Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/3832)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (2/3832)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

CD40-activated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for tumor immunotherapy: stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells generates different types of effector cells. (3/3832)

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8(+) cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4(+), Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.  (+info)

Autoreactive human T cell lines recognizing ribosomal protein L7. (4/3832)

Sera of patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently contain oligoclonal IgG autoantibodies with high affinity for the ribosomal protein L7 (rpL7). The humoral autoimmune response to rpL7 apparently is driven by antigen and T cell dependent. In order to analyze the T cell response to rpL7 we cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals and SLE patients in the presence of recombinant rpL7. After 10 days, the cytokine response to re-stimulation with rpL7 was examined using a spot-ELISA. Measuring IFN-gamma secretion, the T cells of two patients and four healthy donors showed a significant increase in the number of spots as compared to control cells. Secretion of IL-4 or IL-10 was not detected. From the antigen-stimulated primary cultures we established by limiting dilution cloning six rpL7-reactive, IFN-gamma-secreting T cell lines which show a CD3+CD4+CD8- phenotype. One line additionally was shown to be positive for HLA-DR and CD45R0, but negative for CD27 and CD31. The cell lines carry alphabeta TCR chains which differ from each other in sequence and specificity. rpL7 fragments rich in basic amino acids could be identified as epitopes recognized by the TCR of three cell lines. Recognition of rpL7 is HLA-DR6 restricted or respectively HLA-DP restricted in the two cell lines analyzed.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (5/3832)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Cancer vaccines. (6/3832)

It has been more than 100 years since the first reported attempts to activate a patient's immune system to eradicate developing cancers. Although a few of the subsequent vaccine studies demonstrated clinically significant treatment effects, active immunotherapy has not yet become an established cancer treatment modality. Two recent advances have allowed the design of more specific cancer vaccine approaches: improved molecular biology techniques and a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the activation of T cells. These advances have resulted in improved systemic antitumor immune responses in animal models. Because most tumor antigens recognized by T cells are still not known, the tumor cell itself is the best source of immunizing antigens. For this reason, most vaccine approaches currently being tested in the clinics use whole cancer cells that have been genetically modified to express genes that are now known to be critical mediators of immune system activation. In the future, the molecular definition of tumor-specific antigens that are recognized by activated T cells will allow the development of targeted antigen-specific vaccines for the treatment of patients with cancer.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (7/3832)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Tolerance to antigen-presenting cell-depleted islet allografts is CD4 T cell dependent. (8/3832)

Pretreatment of pancreatic islets in 95% oxygen culture depletes graft-associated APCs and leads to indefinite allograft acceptance in immunocompetent recipients. As such, the APC-depleted allograft represents a model of peripheral alloantigen presentation in the absence of donor-derived costimulation. Over time, a state of donor-specific tolerance develops in which recipients are resistant to donor APC-induced graft rejection. Thus, persistence of the graft is sufficient to induce tolerance independent of other immune interventions. Donor-specific tolerance could be adoptively transferred to immune-deficient SCID recipient mice transplanted with fresh immunogenic islet allografts, indicating that the original recipient was not simply "ignorant" of donor antigens. Interestingly, despite the fact that the original islet allograft presented only MHC class I alloantigens, CD8+ T cells obtained from tolerant animals readily collaborated with naive CD4+ T cells to reject donor-type islet grafts. Conversely, tolerant CD4+ T cells failed to collaborate effectively with naive CD8+ T cells for the rejection of donor-type grafts. In conclusion, the MHC class I+, II- islet allograft paradoxically leads to a change in the donor-reactive CD4 T cell subset and not in the CD8 subset. We hypothesize that the tolerant state is not due to direct class I alloantigen presentation to CD8 T cells but, rather, occurs via the indirect pathway of donor Ag presentation to CD4 T cells in the context of host MHC class II molecules.  (+info)

*HLA-DPB1

Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... Eiermann TH, Uhl S, Fakler J, Goldmann SF (1992). "A novel HLA-DPB1 sequence, DPB1*2301". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 108-10. doi: ...

*HLA-DOB

Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1994). "Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 interfere with T-cell-dependent B cell differentiation: role of CD4-MHC class II ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...

*Artificial antigen presenting cells

When they encounter foreign pathogens, the antigen presenting cells alert the T cells-"the soldiers of the immune system"-that ... "Nanoscale artificial antigen presenting cells for T cell immunotherapy." Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 10 ... "Particle shape dependence of CD8+ T cell activation by artificial antigen presenting cells." Biomaterials 35, no. 1 (2014): 269 ... CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and stimulate helper T cells (CD4 cells). It is the specific antigen or epitope ...

*Antigen-presenting cell

An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. Dendritic cells have the ...

*Antigen-presenting cell vaccine

An antigen-presenting cell vaccine is a vaccine made of antigens and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Also called APC vaccine. ... Antigen-presenting cell vaccine entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public ...

*Eosinophil

Shi H (2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". J Leukoc Biol. 76 (3): 520-7. doi:10.1189/jlb.0404228. PMID ... can inhibit proliferation of T cells, suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule proteins on IMR-32 nerve cell signaling and survival". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ...

*Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia

Dendritic cells function as antigen-presenting cells. They process antigen material and present it on the surface to other ... In the case of acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia, the blast cells are positive for markers of dendritic cells or monocytes ... the myeloid dendritic cell and the plasmacytoid dendritic cell. Leukemic transformation can occur in any of these two cells, ... The neoplastic dendritic cells are negative for the enzymes myeloperoxidase and esterase. The cells elaborate many cytokines ...

*DC-SIGN

McGreal E, Miller J, Gordon S (2005). "Ligand recognition by antigen-presenting cell C-type lectin receptors". Curr Opin ... "Recognition of tumor glycans by antigen-presenting cells". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18 (1): 105-11. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2005.11.001. ... a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells". Cell. 100 (5): 587-97. doi:10.1016/ ... van den Berg LM, Geijtenbeek TB (2013). "Antiviral immune responses by human langerhans cells and dendritic cells in HIV-1 ...

*HLA-G

McIntire RH, Hunt JS (2005). "Antigen presenting cells and HLA-G--a review". Placenta. 26 Suppl A: S104-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is ... 2002). "HLA-G protein processing and transport to the cell surface". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59 (9): 1460-6. doi:10.1007/s00018- ...

*SEMA4A

Kikutani H, Kumanogoh A (2003). "Semaphorins in interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells". Nat. Rev. Immunol. ... Kumanogoh A, Kikutani H (2004). "Immune semaphorins: a new area of semaphorin research". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 17): 3463-70. doi ... "Class IV semaphorin Sema4A enhances T-cell activation and interacts with Tim-2". Nature. 419 (6907): 629-33. doi:10.1038/ ...

*Primary immunodeficiency

This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine ... natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell ... Normal numbers of B cells with decreased IgG and IgA and increased IgM: Hyper-IgM syndromes Normal numbers of B cells with ...

*Gastrointestinal tract

Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L. (2015-07-01). "Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Key ... Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells, (myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal). The gut has intrinsic peristaltic ... It has been demonstrated that the intake of a high fiber diet could be the responsible for the induction of T-regulatory cells ... Approximately 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 75% of these genes are expressed in at least one of ...

*Phagocyte

... antigen-presenting cells: macrophages and dendritic cells. After engulfment, foreign proteins (the antigens) are broken down ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ... Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells that have long outgrowths called dendrites, that help to engulf ... T cells that bind (via their T cell receptor) to self antigen (presented by dendritic cells on MHC molecules) too strongly are ...

*Mesothelium

Mesothelial cells are capable of phagocytosis and are antigen presenting cells. Furthermore, the secretion of ... The mesothelium is composed of an extensive monolayer of specialized cells (mesothelial cells) that line the body's serous ... Cuboidal mesothelial cells may be found at areas of injury, the milky spots of the omentum, and the peritoneal side of the ... Cancer cells can also metastasize (spread) from their original site to other parts of the body. Most cases of mesothelioma ...

*Cancer vaccine

"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... A tumour can have many cell types of cells, each with different cell-surface antigens. Those cells are derived from each ... Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ... Selection of the appropriate adjuvant to activate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate immune responses, is required. Bacillus ...

*Abatacept

... that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen-presenting cell (APC). That activation requires two signals (one of ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... an antigen presenting cell must present two signals to the T cell. One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex ... and present it to the T cell receptor on the surface of the T cell. For signal 2, the APC must present a B7 protein on its cell ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

... priming them to kill other cells that present the antigen. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian ... These can be either infected cells, or antigen presenting cells (APCs). They are found in normal tissue and in tumor tissue, ... In normal physiology T-cells are activated by two signals: the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell ... Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and ...

*Heat shock protein

"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... Extracellular and membrane bound heat-shock proteins, especially Hsp70 are involved in binding antigens and presenting them to ... Intracellular heat shock proteins are highly expressed in cancerous cells and are essential to the survival of these cell types ... some researchers speculate that HSPs may be involved in binding protein fragments from dead malignant cells and presenting them ...

*HLA-DM

It works in antigen presenting cells like macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. It interacts with major histocompatibility ... "Functional HLA-DM on the surface of B cells and immature dendritic cells". The EMBO Journal. 19 (6): 1241-1251. doi:10.1093/ ... Thus, HLA-DM is necessary for the body to determine which antigens it should mount an immune response to. In the endosomes, HLA ... HLA-DM (human leukocyte antigen DM) is an intracellular protein involved in the immune system, impacting when the immune system ...

*CCL18

... is produced mainly by antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system. These cells include dendritic cells, ... and B-cells (naïve and effector). The T-regulatory cells that CCL18 attracts are not classical T-regulatory cells; these cells ... Neither T-cells nor B-cells are known to produce CCL18. Its production is upregulated in these cells by IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 ... PITPNM3 is a CCL18 receptor, but PITPNM3 is only expressed on breast cancer cells and not on T-cells nor B-cells, and PITPNM3- ...

*Microfold cell

Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. M cells express the protease ... some antigens are able to infiltrate the M cell barrier and infect the nearby epithelial cells or enter the gut. M cells are ... Unlike their neighbor cells, M cells have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via ... is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. M cells lack microvilli but, like other epithelial cells, they are ...

*HLA-DQ

The MHC Class II antigens are found on antigen presenting cells (APC) (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes). ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft versus ... T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells which, in turn recognize a different ...

*B-cell activating factor

"Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells". Biological Chemistry. 380 (12): 1443 ... This cytokine is expressed in B cell lineage cells, and acts as a potent B cell activator. It has been also shown to play an ... This interaction triggers signals essential for the formation and maintenance of B cell, thus it is important for a B-cell ... It is expressed as a membrane-bound type II transmembrane protein on various cell types including monocytes, dendritic cells ...

*Fascin

T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein ... leading to reduced T cell priming. This suggests Treg-mediated suppression of antigen presenting cells is a multi-step process ... and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic cells toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. ... Adams JC (October 2004). "Roles of fascin in cell adhesion and motility". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 16 (5): 590-596. doi ...

*CTL-mediated cytotoxicity

This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen presenting cell. Second, a costimulatory signal is transmitted by ... the interaction between CD28 and B7 of the precursor cell and the licensed antigen presenting cell. Last, a signal is induced ... The CTL precursors include naive Tc cells since they are incapable of killing target cells. After a precursor cell has been ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ...

*Norovirus

... precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva glands. The ABH antigen produced is thought to act as receptors for human ... which contains antigen-presenting sites and carbohydrate-receptor binding regions. The estimated mutation rate (1.21×10−2 to ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... GII.4 includes global epidemic strains and binds to more Histo-blood group antigens than other genogroups. A Japanese study in ...

*Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1

Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor ... 1987). "Complete sequence of the HLA DQ alpha and DQ beta cDNA from a DR5/DQw3 cell line". J. Immunol. 139 (1): 228-33. PMID ... 1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ...
Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8+ T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. ...
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An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation. T cells may recognize these complexes using their T cell receptors (TCRs). These cells process antigens and present them to T-cells. Almost all cell types can serve as some form of APC. They are found in a variety of tissue types. Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while other cell types can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. Antigen presentation allows for ...
Definition of antigen-presenting cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antigen-presenting cell? Meaning of antigen-presenting cell as a finance term. What does antigen-presenting cell mean in finance?
Looking for Antigen-presenting cells? Find out information about Antigen-presenting cells. A morphologically distinct epidermal cell adjacent to, and apparently functionally associated with, guard cells on the leaves of many plants. Explanation of Antigen-presenting cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow cytometry used for the analysis of calcium signaling induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation. AU - Réthi, Bence. AU - Detre, Cynthia. AU - Gogolák, Péter. AU - Kolonics, Attila. AU - Magócsi, Mária. AU - Rajnavölgyi, Éva. PY - 2002/4/1. Y1 - 2002/4/1. N2 - Background: In this study, the effect of antigen-presenting cells (APC), peptide concentration, and CD28 costimulation on calcium signaling, induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation, was studied by flow cytometry. Methods: We used two experimental approaches, which differed in their time scale and in the duration of the T cell-APC interaction, to measure the increase of intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in activated T cells: (1) Fluo-3-loaded T cells were activated by cocentrifugation with peptide-loaded APC and the kinetics of fluorescence intensity changes was monitored continuously and (2) peptide-loaded APC and T cells were mixed, cocultured, and the fluorescence intensity was measured at ...
Interaction between antigen-specific T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) cognate ligand involve reorganization of the cytoskeleton and recruitment of adhesive and signaling molecules to the site of intercellular contact.
Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T...
Recent gene expression studies have suggested that down-regulation of HLA class II expression has a major biological effect reflected in clinical tumor characteristics and outcome. This has been shown for B-cell lymphomas, that naturally express HLA class II on lymphoma cells (8, 22), but also for carcinomas in which HLA class II can be expressed on the antigen-presenting cells within the tumor (24). It is increasingly appreciated that not only HLA class I but also class II is essential for mounting an adequate antitumor immune response. Antigen presentation via HLA class II is indispensable to activate a CD4+ T-cell population that may induce a CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic antitumor response (25, 26) and recruit additional effector cell populations, such as macrophages (26, 27). In carcinomas, an immune-mediated antitumor response is mainly mediated by professional antigen-presenting cells.. In B-cell lymphomas, both professional antigen-presenting cells as well as the tumor B cells may play ...
In atopic individuals, cutaneous antigen-presenting cells (APC), i.e. Langerhans cells (LC) and dermal dendritic cells (DDC), frequently display anti-IgE reactivity. While earlier observations sugges
To mount an immune response, T lymphocytes must successfully search for foreign material bound to the surface of antigen-presenting cells. How T cells optimize their chances of encountering and responding to these antigens is unknown. T cell motility in tissues resembles a random or Levy walk and is regulated in part by external factors including chemokines and lymph-node topology, but motility parameters such as speed and propensity to turn may also be cell intrinsic. Here we found that the unconventional myosin 1g (Myo1g) motor generates membrane tension, enforces cell-intrinsic meandering search, and enhances T-DC interactions during lymph-node surveillance. Increased turning and meandering motility, as opposed to ballistic motility, is enhanced by Myo1g. Myo1g acts as a turning motor and generates a form of cellular flânerie. Modeling and antigen challenges show that these intrinsically programmed elements of motility search are critical for the detection of rare cognate antigen-presenting
Improving the therapeutic efficacy of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) represents an important goal in efforts to control B-cell malignancies. Recently an intrinsic strategy has been developed to modify the CAR itself to improve T-cell signaling. Here we report a second extrinsic approach based on altering the culture milieu to numerically expand CAR+ T cells with a desired phenotype, for the addition of interleukin (IL)-21 to tissue culture improves CAR-dependent T-cell effector functions. We used electrotransfer of Sleeping Beauty system to introduce a CAR transposon and selectively propagate CAR+ T cells on CD19+ artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC). When IL-21 was present, there was preferential numeric expansion of CD19-specific T cells which lysed and produced IFN-γ in response to CD19. Populations of these numerically expanded CAR+ T cells displayed an early memory surface phenotype characterized as CD62L+CD28+ and a transcriptional profile of naïve T cells. In ...
The initial step in the development of an immune response is the recognition of Ag by the professional APCs. At present, three major types of APCs have been described: dendritic cells (DCs),3 macrophages, and B lymphocytes. Discriminatory handling of Ags by APCs occurs at different levels. At the cell surface, APCs are endowed with various endocytic machineries. Macrophages and DCs, in addition to receptor-independent macropinocytosis, have a plethora of surface-expressed receptors through which they capture Ags. In contrast, B lymphocytes are able to endocytose exclusively by Ag-specific, surface-expressed Igs (also known as B cell receptors or BCRs). The fate of the Ag within an APC may vary depending on the cell type. Thus, the content of lysosomal proteases and the amount and distribution of MHC II molecules determine the immunological fate of the endocytosed Ag (11). Indeed, as compared with B lymphocytes and DCs, macrophages have a very high endocytosing capacity, are rich in lysosomal ...
Successful treatment of advanced stage breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. It becomes increasingly clear now that neither cytotoxic therapy nor immunotherapy alone would be able to successfully solve this problem. Chemotherapy frequently fails because of the development of drug resistance (18) , and immunotherapy alone is not able to maintain effective antitumor immune response in the presence of bulky tumor because of the effects of tumor-derived immunosuppressive factors (19) . It appears that only a combination of different modalities may provide the necessary breakthrough in the treatment of this group of patients. In the present study, we have evaluated a potential utility of the combination of chemotherapy with the intratumoral administration of the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, DCs. This approach is based on recent findings that DCs are able to take up apoptotic cells and to process and present antigens associated with these cells (3 , 4 , 6 , 8) . ...
The overall goal of this proposal is to provide the principal investigator (PI) with the experiences and skills necessary to become an independent researcher, w...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
0392] Adams, D. O., and Hamilton, T. A. Molecular transduction mechanism by which IFN-gamma and other signals regulate macrophage development. Immunol. Rev., 22: 5-27, 1987. [0393] Alexander, J., Rayman, P., Edinger, M., Connelly, R., Tubbs, R., Bukowski, R., Pontes, E., Finke, J., TIL from renal-cell carcinoma: Restimulation with tumor influences proliferation and cytolytic activity. Int. J. Cancer 45:119, 1990. [0394] Alexander, M. A., Bennicelli, J., and Guerry, D. Defective antigen presentation by human melanoma cell lines cultured from advanced, but not biologically early disease. J. Immunol., 142: 4070-4078, 1989. [0395] Altmann, D. M., Hogg, N., Trowsdale, J., and Wilkinson, D. Cotransfection of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR reconstitutes human antigen-presenting cell function in mouse L cells. Nature (Lond.). 338: 512-514, 1989. [0396] Anichini, A., Fossati, G., Parmiani, G., Clonal analysis of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to autologous human metastatic melanoma. Int. J. Cancer 25:683, 1985. ...
Cerulenin is an antibiotic that inhibits eukaryotic lipid and sterol synthesis and blocks lipid modification of proteins. The effect of cerulenin on the ability of accessory cells to present antigen to T cells was investigated. This antibiotic strongly inhibits the ability of accessory cells to present antigen to murine T-T hybrids. This effect is observed for multiple distinct antigens including L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10, bovine insulin, L-glutamic acid56-L-lysine35-L-phenylalanine9, and ovalbumen. Presentation by both macrophage and B lymphoblastoid cell lines is inhibited. The ability to effectively pulse these cells with antigen is inhibited but not the ability of these same cells to present antigen that they have previously processed. Furthermore, this inhibition is selective as it can occur without significant inhibition of the antigen-presenting cell protein or DNA synthesis. Cerulenin does not inhibit antigen uptake or catabolism as assessed with labeled antigen. By ...
Trogocytosis (Greek: trogo; gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface. The molecular reorganization occurring at the interface between the lymphocyte and the antigen-presenting cell during conjugation is also called "immunological synapse". First indication for the existence of this process dates back late 70s when several research groups reported on the presence of unexpected molecules such as Major Histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC) on T cells. The notion that membrane fragments, and not isolated molecules, could be captured by T cells on antigen-presenting cells was suggested by the capture of MHC molecules fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in their intracellular portion. The demonstration that membrane fragments were involved in this transfer process came when fluorescent probes incorporated in the plasma membrane of the ...
P>Adenosine is a well-described anti-inflammatory modulator of immune responses within peripheral tissues. Extracellular adenosine accumulates in inflamed and damaged tissues and inhibits the effector functions of various immune cell populations, including CD8 T cells. However, it remains unclear whether extracellular adenosine also regulates the initial activation of naive CD8 T cells by professional and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells, which determines their differentiation into effector or tolerant CD8 T cells, respectively. We show that adenosine inhibited the initial activation of murine naive CD8 T cells after alpha CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation. Adenosine caused inhibition of activation, cytokine production, metabolic activity, proliferation and ultimately effector differentiation of naive CD8 T cells. Remarkably, adenosine interfered efficiently with CD8 T-cell priming by professional antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells) and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells ...
Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. However, the plasticity and diversity of granulocytes have been increasingly revealed, especially with regards to their versatile functions in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC) under pathological or inflammatory conditions. In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes, is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leucocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen
Fusion Proteins, wherein they comprise a specific ligand for an antigen-presenting cell, ligand is selected from CD153, TNF or it region and at least one cell-damaging region selected from GTPase, endotoxin, Vibrio Cholera toxin, protease subtilisin, HLA-B7, CD81, CD86, or microtubule-binding regions of neuronal proteins gephyrin, Tau or MID-1 ...
We apply three-dimensional confocal microscopy and time lapse video-microscopy techniques to visualize molecular dynamics at the immunological synapse (IS). The major contribution of our research team to the field during the last few years has been to contribute to define the biological function of the IS. We propose that the IS has no specific function in T cell activation, on the contrary it is the "manifestation" of the inter-cellular communication occurring during T cell/APC cognate interactions. Our results show that: i) the large-scale molecular clustering and segregation characteristic of a mature IS is not required for productive TCR triggering and for T cell activation (indeed some responses such as cytotoxicity can occur in the absence of mature IS formation); ii) T cells form different types of synapses depending on the strength and quality of antigenic stimulation; iii) synapses can be interrupted and re-formed while T cells add-up the interrupted signals; iv) synapses are not static ...
The study of the ontogeny of skin APCs also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the development and, thus, the phenotype of their precursor cells. In addition, despite considerable research, the relationship among LCs, dermal DCs, and skin macrophages still remains unclear, not least because of the high plasticity of precursors to differentiate into each of these cells in different microenvironments (7, 12, 15). In this study, we show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be phenotypically separated by the distinct expression of the DC marker CD1c on some HLA-DRhigh cells. HLA-DRhigh leukocytes are capable of phagocytosing bacteria, up-regulating costimulatory molecules, and stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro, thus confirming their DC nature. In contrast, HLA-DRlow skin macrophages neither express CD1c nor up-regulate costimulatory molecules during culture. Collectively, these data show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be ...
... cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. insensitive to cellular perturbations and the force-dependent off-rates were indistinguishable for native and recombinant TCRs. These data present novel features of TCRCpMHC kinetics that are regulated by the cellular environment, underscoring the limitations of 3D kinetics in predicting T-cell functions and calling for further elucidation of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate 2D kinetics in physiological settings. and the native proteins Rabbit polyclonal to SZT2 expressed on cell surface, or biomechanical rules by pressure. Our new SPR measurements (3D, recombinant, zero pressure) revealed much faster off-rates than previously reported [29, 30]. This is usually consistent with our 2D measurements with BFP for both the recombinant and the native TCRs at zero pressure. Under tensile causes, both the recombinant and the native ...
Adenosine accumulates to high levels in solid tumors (1-4). A2ARs on antigen-presenting cells and T cells, and A2B receptors on antigen-presenting immune cells are primarily responsible for immunosuppression by adenosine (26, 27). Global deletion or intratumoral blockade of A2BRs delays the growth of lung and bladder carcinoma and breast cancers, consistent with the immunosuppressive roles of these receptors (11). Curiously, global A2AR deletion failed to slow the growth of bladder carcinomas and B16BL6 melanomas (7, 11), but was found to enhance the rejection of CL8-1 cells that were genetically engineered to be highly immunogenic by transfection with H-2Kb (7). These findings, and the results of the current study suggest that A2AR blockade, as a strategy to treat cancer, is more complex than previously thought (9, 10). Although T cells are acutely activated by A2AR deletion, long-term T-cell-mediated solid tumor rejection is compromised, likely as a result of impaired maintenance of T cells ...
Orgcme). 2 PMN as Antigen-presenting Cells 421 Page 463 п422 11 Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils as Antigen-presenting Cells ous TT was sufficient to induce proliferation of TT-specific T cells provided that the PMN had been pre-incubated with IFN-c and GM-CSF.
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Synonyms for accessory cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for accessory cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for accessory cell?
BIOLOGY 206 CHAPTER 22: NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSESS IMMUNITY See flow chart. 5. Pus is a mix of dead or dying WBCs, broken-down ... will never meet its antigen, and never be involved in immune response. C. Antigen-Presenting Cells .... ...
Cells, Dendritic Cells, Patients, Antigen, Cell, Therapeutic, Production, Immunotherapy, Treatment, Antigen-presenting Cells, Blood, Human, Populations, Monocyte, Diseases, T Cells, Syndrome, Cancer, Phenotype, Vaccination
Part 2: Once youve evaluated performance, refer to the four most frequently used leveling methods. by Jim Strafford, CEDC, MCS-P In
Antigen-presenting cell definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The respiratory tract is an attractive target organ for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications with nano-sized carriers, but their immune effects and interactions with key resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in different anatomical compartments remain poorly understood. Polystyrene particles ranging from 20 nm to 1,000 nm were instilled intranasally in BALB/c mice, and their interactions with APC populations in airways, lung parenchyma, and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) were examined after 2 and 24 hours by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In the main conducting airways and lung parenchyma, DC subpopulations preferentially captured 20-nm particles, compared with 1,000-nm particles that were transported to the LDLNs by migratory CD11b(low) DCs and that were observed in close proximity to CD3(+) T cells. Generally, the uptake of particles increased the expression of CD40 and CD86 in all DC populations, independent ...
CD4(+)CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are pivotal for the maintenance of self-tolerance, and their adoptive transfer gives protection from autoimmune diseases and pathogenic alloresponses after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation in murine model systems. In vitro, human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells display phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of murine CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells: namely, hyporesponsiveness to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and suppression of CD25- T cells. Thus far, the detailed characterization and potential clinical application of human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells have been hampered by their paucity in peripheral blood and the lack of appropriate expansion protocols. Here we describe the up to 40 000-fold expansion of highly purified human CD4(+)CD25high T cells in vitro through the use of artificial antigen-presenting cells for repeated stimulation via CD3 and CD28 in the presence of high-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2). Expanded CD4(+)CD25high T cells were ...
The specific eradication of pathogenic T cells for the treatment of allograft rejections and autoimmune disorders without impairment of overall immune function is a fundamental goal. 41.5 times in bm1 mice. Our data reveal that PLGA-based great MPs are able of using up pathogenic Capital t cells particularly, which shows their restorative potential for dealing with allograft being rejected and autoimmune disorders. and conditions credited to the activity of cytotoxic Capital t cells, which can business lead to KAPC exhaustion or undesirable adjustments in cell-cell signaling [14, 15]. To circumvent the restrictions connected with the mobile character of KAPCs, great artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs) possess been founded by covalently coupling the HLA-A2-Ig and anti-Fas IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto cell-sized permanent magnet beans, and had been able of using up antigen-specific Capital t cells [16]. We previously reported that latex bead-based KaAPCs could selectively deplete ...
Mice. B6, OTII, and Apoe-/- mice were obtained from Jackson Labs. Cd11c-YFP+ mice (58) were provided by M. Nussenzweig (Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA). SMARTA transgenic mice were provided by M. von Herrath (LIAI, La Jolla, California, USA). All mice were on C57BL/6 background. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, female and male Apoe-/- and B6 mice were fed WD. After 12 weeks of WD feeding, WD-fed Apoe-/- and B6 mice and age-matched Apoe-/- and B6 mice fed chow diet (CD) were used for flow cytometry. CD11c-YFP+ B6 mice were used for 2-photon microscopy at 8-12 weeks of age. Apoe-/-CD11c-YFP+ mice were fed WD for 12 or 20 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Mice were kept in specific pathogen-free conditions in an AAALAC-approved barrier facility. All mice were genotyped using standard PCR protocols. Aortic single-cell preparations and flow cytometry analysis. Preparation of single-cell suspensions from aortas was done as described previously (55), with some modifications. Briefly, mice ...
Intrahepatic cell-derived, early IL-17 is definitely essential for initiating antigen-presenting cells in virus-like infection; nevertheless, the regulation and source of this IL-17 spike in the liver organ microenvironment are not well described. IL-17F additional uncovered that Lymphotoxin alpha antibody IL-17 signaling was vital for priming Testosterone levels cell replies in virus-like hepatitis. IL-17A oppressed IL-17F release and being injected with 3 109 pfu replication-deficient recombinant Advertisement having the LacZ gene (AdLacZ, bought from Vector Advancement Lab of Baylor University of Medication) as defined previously (25). Rodents had been being injected with 2 106 pfu lymphocytic choriomeningitis trojan (LCMV) Duplicate 13 (a kind present from Dr. Maria Salvato at the School of Baltimore) (37). Titration of LCMV was performed on Vero cell monolayers plated on 24-well plate designs, implemented by the virus-like quantification of immunological concentrate assay (38). The antibody ...
Plural - Dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of activating naïve T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior. The word "dendritic" means "branched like a tree." It comes from the Greek "dendron" (tree). ...
T-bet is a Type-1 transcription factor that regulates the development of Type-1 T cell and Type-1 anti-tumor immunity. T-bet expression in Dendritic Cells (DC) is required for the ability of these antigen-presenting cells (APC) to prime Type-1-polarized T cell responses. Since T-bet is typically expressed by very low frequencies of activated DC (, 1%), we hypothesized that ectopic expression of T-bet as a consequence of recombinant adenovirus (rAd).T-bet transfection would yield a robust population of DC that were capable of (re)polarizing Type-1 anti-tumor T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, human DC engineered to express high levels of T-bet strongly potentiated the development of Type-1 T cells from naïve T cells and concomitantly suppressed Th2 and Regulatory T cell (Treg) development in vitro. Interestingly, the superior Type-1 functionality of DC.Tbet seems to be largely independent of intrinsic Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, as IL-12 neutralizing antibody failed to affect ...
MHC II molecules are transmembrane heterodimeric glycoproteins that play a key role in the immune response cascade. MHC II molecules are expressed exclusively in antigen presenting cells (APC). The primary function of APCs are to ingest, process, and present protein antigens to T-cells to initiate humoral immune response. In this process antigens enter APCs via phagocytosis or endocytosis. Once in the cell they are proteolyzed by endosomes and subsequently bound by MHC II molecules. MHC II transports the antigenic peptide to the surface of the APC, where the peptide MHC II complex fuses to the receptors on CD4+ T-cells, initiating immune response to eliminate the antigen. Expression of MHC II molecules is regulated by a trans-acting multi-protein complex called the MHCII enhanceosome. The MHCII enhanceosome is comprised of four proteins RFX, NFY, CREB, and CIITA. RFX, NFY, and CREB are found in all somatic cells, however the interaction of these three proteins alone does not induce expression of ...
One strategy we are undertaking to advance this work is to characterize the antigen-presenting environment in pre- and post-natal life, with the focus on defining factors that dictate whether exposure to allergen in early life induces T cell sensitization or tolerance. The thinking is that in certain circumstances, T cell sensitization can occur in utero or in early post-natal life and that factors responsible for these circumstances have increased in the past 20 years. It has been proposed that this could explain the increased incidence of asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The challenge for scientists is to identify factors that control this process, with the ultimate goal of developing therapeutic strategies to reverse the progressive increase in disease. Our studies are focused on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages, as they are known to direct the T cell responses to antigen throughout life, presumably including the pre- and post-natal period. In ...
Antigen Background HLA-DR is an MHC Class II antigen that maps to chromosome 6. It is a heterodimer composed of 2 non-covalently associated glycoproteins of about 35 kD (alpha, heavy) and 27 kD (beta, light).Both chains are comprised of two Ig-like domains and have transmembrane sequences and short cytoplasmic tails. It is reported to be expressed mainly on antigen-presenting cells (monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells), B cells and some activated T cells. Expression has also been reported on thymic epithelial cells.. ...
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells critical for the orchestration of immunity and maintenance of self-tolerance. DC development and functions are tightly regulated by
Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the ...
Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the November 2017 issue here.. ...
By Jenny Gartshteyn. Faculty Peer Reviewed. Since the start of vaccination - weve eradicated smallpox and polio, saved college kids from meningitis, averted flu epidemics, and decreased the incidence of HPV-related cervical cancer … but can we teach our immune systems to actively fight existing cancer?. Heres the mechanism for an ideal anti-cancer vaccine:. With the growth and turnover of cancerous cells, cancer-specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) would be recognized and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages - which would …. Read more » ...
Foreign pathogens are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLR), present on various immune cells such as professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs). On recognition of its ligand, these receptors activate pAPCs, which may ...
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD40, a member of the TNFreceptor superfamily. CD40 is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses includ
N7-H4 is a newly identified W7 homolog that plays an important role in maintaining T-cell homeostasis by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and lymphokine-secretion. an inhibitory member of the W7 family of co-regulatory molecules which is usually expressed on antigen-presenting cells as well as on non-immune cells and which interacts with an as yet unidentified receptor(s) on … Continue reading N7-H4 is a newly identified W7 homolog that plays an important. ...
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Antigen presenting cells (APC) are able to process and present to T cells antigens from different origins. This mechanism is highly regulated, in particular by Patter Recognition Receptor (PRR) signals. Here, I detail a protocol designed to assess in vitro the capacity of APC to present antigens derived from bacteria, apoptotic and infected apoptotic cells.
The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. The process starts when antigens, special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as non-self, and signal the cellular warriors of the immune system to kill the invader. Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. It is well established that the key to T cell activation is the molecular signal coming off antigen-presenting cell surfaces. This signal must be enhanced and sustained long enough for the T cells to commit to mounting an immune response, and then must be cut off in time to avoid antigen-induced cell suicide or apoptosis of the T cells ...
Cancer, Bladder, Bladder Cancer, Mannose, Patients, Tumor, Patient, Risk, Risk Factors, Antigen, Antigen-presenting Cells, Antigens, Cancer Vaccines, Cancers, Cells, Chorionic Gonadotropin, Cross-presentation, Early Intervention, Gm-csf, Gonadotropin
Nephrology Times interviewed Deborah Grider, president & CEO of AAPC, on the impact of ICD-10 and how it will affect practices. Grider shared the impor
2 presentations will be held in ICMU2017 - センサ・デバイス・ネットワークが連携し、センサから取り 込まれる実世界データを処理・集約・解析することで、高度なサービスを 効率良くユーザに提供するシステム―ユビキタスコンピューティングシス テム―の実現に向けた研究に取り組んでいます。
Figure 4. pDCs recruited to LNs during EAE establish Ag-specific interactions with CD4+ T cells. (A) WT and pIII+IV−/− mice were injected with CFA and dLNs were harvested after 2 d. dLN sections from untreated and CFA-treated mice were stained with antibodies against PNAd to label HEVs and PDCA-1 to label pDCs. Histograms show the density (percentage of surface) of pDCs in regions situated near to (,20 µm) or distant from (,20 µm) HEVs. Results are representative of three independent experiments. The means and SEM derived from three independent mice per group are shown. ns, not significant; *, P , 0.05; **, P , 0.01. 7-12 confocal images were analyzed for each genotype and region. Representative images are shown. (B) CMTMR-labeled 2D2 CD4+ T cells were adoptively transferred into WT and pIII+IV−/− mice that had been injected 1 d previously with MOG35-55+CFA or CFA alone. dLNs were harvested 1 d after the T cell transfer, and sections were stained with antibodies against PDCA-1. ...
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Antigen presentation is a key rate-limiting step in the immune response. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells for naive T cells, due to their high expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, but little is known about the biochemical pathways that regulate this function. We here demonstrate that monocyte-derived mature DC can be infected with adenovirus at high efficiency (|95%) and that this procedure can be used to dissect out which pathways are essential for inducing DC antigen presentation to naive T cells. Using adenoviral transfer of the endogenous inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, we show that DC antigen presentation is NF-kappaB dependent. The mechanism for this is that NF-kappaB is essential for three aspects of antigen-presenting function: blocking NF-kappaB coordinately down-regulates HLA class II, co-stimulatory molecules like CD80, CD86 and CD40, and immuno-stimulatory cytokines like IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In contrast adhesion molecules
OUTLINE: Peripheral blood and bone marrow samples are collected periodically for laboratory studies. Samples are analyzed to assess the feasibility of expanding autologous B cells ex vivo using CD40L and IL-4; the antigen-presenting phenotype of autologous B-cell antigen-presenting cells (B-APCs) using flow cytometry; and the antigen-presenting function of B-APCs using ELISPOT and chromium-release assay. Myeloma-specific interferon γ secreting T cells are isolated and selected using Miltenyi beads. The selected myeloma-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo using anti CD3/CD28 beads. ...
Genetic factors predicting outcome after elective and emergent social, policy, and ethical from the motor cortex levitra zararlarД± can be very difficult for data collection. Buprenorphine and a metallic stent, the common complications of pregnancy, which in turn increases release of -aminobutyric acid (gaba) at the targets of 6-ht-ergic agents in patients suffering from nonpsychotic anxiety suggested that narcolepsy could be an efficient mitochondrial function, gene transcription, apoptosis, cell proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of lsc apoptosis as determined from the cvlt-sf, a copy of the antigen-presenting cell (apc). Many women experience menstrual cycle (wehr et al. Risk factors predisposing one to make that choice. Bilateral infarction in asymptomatic elderly: The rotterdam study. Autonoetic, or self-knowing awareness, and various proteins associated with chronic liver disease do not happen some magical somewhere in the lungs plays a role in the. Following their release from ...
Allergens and microbial antigens impact on effector cells and antigen-presenting cells in allergic diseases. Allergens bind specifically to immunoglobulin E (IgE) linked to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) and stimulate a cascade of cellular events. This leads to the release of mediators of allergic reactions by effector cells on the one hand and antigen uptake, presentation and T cell priming by antigen-presenting cells on the other hand. In contrast, microbial antigens are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, to which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong ...
The objective of this study was to optimize the in vivo activity of PLP-BPI molecule to suppress EAE in SJL/J mice and evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of PLP-BPI. PLP-BPI is constructed via conjugation of myelin proteolipid protein (PLP139-151) with CD11a237-246-derived peptide (LABL) via a spacer. The hypothesis is that PLP-BPI binds simultaneously to MHC-II and ICAM-1 on the antigen-presenting cell and inhibits the formation of the immunological synapse during T cell and antigen-presenting cell interactions. In this study, the structure of BPI was modified by varying the spacer and was evaluated in the EAE model. Intravenous injections of BPI derivatives inhibited the onset, severity, and incidence of EAE more effectively as well as inducing a lower incidence of anaphylaxis than produced by unmodified PLP-BPI. As anticipated, production of IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine commonly found in elevated levels among MS patients, was significantly lower in Ac-PLP-BPI-PEG6- or ...
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells, crucial for linking innate and immune responses, and have been exploited as therapeutic tools to trigger immunity against tumors or pathogens, or dampen hypersensitivity responses. DCs show a wide capacity to acquire exogenous antigens through different mechanisms, which dictates its immunoregulatory capacity. This chapter focus on the complex role of their highly sialylated cell surface content as modulator of DC endocytosis. In particular it will be presented data that support the evidence that sialylation shortage, while affecting DC maturation, results in opposing effects on macropinocytosis and phagocytosis mechanisms mediated by DCs ...
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) are isolated from the patients own peripheral blood, after which pulsed culture with NKT ligand is carried out at the Cell Processing Center. The product, an autologous cell formulation, is administered intravenously to patients as cellular and tissue-based products. Research on and development of the allogeneic cell products are ongoing which try to differentiate APCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs), etc., and then to activate NKT cells by pulsing them with NKT ligand. ...
Dendritic cells, the security cameras of the immune system, derive their name from their finger-like projections. They continually capture external proteins, digest the proteins into fragments, and display those fragments on their surfaces. T cells, the police who watch the cameras, have the ability to examine the fragments on the dendritic cells surfaces and sound the alarm to the rest of the immune system if they determine that those fragments are dangerous. Although other kinds of cells also have the ability to present fragments of foreign proteins to the immune system, dendritic cells are the most proficient, and immunologists call them "professional" antigen-presenting cells ...
Dupuy dangeac, A; Reme, T; Pla, M; and Colombani, J, "Accessory function of a small radioresistant spleen cell population in the generation of t-cell-mediated cytotoxicity." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2379 ...
T-cell responses are induced by antigen presenting cells (APC) and signals from the microenvironment. Antigen persistence and inflammatory microenvironments in chronic infections and cancer can induce a tolerant state in T-cells resulting in hyporesponsiveness, loss of effector function, and weak biochemical signaling patterns in response to antigen stimulation. Although the mechanisms of T-cell tolerance induced in chronic infection and cancer may differ from those involved in tolerance to self-antigen, the impaired proliferation and production of IL-2 in response to antigen stimulation are hallmarks of all tolerant T cells. In this review, we will summarize the evidence that the immune responses change from non-self to "self"-like in chronic infection and cancer, and will provide an overview of strategies for re-balancing the immune response of antigen-specific T cells in chronic infection and cancer without affecting the homeostasis of the immune system ...
As noted in an earlier blog, GVAX is a kind of vaccine that appears to work by enhancing "granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor" (GM-CSF) which in turn enhances white blood cells including monocytes that can somewhat freely move and have the ability to transform into so-called "professional" antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells - which […]. ...
Author(s): Krummel, Matthew F.; Cahalan, Michael D. | Abstract: The immunological synapse (IS) as a concept has evolved from a static view of the junction between T cells and their antigen-presenting cell partners. The entire process of IS formation and extinction is now known to entail a dynamic reorganization of membrane domains and proteins within and adjacent to those domains. The entire process is also intricately tied to the motility machinery-both as that machinery directs
In the lung several cell types are capable of presenting antigen to T cells. The dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cell. DC form a rare cell population in the lung and early...
A key to developing effective immunotherapeutics is an understanding of the mechanisms of immune cell activation, proliferation, and regulation. To defend against infection or disease, activated immune cells, such as Tlymphocytes, undergo rapid expansion during an immune response. Multiple interactions also occur between activated immune cells that are critical for regulation of the immune response (for instance, T cell interactions among themselves and also with antigen-presenting cells). Translate discovery research into clinical success with the IncuCyte® and Intellicyt® cell analysis platforms, delivering the necessary level of complexity in your cell analyses.. ...
Dendritic cells are cells whose role it is to process antigens and "present" them to T cells, which are a type of immune cell. Macrophages are another type of immune cell - namely, large white blood cells whose main role is to rid our bodies of debris and toxic substances.. The cell culture results - which the researchers then verified in mouse models - showed that once PVS-RIPO infects the dendritic cells, these cells "tell" T cells to start the immune attack.. Once started, this process seems to be continuously successful. The cancer cells continue to be vulnerable to the immune systems attack over a longer period of time, which appears to stop the tumor from regrowing.. As Prof. Nair explains, "Not only is poliovirus killing tumor cells, it is also infecting the antigen-presenting cells, which allows them to function in such a way that they can now raise a T cell response that can recognize and infiltrate a tumor." ...
In this review, the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, activated during early and late events of T-cell activation will be discussed. Studies have demonstrated that these fatty acids alter plasma membrane micro-organization (lipid rafts) at the immunological synapse, the site where T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC) form a physical contact for antigen initiated T-cell signaling. In addition, the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium signaling, and nuclear translocation/activation of transcriptional factors, can be modulated by n-3 PUFA ...
Description - Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a heterodimeric cytokine and a relatively new member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, plays an important role in the regulation of Th1 responses. IL-27 consists of two subunits, an EBV-transformed gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p28 cytokine subunit. IL-27 activity is mediated by binding to its receptor, IL-27R, comprised of WSX-1 and gp130. Several immune cells co-express both subunits of the IL-27 receptor. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells upon antigen activation. IL-27 potently induces the proliferation of naive T cells, and synergistically with IL-12 stimulates the production of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells ...
Over the past 20 years, the discovery that keratinocytes are immunologically active cells has reinforced the concept that the skin is an active immune organ.1 It is clear that the epidermis can function as an immunologic tissue. This is critically important to its function as a barrier to external toxins and microbes. Moreover, recent findings on the roles of antimicrobial peptides, Toll-like receptors, antigen-presenting cells, regulatory T (Treg), and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper ..................More ...
|p|Human B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are white blood cells that play key roles in adaptive immune responses. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies, and are also classified as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). In ad
|p|Human B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are white blood cells that play key roles in adaptive immune responses. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies, and are also classified as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). In ad
Synthetic antigen-encoding mRNA is increasingly exploited as a tool for delivery of genetic information of complete antigens into professional antigen presenting dendritic cells for HLA...
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A successful T cell immune response has two major products: effector T cells which directly or indirectly remove the antigens, and memory T cells, which allow a faster and more efficient recall response when challenged by related antigens. An important issue is whether costimulatory molecules on the antigen-presenting cells are involved in determining whether T cells will differentiate into effector or memory cells after antigenic stimulation. To address this issue, we have produced mice with targeted mutations of either the heat-stable antigen (HSA), or both HSA and CD28. We show that CD28/B7 and HSA provide two alternative costimulatory pathways for induction of immunological memory to influenza virus. Furthermore, our results revealed that B7 is essential for the generation of effector T cells from either naive or memory T cells, while HSA is not necessary for the generation of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that the induction of memory T cells and effector T cells can utilize ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human peripheral blood dendritic cells and monocyte subsets display similar chemokine receptor expression profiles with differential migratory responses. AU - Cravens, P. D.. AU - Hayashida, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Nanki, T.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Human antigen presenting cells (APC) found in peripheral blood are considered to be precursors that have been released from the bone marrow and are in transit to the peripheral tissues. These APC populations include myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and monocytes (Mo). To assign specialized functional roles and stages of development for APCs, CD33 expressing APC subsets were examined for their capacity to respond to chemokines. Three major CD33+ subsets including CD33brightCD14 bright Mo, CD33brightCD14- CD11c+ mDC and CD33dimCD14- pDC were present. Dendritic cells subsets and Mo expressed low levels of CC and CXC receptors, but distinctive chemokine receptor expression profiles were ...
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
Professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes, are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of immunity. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the few human viruses that primarily targets these APC for infection, altering their cytokine profiles, manipulating their surface expression of MHC molecules and altering their ability to activate HHV-8 specific T cells. This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic HHV-8 infection. However, both complete and abortive virus replication cycles in APC could directly affect viral pathogenesis and progression to Kaposis sarcoma (KS) and HHV-8 associated B cell cancers. In this review, we discuss the effects of HHV-8 infection on professional APC and their relationship to the development of KS and B cell lymphomas.
In this suspension, the oocysts are not evenly distributed unless it is mixed thoroughly. If, in addition to this, the dose is reduced, the chance that the chicks will receive all the oocysts of every species decreases exponentially.. A vaccine does not have to be distributed throughout the body and the vaccine components (antigen and adjuvant) do not act directly on the pathogen. In general, the activity of vaccines starts with a rapid and local innate response depending on the route of administration. Usually vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry are administered orally, thus the first innate immune response takes place in the gut. As a result of this first phase, antigen-presenting cells are activated (dendritic cells and/or macrophages) that are responsible for processing the antigen and carrying it to Peyer patches where they activate specific T lymphocytes, thereby starting the acquired immune response. As Eimeria is an intracellular parasite, the acquired immunity needed is of the ...
Spatial organization of signaling complexes is a defining characteristic of the immunological synapse (IS), but its impact on cell communication is unclear. In T cell-APC pairs, more IL-2 is produced when CD28 clusters are segregated from central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC)-localized CD3 and into the IS periphery. However, it is not clear in these cellular experiments whether the increased IL-2 is driven by the pattern itself or by upstream events that precipitate the patterns. In this article, we recapitulate key features of physiological synapses using planar costimulation arrays containing antibodies against CD3 and CD28, surrounded by ICAM-1, created by combining multiple rounds of microcontact printing on a single surface. Naïve T cells traverse these arrays, stopping at features of anti-CD3 antibodies and forming a stable synapse. We directly demonstrate that presenting anti-CD28 in the cell periphery, surrounding an anti-CD3 feature, enhances IL-2 secretion by naïve CD4(+) T cells
A diverse array of adipose tissue leukocytes is known to impact metabolic disease, yet we have a limited understanding of how leukocytes communicate within fat. Here, we show that ATMs from visceral fat meet the functional definition of APCs. ATMs process and present antigen on MHC II molecules, express T-cell costimulatory molecules, induce antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, and provide accessory signals to promote the polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells into IFN-γ-producing Th1 effector cells. All of these functions were enhanced after dietary obesity due in part to the specific activation of Ciita via a DC/macrophage-specific promoter in ATMs. These data combined with the microscopic evidence of direct ATM-T-cell contact in fat support the concept that ATMs help coordinate an adaptive response to obesity by modulating T-cell activation in fat.. Our data indicate that the capacity for T-cell stimulation is an intrinsic feature of ATMs in lean mice. This provides a system whereby ...
In mammals, DCs are widely accepted as the most potent and versatile APC due to their ability to prime naïve T cells both in vitro and in vivo (26). This reputation as professional APCs derives from early studies in which DC-enriched populations were shown to be powerful stimulators of the mixed leukocyte reaction and in a number of antigen-specific T-helper responses (6). To enable similar functional assays in the zebrafish, we sought to develop assays to test APC function. We therefore performed immunization studies in adult lck:eGFP transgenic zebrafish using keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a well-known soluble protein that promotes a polyclonal T-cell response in both mammals and teleosts (27, 28). As previously demonstrated, the zebrafish leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (lck) gene promoter drives GFP expression in T lymphocytes, making this transgenic line an ideal source to isolate KLH-primed T cells (TKLH) after immunization (29). We immunized lck:eGFP animals by i.p. ...
It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented by the MHC-II molecule is therefore important for understanding the activation of T helper cells and can be used to identify T-cell epitopes. We here present updated versions of two MHC-II-peptide binding affinity prediction methods, NetMHCII and NetMHCIIpan. These were constructed using an extended data set of quantitative MHC-peptide binding affinity data obtained from the Immune Epitope Database covering HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP and H-2 mouse molecules. We show that training with this extended data set improved the performance for peptide binding predictions for both methods. Both methods are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. PMID: ...
In mammals, the classical B7 molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), bind the structurally related glycoproteins CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152), generating costimulatory signals that regulate the activation state of T cells. A recently identified human CD28-like protein, ICOS, also induces costimulatory signals in T cells when crosslinked with antibodies, but it is unclear whether ICOS is part of a B7-mediated regulatory pathway of previously unsuspected complexity, or whether it functions independently and in parallel. Here, we report that, rather than binding B7-1 or B7-2, ICOS binds a new B7-related molecule of previously unknown function that we call LICOS (for ligand of ICOS). At 37 degrees C, LICOS binds only to ICOS but, at lower, non-physiological temperatures, it also binds weakly to CD28 and CTLA-4. Sequence comparisons suggest that LICOS is the homologue of a molecule expressed by avian macrophages and of a murine protein whose expression is induced in non
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. Pathogen engulfment activates professional APCs, causing the cells to migrate to lymph nodes where they encounter T cells. They display these antigens on their cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptors. T cell receptor complexes recognize these antigen-MHC complexes and other necessary stimulatory macromolecules, inducing them to promote the appropriate immunological responses. Dendritic cells, one major class of professional APC, reside in tissues exposed to the external environment and represent the first line of defense against invading pathogenic organisms. Derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells, dendritic cells only differentiate and mature after contact with an antigen. Additional professional APC classes include macrophages and B cells, whereas fibroblasts and certain epithelial cell subtypes become non-professional APCs under the appropriate conditions. A full description of ...
CELLULAR CHOLESTEROL REGULATION OF HIV-1 TRAFFICKING DURING MACROPHAGE-MEDIATED TRANS INFECTION Abstract: Professional antigen presenting cells (APC: myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ); B lymphocytes) mediate highly efficient HIV-1 infectio...
Human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide that is produced at epithelial surfaces. This molecule kills certain microbes as a component of innate defense mechanisms. HBD-3 also has chemotactic properties as well as the ability to activate antigen-presenting cells. One component of my research is centered on understanding how hBD-3 interacts with antigen-presenting cells and how it may serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive defense mechanisms.. Another project centers on the cytokine, interleukin-7 (IL-7). IL-7 is a critical cytokine in T cell homeostasis and survival. Recent clinical trials suggest that administration of IL-7 in HIV-infected persons can boost T cell reconstitution. We are investigating IL-7 responsiveness in HIV disease and also the effects of IL-7 on T cell function.. Additional projects in my lab include studies of HIV pathogenesis and immune dysfunction, immune reconstitution in HIV disease and IL-7 delivery.. ...
Results The clonal repertoire of iNKT cells in healthy controls shows a broad distribution with regard to iNKT receptor affinity for CD1d. In contrast, the repertoire is highly significantly shifted towards lower-affinity iNKT clones in age-matched early RA. This shift correlates with DAS28. Analysis of untreated vs treated early RA patients shows that the iNKT repertoire is "restored to normal" in the DMARD group, and this correlates with DAS28. CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells was not different between groups. iNKT cells in all early RA patients exhibited a bias in cytokine secretion towards Th1 cytokines, independent of CD1 antigen processing.. ...
Presentation of a protein antigen to T cells is believed to follow its intracellular breakdown by the antigen-presenting cell, with the fragments constituting the trigger of immune recognition. It should then be expected that T-cell recognition of protein antigens in vitro will be independent of protein conformation. Three T-cell lines were made by passage in vitro with native lysozyme of T cells from two mouse strains (B10.BR and DBA/1) that had been primed with the same protein. These cell lines responded well to native lysozyme and very poorly to unfolded (S-sulphopropyl) lysozyme. The response of the T-cell lines to the antigen was major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted. A line from B10.BR was selected for further studies. This line responded to the three surface-simulation synthetic sites of lysozyme (representing the discontinuous antigenic, i.e. antibody binding, sites) and analogues that were extended to a uniform size by a nonsense sequence. T-cell clones prepared from this ...
Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). In CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the immunological synapse is thought to facilitate specific killing by confining cytotoxic agents to the synaptic cleft. We have investigated the interaction of human CTLs and helper T cells with supported planar bilayers containing ICAM-1. This artificial substrate provides identical ligands to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, allowing a quantitative comparison. We found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes form a ring junction similar to a pSMAC in response to high surface densities of ICAM-1 in the planar bilayer. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D, facilitated the ring junction formation at lower surface densities of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 and MICA are upregulated in tissues by inflammation- and stress-associated signaling,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I presentation by examining a special feature of professional APC, namely their ability to process exogenous forms of antigen for class I presentation. Incubation of highly purified bone marrow-derived precursor cells with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) led to the efficient presentation of the major class I-restricted OVA determinant by mature dendritic cells (DC), but not by macrophages (MΦ) derived from the precursor population. DC as well as macrophages were, however, able to mediate class II presentation of OVA, suggesting ...
Type 1 diabetes is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated autoimmune disease mediated by beta-cell-specific T-cells and characterized by circulating autoantibodies to beta-cell molecules. In the BB/Wor diabetes-prone (DP) rat, type 1 diabetes develops spontaneously with an incidence of |90%. BB diabetes can be adoptively transferred to naive syngeneic or MHC class II-compatible rats with islet cell-activated T-cell lines derived from diabetic BB/Wor rats. However, the target beta-cell autoantigen(s) in BB diabetes has not yet been defined. BB rat T-cell lines activated in vitro with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and BB islet cell crude membranes (CM), but not islet cell cytosol, adoptively transfer diabetes into young DP recipients. To determine if the target autoantigen is an integral or peripheral membrane protein, islet cell CM were treated with 0.5 mol/l KCl or 0.2 mol/l Na2CO3 (pH 11). Both treatments selectively extract peripheral proteins from the cell membrane without
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is responsible for presenting antigens (epitopes) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When pathogen-derived epitopes are presented by MHC class II on an APC surface, T cells may be able to trigger an specific immune response. Prediction of MHC-II epitopes is particularly challenging because the open binding cleft of the MHC-II molecule allows epitopes to bind beyond the peptide binding groove; therefore, the molecule is capable of accommodating peptides of variable length. Among the methods proposed to predict MHC-II epitopes, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) are the most effective methods. We propose a novel classification algorithm to predict MHC-II called sparse representation via 1-minimization. Results: We obtained a collection of experimentally confirmed MHC-II epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and applied our 1-minimization algorithm. To benchmark the

The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...

Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a more ... Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype ... The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8+ T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells ... we tested the T-cell expansion efficiency of a new artificial antigen-presenting cell-based system. ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/93/10/1523

HON Allergy Glossary Antigen-presenting cell (APC)HON Allergy Glossary Antigen-presenting cell (APC)

A specialized type of cell, bearing cell surface class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, involved in ... processing and presentation of antigen to inducer, or helper. ... Antigen-presenting cell, Accessory Cells T lymphocytes are part ... Examples of Antigen-processing cells include: * Macrophages These are large white blood cells that ingest antigens and other ... Dendritic Cell (DC) Follicular Dendritic Cell (FDC) Dendritic cells are the principle APC involved in primary immune responses ...
more infohttp://www.hon.ch/Library/Theme/Allergy/Glossary/apc.html

Dendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell - QIAGENDendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell - QIAGEN

Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. Pathogen engulfment activates ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/es/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/dendritic-and-antigen-presenting-cell/

Dendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell - QIAGENDendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell - QIAGEN

Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. Pathogen engulfment activates ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/no/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/dendritic-and-antigen-presenting-cell/

Antigen Presenting Cell BiologyAntigen Presenting Cell Biology

... welcomes high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen presenting cells (APCs), ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology is devoted to the publication of high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology welcomes submissions of the following article types: Case Report, Classification, Clinical ... All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Antigen Presenting Cell Biology, where they are peer-reviewed by the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology/sections/antigen-presenting-cell-biology

Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish | PNASIdentification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish | PNAS

Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/36/15850?ijkey=7768301598d8debd1a90e49e03fe35d209afe7f5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Medical Xpress - antigen-presenting cellsMedical Xpress - antigen-presenting cells

Antigen-presenting cell activates T cells by alerting them to the presence of tumors. Using advanced imaging technology that ... antigen-presenting cells play an important role. They emerge from white blood cells (monocytes) that circulate in the blood. An ... How do T cells, the beat cops of the immune system, detect signs of disease without the benefit of eyes? Like most cells, they ... Infiltrating self-defense cells provoke kidney failure in a chronic autoimmune disease. The crucial role of dendritic cells in ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/antigen-presenting+cells/

Antigen-presenting cell - WikipediaAntigen-presenting cell - Wikipedia

An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. Dendritic cells have the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen-presenting_cell

ASMscience | Antigen-Presenting CellASMscience | Antigen-Presenting Cell

... unlike the recombinant genes generated in somatic cells, which determine clonotypic recognition by T and B lymphocytes in the ... This chapter discusses selected scavenger and lectinlike antigen-presenting cell (APC) receptors in relation to innate immunity ... Chapter 15 : Antigen-Presenting Cell Receptors and Innate Immunity: Diversity, Recognition, and Responses Author: Siamon Gordon ... Antigen-Presenting Cell Receptors and Innate Immunity: Diversity, Recognition, and Responses, p 287-299. In Kaufmann S, ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817671.chap15

Analysis of neonatal T cell and antigen presenting cell functions.  - PubMed - NCBIAnalysis of neonatal T cell and antigen presenting cell functions. - PubMed - NCBI

Analysis of neonatal T cell and antigen presenting cell functions.. Trivedi HN1, HayGlass KT, Gangur V, Allardice JG, Embree JE ... The extent to which deficiencies in T cell or antigen presenting cell (APC) function underlie hyporesponsiveness is ... The data argue; (i) T cells are largely immunocompetent at birth, (ii) accessory cell function is not fully mature, and (iii) ... Irradiated neonatal cells consistently stimulated similar proliferative but substantially lower IFN gamma responses than did ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9438198?dopt=Abstract

Antigen-presenting cell vaccine - WikipediaAntigen-presenting cell vaccine - Wikipedia

An antigen-presenting cell vaccine is a vaccine made of antigens and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Also called APC vaccine. ... Antigen-presenting cell vaccine entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen-presenting_cell_vaccine

Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.  - PubMed - NCBIAntigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. - PubMed - NCBI

These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some keratinocytes and endothelial cells ... Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.. ElHassan AM1, Gaafar A, Theander TG. ... and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC, ... We believe these cells translocate from the epidermis to the dermis, where they take up antigen and migrate to the paracortex ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7882568

Frontiers | Professional antigen presenting cells in human herpesvirus 8 infection | ImmunologyFrontiers | Professional antigen presenting cells in human herpesvirus 8 infection | Immunology

This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00427/full

Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells | Springer for Research & DevelopmentTolerogenic antigen-presenting cells | Springer for Research & Development

Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases ... that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T... ... Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. Regulation of the immune response by TGF-β-treated antigen-presenting cells ... by antigen-specific autoreactive T cells. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-treated antigen-presenting cells induce a very ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1385/IR%3A30%3A2%3A155

Professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and MHC II complexes (video) |
Khan AcademyProfessional antigen presenting cells (APC) and MHC II complexes (video) | Khan Academy

... are immune cells that specialize in presenting an antigen to a T-cell. The main types of professional APCs are dendritic cells ... DC), macrophages, and B cells. A professional APC takes up an antigen, processes it, and returns part of it to its surface, ... along with a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The T-cell is activated when it interacts with the formed complex ...
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/immunology/v/professional-antigen-presenting-cells-apc-and-mhc-ii-complexes

Antigen Presenting Cell (APC): Structure and FunctionAntigen Presenting Cell (APC): Structure and Function

... www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/the-role-of-the-antigen-presenting-cell-biology-essay.php?vref=1 ,title=Antigen Presenting Cell ... Antigen presenting cells (APC) are some of the cells that form part of these mechanisms. This essay will look at what APCs are ... ve Tc cells which inspect the cells. Tc cells detect foreign peptides bound to an MHC so if a cell has been invaded by a virus ... "Antigen Presenting Cell (APC): Structure and Function." All Answers Ltd. ukessays.com, November 2018. Web. 23 March 2019. , ...
more infohttps://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/the-role-of-the-antigen-presenting-cell-biology-essay.php

Airway Eosinophils: Allergic Inflammation Recruited Professional Antigen-Presenting Cells | The Journal of ImmunologyAirway Eosinophils: Allergic Inflammation Recruited Professional Antigen-Presenting Cells | The Journal of Immunology

Eosinophil as antigen-presenting cell: activation of T cell clones and T cell hybridoma by eosinophils after antigen processing ... 5⇓D) images confirmed the intimate cell-cell interactions of OVA-presenting eosinophil APCs with OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ... dendritic cells and antigen-specific CD4 T cells after subcutaneous injection of antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 2247-2252. ... demonstrating intimate cell-cell interactions between blue/green OVA-presenting eosinophils and red OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/179/11/7585

Antigen-presenting cell financial definition of antigen-presenting cellAntigen-presenting cell financial definition of antigen-presenting cell

What is antigen-presenting cell? Meaning of antigen-presenting cell as a finance term. What does antigen-presenting cell mean ... Definition of antigen-presenting cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to antigen-presenting cell: dendritic cell, T cell cell. an independent team of operatives who work together in a ... Antigen-presenting cell financial definition of antigen-presenting cell https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
more infohttp://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/antigen-presenting+cell

Corneal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Diversity, Plasticity, and Disguise The Cogan LectureCorneal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Diversity, Plasticity, and Disguise The Cogan Lecture

"Corneal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Diversity, Plasticity, and Disguise The Cogan Lecture." Investigative Opthalmology & Visual ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/34388131

Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and job with AbbVie | 1872027Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and job with AbbVie | 1872027

Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and in Clinical with AbbVie. Apply Today. ... Working knowledge of antigen presenting cells and T cell based in vitro and in vivo differentiation and cell proliferation ... Fine tuning the immune inhibitory receptor signal on antigen presenting cells to induce immune tolerance during inflammation: ... past decade using mouse model of colitis and human IBD samples have established the central role for antigen presenting cells ...
more infohttps://www.biospace.com/job/1872027/postdoc-postdoctoral-fellow-targeting-immunoregulatory-signals-in-antigen-presenting-cells-and/

Prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease by Inactivation of Host Antigen-Presenting Cells | SciencePrevention of Graft Versus Host Disease by Inactivation of Host Antigen-Presenting Cells | Science

... despite the presence of numerous donor antigen-presenting cells, only host-derived antigen-presenting cells initiated graft ... Prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease by Inactivation of Host Antigen-Presenting Cells ... Prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease by Inactivation of Host Antigen-Presenting Cells ... Prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease by Inactivation of Host Antigen-Presenting Cells ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/285/5426/412.long

Computer-aided prediction of antigen presenting cell modulators for designing peptide-based vaccine adjuvants | SpringerLinkComputer-aided prediction of antigen presenting cell modulators for designing peptide-based vaccine adjuvants | SpringerLink

Since these peptides activate APCs, we call these peptides as A-cell epitopes (antigen presenting cell epitopes). The A-cell ... Immunomodulatory peptide Antigen presenting cells A-cell epitopes Support vector machine Adjuvants ... expressed on major immune cells like activated T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, macrophages and epithelial cells. With two major ... playing important roles especially in the antigen presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells, macrophages, etc. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12967-018-1560-1

Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T job with AbbVie | 1886234Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T job with AbbVie | 1886234

Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T in Clinical with AbbVie. Apply Today. ... Working knowledge of antigen presenting cells and T cell based in vitro and in vivo differentiation and cell proliferation ... Fine tuning the immune inhibitory receptor signal on antigen presenting cells to induce immune tolerance during inflammation: ... Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T. ...
more infohttps://www.biospace.com/job/1886234/postdoc-postdoctoral-fellow-targeting-immunoregulatory-signals-in-antigen-presenting-cells-and-t/

Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral...Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral...

The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells ... c) Dose-dependent killing of target cells using different antigen formats. OKT3-stimulated CD8+ T cells from a CMV- donor were ... Cells and Cell Lines. The human erythromyeloblastoid leukaemia cell line K562 stably transfected with human (referred to as ... K562-A2 cells were electroporated with luc2 IVT RNA. 20 h later, half of the cells were loaded with pp65 antigen pool and pp65 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/9540975/

The Presentation of Processed, Ia Restricted, T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces | SpringerLinkThe Presentation of Processed, Ia Restricted, T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces | SpringerLink

The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell ( ... The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell ( ... T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces. In: David C.S. (eds) H-2 Antigens. NATO ASI Series (Series A: ... The Presentation of Processed, Ia Restricted, T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0764-9_48
  • This can potentially reduce the cost while allowing control over generating large numbers of functional pathogen-specific T cells for therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two complexes provide two different pathways of antigen presentation that stimulates different population of T cells to eliminate the invading pathogen concerned. (ukessays.com)
  • In mammals, dendritic cells (DCs) form the key link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these studies suggest that the cellular constituents responsible for antigen presentation are remarkably conserved from teleosts to mammals, and indicate that the zebrafish may serve as a unique model to study the origin of APC subsets and their evolutionary role as the link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (pnas.org)
  • Antigen presenting cells, part of the innate immune system, play a central role in initiating and modulating the adaptive immune response. (tcd.ie)
  • We also found that CD45 + HLA-DR high CD1c + dendritic cells (DCs) are already present in the epidermis and dermis at 9 wk estimated gestational age (EGA) and that transforming growth factor β1 production precedes Langerin and CD1a expression on CD45 + CD1c + Langerhans cell (LC) precursors. (rupress.org)
  • During skin development, LC, dermal DC, and macrophage precursors are believed to colonize the embryonic skin, showing a primitive surface marker pattern that subsequently develops into the profile of resident cells found in adult skin ( 16 , 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the adaptive immune cell activation by a coordination of antigen presentation to the naïve adaptive immune cell with the release of cytokine milieu mediated by PRR activation. (springer.com)
  • The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response that maintains the fidelity of the cellular proteome in conditions that subvert the folding capacity of the cell, such as those noticed in infection and inflammatory contexts. (nih.gov)
  • In times of rapidly increasing numbers of immunological approaches entering the clinics, antigen delivery becomes a pivotal process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The skin is a highly active immunological organ that contains a multitude of specialized immune cells. (rupress.org)
  • Their focus is on events unfolding in the outside environment so can present samples of antigens derived from exogenous antigens in various parts of the body. (ukessays.com)
  • Evidence of two functionally and phenotypically distinct T-suppressor cell populations. (springer.com)
  • aAPCs are synthetic versions of these sentinel cells and are made by attaching the specific T-cell stimulating signals to various macro and micro biocompatible surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Evidence that an antigen-specific, ACAID-inducing, cell-associated signal exists in the peripheral blood. (springer.com)
  • At present, a large number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from different blood donors is required to be used as feeders/stimulators for the rapid-expansion protocol (REP). (herlevhospital.dk)
  • Louise Elliott, 'The characterisation of peripheral blood and intestinal antigen presenting cells in coeliac disease', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (tcd.ie)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-treated antigen-presenting cells induce a very potent form of tolerance in mice. (springer.com)
  • Eye-derived cells participate in generating blood-borne signals that induce ACAID. (springer.com)
  • Project hypothesizes that the activation of β-catenin pathway during naïve CD4 + T cell differentiation promote Treg and induce strong immune tolerance and suppress auto-immune pathologies. (biospace.com)
  • A dataset of experimentally validated A-cell epitopes was collected and compiled from various resources. (springer.com)
  • To predict A-cell epitopes, we developed support vector machine-based machine learning models using different sequence-based features. (springer.com)
  • Its recognition by a panel of 12 Vα14-positive and -negative CD1-specific αβ T cell hybridomas was blocked by two groups of mAbs that bound to adjacent clusters of epitopes, indicating that different αβ TCRs bind to the same region of CD1.1, presumably above the groove. (jimmunol.org)
  • Five mAbs that blocked CD1.1 recognition by all members of a panel of 12 CD1-specific T cell hybrids delineated two adjacent clusters of CD1.1 epitopes, presumably centered around the groove. (jimmunol.org)
  • Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic HHV-8 infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the effects of HHV-8 infection on professional APC and their relationship to the development of KS and B cell lymphomas. (frontiersin.org)
  • During inflammation and infection, "inflammatory" Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) 3 active at mucosal sites may derive from Gr1 + monocytes ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Typically in a viral infection, the virus enters the cell and uses the cells own biosynthetic machinery to produce proteins encoded by viral genes (Wagner et al, 2004). (ukessays.com)
  • Upon bacterial infection, Ito cells elicited antigen-specific T cells and mediated protection. (nih.gov)
  • The cellular interactions leading to a specific immune response following the encounter with an antigen may be different in a primary and a secondary response. (springer.com)
  • To further our understanding of the T cells decision, we formulated a hypothesis suggesting that the specific type of antigen presenting cell (APC) involved in the initial encounter with the antigen plays an important role in the generation of the CD4 T cell memory pool. (umsystem.edu)
  • However, for an antigen to be recognised by a T-lymphocyte, it must be first processed and "presented" in a form the antigen can recognise. (hon.ch)
  • K.L. Rock and B. Benacerraf, Inhibition of antigen-specific T lymphocyte activation by structurally related Ir gene controlled polymers, J. Exp. (springer.com)
  • i) T cells are largely immunocompetent at birth, (ii) accessory cell function is not fully mature, and (iii) the widely observed hyporesponsiveness to pathogenes may be primarily due to immaturity of APC function or costimulator molecule expression. (nih.gov)
  • This is the molecule which is loaded with the specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanoparticles are able to be transported through the porous extracellular matrix much easier and reach the lymph nodes where the T cells reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Airway DCs can capture inhaled Ag, migrate to regional paratracheal lymph nodes (pLNs), and present Ag to naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Signal 3 is the APC secretion of stimulatory cytokines such as IL-2 which enhances T cell stimulation, though this is not required for T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse CD1.1 is an MHC class I-like, non-MHC-encoded, surface glycoprotein that can be recognized by T cells, in particular NK1.1 + T cells, a subset of αβ T cells with semiinvariant TCRs that promptly releases potent cytokines such as IL-4 and IFN-γ upon stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Antigen Presenting Cell Biology, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enzymes in the APC break down the antigen into smaller fragments. (hon.ch)
  • Traditionally, functions of eosinophils focused singularly on their roles as end-stage "effector" cells, e.g., releasing their four granule cationic proteins and generating paracrine mediators of inflammation, including eicosanoids. (jimmunol.org)
  • With the increasing prevalence of asthma and related allergic disorders ( 9 ), attention has focused on cells that mediate or modulate ongoing Ag-dependent allergic airways inflammation in response to inhaled Ags. (jimmunol.org)