formed of a protein called pilin (antigenic) and are responsible for the attachment of bacteria to specific ... Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and maintenance of cellular activities. ...
Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve ... "Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 ... The antigenic molecules that activate γδ T cells are still mostly unknown. However, γδ T cells are not MHC-restricted and seem ...
positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus. • learning or memory. • nociception. • negative ... However, as with the rest of the brain, it plays a crucial role in modulation of NT release. ... IN the visual system, cannabinoids agonist induce a dose dependent modulation of calcium, chloride and potassium channels. This ... "Allosteric modulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor". Molecular Pharmacology. 68 (5): 1484-95. doi:10.1124/mol.105.016162. ...
Lineage and antigenic phenotypeEdit. These have been established by classic work by Raff et al. in early 1980s on Rat optic ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ... Santello M, Volterra A (2008). "Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent glutamate release". Neuroscience. Mar. 158 ... "Acute Cannabinoids Impair Working Memory through Astroglial CB1 Receptor Modulation of Hippocampal LTD". Cell. 148 (5): 1039-50 ...
In the simplified view of this pathway HSPs are usually not mentioned: antigenic peptides are generated in proteasome, ... "HSP90 and Immune Modulation in Cancer", Advances in Cancer Research, Elsevier, pp. 191-224, doi:10.1016/bs.acr.2015.10.001 ...
positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus. • learning or memory. • nociception. • negative ... "Allosteric modulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor". Molecular Pharmacology. 68 (5): 1484-95. doi:10.1124/mol.105.016162. ... "Enantiospecific Allosteric Modulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 8 (6): 1188-1203. doi:10.1021/ ... cannabinoids agonist induce a dose dependent modulation of calcium, chloride and potassium channels. This alters vertical ...
These results suggest PirB may be involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex. ... "Export of antigenic peptides from the endoplasmic reticulum intersects with retrograde protein translocation through the ...
Glenny A, Pope C, Waddington H, Wallace U (1926). "The antigenic value of toxoid precipitated by potassium alum". J Pathol ... "The adjuvant component α-tocopherol triggers via modulation of Nrf2 the expression and turnover of hypocretin in vitro and its ... Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties, the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction ...
However, the antigenic cross-reactivity among these two representatives within the genus Respirovirus may explain why SeV ... August 2011). "Modulation of human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), monocytes, and epithelial ... The virus genome has high similarity with human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1) and the two viruses share common antigenic ... Ryan LK, Diamond G (June 2017). "Modulation of Human β-Defensin-1 Production by Viruses". Viruses. 9 (6): 153. doi:10.3390/ ...
Immune modulation: Blastocystis has been shown to provoke cells from the human colon to produce inflammatory cytokines ... Lanuza MD, Carbajal JA, Villar J, Mir A, Borras R (1999). "Soluble-protein and antigenic heterogeneity in axenic Blastocystis ...
MHC class II molecules in tumor immunology: prognostic marker and target for immune modulation. Immunobiology 211:6-8, pp. 616- ... MHC class II and endogenously synthesized antigenic proteins are all present. These antigen proteins are prevented from binding ... Genetic modulation of tumor antigen presentation. Methods in Biotechnology 18:4, pp. 167-172. ...
Therefore, the antigenic receptors play a central role in signal transduction in lymphocytes, because when antigens interact ... triggering and modulation of phosphorylation events". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 41 (4): 528-40. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Wanasen N, Nussenzveig RH, Champagne DE, Soong L, Higgs S (2004). "Differential modulation of murine host immune response by ... WNV is one of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic serocomplex of viruses. Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy ...
Chien YC, Masica DL, Gray JJ, Nguyen S, Vali H, McKee MD (August 2009). "Modulation of calcium oxalate dihydrate growth by ... In contrast, neutralization of Opn-s during antigenic challenge exacerbates allergic airway disease. These effects of Opn-s are ... during primary sensitization and Th2-promoting conventional DCs during secondary antigenic challenge. OPN deficiency was also ...
What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean? ... Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. ... modulation. (redirected from antigenic modulation). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. modulation. [mod″u-la´ ... antigenic modulation. the alteration of antigenic determinants in a living cell surface membrane following interaction with an ...
Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ... Two explanations for this have been proposed: antigenic modulation whereby mAb:CD20 complexes are internalized in a B cell ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ...
Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human Osteoblast-like Cells by FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ E ... Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype by IL-1β, IFNγ and TGFβ1 on Cultured Human Decidual Stromal Cells Biosci Rep (February, 2004) ... E. Pérez, O. García-Martínez, M. Arroyo-Morales, C. Reyes-Botella, C. Ruiz; Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human ... Antigenic Profile of Osteoblasts Present in Human Bone Tissue Sections Biosci Rep (June, 2006) ...
Antigenic modulation of MLr as tested by trypan-blue exclusion and by chromium51 release does not lead to a measurable change ... Antigenic modulation of mammary tumour virus envelope antigen or GR thymic lymphoma cells in relation to expressions of H-2, TL ... Antigenic modulation of mammary tumour virus envelope antigen or GR thymic lymphoma cells in relation to expressions of H-2, TL ... The procedure of antigenic modulation showed that the MLr antigen resides on MTVgp52, the major protein of the envelope. There ...
Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. B S Joseph B S Joseph ... Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus ... Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation.. J Exp Med 1 October 1975; 142 (4): 864-876. doi: https://doi.org/ ...
Antigenic modulation of junctional acetylcholine receptor is not sufficient to account for the development of myasthenia gravis ... Antigenic modulation of junctional acetylcholine receptor is not sufficient to account for the development of myasthenia gravis ... to test the possibility that antigenic modulation of AChR may be the principle mechanism whereby this reduction in AChR density ... the role of antigenic modulation as a major pathologic mechanism in MG is questioned. ...
... gene expression profile of preclinical autoimmune arthritis and its modulation by a tolerogenic disease-protective antigenic ...
Draber, P and Viklicky, V, "The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr." (1979). Subject ...
Antigenic Modulation. Immunosuppression. Mice. Antigenic Modulation. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Monoclonal ... Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro ... Post a Comment for Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro ... Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro. ...
Immunochemical characterization of 2 antigenic sites on human apolipoprotein-A-I : localization and lipid modulation of these ...
Antigenic modulation induced by monoclonal-antibodies - antibodies to measles-virus hemagglutinin alters expression of other ... The process, termed "antibody-induced antigenic modulation," was further investigated by using monoclonal antibody to several ...
Antigenic Modulation. Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one ... Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies. ...
Antigenic Modulation. Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one ... Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies. ... Reward-based memory modulation is thought to result from encoding and.... Interactions of the tricyclic antidepressant drug ... Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum.. 08:00 EDT 22nd October 2015 , ...
Efferent Limb.- 6. Modulation of Mesangial Afferent and Efferent Limb.- 7. Conclusion.- References.- 9 The Influence of ... Morphologic and Antigenic Relationships.- 3. Morphologic Tracer Studies.- 4. Kinetic Studies of Mesangial Function.- 5. ... 40 Modulation of Autoimmunity by Sex Hormones.- 1. Sexual Influence in Autoimmune Disease.- 2. Summary.- References.- 41 Thymic ...
... a phenomenon known as antigenic or phenotypic modulation. B. pertussis also varies between metastable genetic states, or phases ... Modulation of virulence by two acidified nitrite-responsive loci of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium INFECTION AND ... Survival in macrophages and modulation of immune cells migration allow Salmonella to evade various immune responses. The ...
... a phenomenon known as antigenic or phenotypic modulation. B. pertussis also varies between metastable genetic states, or phases ... Modulation of virulence by two acidified nitrite-responsive loci of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium INFECTION AND ... Survival in macrophages and modulation of immune cells migration allow Salmonella to evade various immune responses. The ...
Antigenic modulation and turnover in human neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1979; 64:321-325. 45. Hartwig JH, Stossel TP. ... Modulation of gelsolin function by phosphatidylinositol-4, 5- bisphosphate. Nature. 1987; 325:362-364. 98. Ito T, Zaner KS, ...
Old, L., Stockert, E., Boyse, E., and Kim, J.: Antigenic modulation. Loss of TL antigen from cells exposed to TL antibody. ... Bjaring, B. and Klein, G.: Antigenic characterization of heterozygous mouse lymphomas after immunoselectionin vivo.J. Natl. ...
... an effect called antigenic modulation (2, 3, 19, 20). The result of this antigenic modulation is that the cancer cell escapes ... Human in vivo antigenic modulation induced by the anti-T cell OKT3 monoclonal antibody. Eur. J. Immunol. 12: 979-982. ... Antigenic modulation described in previous reports may have been mediated by such shaving, and our findings may have profound ... Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line. J ...
Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9: 55PubMedCrossRef ... Molecular events in antibody induced antigenic modulation. J Immunol 125: 78PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Luell S (1963) Antigenic properties of experimental leukemias. II. Immunological studies in vivo with C57 BL/ ... As replicating agents, they have the ability to serve as a persistent or increasing antigenic challenge. Through several ...
... antigenic mimicry, which can result in either immune modulation (e.g., MHC I analogs) or sequestration of the pathogen from the ... Human antibody responses to VlsE antigenic variation protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol 1999. 37:3997-4004. View ... Kyes, S, Horrocks, P, Newbold, C. Antigenic variation at the infected red cell surface in malaria. Annu Rev Microbiol 2001. 55: ... Apoptotic modulation by MIMs is just one mechanism of immune evasion used by human pathogens. Elucidation of the structure of ...
Antigenic modulation limits the efficacy of anti-CD20 antibodies. Blood 2010;115(25):5191-5201. ...
5.3 Mining the Antigenic Properties of GAPDH. 5.3.1 In Search of a Vaccine for Mycoplasma bovis. 5.3.2 Tracking the Course of ... 5.4.1 Molecular Mimicry and Immune Modulation. 5.4.2 Virulence Maintenance. 5.4.3 Phagocytic Strategy. 5.4.4 Pathogenic ...
Modulation of the protein produced under the experimental conditions used is independent of the pH. A B. burgdorferi B31 ... Borrelia burgdorferi Alters Its Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile in Response to CO2 Levels. Jenny A. Hyde, Jerome P. ... Antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi populations transmitted by ticks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:670 ... 1). Major antigenic differences for B. burgdorferi AH130 and MSK5 were observed throughout the immunoblot, and there was ...
This effect leads to tumors cell escape by antigenic modulation. Reducing the dose of therapeutic antibodies to limit the ... Major findings along these lines are: cytotoxic T lymphocytes having captured antigenic peptide-MHC complexes can be killed by ... through trogocytosis contribute to affinity maturation of T cell response by selecting high-affinity T cell down-modulation of ... are involved in a negative regulatory feed-back loop leading to their inactivation dendritic cells stripped of antigenic ...
Antigenic composition US7956043B2 (en) 2011-06-07. 5′ CpG nucleic acids and methods of use ... Antisense oligonucleotide modulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein US5663153A (en) * 1994-03-25. 1997-09-02. Isis ... Antisense oligonucleotide modulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein WO1998049288A1 (en) 1997-04-30. 1998-11-05. ... Modulation of oligonucleotide CpG-mediated immune stimulation by positional modification of nucleosides Download PDF Info. ...
Categories: Antigenic Modulation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
In a mathematical model of the cellular antitumor immune response, we studied the possible role of antigenic modulation as a ... Mathematical modeling for antibody therapy in the setting of antigenic modulation.. Dillman RO, Koziol JA, Shawler DL San Diego ... Mathematical modeling for antibody therapy in the setting of antigenic modulation.. * Mathematical modeling of antigen and ... Conversely, the parameter analysis suggests that antigenic modulation plays a deleterious role in cytotoxic antibody responses ...
These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of ... Antigenic variation poses a challenge in the development of vaccines against vector-borne pathogens. ... bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. ... These include tissue tropism, shielding of adjacent molecules, inhibition of phagocytosis, modulation of antigen presentation, ...
Antigenic modulation limits the effector cell mechanisms employed by type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ...
  • Clinical investigations have revealed that infusion of immunotherapeutic mAbs directed to normal or tumor cells can lead to loss of targeted epitopes, a phenomenon called antigenic modulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Modulation of recombinant antigenic constructs containing multi-epitopes towards effective reduction of atherosclerotic lesion in B6;129S-Ldlr(tm1Her)Apob(tm2Sgy)/J mice. (jove.com)
  • Antigenic epitopes were incorporated into a dendroaspin scaffold. (jove.com)
  • In the present study, therefore, the protective effect of various combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing antigenic epitopes other than Hs was studied on mice infections with JEV group II strains: JEV strains 641686 and 691004. (pagepress.org)
  • The protective effect of several combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing different antigenic epitopes might be due to the enhancement of binding within the same group and also between different MAb groups. (pagepress.org)
  • 16. The antigenic product of claim 1, wherein the antigenic peptide comprises two epitopes of said deposit-forming polypeptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • T-cell lymphocytes are believed to react against thyroid follicular cells with shared antigenic epitopes in the retroorbital space. (medscape.com)
  • Antigenic modulation of junctional acetylcholine receptor is n. (mysciencework.com)
  • Antigenic modulation of junctional acetylcholine receptor is not sufficient to account for the development of myasthenia gravis in receptor immunized mice. (mysciencework.com)
  • A rapid, fluorescence-based assay for detecting antigenic modulation of the acetylcholine receptor on human cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antigenic modulation of mammary tumour virus envelope antigen or GR thymic lymphoma cells in relation to expressions of H-2, TL cell-surface antigens and THY1. (stanford.edu)
  • Antigenic modulation of MLr as tested by trypan-blue exclusion and by chromium51 release does not lead to a measurable change in the expression of H-2K, H-2D, TL and Thy1.2 antigens. (stanford.edu)
  • The latter analysis showed that the number of antigenic sites per cell are about the same for MLr and the two H-2 antigens, while TL antigens are scarcer and Thy1.2 antigens are more abundant. (stanford.edu)
  • Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus antibodies are removed from culture medium. (rupress.org)
  • Others integrate into the genome and may be passed from generation to generation, thus blurring the distinctions between foreign antigenic structures and host antigens on the surface of viruses or virus-infected cells. (springer.com)
  • True antigenic variation, however, arises in a single clone or genotype in a single host and "involves the loss, gain, or change in a particular antigenic group, usually by loss, gain, or change in one of the polypeptide or polysaccharide antigens…" (3) . (cdc.gov)
  • By antibody-induced antigenic modulation, we mean the removal of antigens from the surface of cells by specific antibody. (springer.com)
  • Antibody modulation is not exclusive of virus, in vitro treatment of rabbit endothelial cells with specific anti-endothelial antibodies resulted in redistribution of antigens in the cell as well as co-redistribution of immunological unrelated antigens [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon- , or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease. (hindawi.com)
  • studies on various types of antigenic proteins of fasciola spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • Induction of antigenic modulation and complement activation by such autoantibodies leads to ultrastructural damage of the postsynaptic membrane and loss of AChR and associated proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • for expressing antigenic proteins and making vaccines. (bioworld.com)
  • The class II MHC genes encode proteins that present antigenic peptides to helper T cells, leading to T cell activation and the development of an antigen-specific immune response. (nih.gov)
  • The system is involved in targeting many cellular proteins, among them cell cycle regulators, growth- and differentiation-controlling factors, transcriptional activators, cell-surface receptors and ion channels, endoplasmic reticulum proteins, antigenic proteins destined for presentation on class I MHC molecules, and abnormal/misfolded proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to being antigenic, M. vaccae has immunogenic properties. (patentgenius.com)
  • This diversity between strains in an immunodominant antigen is often called antigenic variation. (cdc.gov)
  • antigenic modulation the alteration of antigenic determinants in a living cell surface membrane following interaction with antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Differences in the antigenic determinants of N-CAMs from different neural tissues were detected by two independent monoclonal antibodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • These hypothesized events can only occur if the MMR vaccine shares antigenic determinants that resemble secretin or any of its receptor types and remains to be studied. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We have expanded the concept of antibody-induced antigenic modulation as an aid to understanding several persistent infections, with our primary interest in persistent measles virus infection of humans. (springer.com)
  • The process, termed "antibody-induced antigenic modulation," was further investigated by using monoclonal antibody to several viral polypeptides. (scripps.edu)
  • Gorman NT, Lachmann PJ (1982) In vitro modulation of viral cell surface glycoproteins by antiviral antibody in the presence of complement. (springer.com)
  • Fujinami RS, Oldstone MBA (1980) Alterations in expression of measles virus polypeptides by antibody: Molecular events in antibody-induced antigenic modulation. (springer.com)
  • Antibody modulation of expression and pathogen transcription levels has been described in virus. (medsci.org)
  • Such an antibody may share antigenic determinant to molecules found in the gut. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. (jax.org)
  • It is secreted by activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, neurons, microglia and hematopoietic stem cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. (abcam.com)
  • In the present study of the mouse and the chick, alterations of N-CAMs occurring as a result of E----A conversion, prevalence modulation, and changes in antigenic state during the development of different neural regions were analyzed by the use of highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies combined with anatomical dissection and several new quantitative assays. (jneurosci.org)
  • Two major antigenic groups, groups A and B, of RS virus were originally delineated by their reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) ( 3 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. (springer.com)
  • Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present studies we have used a mouse model of MG, termed experimental myasthenia gravis (EMG), to test the possibility that antigenic modulation of AChR may be the principle mechanism whereby this reduction in AChR density is achieved. (mysciencework.com)
  • As the number of diagnosed patients increases, there is a need for the development of improved and specific therapeutic approaches for MG. Our studies involve mainly a) the thorough understanding of the antigenic structure of muscle AChR, b) the pathogenic mechanisms in MG, c) efforts to develop novel immunospecific therapeutic approaches and d) the better diagnosis of the disease. (pasteur.gr)
  • Bjaring, B. and Klein, G.: Antigenic characterization of heterozygous mouse lymphomas after immunoselection in vivo . (springer.com)
  • In addition to antigenic characterization with MAbs, these methods include restriction endonuclease analysis of small hydrophobic and nucleocapsid RS virus protein genes ( 8 ), restriction endonuclease analysis of G-protein gene cDNA ( 5 , 24 ), RNase protection analysis ( 11 , 21 ), and nucleotide sequence analysis of the G-protein gene ( 5 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The gene expression profile of preclinical autoimmune arthritis and its modulation by a tolerogenic disease-protective antigenic challenge. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Manzano-Moreno FJ, Ramos-Torrecillas J, Melguizo-Rodríguez L, Illescas-Montes R, Ruiz C, García-Martínez O. Bisphosphonate Modulation of the Gene Expression of Different Markers Involved in Osteoblast Physiology: Possible Implications in Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. (medsci.org)
  • In both diseases, it is suspected that there is a breakdown in mucosal tolerance to antigenic stimulation. (vin.com)
  • The procedure of antigenic modulation showed that the MLr antigen resides on MTVgp52, the major protein of the envelope. (stanford.edu)
  • Timo Burster, "Processing and Regulation Mechanisms within Antigen Presenting Cells: A Possibility for Therapeutic Modulation", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2013) 19: 1029. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigenic variation poses a challenge in the development of vaccines against vector-borne pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • What is antigenic variation? (cdc.gov)
  • One example of antigenic variation occurs in B. hermsii, a cause of tickborne relapsing fever (4) , which has a protein homologous to the OspC protein of B. burgdorferi. (cdc.gov)
  • We review infectious pathogens that undergo clonal antigenic variation and, like B. hermsii, depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses are also said to have antigenic variation but are excluded from this review because the mechanism they use usually depends either on the accumulation of point mutations in a single genotype (e.g., the antigenic drift of influenza A virus) or on recombination or reassortment between two different genotypes infecting the same host (e.g., antigenic shift of influenza A virus). (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ALV subgroup J, the majority of them resisted neutralization by HPRS-103-specific serum, suggesting antigenic variation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Analysis of the data suggests that selection pressure, probably from the immune response, is driving the antigenic variation among the isolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The epidemiological significance of the antigenic variation and the emergence of variant viruses are discussed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Surface antigenic modulation occurring with cell differentiation can be monitored by specific antisera. (annals.org)
  • IL-2 is required for T-cell proliferation, natural killer cells (NK) cytolytic activity, differentiation of regulatory T cells, modulation of T helper (Th) cell differentiation and activation-induced cell death. (abcam.com)
  • Since reactive oxygen species generated by PMN can be strong mutagens, the possibility of production of antigenic variants of the virus by virus-PMN interaction was investigated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Antigenic variants of J subgroup avian leukosis virus: sequence analysis reveals multiple changes in the env gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • International Patent Publication WO 91/01751 discloses the use of antigenic and/or immunoregulatory material from M. vaccae as animmunoprophylactic to delay and/or prevent the onset of AIDS. (patentgenius.com)
  • International Patent Publication WO 94/06466 discloses the use of antigenic and/or immunoregulatory material derived from M. vaccae for therapy of HIV infection, with or without AIDS and withor without associated tuberculosis. (patentgenius.com)
  • The immunoregulatory events described could participate in the modulation of immunopathology, the maintenance of chronic adult worm survival, and the prevention of full expression of protective immune responses. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the relative importance of modulation and shaving in the downregulation of surface mAb:CD20. (jimmunol.org)
  • Suppression of phagocytosis with bead treatment decreased shaving and increased modulation, suggesting that the two compete for surface rituximab:CD20. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, in vivo binding of a therapeutic mAb to a cancer cell may also promote loss of the targeted Ag and bound mAb from the cell surface, an effect called antigenic modulation ( 2 , 3 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several cell adhesion molecules involved in neuron-neuron and neuron- glia interactions have been identified in our laboratory and have been shown to undergo cell surface modulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Antigenic modulation described in previous reports may have been mediated by such shaving, and our findings may have profound implications for the use of mAbs in the immunotherapy of cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epidemiologic studies conducted in the United States with MAbs to define the antigenic groups showed that there are three types of RS virus epidemics: those in which group A or group B viruses were dominant and those in which both groups circulate concurrently ( 2 , 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Both tolerance and immunopathology may be observed in Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE), the disease due to E. multilocularis [ 4 ], and most of the mechanisms occurring seem to be triggered by a sophisticated modulation born out of a stage-specific parasite metabolism and respective immunomodulating strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • Work with experimental animals indicates that such interactions are sensitive to modulation by dopamine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Boyse EA, Old LJ, Luell S (1963) Antigenic properties of experimental leukemias. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, it is involved in regulating many basic cellular processes, such as cell cycle and division, growth and differentiation, signal transduction and transcription, modulation of the secretory and endocytic pathways, the immune and inflammatory responses, and quality control. (nih.gov)
  • Two explanations for this have been proposed: antigenic modulation whereby mAb:CD20 complexes are internalized in a B cell intrinsic process and shaving, in which mAb:CD20 complexes undergo trogocytic removal by effector cells, such as macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similar CD2 m.RNA levels in anti-CD2 mAb treated and control cells show that down modulation of CD2 is the result of an alteration of translation or trafficking as opposed to a decrease in the level of transcription . (musc.edu)
  • Such antigenic modulation can severely compromise therapeutic efficacy, and we postulated that B cells had been stripped (shaved) of the rituximab/CD20 complex by monocytes or macrophages in a reaction mediated by FcγR. (jimmunol.org)
  • Monocytes and monocytic cell lines can efficiently induce antigenic modulation on certain mAb-targeted cancer cells ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Despite the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to internalize IgG-opsonized substrates ( 23 , 24 , 25 ), the mechanism of antigenic modulation promoted by monocytes has been generally presumed to be due to internalization of IgG Ab/target Ag immune complexes by the cancer cells, rather than by monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Figure 5: Analysis of TCR down-modulation in the dKO T cells. (nature.com)
  • Antigenic modulation did not occur, and sustained reduction of circulating tumor cells was observed throughout the duration of the infusions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1. An antigenic product, comprising a dendritic polymer, built on a core molecule which is at least difunctional so as to provide branching and containing up to 16 terminal functional groups to which an antigenic peptide, that comprises an epitope of a deposit-forming polypeptide involved in plaque-forming disease or disorder, is joined by covalent bonds. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of promastigote-specific glycoprotein gp46 and expression modulation analysis of the amastigote-specific A2 gene have revealed that concomitant exposure to temperature increase and acidification leads to amastigote-like forms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modulation of VZV replication by cutaneous innate immunity may avoid an incapacitating infection of the host that would limit opportunities for VZV transmission. (rupress.org)
  • M vaccae is believed to contain antigenic compounds that are recognized by the immunesystem of individuals exposed to infection with M. tuberculosis and other infectious and/or inflammatory disorders. (patentgenius.com)
  • The data indicate that during S. mansoni infection patients develop serum component(s) which specifically interfere with the responsiveness of their lymphocytes in regard to certain schistosome-derived antigenic preparations. (ajtmh.org)
  • Modulation of the enteric microenvironment has been shown to reduce proinflammatory mucosal cytokines in Crohn's disease (a disease in man similar to IBD in animals). (vin.com)
  • The present invention relates to an antigenic product for inducing an immune response to a deposit-forming polypeptide, such as amyloid ss, which antigenic product is a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) that contains multiple copies of an epitope of a deposit-forming polypeptide involved in a plaque-forming disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The antigenic product of claim 1, wherein said dendritic polymer contains eight terminal functional groups to which an antigenic peptide is joined. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The antigenic product of claim 5, wherein said antigenic peptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Under all conditions tested, modulation predominated in rituximab loss, whereas shaving represented an epiphenomenon to phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, shaving may represent an important mechanism of resistance when modulation is curtailed, and glycoengineering mAb to increase affinity for FcγR may enhance resistance because of shaving. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because this effect occurred to the same extent in mice that developed severe paralysis and in those that gave no indication of muscular weakness, the role of antigenic modulation as a major pathologic mechanism in MG is questioned. (mysciencework.com)
  • This modulation seems to be a necessary component of immunosuppression and the mechanism of this phenomenon was further defined in vitro . (musc.edu)
  • Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C -terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. (mdpi.com)
  • The viruses ( n = 174) were characterized as to major antigenic group (group A or B) by a PCR-based assay. (asm.org)
  • The data suggest that frequent oral antigenic exposure may eventually lead to induction of systemic immunity in tolerant mice. (asm.org)
  • Anti-CD2 mAb suppresses cell mediated immunity in vivo with a concommittant down modulation of. (musc.edu)
  • As replicating agents, they have the ability to serve as a persistent or increasing antigenic challenge. (springer.com)
  • Narayan O, Griffin DE, Chase J (1977) Antigenic shift of visna virus in persistently infected sheep. (springer.com)
  • These responses, induced by the schistosome-derived antigenic preparations, were suppressed if the homologous-normal serum supplement of the culture medium was replaced with either the patient's own (autologous) serum, or that of another S. mansoni patient. (ajtmh.org)
  • Anti-CD2 mAb induces down modulation of CD2 and CD3 , demonstrating a functional association between these molecules . (musc.edu)
  • Antidepressant drugs are recommended for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated depression but their role in the modulation of L-DOPA-induced behavioral and neurochemical markers is poor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • No. 4,724,144 discloses an immunotherapeutic agent comprising antigenic material derived from M. vaccae fortreatment of mycobacterial diseases, especially tuberculosis and leprosy, and as an adjuvant to chemotherapy. (patentgenius.com)
  • E. Borda, D. Passafaro, S. Reina and L. Sterin-Borda, "Modulation of c-Jun NH 2 -Terminal (JNK) by Cholinergic Autoantibodies from Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome," Pharmacology & Pharmacy , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 256-265. (scirp.org)
  • Modulation of mice fecal microbiota by administration of casein. (pagepress.org)
  • [ 13 ] with orbital fibroblast modulation of T-cell lymphocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The specific objective was to evaluate the effect on osteoblasts of two nitrogen-containing BPs (zoledronate and alendronate) and one non-nitrogen-containing BP (clodronate) by analyzing modulations in their expression of genes essential for osteoblast physiology. (medsci.org)
  • The result of this antigenic modulation is that the cancer cell escapes and the therapy becomes ineffective. (jimmunol.org)
  • This antigenic product can be formulated into an immunizing composition and used to elicit an immune response against a deposit-forming polypeptide involved in a plaque-forming disease or disorder. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • for use as an adjuvant in antigenic compositions that induce an immune response. (bioworld.com)
  • It has been postulated that the onset of such autistic symptoms may involve an autoimmune response against the central nervous system and that the antigenic determinant could possibly be gastrointestinal in origin. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The modulation of development by secretin may be a static event possibly occurring at a specific time in early childhood development and if it involves an autoimmune response then a disruption in development may result. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum. (bioportfolio.com)