Receptors, KIR2DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL1 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, KIR3DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-A3 ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR3DS1: An activating KIR receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a short cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR2DL4: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-G antigen. It contains D0 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR2DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Receptors, KIR2DL5: An inhibitory KIR receptor that contains D0 and D1 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.V(D)J Recombination: The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.VDJ Recombinases: Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesAntibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Genes, RAG-1: Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.PhosphoproteinsMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 188.8.131.52), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.VDJ Exons: Exons that are created in vivo during LYMPHOCYTE maturation from the V, D, and J gene segments of immunoglobulin superfamily genes (e.g., the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES, or the T-CELL RECEPTOR BETA GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GAMMA GENES ) by the VDJ RECOMBINASE system.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
... receptors. Specifically, it was demonstrated that HLA-F interacts physically and functionally with three KIR receptors: KIR3DL2 ... of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on ... The complex HLA-F/HLA class-I OC is a ligand for a subset of KIR (Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) ... Zhang X, Lin A, Zhang JG, Bao WG, Xu DP, Ruan YY, Yan WH (January 2013). "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in ...
2005). "Investigation of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity V. KIR3DL2". Tissue Antigens. 64 (3): 226-34. ... 2006). "Investigation of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors gene KIR3DL2 diversity and confirmation of KIR3DL2*015 in a ... "Entrez Gene: KIR3DL2 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2". Wagtmann N, Biassoni R ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR3DL2 gene. Killer cell ...
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor
Activating receptors recognize ligands that indicate host cell aberration, including induced-self antigens (which are markers ... KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 three domains, short cytoplasmic tail: KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on ... and many of these cells expressed CD94/NKG2A receptors, a CTLR receptor. Moreover, there was little to no KIR receptor ... NK cell inhibitory receptors are part of either the immunoglobulin-like (IgSF) superfamily or the C-type lectin-like receptor ( ...
Rajagopalan S, Long EO (1999). "A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural ... "NK cell receptor gene of the KIR family with two IG domains but highest homology to KIR receptors with three IG domains". ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ... "Genomic organization and allelic polymorphism of the human killer cell inhibitory receptor gene KIR103". Tissue Antigens. 49 (6 ...
"Isotypic variation of novel immunoglobulin-like transcript/killer cell inhibitory receptor loci in the leukocyte receptor ... 2007). "No association of KIR genes with Behcet's disease". Tissue Antigens. 70 (5): 435-438. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2007. ... 2005). "[Polymorphism of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors gene family in Zhejiang Han population]". Zhongguo Shi Yan ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ...
2001). "Recognition of HLA-Cw4 but not HLA-Cw6 by the NK cell receptor killer cell Ig-like receptor two-domain short tail ... Chwae YJ, Cho SE, Kim SJ, Kim J (1999). "Diversity of the repertoire of p58 killer cell inhibitory receptors in a single ... 2001). "Identification of seventeen novel KIR variants: fourteen of them from two non-Caucasian donors". Tissue Antigens. 57 (1 ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ...
"N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ... "Structure of the inhibitory receptor for human natural killer cells resembles haematopoietic receptors". Nature. 389 (6646): 96 ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ... "N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ...
MHC class I
Antigen receptor. *TCR: [email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHCI-binding receptor, is involved in the regulation of visual plasticity. ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ... It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ...
"Association between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes and leprosy in Brazil". Tissue Antigens. 72 (5): 478-82 ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail, 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
1996). "The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory ... 1996). "Killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for HLA-C and HLA-B identified by direct binding and by functional transfer ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ... Tissue Antigens. 52 (6): 510-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb03081.x. PMID 9894849. Kwon D, Chwae YJ, Choi IH, et al. (2000 ...
... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck ... CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor (TCR). ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ...
Outline of immunology
T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... KIR3DL1 KIR3DL2 KIR3DL3 Three domains, short cytoplasmic tail KIR3DS1 Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs) LILR ... Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a receptor C5a receptor (CD88) C5AR2 Fc receptor Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) FcγRI (CD64) FcγRIIA ( ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three dimeric signaling modules ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ...
GABA receptors: GABA-A, GABA-C. GABA. Cl− , HCO−3 . Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor ... toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated and killer inhibitor receptors (KARs and KIRs), complement receptors, Fc receptors ... The insulin receptor is an example.. *Type 4: Nuclear receptors - While they are called nuclear receptors, they are actually ... receptors, G protein-linked (metabotropic) hormone receptors, and enzyme-linked hormone receptors. Intracellular receptors ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... These co-receptors are chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. Following a structural change in another viral protein (gp41), HIV ... signaling receptor activity. • protein kinase binding. • receptor binding. Cellular component. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. • ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • virus receptor activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • zinc ion binding. ...
Antigen receptor. *TCR: [email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric ... Ernst L, van de Winkel J, Chiu I, Anderson C (1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI ... Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch J (2006). "Fcgamma receptors: old friends and new family members". Immunity. 24 (1): 19-28. doi:10.1016/j ...
റിസപ്റ്റർ (ജൈവരസതന്ത്രം) - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
An example of membrane receptors. *Ligands, located outside the cell. *Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on ... The receptor releases a messenger once the ligand has connected to the receptor. ... Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.750 - receptors.2C cell surface. അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]. *↑ Hall, JE (2016). Guyton and Hall ... Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... Antigen receptor. *BCR. Co-receptor. stimulate:. *CD21/CD19/ ...
KIR3DL2 - Wikipedia
2005). "Investigation of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity V. KIR3DL2". Tissue Antigens. 64 (3): 226-34. ... 2006). "Investigation of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors gene KIR3DL2 diversity and confirmation of KIR3DL2*015 in a ... "Entrez Gene: KIR3DL2 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2". Wagtmann N, Biassoni R ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR3DL2 gene. Killer cell ...
Combination of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genetic Background Influences the Onset Age...
... and human leukocyte antigen ,i ,(HLA),/i, genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in ... To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor ,i ,(KIR),/i, ... This family of receptors consists of both activating and inhibitory allotypes. KIRs function can be predicted from the length ... P. Hansasuta, T. Dong, H. Thananchai et al., "Recognition of HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 by KIR3DL2 is peptide-specific," European ...
HLA-F - Wikipedia
... receptors. Specifically, it was demonstrated that HLA-F interacts physically and functionally with three KIR receptors: KIR3DL2 ... of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on ... The complex HLA-F/HLA class-I OC is a ligand for a subset of KIR (Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) ... Zhang X, Lin A, Zhang JG, Bao WG, Xu DP, Ruan YY, Yan WH (January 2013). "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in ...
Frontiers | Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles Are not Associated with Risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver...
... such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. The ... such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. The ... The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%), ... This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand associations in DILI, although our findings do not ...
KIR Polymorphisms Modulate Peptide-Dependent Binding to an MHC Class I Ligand with a Bw6 Motif | proLékaře.cz
2009 Dimorphic motifs in D0 and D1 + D2 domains of killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 combine to form receptors with high, ... 2007 Features and distribution of CD8 T cells with human leukocyte antigen class I-specific receptor expression in chronic ... 2004 Recognition of HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 by KIR3DL2 is peptide-specific. Eur J Immunol 34 1673 1679 ... 1997 The direct binding of a p58 killer cell inhibitory receptor to human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw4 ...
CD158e/k (KIR3DL1/DL2) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec
They are monomeric receptors possessing high allelic polymorphism with either 2 or 3 Ig-like extracellular domains. According ... members of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family which recognizes subsets of HLA alleles. The family of killer ... immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) contributes to the regulation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Expression is found mainly ... Alternative names of antigen: KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2 * Entrez Gene ID: 3811 * Molecular mass of antigen [kDa]: 46-48 ...
Frontiers | The Rise of Allogeneic Natural Killer Cells As a Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy: Recent Innovations and Future...
... and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR-1) (99).. Besides specific targeting of tumor antigens and strategies ... Retargeting NK-92 cells by means of CD19- and CD20-specific chimeric antigen receptors compares favorably with antibody- ... IPH4102, which targets KIR3DL2, is under Phase I clinical investigation in cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical trials ... CS1-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered natural killer cells enhance in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity ...
Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers
Patients with spondylarthritis express both HLA-B27 heavy-chain homodimers and receptors for HLA-B27 homodimers. This may be of ... HLA-B27 Antigen / immunology* * Humans * Lymphocytes / immunology * Male * Monocytes / immunology * Receptors, Immunologic / ... Experiments with transfected cell lines demonstrated that KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2, and immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4), but ... Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov;46(11):2972-82. doi: ...
The Role of B27 Heavy Chain Dimer Immune Receptor Interactions in Spondyloarthritis | Springer for Research & Development
B272 but not β2m-associated B27 binds to KIR3DL2 and rodent PIR. NK and T-cells expressing the immune receptor KIR3DL2, which ... Leukocyte receptor complex-encoded immunomodulatory receptors show differing specificity for alternative HLA-B27 structures. J ... Maturation of antigen-presenting cells is compromised in HLA-G transgenic mice. Int Immunol 2001; 13(3):385-94.PubMedCrossRef ... Expansion and enhanced survival of natural killer cells expressing the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL2 in ...
Induction of HLA-B27 heavy chain homodimer formation after activation in dendritic cells | Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full...
We have studied the formation of HLA-B27 heavy-chain homodimers in human dendritic cells, which are key antigen-presenting ... The weak association of wildtype HLA-B*2705 with the transporter associated with antigen processing could also be enhanced by ... class I allele human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. Disulfide-linked HLA-B27 heavy-chain homodimers have been implicated as novel ... These cell surface HLA-B27 homodimers can be recognised by NK receptors such as KIR3DL2 that do not recognise the monomeric ...
KIR2DL3 Gene - GeneCards | KI2L3 Protein | KI2L3 Antibody
Killer Cell Immunoglobulin Like Receptor, Two Ig Domains And Long Cytoplasmic Tail 3, including: function, proteins, disorders ... Natural Killer Cell Receptors: Human Target Cell - NK Cell Ligand-Receptor Interactions. Natural Killer Cell Receptors: Human ... GO annotations related to this gene include receptor activity and antigen binding. An important paralog of this gene is KIR2DL1 ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ...
P140: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2
GoPubMed lists recent and important papers and reviews for killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long ... Genetic epistasis between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in Kawasaki disease susceptibility. ... results suggest that carriers of A allele in exon 3 of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2(KIR3DL2) have a decreased ... The frequencies of alleles of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DL2, and the carrier frequency of ...
DiVA - Search result
... to either antioncogenic retinoic acid receptors or prooncogenic nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ... These Yersinia-containing acidic compartments (YACs) are bereft of the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal antigen ... An A-genotype including KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL4, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, and KIR2DS4 was associated with ... ERBB2 receptor belongs to the ERBB tyrosine kinase receptor family. At variance to the other family members, ERBB2 is a ...
Th17 cells expressing KIR3DL2+ and responsive to HLA-B27 homodimers are increased in ankylosing spondylitis. - Nuffield...
TCR-stimulated peripheral blood KIR3DL2(+) CD4 T cell lines from SpA patients secreted 4-fold more IL-17 than KIR3DL2(+) lines ... KIR3DL2(+) CD4 T cells are expanded and enriched for IL-17 production in the blood and synovial fluid of patients with SpA. ... Despite KIR3DL2(+) cells comprising a mean of just 15% of CD4 T in the peripheral blood of SpA patients, this subset accounted ... Strikingly, KIR3DL2(+) CD4 T cells account for the majority of peripheral blood CD4 T cell IL-23R expression and produce more ...
Weekes M[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Identification of naive or antigen-experienced human CD8(+) T cells by expression of costimulation and chemokine receptors: ... Transferrin receptor 1 is a reticulocyte-specific receptor for Plasmodium vivax.. Gruszczyk J, Kanjee U, Chan LJ, Menant S, ... Recognition of HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 by KIR3DL2 is peptide-specific. ... and T-cell receptor usage of pp65-specific CTL. ... Genetic Evidence for Erythrocyte Receptor Glycophorin B Expression Levels Defining a Dominant Plasmodium falciparum Invasion ...
Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by...
KLRs and other NK cell receptors. On a protein level, intracytoplasmatic TRAIL and granzyme B were observed in 90% of IFN-DC. ... CD160 antigen. 1.42. KIR3DL2. killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2 ... like the genes for Ig receptors FCGRIIB, FCAR and FCER2, complement components and receptors C1QA, C3 and C1QR1, and the C-type ... IFN-DC had only higher levels of the IgG receptor FCGR1A.. In regard to antigen presentation, there were no differences in the ...
Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: Toward the Identification of Clinical Molecular Targets
"T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemias have multiple phenotypic abnormalities involving pan-T-cell antigens and receptors ... "Restricted killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor repertoire without T-cell receptor γ rearrangement supports a true natural ... E. Poszepczynska-Guigné, V. Schiavon, M. DIncan et al., "CD158k/KIR3DL2 is a new phenotypic marker of sezary cells: relevance ... There are two types of NKR: the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and the killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR or ...
Ankylosing Spondylitis and Axial Spondyloarthritis - PDF
... particularly the killercell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2 (KIR3DL2). In studies in humans and animals, these processes have ... Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen ... 65 Other associated genes encode other cytokines or cytokine receptors, transcription factors involved in the differentiation ... 44 Role of HLA-B27 HLA-B27, a class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is ...
METHOD OF DETERMINING CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME - Patent application
0065] T-cell receptor-related genes are the genes encoding T-cell receptors α, β, γ and the like.  NK cell receptor- ... T-cell receptor rearranged alpha chain mRNA V-NDN-J-C region (cell line B6.6) killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, KIR3DL2 ... cell receptor) (Natural killer-associated transcript 4) (NKAT-4) (p70 natural killer cell receptor clone CL-5) (CD158k antigen ... T cell receptor delta [email protected] locus T cell receptor alpha locus /// T cell receptor delta locus [email protected] /// [email protected] T cell receptor ...
MHC molecules lead many lives | EMBO Reports
transporter associated with antigen processing. TCR. T‐cell receptor. Steve. Caplan. Michael. Edidin. Paul. Bowness. ... killer cell immunoglobulin receptors. KIR3DL2. KIR allele. MAP. mitogen‐activated protein kinase. MHC. major histocompatibility ... Edidin M (1988) Function by association? MHC antigens and membrane receptor complexes. Immunol Today 9: 218-219. ... Patients with ankylosing spondylitis express increased numbers of one of these receptors, KIR3DL2, on their peripheral blood ...
Modulation of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection: The Role of Endogenous Class I Major...
The mAbs against KIRs were: DX9 (KIR3DL1); DX27 (KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, and KIR2DS2); DX30 (KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2); DX31 (KIR3DL2); and ... and that the killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) and CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors for MHC class I do not play a role in ... 1988) Human cytomegalovirus encodes a glycoprotein homologous to MHC class I antigens. Nature 331:269-272, pmid:2827039.. ... 1997) A novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptor for cellular and viral MHC class I molecules. Immunity 7:273-282, pmid: ...
αEβ7 integrin interaction with E-cadherin promotes antitumor CTL activity by triggering lytic granule polarization and...
Formation of supramolecular activation clusters on fresh ex vivo CD8+ T cells after engagement of the T cell antigen receptor ... Various T cell adhesion molecules and their cognate receptors on target cells promote T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cell ... Functional and molecular characterization of a KIR3DL2/p140 expressing tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone infiltrating ... Cutting edge: identification of E-cadherin as a ligand for the murine killer cell lectin-like receptor G1. J. Immunol. 176:1311 ...
anti-KIR2DL4 antibody, C-term | GeneTex
... killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4) for FACS, IHC-P, WB. Anti-KIR2DL4 pAb ( ... antigen=CD158d, CD158 antigenlike family member D, Killer cell inhibitory receptor 103AS, KIR103AS, G9P, Killer cell ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ...
C H O R I
... and serve as ligands for KIR2D receptors. The Bw4 antigen (with isoleucine or threonine at position 80 in the α1 domain of HLA- ... The silent KIR3DP1 gene (CD158c) is transcribed and might encode a secreted receptor in a minority of humans, in whom the ... KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3), with or without the activating, although often non-functional, KIR2DS4 16. The group B haplotypes have ... Control of self-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing gamma delta T cell receptors by natural killer inhibitory receptors ...
KIR2DS1 Gene - GeneCards | KI2S1 Protein | KI2S1 Antibody
Killer Cell Immunoglobulin Like Receptor, Two Ig Domains And Short Cytoplasmic Tail 1, including: function, proteins, disorders ... Antigen processing and presentation .34 3. Natural Killer Cell Receptors: Human Target Cell - NK Cell Ligand-Receptor ... KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they ... Natural Killer Cell Receptors: Human Target Cell - NK Cell Ligand-Receptor Interactions ...
HLA and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors Influence the Natural Course of CMV Infection (pdf) | Paperity
Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; KIR, killer immunoglobulin-like receptor; OR, odds ratio. a ... KIR3DL2, and KIR3DL3). In contrast, the B haplotype is characterized by variable numbers of activating and inhibitory genes [6 ... Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; KIR, killer immunoglobulin-like receptor; OR, odds ratio. a ... An increased frequency of NK cell receptor and HLA-C group 1 combinations in... An increased frequency of NK cell receptor and ...
KIR-Binding Agents and Methods of Use Thereof - Patent application
Distinct KIR interact with different subsets of HLA class I antigens. The known inhibitory KIR receptors include members of the ... a human inhibitory KIR receptor gene product, and is capable of reducing the inhibitory activity of said receptors. The ... Finally, KIR3DL2 (p140), existing constitutively as a disulfide-bonded homodimer of molecules with three Ig domains, recognizes ... CD94/NKG2C receptors, NKG2D receptors, certain activating Killer Ig-like Receptors (KIRs), and other activating NK receptors ( ...
Novel MHC Class I Structures on Exosomes | The Journal of Immunology
... β2m-free H chain dimer has been described which can be recognized by several KIR and LILR receptors, including KIR3DL2 (39), ... killer cell Ig-like receptor; LIR, leukocyte Ig-like receptor; AS, ankylosing spondylitis; TfR, transferrin receptor; GSH, ... A homodimeric complex of HLA-G on normal trophoblast cells modulates antigen-presenting cells via LILRB1. Eur. J. Immunol. 37: ... anti-transferrin receptor (TfR), recognizing transferrin receptor; anti-ERp57 (gifted by N. Bulleid, University of Manchester, ...
LigandsCytotoxicityMoleculesGenesPolymorphicBindCytotoxicProteinsEffectorInteractionsGeneFamily of receptorsIntracellularHumanAnkylosing spondylitisImmune receptorsSpecific antigenKIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2Inhibitory and stimulatorySurfaceImmunoglobulin-like domainsKIR3DL3Killer cell-immunoglobulinTyrosineMonomericChromosomeCell inhibitoryMolecularLymphocytesMonocytesCD158eMembrane
- The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. (frontiersin.org)
- HLA-B27 heavy chain homodimers are expressed in HLA-B27 transgenic rodent models of spondyloarthritis and are ligands for paired Ig-like receptors. (springer.com)
- The HLA class I molecules also act as ligands for killer immunoglobulin receptors (KIR), which regulate the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells. (chori.org)
- This function is the outcome of the capacity of inhibitory NK receptors to block cytotoxicity upon interaction with their MHC-I ligands expressed on target cells. (jimmunol.org)
- This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) by NK cells and the NKG2D ligands, MHC-I-related chain A, MHC-I-related chain B, and UL16 binding protein 1, and the ICAM-1 by tumor cells. (jimmunol.org)
- The cytolytic and cytokine functions of NK cells are regulated by a complex balance between inhibitory and activating signals that are triggered via the engagement of different NK cell surface receptors with their specific ligands ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The number of characterized ligands in the TGFβ superfamily far exceeds the number of known receptors, suggesting the promiscuity that exists between the ligand and receptor interactions. (wikidoc.org)
- Stimulatory NK receptors and tumor cell ligands are still incompletely defined. (aacrjournals.org)
- Investigation of activating and inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and their putative ligands in type 1 diabetes (T1D). (gopubmed.org)
- Removal of MUC-1 exposes the oligosaccharide ligands of the uterine epithelium, thus allowing binding by the L-selectin receptor of the trophopblast cell, followed by embryo adhesion and invasion. (wikidoc.org)
- While numerous receptors are found in most cells, each receptor will only bind with ligands of a particular structure, much like how locks will only accept specifically shaped keys. (worldheritage.org)
- nuclear receptors - While they are called nuclear receptors, these are actually located in the cytosol and migrate to the nucleus after binding with their ligands. (worldheritage.org)
- Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on the shape of the active site of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
- The family of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) contributes to the regulation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- These receptors include a heterogeneous family of molecules composed of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), which are exclusively expressed by NK cells and NKG2D, which is expressed by both NK cells and CTLs. (jimmunol.org)
- A research project is being conducted in collaboration with the company Innate Pharma (Marseille, France), to assess the efficacy of humanized chimeric anti-KIR3DL2/CD158k antibodies to induce a NK cell-dependent cytotoxicity. (simdif.com)
- They are, 1) killer immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR), 2) NKG2A-C that form a heterodimer with CD94, and NKG2D, which is expressed as a homodimer and relies on DAP10 and DAP12 adaptor proteins, and 3) natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) ( Table 1 ). (jcancer.org)
- The cytolytic function of natural killer (NK) cells is induced by the engagement of a series of activating receptors and coreceptors some of which have recently been identified and collectively termed natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs). (bloodjournal.org)
- Their cytolytic function is regulated by the expression of a series of surface receptors that either block or enhance the NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (bloodjournal.org)
- 3-5 As recently demonstrated, this susceptibility is due to the expression by NK cells of different non-HLA-specific activating receptors that are involved in the induction of cytotoxicity. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 Three of these molecules, NKp46, NKp30, and NKp44 (collectively termed natural cytotoxicity receptors [NCRs]), are selectively expressed by NK cells, and their engagement results in a strong enhancement of the NK-mediated cytolytic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
- Another surface receptor playing a role in the induction of NK-mediated cytotoxicity is represented by NKG2D, a receptor that, different from NCRs, is also expressed by virtually all T-cell receptor (TCR)γδ + and CD8 + TCRαβ + cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 It has been recently demonstrated that NKG2D plays a role in the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against certain target cells either by acting in concert with NCR (in NCR bright NK clones) or by representing the main receptor (in NCR dull NK cells). (bloodjournal.org)
- Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
- The ensuing signaling cascades lead to pro-inflammatory responses such as release of cytokines , phagocytosis , respiratory bursts , antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity , production of reactive oxygen species , and antigen presentation. (appspot.com)
- Unlike classical HLA class I molecules, which possess ten highly conserved amino acids responsible for antigen recognition, HLA-F only has 5, suggesting a biological function different from peptide presentation. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the TCR, MHC class I molecules bind to immunoregulatory receptors including members of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) families. (springer.com)
- The organizers built on their experience with unexpected forms and associations of MHC class I molecules to put together a meeting that showed how much more there is to these molecules than their classical function of simply presenting peptides for recognition by T‐cell receptors. (embopress.org)
- This speculation and others along similar lines drove research in the 1970s and 1980s to associate MHC class I molecules-which could be detected using antibodies-with growth‐hormone receptors ( Edidin, 1988 ). (embopress.org)
- It has been suggested that these molecules serve as surrogates for class I MHC molecules to engage inhibitory NK cell class I MHC receptors. (rupress.org)
- Various T cell adhesion molecules and their cognate receptors on target cells promote T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cell killing. (rupress.org)
- HLA class II molecules are found on the surface of B cells, macrophages and other antigen presenting cells, where the alpha-beta heterodimer presents primarily exogenously derived peptides (bacteria and chemical toxins) to circulating CD4+ T cells. (chori.org)
- Of particular interest, exosomes from immune cell types are replete with many molecules involved in ligand-receptor interactions that can lead to the activation or modulation of various immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
- Target cells expressing MHC class I (MHC-I) 3 molecules are protected from NK cell lysis by interactions between these molecules and inhibitory NK receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- CR3 is a human cell surface receptor, found on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages, which is capable of recognizing and binding to many molecules found on the surfaces of invading bacteria. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on hematopoietic cancers and melanomas inhibit attack by natural killer lymphocytes, but previous studies have not consistently demonstrated that carcinoma cells are protected by HLA class I expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Human NK cells use at least three receptor gene families to recognize HLA class I molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
- Human NK cell activity is controlled by the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors which recognise ubiquitously expressed MHC class I molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
- 14-16 Their critical immunoregulatory role stems from their ability to recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the absence of exogenous antigen. (ahajournals.org)
- Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules (i.e. (aacrjournals.org)
- One class of non-self molecules are called antigens (short for anti body gen erators) and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response. (readtiger.com)
- The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). (wikipedia.org)
- The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). (wikipedia.org)
- KIR2DL2 (killer immunoglobulin-like receptor two-domain long 2) and KIR2DS2 (killer immunoglobulin-like receptor two-domain short 2) genes were less frequent in patients than in control individuals (corrected p values: 0.0110 and 0.0383, respectively). (gopubmed.org)
- Association of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin- Like Receptor Genes in Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. (gopubmed.org)
- 13 genes encoded within the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) on chromosome 19q13.4 14-16 and are expressed on NK cells and infrequently on CD8 + T cells. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition to EBV, several host susceptibility factors have been shown to be associated with NPC development, including polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Framework genes KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 were present in all individuals. (cathepsink.com)
- Though FcαRI is part of the Fc receptor immunoglobulin superfamily, the protein's primary structure is similar to receptors in the leukocyte receptor cluster (LRC), and the FCAR gene appears amidst LRC genes on chromosome 19. (appspot.com)
- The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, consists of many genetic loci, including at least seven loci that encode two distinct classes of highly polymorphic cell surface antigens that are co-expressed. (chori.org)
- Concordantly, variation in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) loci, the two most polymorphic regions of the human genome that encode receptors involved in NK and CD8+ T-cell function, is associated with rates of HIV disease progression across several studies [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among the NK cell (and other effector cell) receptors, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are by far the most polymorphic. (aacrjournals.org)
- We have previously shown that B27 can form H chain dimers (termed B27(2)), which, unlike classical HLA-B27, bind the killer-cell Ig-like receptor KIR3DL2. (ox.ac.uk)
- Members of the Ly49 family of NK‐cell receptors were shown to bind to the side of the MHC molecule using structural and mutational analyses ( Tormo et al , 1999 ), in contrast to the binding of other NK‐cell receptors, KIR and NKG2, which bind to the classical peptide‐presenting region ( Fan et al , 2001 ). (embopress.org)
- Provided herein, in one aspect, are antibodies that immunospecifically bind to a human KIT antigen comprising the fourth and/or fifth extracellular Ig-like. (patents.com)
- When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of the cell. (worldheritage.org)
- Inside-out signaling primes FcαRI in order for it to bind its ligand, while outside-in signaling caused by ligand binding depends on FcαRI association with the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcR γ-chain). (appspot.com)
- Priming occurs when cytokines signaling the presence of an infection bind their receptors on FcαRI-expressing cells, activating the kinase PI3K . (appspot.com)
- Along with the TCR, the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- Their function is governed, at least in part, by the combinatorial array of inhibitory and activating receptors including the KIR, Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), the C-type lectin receptors-NKG2A-F, and the natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) -NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the receptors and effector mechanisms responsible for its broad tumoricidal function remain undefined. (semanticscholar.org)
- Effector memory T-lymphocytes do not express L-selectin, as they circulate in the periphery and have immediate effector functions upon encountering antigen. (wikidoc.org)
- SELL is a cell surface component that is a member of a family of adhesion/homing receptors that play important roles in lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions. (wikidoc.org)
- The N-terminal interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand independent manner and depending on these interactions it can modify the binding/activity of the receptor. (worldheritage.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include receptor activity and antigen binding . (genecards.org)
- The cell receptor for Norwalk virus is a 1,2 linked-fucose (grey circle) controlled by the FUT2 gene. (asmscience.org)
- Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene association with cryptorchidism. (gopubmed.org)
- Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms. (gopubmed.org)
- The KIR gene family is found on chromosome 19 and encodes receptors with either two (2D) or three (3D) extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fc fragment of IgA receptor ( FCAR ) is a human gene that codes for the transmembrane receptor FcαRI , also known as CD89 ( C luster of D ifferentiation 89 ). (appspot.com)
Family of receptors1
- In addition, validation of a model where KIR3DL2 would ensure the transport of CpG ODNs to their receptor at the intracellular level could afford to consider an immunotherapy based on anti-KIR3DL2 antibody able to block its interaction with CpG ODN. (simdif.com)
- Type 3: kinase linked and related receptors (see " Receptor tyrosine kinase ", and " Enzyme-linked receptor ") - These receptors are composed of an extracellular domain containing the ligand binding site and an intracellular domain, often with enzymatic function, linked by a single transmembrane alpha helix. (worldheritage.org)
- To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. (hindawi.com)
- The specificity of peptides bound to human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 influences the prevalence of arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. (springer.com)
- Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a severe, chronic inflammatory arthritis, with a strong association to the human major histocompatibilty complex (MHC) class I allele human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are strongly associated with the major histocompatibilty complex (MHC) class I allele human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genetic epistasis between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in Kawasaki disease susceptibility. (gopubmed.org)
- Human triggering receptors responsible for NK cell activation have been recently identified ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors(KIR) interact with Human Leukocyte Antigen(HLA) to modify natural killer- and T-cell function. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previous studies have shown that NPC is associated with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles which function in adaptive immunity to present viral and other antigens to the immune system. (aacrjournals.org)
- Each donor-recipient (D-R) pair of genomes contains vast permutations of non-synonymous amino-acid differences and other potential sources for allogenicity, beyond the highly characterized human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) region, conventionally considered to contain the main genetic factors underpinning allograft rejection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ligation of immune receptors by B27 2 promotes the survival of KIR-expressing leukocytes and modulates immune cytokine production. (springer.com)
- Upregulation of B27 2 in spondyloarthritis and differential interaction of β2m-associated HLA-B27 and B27 2 with immune receptors could be involved in the pathogenesis of B27-associated spondyloarthritis (AS). (springer.com)
- We propose these exosomal MHC I dimers as novel structures for recognition by immune receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- Taken together, these data demonstrate the existence of dimeric MHC I structures on exosomes that may act as a novel ligand for immune receptors. (jimmunol.org)
KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL22
- Experiments with transfected cell lines demonstrated that KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2, and immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4), but not ILT2, are receptors for HLA-B27 homodimers. (nih.gov)
- Interaction of HLA-B27 homodimers with KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2, unlike HLA-B27 heterotrimers, is independent of the sequence of bound peptide. (springer.com)
Inhibitory and stimulatory1
- CONCLUSIONS: ERAP1 activity determines surface expression of HLA-B27 FHCs and potentially promotes Th17 responses in AS through binding of HLA-B27 FHCs to KIR3DL2. (gopubmed.org)
- HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. (gopubmed.org)
- This study was designed to engineer a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T-cell surface, such that they target tumors in advanced stages of melanoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- Similar to its function in lymphocytes, L-selectin acts as a receptor to facilitate adhesion of the embryo to the site of invasion on the surface epithelium of the uterine endometrium. (wikidoc.org)
- facing extracellular( cell surface receptors ), cytoplasmic (cytoplasmic receptors), or in the nucleus ( nuclear receptors ). (worldheritage.org)
- This occurs in a similar manner to the association of CD3 with the T-cell receptor , and enables the cell to respond to the presence of antigens on its surface. (gutenberg.org)
- kir3ds1, Homo sapiens killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three do DNA. (creative-biogene.com)
- Homo sapiens killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three do DNA. (creative-biogene.com)
- To study the biological function of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and the role of donor inhibitory KIR and recipient genetic background in HLA matched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (bvsalud.org)
- Aims The Natural Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genotype profiling in Follicular Lymphoma has not been reported before in the literature. (edu.lb)
- Using high-resolution genotyping, we evaluated the variation of HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
- We demonstrate much higher capture of the natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor ( KIR ) region versus comparable platforms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several theories have developed to explain the link between HLA-B27 and SpA, the classical example being based on its antigen presentation function and the possibility of molecular mimicry [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our laboratory studies the molecular regulation and function of multiple receptor systems involved the generation and propagation of the innate immune response with the goal of understanding how the innate immune system can be harnessed for the prevention of and/or treatment of cancer. (cancer.gov)
- Populations of synovial and peripheral blood monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes from patients with spondylarthritis, and controls carried receptors for HLA-B27 homodimers. (nih.gov)
- L-selectin acts as a "homing receptor" for lymphocytes to enter secondary lymphoid tissues via high endothelial venules. (wikidoc.org)
- Central memory T-lymphocytes, which have encountered antigen, express L-selectin to localize in secondary lymphoid organs. (wikidoc.org)
- Treml2 regulates neutrophil responses and Treml4 is preferentially expressed on CD8+ DC, Ly6Clo/neg monocytes and red pulp macrophages of the spleen, where it participates in cross presentation of antigen. (cancer.gov)
- In contrast to the Trem-like receptors, a large body of literature shows that TREM-1 is expressed on monocytes and PMN and is a key regulator of the septic response in mice and humans. (cancer.gov)
- These are examples of membrane receptors . (worldheritage.org)
- Type 1: L (ionotropic receptors)- These receptors are typically the targets of fast neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (nicotinic) and GABA and activation of these receptor results in changes in ion movement across the membrane. (worldheritage.org)
- Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell membranes by complex extraction procedures using solvents , detergents , and/or affinity purification . (worldheritage.org)
- An example of membrane receptors . (wikipedia.org)