Antigenic Modulation: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.

Establishment of a human thymic myoid cell line. Phenotypic and functional characteristics. (1/22)

The subset of myoid cells is a normal component of the thymic stroma. To characterize these cells, we immortalized stromal cells from human thymus by using a plasmid vector encoding the SV40 T oncogene. Among the eight cell lines obtained, one had myoid characteristics including desmin and troponin antigens. This new line was designated MITC (myoid immortalized thymic cells). These cells expressed both the fetal and adult forms of muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the mRNA level, as well as the myogenic transcription factor MyoD1. alpha-Subunit AChR protein expression was detected by flow cytometry and the AChR was functional in patch-clamp studies. In addition, AChR expression was down-modulated by myasthenia gravis sera or by monoclonal antibody anti-AChR on MITC line similarly to TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, making the MITC line an interesting tool for AChR antigenic modulation experiments. Finally, the MITC line expressed LFA-3, produced several cytokines able to act on T cells, and protected total thymocytes from spontaneous apoptosis in vitro. These results are compatible with a role of thymic myoid cells in some steps of thymocyte development. Therefore MITC line appears to be a useful tool to investigate the physiological role of thymic myoid cells.  (+info)

Nematode infection enhances survival of activated T cells by modulating accessory cell function. (2/22)

The type of immune response generated following exposure to Ag depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the Ag, the type of adjuvant used, the site of antigenic entry, and the immune status of the host. We have previously shown that infection of rodents with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) shifts the development of type 1 allo-specific responses toward type 2 immunity, suggesting nematode modulation of T cell activation. In this report we explore the immunomodulatory effects of Nb on T cell activation. We found that spleen cells from Nb-infected mice exhibited dramatically increased proliferation in response to Con A and anti-CD3. This hyperproliferation could be transferred in vitro to naive splenocytes by coculture with mitomycin C-treated cells from Nb-infected animals. The transfer was mediated by non-T accessory cells and supernatants derived from Con A-activated non-T cells, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor secreted by accessory cells. The accessory cells secreted high levels of IL-6, and anti-IL-6 treatment abrogated the supernatant-induced hyperproliferation, thus confirming that IL-6 was mediating the effect. Further, spleen cells from Nb-infected mice were more resistant to activation-induced cell death (AICD) following mitogenic stimulation. Reduced AICD was also transferable and IL-6 dependent. Thus, the hyperproliferation was in part due to enhanced activated T cell survival. These phenomena mediated by accessory cells may contribute to the powerful polyclonal activation of type 2 immunity caused by nematode infection.  (+info)

Modulation of multiple experimental arthritis models by collagen-induced arthritis quantitative trait loci isolated in congenic rat lines: different effects of non-major histocompatibility complex quantitative trait loci in males and females. (3/22)

OBJECTIVE: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a model of inflammatory arthritis with many similarities to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously mapped in F(2) offspring of CIA-susceptible DA and CIA-resistant F344 rats, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for which F344 alleles were associated with reduced CIA severity. In the present study, we sought to characterize the independent arthritis-modulating effects of these 5 QTLs. METHODS: CIA-regulatory regions were transferred from the F344 genome to the DA background or vice versa by repeated backcrossing. The arthritis-modulating effects of the transferred alleles were determined by comparing the severity of experimentally induced arthritis in congenic rats with that in DA rats. RESULTS: Congenic lines with either the F344 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the DA background or the DA MHC on the F344 background were resistant to CIA, confirming both MHC and non-MHC contributions to the genetic regulation of CIA. F344 alleles at the Cia3 and Cia5 regions of chromosomes 4 and 10 reduced CIA severity relative to that observed in DA rats. F344 Cia4 and Cia6 regions of chromosomes 7 and 8 failed to significantly alter CIA severity. Arthritis-modifying effects of Cia4 and Cia6 were, however, detected in pristane-induced and/or Freund's incomplete adjuvant oil-induced arthritis. The arthritis-modifying effects of the non-MHC CIA-regulatory loci differed in males and females. CONCLUSION: These congenic lines confirmed the existence and location of genes that regulate the severity of experimental arthritis in rats. Mechanisms responsible for the sex-specificity of individual arthritis-regulatory loci may explain some of the sex differences observed in RA and other autoimmune diseases in humans.  (+info)

Cell membrane modification for rapid display of proteins as a novel means of immunomodulation: FasL-decorated cells prevent islet graft rejection. (4/22)

Long-term display of exogenous proteins on the cell surface may have important research and therapeutic implications. We report a novel method for the cell-surface display of proteins that involves generation of a chimeric protein with core streptavidin, biotinylation of cells, and "decoration" with the protein. A chimeric protein with the extracellular portions of FasL (SA-FasL) was efficiently displayed on the cell surface within 2 hr without detectable cellular toxicity. Biotin and SA-FasL persisted on the cell surface for weeks in vitro and in vivo. Immunomodulation with SA-FasL-decorated splenocytes effectively blocked alloreactive responses in naive and presensitized rodents and prevented the rejection of allogeneic pancreatic islets. This approach may serve as an alternative to gene transfer-based expression with broad research and therapeutic applications.  (+info)

T-cell subset analysis of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor rejection: heterogeneity of effectors and evidence for negative regulatory lymphocytes correlating with metastasis. (5/22)

We have analyzed the phenotypes of the T-cell subsets generated in response to Lewis lung carcinoma clones in C57BL/6J recipients. The metastatic derivative, which expresses low levels of H-2Kb gene, predominantly elicited CD8, V beta 8, and V beta 9+ T-cells. The nonmetastatic clone expressing high levels of H-Kb gene triggered a more heterogeneous response of V beta-5, -6, -8, -9, and -11 CD8+ T-cells. Comparison of the T-cell receptor (TCR) expression of the T-cells infiltrating the tumor site with the lymphocytes in the periphery of tumor-bearing animals revealed a pattern of homing of CD4+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, and -11 TCR chains and CD8+ T-cells bearing V beta-5, -6, -9, and -11. Depletion of V beta 5 or V beta 6+ T-cells correlated with accelerated tumor growth, implying their protective role as tumor-specific effectors and consistent with the cytotoxicity of T-cells with this TCR phenotype. V beta 11 TCR expression in the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes increased with the tumor size. Depletion of V beta 11+ T-cells enhanced resistance to primary tumor growth and conferred protection from metastasis in recipients cleared of V beta 5 and V beta 6 T-cell subsets. Those results suggest that tumor-specific effectors as well as negative regulator T-cells home, infiltrate, and coexist in the tumor site.  (+info)

Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro. (6/22)

Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.  (+info)

Mutational escape from CD8+ T cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man. (7/22)

The mechanisms by which the hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistence are not yet fully understood. Previous chimpanzee and now human studies suggest that mutations within MHC class I-restricted HCV epitopes might contribute to viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, there are several outstanding questions regarding the role of escape mutations in viral persistence and their fate in the absence of immune selection pressure.  (+info)

Identification of an altered peptide ligand based on the endogenously presented, rheumatoid arthritis-associated, human cartilage glycoprotein-39(263-275) epitope: an MHC anchor variant peptide for immune modulation. (8/22)

We sought to identify an altered peptide ligand (APL) based on the endogenously expressed synovial auto-epitope of human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HC gp-39) for modulation of cognate, HLA-DR4-restricted T cells. For this purpose we employed a panel of well-characterized T cell hybridomas generated from HC gp-39-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The hybridomas all respond to the HC gp-39(263-275) epitope when bound to HLA-DR4(B1*0401) but differ in their fine specificities. First, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) contact residues were identified by analysis of single site substituted analogue peptides for HLA-DR4 binding and cognate T cell recognition using both T hybridomas and polyclonal T cells from peptide-immunized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Analysis of single site substituted APL by cognate T cells led to identification of Phe265 as the dominant MHC anchor. The amino acids Ala268, Ser269, Glu271 and Thr272 constituted the major TCR contact residues, as substitution at these positions did not affect HLA-DR4(B1*0401) binding but abrogated T cell responses. A structural model for visualisation of TCR recognition was derived. Second, a set of non-classical APLs, modified at the MHC key anchor position but with unaltered TCR contacts, was developed. When these APLs were analysed, a partial TCR agonist was identified and found to modulate the HC gp-39(263-275)-specific, pro-inflammatory response in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. We identified a non-classical APL by modification of the p1 MHC anchor in a synovial auto-epitope. This APL may qualify for rheumatoid arthritis immunotherapy.  (+info)

*Trogocytosis

This effect leads to tumors cell escape by antigenic modulation. Reducing the dose of therapeutic antibodies to limit the ... Major findings along these lines are: cytotoxic T lymphocytes having captured antigenic peptide-MHC complexes can be killed by ... through trogocytosis contribute to affinity maturation of T cell response by selecting high-affinity T cell down-modulation of ... are involved in a negative regulatory feed-back loop leading to their inactivation dendritic cells stripped of antigenic ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... antigenic modulation MeSH G04.610.143.232 --- binding sites, antibody MeSH G04.610.143.281 --- cross reactions MeSH G04.610. ... antigenic variation MeSH G04.610.626.320 --- gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte MeSH G04.610.626.320.501 --- gene rearrangement, ...

*Gene Shearer

Modulation of inflammation and immunity by cyclic AMP. Science 184: 19 28, 1974. Shearer GM. Cell mediated cytotoxicity to ... Antigenic peptides recognized by T helper lymphocytes from asymptomatic, HIV seropositive individuals. Nature 339: 383 385, ... Type 1/Type 2 cytokine modulation of T cell programmed cell death as a model for HIV pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: ...

*Hepatitis C virus

It appears to be antigenic but its function is unknown. Replication of HCV involves several steps. The virus replicates mainly ... NS5A is a hydrophilic phosphoprotein which plays an important role in viral replication, modulation of cell signaling pathways ...

*Trypanosomatida

Morrison LJ, Marcello L, McCulloch R; Marcello; McCulloch (December 2009). "Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: ... timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 323 (1218): 573-88. ...

*T cell receptor revision

"Modulation of TCRβ surface expression during TCR revision". Cellular Immunology. 272 (2): 124-129. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm. ... is a process in the peripheral immune system which is used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity ... which are able to recognize almost any antigenic structure/sequence. The paradigm of adaptive immunity is that a single T cell ...

*CCR8 (gene)

More specifically, this receptor may contribute to the proper positioning of activated T cells within the antigenic challenge ... "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor modulation". Curr. HIV Res. 2 (1): 39-50. doi:10.2174/1570162043484997. PMID 15053339. ...

*Cell (biology)

Fimbriae, or pili are formed of a protein called pilin (antigenic) and are responsible for attachment of bacteria to specific ... Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and maintenance of cellular activities. ...

*T-cell receptor

When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, ... The TCR affinity for peptided/MHC has a direct impact on modulation of T-cell function. T cells are very sensitive to their ... and change its antigenic specificity. The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains ... although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to interact with the N-terminal part of the antigenic peptide, whereas ...

*GYPB

The antigenic determinant for the blood group Ss is located at residue 29 where S has a methionine and s a threonine. This is ... multiple gene rearrangements and modulation of splice site usage result in extensive diversification". Hum. Mutat. 6 (3): 199- ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ...

*Virus

Antigenic shift occurs when there is a major change in the genome of the virus. This can be a result of recombination or ... Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2008;325:263- ... These include a process called antigenic drift where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases. Most of these ... Discordant antigenic drift of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin in H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses. Proceedings of the National ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Modulation induction of the T3 antigen by OKT3 is monocyte dependent. J Immunol 1984; 133:2979. 50. Wang, CY, Azzo W, Al-Katib ... Detection of antibodies to HTLV-III using a synthetic peptide of 21 amino acide residues corresponding to a highly antigenic ...

*Alae (nematode anatomy)

De Giorgi, C.; De Luca, F.; Di Vito, M.; Lamberti, F. (20 February 1997). "Modulation of expression at the level of splicing of ... "Ultrastructural immuno-localization of CUT-1 and CUT-2 antigenic sites in the cuticles of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...

*Maltose-binding protein

The permissive sites that were internal to MBP, were used to insert antigenic peptides and challenge the immune response in ... Park, S; Liu, G; Topping, TB; Cover, WH; Randall, LL (1988). "Modulation of folding pathways of exported proteins by the leader ...

*Lentivirus

Glycosylation seems to play a structural role in the concealment and variation of antigenic sites necessary for the host to ... a paradigm for the modulation of cell surface receptors". Immunological Reviews. 168: 51-63. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065x.1999. ... Classification of members of this taxon is infrequently based on their antigenic properties. Symptoms and host range: The virus ...

*Autoimmunity

The details of parasite immune modulation are not yet known, but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or ... Idiotype Cross-Reaction - Idiotypes are antigenic epitopes found in the antigen-binding portion (Fab) of the immunoglobulin ... against a backdrop of genetic predisposition and environmental modulation. It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss ...

*Exotoxin

These retain their antigenic specificity and can be used to produce antitoxins and, in the case of diphtheria and tetanus ... At low concentrations of toxin, more subtle effects such as modulation of host cell signal transduction may be observed in the ...

*GYPA

Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... multiple gene rearrangements and modulation of splice site usage result in extensive diversification". Hum. Mutat. 6 (3): 199- ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... are major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane which bear the antigenic determinants for the MN and Ss blood ...

*Betty Diamond

3:303-308 (2004). Grimaldi, CM., Hill, L., Xu, X., Peeva, E., and Diamond, B. Hormonal modulation of B cell development and ... Arthritis & Rheumatism 54:2505-2514 (2006). Venkatesh, J., Peeva, E., Xu, X. and Diamond, B. Hormonal milieu, not antigenic ... Immunity 21:179-201(2004). Grimaldi, CM., Hill, L., Xu, H., Peeva, E., and Diamond, B. Hormonal modulation of B cell ...

*MHC class I

These results suggest PirB may be involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex. MHC class I molecules are ... July 2000). "Export of antigenic peptides from the endoplasmic reticulum intersects with retrograde protein translocation ...

*PCSK9

The vaccine uses a VLP (virus-like particle) as an immunogenic carrier of an antigenic PCSK9 peptide. VLP's are viruses that ... "The Evolving Role of PCSK9 Modulation in the Regulation of LDL-Cholesterol". Retrieved 13 May 2015. Zhang DW, et al. (June 2007 ...

*Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

Since the antigenic protein could only be detected in infected cells, they asserted that the protein was produced by the ... spleen and antibody modulation of cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 80 ... Howard's team identified two genes for PfEMP1, and recombinant protein products of these genes were shown to have antigenic and ... Kyes, S. A.; Kraemer, S. M.; Smith, J. D. (2007). "Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum: Gene organization and ...

*Heparanase

"Overexpression of heparanase multiple antigenic peptide 2 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer: Potential for ... "Erythromycin and clarithromycin modulation of growth factor-induced expression of heparanase mRNA on human lung cancer cells in ...

*TP53

... "p53 modulation of TFIIH-associated nucleotide excision repair activity". Nature Genetics. 10 (2): 188-95. doi:10.1038/ng0695- ... a 205 kDa new p53 regulatory protein which shares antigenic and functional properties with p53". Oncogene. 15 (25): 3013-24. ...

*Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2

This protein also has five antigenic regions. A cryptic nuclear localization signal (NLS), a functional nuclear localization ... "Involvement of unfolded protein response, p53 and Akt in modulation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus- ...

*Natural killer cell

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Lodoen, M. B. & Lanier, L. L.; Lanier (2005). "Viral modulation of NK cell ... even in the absence of surface adhesion molecules and antigenic peptides. This role of NK cells is critical to immune success ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Watzl, Carsten (2014). "How to trigger a killer: modulation of natural killer ...
Draber, P and Viklicky, V, "The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3118 ...
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Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean?
CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which can exist in a multitude of isoforms due to alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to several of these variant regions, which are encoded by 10 additional exons in the extracellular part of the molecule. CD44 variant isoforms have been reported to be involved in the malignant progression of rat and human tumours. The precise localization of CD44 variant isoforms in normal developmental and morphogenetic processes is essential for diagnostic studies of human tumorigenesis. Therefore, we have analysed a large number of different human tissues by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD44 isoforms containing either exons 4v, 6v or 9v. Expression of exon 9v-isoforms was detected in almost all epithelia analysed, with a few exceptions. Exon 6v isoforms are expressed only in squamous and glandular epithelial, e.g. skin epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands, oesophagus, ducts of the mammary gland, salivary and ...
Herpesviruses characteristically transmit infection from immune hosts. Although their success in escaping neutralization by pre-formed antibody is indisputable, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Glycoprotein B (gB) is the most conserved component of the herpesvirus entry machinery and its N terminus (gB-NT) is a common neutralization target. We used murid herpesvirus-4 to determine how gB-NT contributes to the virus-antibody interaction. Deleting gB-NT had no obvious impact on virus replication, but paradoxically increased virion neutralization by immune sera. This reflected greater antibody access to neutralization epitopes on gH/gL, with which gB was associated. gB-NT itself was variably protected against antibody by O-linked glycans; on virions from epithelial cells it was protected almost completely. gB-NT therefore provides a protective and largely protected cover for a vulnerable part of gH/gL. The conservation of predicted glycosylation sites in other mammalian ...
MalaCards based summary : Immunodeficiency 7, Tcr-Alpha/beta Deficient, also known as t-cell receptor-alpha/beta deficiency, is related to cr2-related common variable immune deficiency, and has symptoms including failure to thrive, recurrent infections and lymphadenopathy. An important gene associated with Immunodeficiency 7, Tcr-Alpha/beta Deficient is TRAC (T-Cell Receptor Alpha Constant). The drug Liver Extracts has been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells and liver ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Antigenic Modulation;Immunosuppression;Mice;Antigenic Modulation;Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized;Antibodies, Monoclonal;T-Lymphocytes;Microscopy, ...
en] Herpesviruses consistently transmit from immunocompetent carriers, implying that their neutralization is hard to achieve. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) exploits host IgG Fc receptors to bypass blocks to cell binding, and pH-dependent protein conformation changes to unveil its fusion machinery only after endocytosis. Nevertheless neutralization remains possible by targeting the virion glycoprotein H (gH) / gL heterodimer, and the neutralizing antibody responses of MuHV-4 carriers are improved by boosting with recombinant gH/gL. We analysed here how gH/gL-directed neutralization works. The MuHV-4 gH/gL binds to heparan sulfate. However most gH/gL-specific neutralizing antibodies did not block this interaction. Nor did they act directly on fusion. Instead they blocked virion endocytosis and transport to the late endosomes where membrane fusion normally occurs. The poor endocytosis of gH/gL-neutralized virions was recapitulated precisely by virions genetically lacking gL. Therefore driving virion ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe immunodeficiency and platelet deficiency disease arising from an X-linked defect. The disease is correctable by transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, but the product of the defective gene is unidentified and the number of defects in patient blood cells is large. The current hurdle is the need to identify the early pathogenic event(s) that are the cause of other defects. As a step toward this goal, we have generated and examined a panel of interleukin 2-dependent allospecific T cell lines from peripheral lymphocytes of seven WAS patients and five normal individuals. WAS cell lines, like normal lines, undergo vigorous proliferation when challenged with specific allostimulant or with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. Both normal and WAS T cell lines express cell surface molecules CD2, CD3, T cell receptor-alpha/beta, human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I, CD45 and CD11a, and varying ratios of CD4 and CD8, and are negative for ...
Upon the addition of antibody to measles virus, measles virus antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells can be modulated from the cells membrane in vitro. Removal of measles virus antigens from the surface of cells occurs relatively rapidly and is accompanied by a parallel reduction in the ability of antibody and complement to lyse these cells. Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus antibodies are removed from culture medium. Protracted exposure of acutely infected cells to measles virus antibodies results in a population of cells that exhibit normal cytomorphology and growth behavior. These cells continue to express measles virus antigens internally, but not at the cell surface, and are refractory to immune lysis. Once antiviral antibody is removed, measles virus antigens again appear on the cell surface, giant cell and syncytial formation occur, and cell death follows. These observations may explain ...
Antibody is an important antiviral defence. However, it is considered to do little against human gamma-herpesviruses, which establish predominantly latent infections regulated by T cells. One limitation on analysing these infections has been that latency is already well-established at clinical presentation; early infection may still be accessible to antibody. Here, using murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), we tested the impact of adoptively transferred antibody on early gamma-herpesvirus infection. Immune sera and neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) all reduced acute lytic MuHV-4 replication. The reductions, even by neutralizing mAbs, were largely or completely dependent on host IgG Fc receptors. Therefore, passive antibody can blunt acute gamma-herpesvirus lytic infection, and does this principally by IgG Fc-dependent functions rather than by neutralization ...
In this study we demonstrate that LC and DC during in vitro activation and during their in vivo migration to the peripheral LN differentially upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and sequences encoded by variant exons CD44v4, v5, v6, and v9. Thus LC and DC activation or migration is accompanied by increased synthesis of CD44 and by a change of either epitope accessibility or splicing. The mechanisms underlying this change remain to be elucidated: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β, secreted by keratinocytes in response to antigen application to the skin, play a role in LC-maturation, emigration, and accumulation in LN (9, 11, 16). Furthermore, the generation of activated DC from peripheral blood precursors depends upon the presence of GM-CSF (35). However, at present we have no evidence that GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factorα are involved in CD44 modulation by LC or DC, since biologically active mAbs neutralizing these cytokines added ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Hu, Ms. Application: IHC-P. Specificity: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). Higher molecular weight isoforms are described in epithelial cells (CD44v), which are believed to function in intercellular adhesion and stromal binding. CD44 immunostaining is commonly used for the discrimination of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in-situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.. Package: 100μg. ...
Heavy metal (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+) ion:H+ symporter, Nramp2 or divalent metal transporter, DMT1 (Garrick et al. 2003). A 12 TMS topology with intracellular N- and C- termini is established. Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc11 hydrophobic core) is suggested (Czachorowski et al., 2009). A conserved motif in a central flexible region of TMS1 (DPGN) binds the metal ion (Wang et al. 2011). Upregulated by iron deficiency and downregulated by iron loading (Nam et al. 2013). NRAMP2 also serves as the Sindbis alpha virus receptor (Rose et al. 2011). DMT1 interacts with the iron chaparone protein, PCBP2 (Q15366), in an iron-dependent fashion, and may be essential for iron uptake (Lane and Richardson 2014). Mutations cause a syndrome of congenital microcytic hypochromic anemia, poorly responsive to oral iron treatment, with liver iron overload associated paradoxically with normal to moderately elevated serum ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Chun-Shu Lin, Ying-Chin Lin, Bamodu Oluwaseun Adebayo, Alexander Wu, Jia-Hong Chen, Yi-Jen Peng, Ming-Fang Cheng, Wei-Hwa Lee, Michael Hsiao, Tsu-Yi Chao, Chi-Tai Yeh].
Autoimmunizing mechanisms are very hard to study in humans, so we have focused on vital clues in thymomas and hyperplastic thymuses in myasthenia gravis (MG). According to our multi-step hypothesis: thymic epithelial cells (TEC) present epitopes from the isolated acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits they express, and autoimmunize helper T cells; subsequently, these evoke early antibodies that then attack rare thymic myoid cells expressing intact AChR; in the resulting germinal centers, autoantibodies diversify to recognize native AChR. We have studied: 1) thymomas, to identify autoimmunizing cell types, focusing on IFN-alpha, against which many patients have high titer autoantibodies, as in another highly informative autoimmune syndrome. Although IFN-alpha is much easier to label than the sparse and delicate AChR subunits, we have not yet located obviously autoimmunizing micro-environments; 2) hyperplastic MG thymuses, where we find (a) upregulation of complement receptors and regulators on
A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
The presence of the HGF/Met system in the testicular myoid cells was first discovered by our group. However, the physiological role of this pathway remains poorly understood. We previously reported that HGF increases uPA secretion and TGF-β activation in cultured tubular fragments and that HGF is maximally expressed at Stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, when myoid cell contraction occurs. It is well known that the HGF/Met pathway is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling; moreover, the interaction of uPA with its receptor, uPAR, as well as the activation of TGF-β have been reported to be related to the actin cytoskeleton contractility of smooth muscle cells. Herein, we report that HGF induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling in vitro in isolated myoid cells and myoid cell contraction in cultured seminiferous tubules. To better understand these phenomena, we evaluated: (1) the regulation of the uPA machinery in isolated myoid cells after HGF administration; and (2) the effect of uPA or
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Antigenic modulation | definition of antigenic modulation by Medical dictionaryAntigenic modulation | definition of antigenic modulation by Medical dictionary

What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean? ... Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. ... modulation. (redirected from antigenic modulation). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. modulation. [mod″u-la´ ... antigenic modulation. the alteration of antigenic determinants in a living cell surface membrane following interaction with an ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/antigenic+modulation

Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I...Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I...

Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ... Two explanations for this have been proposed: antigenic modulation whereby mAb:CD20 complexes are internalized in a B cell ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2018/07/10/jimmunol.1701122

Immunologic injury in measles virus infection. II. Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. | Journal of...Immunologic injury in measles virus infection. II. Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. | Journal of...

Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. B S Joseph B S Joseph ... Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus ... Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation.. J Exp Med 1 October 1975; 142 (4): 864-876. doi: https://doi.org/ ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/142/4/864/21952/Immunologic-injury-in-measles-virus-infection-II

The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphoc by P Draber and V Viklicky"The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphoc" by P Draber and V Viklicky

Draber, P and Viklicky, V, "The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr." (1979). Subject ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1979/3118/

Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro :: MEDICA, MUSC...Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro :: MEDICA, MUSC...

Antigenic Modulation. Immunosuppression. Mice. Antigenic Modulation. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Monoclonal ... Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro ... Post a Comment for Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro ... Antigenic modulation of Murine T lymphocyte surface markers with Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody in vitro. ...
more infohttp://digital.library.musc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/medica/id/1710/rec/1

Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human Osteoblast-like Cells by FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ |...Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human Osteoblast-like Cells by FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ |...

Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human Osteoblast-like Cells by FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ E ... Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype by IL-1β, IFNγ and TGFβ1 on Cultured Human Decidual Stromal Cells Biosci Rep (February, 2004) ... E. Pérez, O. García-Martínez, M. Arroyo-Morales, C. Reyes-Botella, C. Ruiz; Modulation of Antigenic Phenotype in Cultured Human ... Antigenic Profile of Osteoblasts Present in Human Bone Tissue Sections Biosci Rep (June, 2006) ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/bioscirep/article-abstract/26/4/281/55322/Modulation-of-Antigenic-Phenotype-in-Cultured?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Antigenic modulation induced by monoclonal-antibodies - antibodies to measles-virus hemagglutinin alters expression of other...Antigenic modulation induced by monoclonal-antibodies - antibodies to measles-virus hemagglutinin alters expression of other...

Antigenic modulation induced by monoclonal-antibodies - antibodies to measles-virus hemagglutinin alters expression of other ... The process, termed "antibody-induced antigenic modulation," was further investigated by using monoclonal antibody to several ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/display/endnote24087

Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum.Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum.

Antigenic Modulation. Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one ... Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies. ... Reward-based memory modulation is thought to result from encoding and.... Interactions of the tricyclic antidepressant drug ... Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum.. 08:00 EDT 22nd October 2015 , ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/1353230/Dopaminergic-Modulation-of-the-Functional-Ventrodorsal-Architecture-of-the-Human-Striatum.html

Detection of anti-adalimumab antibodies in a RA responsive cohort of patients using three different techniques.Detection of anti-adalimumab antibodies in a RA responsive cohort of patients using three different techniques.

Antigenic Modulation. Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one ... Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2221083/Detection-of-anti-adalimumab-antibodies-in-a-RA-responsive-cohort-of-patients.html

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Antigenic Modulation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Antigenic+Modulation&parentid=3135&catid=30322

The Shaving Reaction: Rituximab/CD20 Complexes Are Removed from Mantle Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by...The Shaving Reaction: Rituximab/CD20 Complexes Are Removed from Mantle Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by...

... an effect called antigenic modulation (2, 3, 19, 20). The result of this antigenic modulation is that the cancer cell escapes ... Human in vivo antigenic modulation induced by the anti-T cell OKT3 monoclonal antibody. Eur. J. Immunol. 12: 979-982. ... Antigenic modulation described in previous reports may have been mediated by such shaving, and our findings may have profound ... Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line. J ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/176/4/2600?ijkey=40712f1d085ca97794fc974695d73ffc1eda14b0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cancer Cell BiologyCancer Cell Biology

... antigenic modulation by antibodies; (iii) tumor-induced immune suppression by factors secreted by tumor cells (for example, ... Lakka, S.S., Konduri, S.D., Mohanam, S., Nicolson, G.L. and Rao, J.S. In vitro modulation of human lung cancer cell line ... Lakka, S.S., Konduri, S.D., Mohanam, S., Nicolson, G.L. and Rao, J.S. In vitro modulation of human lung cancer cell line ... Adjuvant-dependent modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses to immunization with b-amyloid. Int. Immunol. 11: 23-36 (2003). ...
more infohttp://immed.org/illness/cancer_cell_biology_research.html

Humoral-Targeted Immunotherapies in Multiple SclerosisHumoral-Targeted Immunotherapies in Multiple Sclerosis

Antigenic modulation and rituximab resistance. Semin Hematol. 2010;47:124-132. doi: 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2010.01.006. [PMC ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3557366/?lang=en-ca

Characterization of a TL−variant of a homozygous TL+ mouse lymphoma | SpringerLinkCharacterization of a TL−variant of a homozygous TL+ mouse lymphoma | SpringerLink

Old, L., Stockert, E., Boyse, E., and Kim, J.: Antigenic modulation. Loss of TL antigen from cells exposed to TL antibody. ... Bjaring, B. and Klein, G.: Antigenic characterization of heterozygous mouse lymphomas after immunoselectionin vivo.J. Natl. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01576940

Antibody Initiates Virus Persistence: Immune Modulation and Measles Virus Infection | Springer for Research & DevelopmentAntibody Initiates Virus Persistence: Immune Modulation and Measles Virus Infection | Springer for Research & Development

By antibody-induced antigenic modulation, we mean the removal of antigens from the surface of cells by specific antibody. The ... Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9:55-62PubMed ... Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. J Exp Med 142:864-876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... By antibody-induced antigenic modulation, we mean the removal of antigens from the surface of cells by specific antibody. The ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4612-5250-4_27

Complement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells | SpringerLinkComplement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells | SpringerLink

Antigenic modulation and abrogation of lymphocyte lysis of virus-infected cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9: 55PubMedCrossRef ... Molecular events in antibody induced antigenic modulation. J Immunol 125: 78PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Luell S (1963) Antigenic properties of experimental leukemias. II. Immunological studies in vivo with C57 BL/ ... As replicating agents, they have the ability to serve as a persistent or increasing antigenic challenge. Through several ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-82416-6_15

ASMscience | Bacterial Metabolism in the Host Environment: Pathogen Growth and Nutrient Assimilation in the Mammalian Upper...ASMscience | Bacterial Metabolism in the Host Environment: Pathogen Growth and Nutrient Assimilation in the Mammalian Upper...

Antigenic modulation of Bordetella pertussis. J Hyg 58:57-93. [PubMed][CrossRef]. ... Antigenic diversity of meningococcal enterobactin receptor FetA, a vaccine component. Microbiology 149:1849-1858. [PubMed][ ... Phenotypic modulation of the virulent Bvg phase is not required for pathogenesis and transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica ... Molecular, antigenic, and functional characteristics of ferric enterobactin receptor CfrA in Campylobacter jejuni. Infect Immun ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0007-2014

Nelson Teng | Stanford Medicine ProfilesNelson Teng | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Additional studies demonstrated varying degrees of antigenic modulation of surface Id in vitro by MAID. The degree of ... The antigenic specificities of 24 V4-34-encoded monoclonal antibodies were compared with the amino acid sequence. The ... INFLUENCE OF AVIDITY AND IDIOTOPE RECOGNITION ON THE MODULATION OF SURFACE-IMMUNOGLOBULIN ON MALIGNANT HUMAN B-CELLS BY RAT ... which is deficient in O antigenic side chains. This deficiency exposes the core oligosaccharide, common to LPS of all Gram- ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/nelson-teng

Dahal LN[au] - PubMed - NCBIDahal LN[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Antigenic modulation limits the effector cell mechanisms employed by type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. ... Shaving Is an Epiphenomenon of Type I and II Anti-CD20-Mediated Phagocytosis, whereas Antigenic Modulation Limits Type I ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Dahal+LN%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Cox KL[au] - PubMed - NCBICox KL[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Antigenic modulation limits the effector cell mechanisms employed by type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Cox+KL%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Acute Leukemia: Biology and Treatment | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansAcute Leukemia: Biology and Treatment | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Surface antigenic modulation occurring with cell differentiation can be monitored by specific antisera. These antisera have ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/693510/acute-leukemia-biology-treatment

Prof. Dr. Roy GrossProf. Dr. Roy Gross

Antigenic modulation and phase variation of Bordetella species. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. Suppl. 19:317-324. ... Umweltbedingte Modulation der Virulenz von Bordetella pertussis. In: Modulation der Virulenz von Krankheitserregern. Eds.: ... Pertussis toxin promoter sequences involved in modulation. J. Bacteriol. 171:4026- 4030. ...
more infohttps://www.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/mikrobio/mitarbeiter/prof-dr-roy-gross/
  • Antidepressant drugs are recommended for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated depression but their role in the modulation of L-DOPA-induced behavioral and neurochemical markers is poor. (bioportfolio.com)