Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/3832)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (2/3832)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

CD40-activated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for tumor immunotherapy: stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells generates different types of effector cells. (3/3832)

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8(+) cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4(+), Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.  (+info)

Autoreactive human T cell lines recognizing ribosomal protein L7. (4/3832)

Sera of patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently contain oligoclonal IgG autoantibodies with high affinity for the ribosomal protein L7 (rpL7). The humoral autoimmune response to rpL7 apparently is driven by antigen and T cell dependent. In order to analyze the T cell response to rpL7 we cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals and SLE patients in the presence of recombinant rpL7. After 10 days, the cytokine response to re-stimulation with rpL7 was examined using a spot-ELISA. Measuring IFN-gamma secretion, the T cells of two patients and four healthy donors showed a significant increase in the number of spots as compared to control cells. Secretion of IL-4 or IL-10 was not detected. From the antigen-stimulated primary cultures we established by limiting dilution cloning six rpL7-reactive, IFN-gamma-secreting T cell lines which show a CD3+CD4+CD8- phenotype. One line additionally was shown to be positive for HLA-DR and CD45R0, but negative for CD27 and CD31. The cell lines carry alphabeta TCR chains which differ from each other in sequence and specificity. rpL7 fragments rich in basic amino acids could be identified as epitopes recognized by the TCR of three cell lines. Recognition of rpL7 is HLA-DR6 restricted or respectively HLA-DP restricted in the two cell lines analyzed.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (5/3832)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Cancer vaccines. (6/3832)

It has been more than 100 years since the first reported attempts to activate a patient's immune system to eradicate developing cancers. Although a few of the subsequent vaccine studies demonstrated clinically significant treatment effects, active immunotherapy has not yet become an established cancer treatment modality. Two recent advances have allowed the design of more specific cancer vaccine approaches: improved molecular biology techniques and a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the activation of T cells. These advances have resulted in improved systemic antitumor immune responses in animal models. Because most tumor antigens recognized by T cells are still not known, the tumor cell itself is the best source of immunizing antigens. For this reason, most vaccine approaches currently being tested in the clinics use whole cancer cells that have been genetically modified to express genes that are now known to be critical mediators of immune system activation. In the future, the molecular definition of tumor-specific antigens that are recognized by activated T cells will allow the development of targeted antigen-specific vaccines for the treatment of patients with cancer.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (7/3832)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Tolerance to antigen-presenting cell-depleted islet allografts is CD4 T cell dependent. (8/3832)

Pretreatment of pancreatic islets in 95% oxygen culture depletes graft-associated APCs and leads to indefinite allograft acceptance in immunocompetent recipients. As such, the APC-depleted allograft represents a model of peripheral alloantigen presentation in the absence of donor-derived costimulation. Over time, a state of donor-specific tolerance develops in which recipients are resistant to donor APC-induced graft rejection. Thus, persistence of the graft is sufficient to induce tolerance independent of other immune interventions. Donor-specific tolerance could be adoptively transferred to immune-deficient SCID recipient mice transplanted with fresh immunogenic islet allografts, indicating that the original recipient was not simply "ignorant" of donor antigens. Interestingly, despite the fact that the original islet allograft presented only MHC class I alloantigens, CD8+ T cells obtained from tolerant animals readily collaborated with naive CD4+ T cells to reject donor-type islet grafts. Conversely, tolerant CD4+ T cells failed to collaborate effectively with naive CD8+ T cells for the rejection of donor-type grafts. In conclusion, the MHC class I+, II- islet allograft paradoxically leads to a change in the donor-reactive CD4 T cell subset and not in the CD8 subset. We hypothesize that the tolerant state is not due to direct class I alloantigen presentation to CD8 T cells but, rather, occurs via the indirect pathway of donor Ag presentation to CD4 T cells in the context of host MHC class II molecules.  (+info)

Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8+ T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation. T cells may recognize these complexes using their T cell receptors (TCRs). These cells process antigens and present them to T-cells. Almost all cell types can serve as some form of APC. They are found in a variety of tissue types. Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while other cell types can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. Antigen presentation allows for ...
Definition of antigen-presenting cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antigen-presenting cell? Meaning of antigen-presenting cell as a finance term. What does antigen-presenting cell mean in finance?
Looking for Antigen-presenting cells? Find out information about Antigen-presenting cells. A morphologically distinct epidermal cell adjacent to, and apparently functionally associated with, guard cells on the leaves of many plants. Explanation of Antigen-presenting cells
Antigen presentation to T lymphocytes has been characterized extensively in terms of T lymphocyte activation and eventual cell death. In contrast, little is known about the consequences of antigen presentation for the antigen-presenting cell (APC). We have determined the outcome of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptide presentation to a specific T cell. We demonstrate that specific T lymphocyte interaction with peptide-presenting APCs led to apoptosis in the APC population. In contrast, T lymphocyte interaction with nonpeptide-loaded APCs or APCs loaded with monosubstituted peptide failed to induce T lymphocyte secretion of interleukin-2 and APC apoptosis. Phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization were used to evaluate APC apoptosis. Fas/Fas ligand interactions were not required, but cytoskeletal integrity and caspase activation were essential for APC apoptosis. Antigen presentation leading to T lymphocyte activation is therefore coordinated with
The OKT4 antibody reacts with human CD4, a 59 kDa protein which acts as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR) in its interaction with MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. The extracellular domain of CD4 binds to the beta-2 domain of MHC Class II, while its cytoplasmic tail provides a binding site f
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-presenting cells pulsed with unfractionated tumor-derived peptides are potent tumor vaccines. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Boczkowski, David. AU - Snyder, David. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1997/3/20. Y1 - 1997/3/20. N2 - Vaccination with peptides isolated from tumor cells circumvents the need for identifying specific tumor rejection antigens and extends the use of active immunotherapy to the majority of cancers where specific tumor antigens have not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the efficacy of tumor vaccines composed of unfractionated tumor peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC) to induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and tumor immunity. RMA-S cells pulsed with peptides isolated from ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing tumor cells were highly effective at inducing primary, OVA-specific CTL responses in vitro and priming CTL responses in vivo. In addition, tumor peptide-pulsed RMA-S cells induced protective immunity in mice when challenged with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow cytometry used for the analysis of calcium signaling induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation. AU - Réthi, Bence. AU - Detre, Cynthia. AU - Gogolák, Péter. AU - Kolonics, Attila. AU - Magócsi, Mária. AU - Rajnavölgyi, Éva. PY - 2002/4/1. Y1 - 2002/4/1. N2 - Background: In this study, the effect of antigen-presenting cells (APC), peptide concentration, and CD28 costimulation on calcium signaling, induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation, was studied by flow cytometry. Methods: We used two experimental approaches, which differed in their time scale and in the duration of the T cell-APC interaction, to measure the increase of intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in activated T cells: (1) Fluo-3-loaded T cells were activated by cocentrifugation with peptide-loaded APC and the kinetics of fluorescence intensity changes was monitored continuously and (2) peptide-loaded APC and T cells were mixed, cocultured, and the fluorescence intensity was measured at ...
Interaction between antigen-specific T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) cognate ligand involve reorganization of the cytoskeleton and recruitment of adhesive and signaling molecules to the site of intercellular contact.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Costimulation of antitumor immunity by the B7 counterreceptor for the T lymphocyte molecules CD28 and CTLA-4. AU - Chen, Lieping. AU - Ashe, Stephanie. AU - Brady, William A.. AU - Hellström, Ingegerd. AU - Hellström, Karl Erik. AU - Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.. AU - McGowan, Patrick. AU - Linsley, Peter S.. PY - 1992/12/24. Y1 - 1992/12/24. N2 - Interaction of the B7 molecule on antigen-presenting cells with its receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells provides costimulatory signals for T cell activation. We have studied the effects of B7 on antitumor immunity to a murine melanoma that expresses a rejection antigen associated with the E7 gene product of human papillomavirus 16. While this E7+ tumor grows progressively in immunocompetent hosts, cotransfection of its cells with B7 led to tumor regression by a B7-dependent immune response mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes. The immune response induced by E7+B7+ tumor cells also caused regression of E7+ B7- tumors at distant sites and ...
Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T...
Recent gene expression studies have suggested that down-regulation of HLA class II expression has a major biological effect reflected in clinical tumor characteristics and outcome. This has been shown for B-cell lymphomas, that naturally express HLA class II on lymphoma cells (8, 22), but also for carcinomas in which HLA class II can be expressed on the antigen-presenting cells within the tumor (24). It is increasingly appreciated that not only HLA class I but also class II is essential for mounting an adequate antitumor immune response. Antigen presentation via HLA class II is indispensable to activate a CD4+ T-cell population that may induce a CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic antitumor response (25, 26) and recruit additional effector cell populations, such as macrophages (26, 27). In carcinomas, an immune-mediated antitumor response is mainly mediated by professional antigen-presenting cells.. In B-cell lymphomas, both professional antigen-presenting cells as well as the tumor B cells may play ...
To mount an immune response, T lymphocytes must successfully search for foreign material bound to the surface of antigen-presenting cells. How T cells optimize their chances of encountering and responding to these antigens is unknown. T cell motility in tissues resembles a random or Levy walk and is regulated in part by external factors including chemokines and lymph-node topology, but motility parameters such as speed and propensity to turn may also be cell intrinsic. Here we found that the unconventional myosin 1g (Myo1g) motor generates membrane tension, enforces cell-intrinsic meandering search, and enhances T-DC interactions during lymph-node surveillance. Increased turning and meandering motility, as opposed to ballistic motility, is enhanced by Myo1g. Myo1g acts as a turning motor and generates a form of cellular flânerie. Modeling and antigen challenges show that these intrinsically programmed elements of motility search are critical for the detection of rare cognate antigen-presenting
The skin is one of the largest immune organs in the first line of contact with pathogens and is rich in potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans cells in the epidermis and dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis. The abundance and localization of skin APCs and their potent capacity to induce immune responses make the skin an attractive tissue for APC targeting, e.g. by transcutaneous (t.c.) vaccine delivery. In fact, vaccines have been very successful in controlling infectious diseases, but several obstacles remain in their development against pandemic chronic diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis C, or cancer, where cellular immune responses play a crucial role in disease control. The aim of this work was to study novel approaches for APC targeting and vaccination. The first series of investigations focused on proof-of- concept studies for vaccination against basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), the most common type of skin cancer. Genetically predisposed individuals as well as organ ...
The initial step in the development of an immune response is the recognition of Ag by the professional APCs. At present, three major types of APCs have been described: dendritic cells (DCs),3 macrophages, and B lymphocytes. Discriminatory handling of Ags by APCs occurs at different levels. At the cell surface, APCs are endowed with various endocytic machineries. Macrophages and DCs, in addition to receptor-independent macropinocytosis, have a plethora of surface-expressed receptors through which they capture Ags. In contrast, B lymphocytes are able to endocytose exclusively by Ag-specific, surface-expressed Igs (also known as B cell receptors or BCRs). The fate of the Ag within an APC may vary depending on the cell type. Thus, the content of lysosomal proteases and the amount and distribution of MHC II molecules determine the immunological fate of the endocytosed Ag (11). Indeed, as compared with B lymphocytes and DCs, macrophages have a very high endocytosing capacity, are rich in lysosomal ...
Immune cells have been recruited, trained, and armed to fight solid tumors. And now theyre being deployed. Soon, well hear which T cells, NK cells, and antigen-presenting cells are up for promotion.
T-lymphocyte activation relies on the cognate recognition by the TCR of the MHC-associated peptide ligand (pMHC) presented at the surface of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). This leads to the dynamic formation of a cognate contact between the T lymphocyte and the APC: the immune synapse (IS). Engagement of the TCR by the pMHC in the synaptic zone induces a cascade of signaling events leading to phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins and lipids, which ultimately shapes the response of T lymphocytes. Although the engagement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) takes place at the plasma membrane, the TCR/CD3 complexes and the signaling molecules involved in transduction of the TCR signal are also present in intracellular membrane pools. These pools, which are both endocytic and exocytic, have tentatively been characterized by several groups including ours. We will herein summarize what is known on the intracellular pools of TCR signaling components. We will discuss their origin and the mechanisms
Tolerogenice PhagoLure technology enables the attraction of phagocytes for enhanced uptake of tolerizing PS-liposomes by antigen-presenting cells (APC).
¦ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ¦ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ noun : any of various cells (as a macrophage or a B cell) that take up and process an antigen into a form that when displayed at the cell surface in combination with a molecule of the major histocompatibility…
The overall goal of this proposal is to provide the principal investigator (PI) with the experiences and skills necessary to become an independent researcher, w...
The interaction between a CD4+ TH cell and an antigen presenting cell (APC) is a finely tuned event in adaptive immunity. The affinity is dictated by the T cell receptor (TCR) and the characteristics of antigenic peptide ...
0392] Adams, D. O., and Hamilton, T. A. Molecular transduction mechanism by which IFN-gamma and other signals regulate macrophage development. Immunol. Rev., 22: 5-27, 1987. [0393] Alexander, J., Rayman, P., Edinger, M., Connelly, R., Tubbs, R., Bukowski, R., Pontes, E., Finke, J., TIL from renal-cell carcinoma: Restimulation with tumor influences proliferation and cytolytic activity. Int. J. Cancer 45:119, 1990. [0394] Alexander, M. A., Bennicelli, J., and Guerry, D. Defective antigen presentation by human melanoma cell lines cultured from advanced, but not biologically early disease. J. Immunol., 142: 4070-4078, 1989. [0395] Altmann, D. M., Hogg, N., Trowsdale, J., and Wilkinson, D. Cotransfection of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR reconstitutes human antigen-presenting cell function in mouse L cells. Nature (Lond.). 338: 512-514, 1989. [0396] Anichini, A., Fossati, G., Parmiani, G., Clonal analysis of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to autologous human metastatic melanoma. Int. J. Cancer 25:683, 1985. ...
There has been a growing interest in the use of B cells for cancer vaccines, since they have yielded promising results in preclinical animal models. Contrary to dendritic cells (DCs), we know little about the migration behavior of B cells in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the interactions between CD40-activated B (CD40B) cells and cytotoxic T cells in vitro and the migration behavior of CD40B cells in vivo. Dynamic interactions of human antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells were observed by time-lapse video microscopy. The migratory and chemoattractant potential of CD40B cells was analyzed in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry, standard transwell migration assays, and imaging of fluorescently labeled murine CD40B cells. Murine CD40B cells show migratory features similar to human CD40B cells. They express important lymph node homing receptors which were functional and induced chemotaxis of T cells in vitro. Striking differences were observed with regard to interactions of human APCs ...
Cerulenin is an antibiotic that inhibits eukaryotic lipid and sterol synthesis and blocks lipid modification of proteins. The effect of cerulenin on the ability of accessory cells to present antigen to T cells was investigated. This antibiotic strongly inhibits the ability of accessory cells to present antigen to murine T-T hybrids. This effect is observed for multiple distinct antigens including L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10, bovine insulin, L-glutamic acid56-L-lysine35-L-phenylalanine9, and ovalbumen. Presentation by both macrophage and B lymphoblastoid cell lines is inhibited. The ability to effectively pulse these cells with antigen is inhibited but not the ability of these same cells to present antigen that they have previously processed. Furthermore, this inhibition is selective as it can occur without significant inhibition of the antigen-presenting cell protein or DNA synthesis. Cerulenin does not inhibit antigen uptake or catabolism as assessed with labeled antigen. By ...
Despite a rapidly accumulating clinical experience with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as a treatment for severe refractory autoimmune disease, data on the mechanisms by which ASCT induces immune tolerance are still very scarce. In this study it is shown that ASCT restores immunologic self-tolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) via 2 mechanisms. First, ASCT induces a restoration of the frequency of FoxP3 expressing CD4+CD25bright regulatory T cells (Tregs) from severely reduced numbers before ASCT to normal levels after ASCT. This recovery is due to a preferential homeostatic expansion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs during the lymphopenic phase of immunereconstitution, as measured by Ki67 and CD44 expression, and to a renewed thymopoiesis of naive mRNA FoxP3 expressing CD4+CD25+ Tregs after ASCT. Second, using artificial antigen-presenting cells to specifically isolate self-reactive T cells, we demonstrate that ASCT induces autoimmune cells to deviate from a proinflammatory phenotype ...
Trogocytosis (Greek: trogo; gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface. The molecular reorganization occurring at the interface between the lymphocyte and the antigen-presenting cell during conjugation is also called immunological synapse. First indication for the existence of this process dates back late 70s when several research groups reported on the presence of unexpected molecules such as Major Histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC) on T cells. The notion that membrane fragments, and not isolated molecules, could be captured by T cells on antigen-presenting cells was suggested by the capture of MHC molecules fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in their intracellular portion. The demonstration that membrane fragments were involved in this transfer process came when fluorescent probes incorporated in the plasma membrane of the ...
P>Adenosine is a well-described anti-inflammatory modulator of immune responses within peripheral tissues. Extracellular adenosine accumulates in inflamed and damaged tissues and inhibits the effector functions of various immune cell populations, including CD8 T cells. However, it remains unclear whether extracellular adenosine also regulates the initial activation of naive CD8 T cells by professional and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells, which determines their differentiation into effector or tolerant CD8 T cells, respectively. We show that adenosine inhibited the initial activation of murine naive CD8 T cells after alpha CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation. Adenosine caused inhibition of activation, cytokine production, metabolic activity, proliferation and ultimately effector differentiation of naive CD8 T cells. Remarkably, adenosine interfered efficiently with CD8 T-cell priming by professional antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells) and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells ...
Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. However, the plasticity and diversity of granulocytes have been increasingly revealed, especially with regards to their versatile functions in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC) under pathological or inflammatory conditions. In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes, is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leucocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skin-resident antigen-presenting cells: instruction manual for vaccine development. AU - Fehres, C.M.. AU - Garcia Vallejo, J.J.. AU - Unger, W.W.J.. AU - van Kooyk, Y.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00157. DO - 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00157. M3 - Article. C2 - 23801994. VL - 4. JO - Frontiers in Immunology: Molecular Innate Immunity. JF - Frontiers in Immunology: Molecular Innate Immunity. SN - 1664-3224. M1 - 157. ER - ...
Binding specifities of C-type lectin receptors Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by antigen-presenting cells are pattern recognition receptors involved in the recognition of pathogens as well as self-antigens. The interaction of carbohydrate ligands with a CLR can shape immune responses. Although several CLR ligands are known, there is still a lack of knowledge on…
We apply three-dimensional confocal microscopy and time lapse video-microscopy techniques to visualize molecular dynamics at the immunological synapse (IS). The major contribution of our research team to the field during the last few years has been to contribute to define the biological function of the IS. We propose that the IS has no specific function in T cell activation, on the contrary it is the manifestation of the inter-cellular communication occurring during T cell/APC cognate interactions. Our results show that: i) the large-scale molecular clustering and segregation characteristic of a mature IS is not required for productive TCR triggering and for T cell activation (indeed some responses such as cytotoxicity can occur in the absence of mature IS formation); ii) T cells form different types of synapses depending on the strength and quality of antigenic stimulation; iii) synapses can be interrupted and re-formed while T cells add-up the interrupted signals; iv) synapses are not static ...
The study of the ontogeny of skin APCs also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the development and, thus, the phenotype of their precursor cells. In addition, despite considerable research, the relationship among LCs, dermal DCs, and skin macrophages still remains unclear, not least because of the high plasticity of precursors to differentiate into each of these cells in different microenvironments (7, 12, 15). In this study, we show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be phenotypically separated by the distinct expression of the DC marker CD1c on some HLA-DRhigh cells. HLA-DRhigh leukocytes are capable of phagocytosing bacteria, up-regulating costimulatory molecules, and stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro, thus confirming their DC nature. In contrast, HLA-DRlow skin macrophages neither express CD1c nor up-regulate costimulatory molecules during culture. Collectively, these data show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be ...
T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. insensitive to cellular perturbations and the force-dependent off-rates were indistinguishable for native and recombinant TCRs. These data present novel features of TCRCpMHC kinetics that are regulated by the cellular environment, underscoring the limitations of 3D kinetics in predicting T-cell functions and calling for further elucidation of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate 2D kinetics in physiological settings. and the native proteins Rabbit polyclonal to SZT2 expressed on cell surface, or biomechanical rules by pressure. Our new SPR measurements (3D, recombinant, zero pressure) revealed much faster off-rates than previously reported [29, 30]. This is usually consistent with our 2D measurements with BFP for both the recombinant and the native TCRs at zero pressure. Under tensile causes, both the recombinant and the native ...
Understanding the basic immunologic principles is crucial for transplant management. Below is a summary of basic transplant immunology.. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Proteins. MHCs are the group of cell surface proteins which are important for self-recognition, self-tolerance and antigen-presentation. The key MHC genes are the class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C genes) and the class II genes (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR). MHC-I is expressed on all nucleated cells (except RBCs) and important for intracellular antigen presentation. MHC-II is expressed only on antigen presenting cells (APC): dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC-II is responsible from presentation of extracellular antigens. MHC mismatch is a risk for allograft (donor organ) rejection because peptide-binding regions of the MHCs are highly immunogenic. Most immunogenic MHCs are A, B, and DR which are used as donor-recipient matching criteria for kidney transplantation.. Types of immunity. Immune system consists of mainly two ...
La CD154, anche chiamata CD40 ligando o semplicemente CD40L, è una proteina espressa soprattutto nei linfociti T attivati e facente parte della superfamiglia del TNF[1]. Si lega al CD40 presente sulle antigen-presenting cell (APC) agendo come co-attivatore[1]. In particolare, il legame CD40/CD40L attiva i linfociti B stimolandoli a formare i centri germinativi, porta le cellule dendritiche ad aumentare la produzione di molecole stimolatorie e citochine (licensing delle cellule dendritiche), e aumenta lattività microbicida dei macrofagi. ...
Subtotal RF ablation treatment results in enhanced systemic antitumor T-cell immune responses and tumor regression that is associated with increased dendritic cell infiltration. ITDC injection mimics the RF ablation effect but does not increase immune responses when injected immediately after RF abl …
The mechanisms that determine whether receptor stimulation leads to lymphocyte tolerance versus activation remain poorly understood. We have used rat insulin pr
Orgcme). 2 PMN as Antigen-presenting Cells 421 Page 463 п422 11 Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils as Antigen-presenting Cells ous TT was sufficient to induce proliferation of TT-specific T cells provided that the PMN had been pre-incubated with IFN-c and GM-CSF.
The induction of tissue-specific autoimmunity presents a new principle in the therapy of many important cancers (24 , 25) . In the course of autoimmune diseases, autoantibodies are able to increase the efficiency of antigen capturing by professional antigen-presenting cells (26 , 27) , leading to the enhancement of the presentation of nondominant pathogenic determinants and T-cell activation (28) . It was therefore interesting to investigate the humoral response revealed in the sera of cured rats after treatment by apoptotic bodies/IL-2 (13) and the mechanisms involved.. In this paper, we report that the p67 kDa protein recognized by the sera of rats cured and subsequently immunized against cancer is a proteolytic fragment of BARD1. This identity was confirmed by: (a) the cloning of the rat BARD1 by immunoscreening with the sera of cured rats; (b) the demonstration that the full-length BARD1 (Mr 97,000) is expressed in colon and mammary cancer cells, whereas the truncated form (Mr 67,000) is ...
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate immune responses. The human DC population comprises two main functionally specialized lineages, whose origins and differentiation pathways remain incompletely defined. Here, we combine two high-dimensional technologies-s …
Did you know that, as an author affiliated with University of Ghana, payment of your article-processing charge may be covered by University of Ghanas Foundation membership?. As an author from Ghana, BioMed Central and SpringerOpen article-processing charges (APCs) are covered by the country waiver fund. Please find more information regarding your funding here.. ...
Synonyms for accessory cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for accessory cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for accessory cell?
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is explored and key cells are discussed, eg killer T, helper T, gdT and NK cells. The importance of antigen-presenting cells and CD molecules are considered. The structure and physiology of the major histocompatibility complex is highlighed. The roles of cytokines, leycocyte migration and inflammation are discussed and killing mechanism are explored ...
BIOLOGY 206 CHAPTER 22: NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSESS IMMUNITY See flow chart. 5. Pus is a mix of dead or dying WBCs, broken-down ... will never meet its antigen, and never be involved in immune response. C. Antigen-Presenting Cells .... ...
(2012) Zhu et al. PLoS ONE. Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional prop...
Cells, Dendritic Cells, Patients, Antigen, Cell, Therapeutic, Production, Immunotherapy, Treatment, Antigen-presenting Cells, Blood, Human, Populations, Monocyte, Diseases, T Cells, Syndrome, Cancer, Phenotype, Vaccination
Part 2: Once youve evaluated performance, refer to the four most frequently used leveling methods. by Jim Strafford, CEDC, MCS-P In
Professional antigen-presenting cells, such as for example dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells have already been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis rheumatoid, constituting a feasible target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. node cells seven days afterwards. The dosage of amiloride was selected predicated on the previously released doses employed for em in vivo /em treatment for various other reasons [31]. T cell replies to concanavalin A werent suffering from amiloride treatment (Amount ?(Figure8a).8a). A decrease in the CII-specific proliferative T cell replies in draining popliteal lymph nodes from mice immunized in the current presence of amiloride was noticed (Amount ?(Amount8b),8b), suggesting that CII uptake for display to T cells could possibly be prevented em in vivo /em . Open up in another window Amount 8 The result of inhibitors of uptake on T cell proliferation em in vivo /em . To check the result of amiloride on mitogenic and type II collagen (CII)-particular T ...
therapy.. In addition, intralesional therapy with either of two cytokines-namely, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, Leukine)1 and interleukin-2 (IL-2, Proleukin)2-each gave promising results, but they were never used sequentially or in combination. Intralesional therapy with GM-CSF can increase the number and activation of dendritic cells,3 which are very efficient antigen-presenting cells that are capable of processing tumor antigens and crosstalk to lymphocytes. On the other hand, IL-2 administration can stimulate and activate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which can result in the induction of cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, we felt that sequential intralesional administration of intralesional GM-CSF followed by IL-2 might complement one another, using the patients own tumor as a source for tumor antigens.. Exploratory Study. In an exploratory study in patients with dermal and subdermal metastatic melanoma, we explored the use of intra lesional therapy with low-dose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. AU - Munn, David H. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. KW - Antigen-presenting cells. KW - Graft rejection. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb03119.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb03119.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 12081935. AN - SCOPUS:0036297943. VL - 961. SP - 343. EP - 345. JO - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. JF - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. SN - 0077-8923. ER - ...
The respiratory tract is an attractive target organ for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications with nano-sized carriers, but their immune effects and interactions with key resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in different anatomical compartments remain poorly understood. Polystyrene particles ranging from 20 nm to 1,000 nm were instilled intranasally in BALB/c mice, and their interactions with APC populations in airways, lung parenchyma, and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) were examined after 2 and 24 hours by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In the main conducting airways and lung parenchyma, DC subpopulations preferentially captured 20-nm particles, compared with 1,000-nm particles that were transported to the LDLNs by migratory CD11b(low) DCs and that were observed in close proximity to CD3(+) T cells. Generally, the uptake of particles increased the expression of CD40 and CD86 in all DC populations, independent ...
CD4(+)CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are pivotal for the maintenance of self-tolerance, and their adoptive transfer gives protection from autoimmune diseases and pathogenic alloresponses after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation in murine model systems. In vitro, human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells display phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of murine CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells: namely, hyporesponsiveness to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and suppression of CD25- T cells. Thus far, the detailed characterization and potential clinical application of human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells have been hampered by their paucity in peripheral blood and the lack of appropriate expansion protocols. Here we describe the up to 40 000-fold expansion of highly purified human CD4(+)CD25high T cells in vitro through the use of artificial antigen-presenting cells for repeated stimulation via CD3 and CD28 in the presence of high-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2). Expanded CD4(+)CD25high T cells were ...
The specific eradication of pathogenic T cells for the treatment of allograft rejections and autoimmune disorders without impairment of overall immune function is a fundamental goal. 41.5 times in bm1 mice. Our data reveal that PLGA-based great MPs are able of using up pathogenic Capital t cells particularly, which shows their restorative potential for dealing with allograft being rejected and autoimmune disorders. and conditions credited to the activity of cytotoxic Capital t cells, which can business lead to KAPC exhaustion or undesirable adjustments in cell-cell signaling [14, 15]. To circumvent the restrictions connected with the mobile character of KAPCs, great artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs) possess been founded by covalently coupling the HLA-A2-Ig and anti-Fas IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto cell-sized permanent magnet beans, and had been able of using up antigen-specific Capital t cells [16]. We previously reported that latex bead-based KaAPCs could selectively deplete ...
Intrahepatic cell-derived, early IL-17 is definitely essential for initiating antigen-presenting cells in virus-like infection; nevertheless, the regulation and source of this IL-17 spike in the liver organ microenvironment are not well described. IL-17F additional uncovered that Lymphotoxin alpha antibody IL-17 signaling was vital for priming Testosterone levels cell replies in virus-like hepatitis. IL-17A oppressed IL-17F release and being injected with 3 109 pfu replication-deficient recombinant Advertisement having the LacZ gene (AdLacZ, bought from Vector Advancement Lab of Baylor University of Medication) as defined previously (25). Rodents had been being injected with 2 106 pfu lymphocytic choriomeningitis trojan (LCMV) Duplicate 13 (a kind present from Dr. Maria Salvato at the School of Baltimore) (37). Titration of LCMV was performed on Vero cell monolayers plated on 24-well plate designs, implemented by the virus-like quantification of immunological concentrate assay (38). The antibody ...
Remember, an allergen by definition is harmless, its the persons immune system response to it that is abnormal. It is often related to a genetic cause. According to Medscape:. The allergic reaction first requires sensitization to a specific allergen and occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. The allergen is either inhaled or ingested and is then processed by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as a dendritic cell, macrophage, or B-cell.[7,8]The antigen-presenting cells then migrate to lymph nodes, where they prime naïve TH cells that bear receptors for the specific antigen.2. So, genetics may play a role,3-5 but why do some family members have allergies and others do not? Furthermore, why do substances that trigger allergies vary in families? I discussed this in Part I in relationship to the chemicals found in skin care products mixing with essential oils. This is where environment may be at play in the concept of entopy, which is defined in a 2010 article in Clinical and ...
Plural - Dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of activating naïve T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior. The word dendritic means branched like a tree. It comes from the Greek dendron (tree). ...
T-bet is a Type-1 transcription factor that regulates the development of Type-1 T cell and Type-1 anti-tumor immunity. T-bet expression in Dendritic Cells (DC) is required for the ability of these antigen-presenting cells (APC) to prime Type-1-polarized T cell responses. Since T-bet is typically expressed by very low frequencies of activated DC (, 1%), we hypothesized that ectopic expression of T-bet as a consequence of recombinant adenovirus (rAd).T-bet transfection would yield a robust population of DC that were capable of (re)polarizing Type-1 anti-tumor T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, human DC engineered to express high levels of T-bet strongly potentiated the development of Type-1 T cells from naïve T cells and concomitantly suppressed Th2 and Regulatory T cell (Treg) development in vitro. Interestingly, the superior Type-1 functionality of DC.Tbet seems to be largely independent of intrinsic Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, as IL-12 neutralizing antibody failed to affect ...
Keywords: antigen display, ICAM-1, membrane rafts, MHC course I, focus on cells Launch Normally, activation of T cells needs productive engagement from the T-cell receptor (TCR) and integrins by cognate peptideCmajor histocompatibility complicated (pMHC) complexes and adhesion substances displayed on focus on cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), respectively. While antigen-induced redistribution from the TCR and integrins on T cells continues to be well documented and it is regarded as very important GS-9137 to T-cell activation,1,2 significantly less is well known about the behavior of MHC and adhesion substances on the top of focus on cells and APC. Prior experiments, predicated on the lateral diffusion of cell-surface MHC, claim that these substances are arranged in clusters.3,4 Furthermore, fluorescence GS-9137 resonance energy transfer ANPEP measurements show that MHC substances are in close vicinity to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Compact disc25 substances and form ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coadministration of antigen-conjugated and free CpG. T2 - Effects of in vitro and in vivo interactions in a murine model. AU - Herbáth, Melinda. AU - Szekeres, Zsuzsanna. AU - Kövesdi, Dorottya. AU - Papp, Krisztián. AU - Erdei, Anna. AU - Prechl, József. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) are widely studied as promising adjuvants in vaccines against a range of diseases including infection, cancer or allergy. Conjugating antigen to CpG has been shown to potentiate the adjuvant effect via enhancing antigen uptake and danger signaling by the very same cell. In the present study, using biotinylated CpG and streptavidin as a model system, we demonstrate that CpG motif containing free and antigen-conjugated oligonucleotides do not compete in terms of cell activation via TLR9, but do compete for cellular uptake. Antigen-conjugated CpG enhances cellular association and uptake of the antigen by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and T cells. Free CpG ...
One strategy we are undertaking to advance this work is to characterize the antigen-presenting environment in pre- and post-natal life, with the focus on defining factors that dictate whether exposure to allergen in early life induces T cell sensitization or tolerance. The thinking is that in certain circumstances, T cell sensitization can occur in utero or in early post-natal life and that factors responsible for these circumstances have increased in the past 20 years. It has been proposed that this could explain the increased incidence of asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The challenge for scientists is to identify factors that control this process, with the ultimate goal of developing therapeutic strategies to reverse the progressive increase in disease. Our studies are focused on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages, as they are known to direct the T cell responses to antigen throughout life, presumably including the pre- and post-natal period. In ...
Antigen Background HLA-DR is an MHC Class II antigen that maps to chromosome 6. It is a heterodimer composed of 2 non-covalently associated glycoproteins of about 35 kD (alpha, heavy) and 27 kD (beta, light).Both chains are comprised of two Ig-like domains and have transmembrane sequences and short cytoplasmic tails. It is reported to be expressed mainly on antigen-presenting cells (monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells), B cells and some activated T cells. Expression has also been reported on thymic epithelial cells.. ...
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells critical for the orchestration of immunity and maintenance of self-tolerance. DC development and functions are tightly regulated by
Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the ...
Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the ...
By Jenny Gartshteyn. Faculty Peer Reviewed. Since the start of vaccination - weve eradicated smallpox and polio, saved college kids from meningitis, averted flu epidemics, and decreased the incidence of HPV-related cervical cancer … but can we teach our immune systems to actively fight existing cancer?. Heres the mechanism for an ideal anti-cancer vaccine:. With the growth and turnover of cancerous cells, cancer-specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) would be recognized and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages - which would …. Read more » ...
Foreign pathogens are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLR), present on various immune cells such as professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs). On recognition of its ligand, these receptors activate pAPCs, which may ...
B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are glycoproteins expressed on antigen-presenting cells. The binding of these molecules to the T cell homodimers CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152) generates costimulatory and inhibitory signals in T cells, respectively. The crystal structure of the extracellular region of B7-1 (sB7-1), solved to 3 A resolution, consists of a novel combination of two Ig-like domains, one characteristic of adhesion molecules and the other previously seen only in antigen receptors. In the crystal lattice, sB7-1 unexpectedly forms parallel, 2-fold rotationally symmetric homodimers. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that sB7-1 also dimerizes in solution. The structural data suggest a mechanism whereby the avidity-enhanced binding of B7-1 and CTLA-4 homodimers, along with the relatively high affinity of these interactions, favors the formation of very stable inhibitory signaling complexes.
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD40, a member of the TNFreceptor superfamily. CD40 is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses includ
Nanoparticle drug delivery systems have already been found in the clinic because the early 1990s. Since 2016, the amount of clinical studies of VYXEOS provides XAV 939 pontent inhibitor elevated from 7 to 21 with recent studies investigating the usage of VYXEOS in extra individual populations (e.g., kids; type:clinical-trial,attrs:text message:NCT03826992″,term_id:NCT03826992″NCT03826992) and leukemias (e.g., lymphoblastic leukemias; … Continue reading Nanoparticle drug delivery systems have already been found in the clinic. ...
Description: Description of target: The protein encoded by this gene is a kininase that uses zinc as a cofactor. The encoded oligopeptidase cleaves cytosolic peptides, making them unavailable for display on antigen-presenting cells. This protein also cleaves neuropeptides under 20 aa in length and can degrade beta-amyloid precursor protein to amyloidogenic peptides.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: Assay Methodology: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: 0.13 ng/ ...
Here, we demonstrate a striking heterogeneity in the metabolic profiles of APCs in distinct tissues and reveal a key role for mTOR in programming the homeostasis and function of APC subsets in the lung. In the steady state, mTORΔAPC mice exhibited tissue-dependent phenotypes with reduced numbers of AMs and CD103 DCs in the lung and skin, but not elsewhere, unlike more global phenotypes observed when GM-CSF or Flt3l signaling is impaired (14, 18, 38). These effects were mediated by Raptor-dependent mTORC1 signaling but, surprisingly, were independent of translational regulation of mRNA, the canonical signaling pathway downstream of mTOR. Instead, our data reveal a role for Srebp1/2 signaling downstream of mTOR in homeostasis of lung APCs in the steady state (fig. S10). The selective effects of mTOR deficiency in CD103 DCs in the lung and skin were surprising, because the development of this DC subset in diverse tissues is controlled by the transcription factor Batf3. Thus, these results suggest ...
The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. The process starts when antigens, special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as non-self, and signal the cellular warriors of the immune system to kill the invader. Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. It is well established that the key to T cell activation is the molecular signal coming off antigen-presenting cell surfaces. This signal must be enhanced and sustained long enough for the T cells to commit to mounting an immune response, and then must be cut off in time to avoid antigen-induced cell suicide or apoptosis of the T cells ...
Cancer, Bladder, Bladder Cancer, Mannose, Patients, Tumor, Patient, Risk, Risk Factors, Antigen, Antigen-presenting Cells, Antigens, Cancer Vaccines, Cancers, Cells, Chorionic Gonadotropin, Cross-presentation, Early Intervention, Gm-csf, Gonadotropin
MIT researchers have developed a microfluidic cell-squeezing device that inserts antigens inside B cells, priming an immune response in the body. The device, CellSqueeze, may be used to create antigen-presenting cell vaccines to treat cancer and other diseases.
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2 presentations will be held in ICMU2017 - センサ・デバイス・ネットワークが連携し、センサから取り 込まれる実世界データを処理・集約・解析することで、高度なサービスを 効率良くユーザに提供するシステム―ユビキタスコンピューティングシス テム―の実現に向けた研究に取り組んでいます。, a site dedicated to presenting journalistically sound sports coverage with a cultural perspective that insightfully informs sports fans worldwide. Founded and developed by media entrepreneur Keith Clinkscales, TSL is owned by Shadow League Digital a multi-platform content creation company.. ...
Shi HZ (September 2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (3): 520-7. doi: ... can inhibit proliferation of T cells, suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... TH2 and ILC2 cells both express the transcription factor GATA-3, which promotes the production of TH2 cytokines, including the ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine ... natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell ... Normal numbers of B cells with decreased IgG and IgA and increased IgM: Hyper-IgM syndromes Normal numbers of B cells with ...
"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... A tumour can have many cell types of cells, each with different cell-surface antigens. Those cells are derived from each ... Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ... Selection of the appropriate adjuvant to activate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate immune responses, is required. Bacillus ...
"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... They can promote Th17, Th1, Th2 or Treg responses depending on antigen-presenting cells.[25] ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ... They are able to interact with pattern recognition receptors like TLR2 or TLR4 and activate antigen presenting cells by ...
McGreal E, Miller J, Gordon S (2005). "Ligand recognition by antigen-presenting cell C-type lectin receptors". Curr Opin ... "Recognition of tumor glycans by antigen-presenting cells". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18 (1): 105-11. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2005.11.001. ... a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells". Cell. 100 (5): 587-97. doi:10.1016/ ... van den Berg LM, Geijtenbeek TB (2013). "Antiviral immune responses by human langerhans cells and dendritic cells in HIV-1 ...
McIntire RH, Hunt JS (2005). "Antigen presenting cells and HLA-G--a review". Placenta. 26 Suppl A: S104-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is ... 2002). "HLA-G protein processing and transport to the cell surface". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59 (9): 1460-6. doi:10.1007/s00018- ...
... plasma B cells Cause normal cells to increase the expression of class I MHC molecules as well as II on antigen-presenting cells ... The presence of IFN-γ in T helper cells makes that undifferentiated CD4+ cells (Th0 cells) to differentiated into Th1 cells. ... Furthermore, non-cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells (ILC) as well as mucosal epithelial cells, macrophages and B cells secrete IFN ... "IFN-gamma production by antigen-presenting cells: mechanisms emerge". Trends in Immunology. 22 (10): 556-60. doi:10.1016/s1471- ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) takes up these proteins; digests them into small peptides; places the peptides in a groove on ... CD8+ T cells) or T helper cells (i.e. CD4+ T cells) to initiate autoimmune reactions that attack self tissues. SCARs are type ... dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells. It does so by binding to, but not stimulating, these cytokines' receptors, IL1RL2 ... and presents the MHC-associated peptides to the T-cell receptor on CD8+ T or CD4+ T cells. Those peptides expressing a drug- ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) takes up these alter proteins; digests them into small peptides; places the peptides in a ... CD8+ T cells) or T helper cells (i.e. CD4+ T cells) to initiate autoimmune reactions that attack self tissues. DRESS syndrome ... induce the DRESS syndrome by interacting with a T-cell receptor is limited to those individuals whose T cells express a T-cell ... stimulate CD8+ T or CD4+ T cells to initiate autoimmune responses by directly binding to the T-cell receptors on these T cells ...
... s (or Antigen-presenting cell activators) are a type of immunotherapy which leverages antigen-presenting cells ( ... Professional antigen-presenting cells - including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells - serve an indispensable role in ... Hughes, Catherine E.; Benson, Robert A.; Bedaj, Marija; Maffia, Pasquale (2016). "Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen ... "Direct Activation of Antigen-Presenting Cells Is Required for CD8+ T-cell Priming and Tumor Vaccination". Proceedings of the ...
An antigen presenting cell (APC) takes up these alter proteins; digests them into small peptides; places the peptides in a ... CD8+ T cells) and T helper cells (i.e. CD4+ T cells) to initiate autoimmune reactions that attack self tissues. In particular, ... and presents the MHC-associated peptides to T-cell receptors on CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells. Those peptides expressing a drug- ... Individuals expressing certain human leukocyte antigen (i.e. HLA) serotypes (i.e. genetic alleles), genetical-based T cell ...
Kikutani H, Kumanogoh A (2003). "Semaphorins in interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells". Nat. Rev. Immunol. ... Kumanogoh A, Kikutani H (2004). "Immune semaphorins: a new area of semaphorin research". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 17): 3463-70. doi ... "Class IV semaphorin Sema4A enhances T-cell activation and interacts with Tim-2". Nature. 419 (6907): 629-33. Bibcode:2002Natur. ...
"Immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease with special emphasize on the possible role of antigen presenting cells". Rheumatol. Int ... B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.610103.x. PMID 12622774. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008- ... "Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMC 2396006. PMID 15787720.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1994). "Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 interfere with T-cell-dependent B cell differentiation: role of CD4-MHC class II ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).[5] ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via MHC class II. • immune response. • T cell receptor ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. • ... 1fyt: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A COMPLEX OF A HUMAN ALPHA/BETA-T CELL RECEPTOR, INFLUENZA HA ANTIGEN PEPTIDE, AND MHC CLASS II ...
Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L. (2015-07-01). "Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Key ... Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells, (myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal). The gut has intrinsic peristaltic ... Cells of the GI tract release hormones to help regulate the digestive process. These digestive hormones, including gastrin, ... It has been demonstrated that the intake of a high fiber diet could be the responsible for the induction of T-regulatory cells ...
... phenotyping and functionally characterizing resident bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the cornea, (ii) ... "Corneal immunity is mediated by heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 74 (2): ... Fuchsluger, Thomas A.; Jurkunas, Ula; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Dana, Reza (2011). "Corneal endothelial cells are protected from ... tolerogenic dendritic cells suppress immune rejection in the indirect allosensitization-dominant setting of corneal ...
... serves as a ssDNA 5' exonuclease in antigen presenting cells. PLD3 is highly expressed in the brain in both humans and ... Both PLD3 and PLD4 are essential for the clearance of nucleic acid product in antigen presenting cells. Deletion of PLD3 and ... PLD3 was identified as a protein in insulin secretory granules derived from pancreatic beta cells. PLD3 is a member of the ... The cytosolic N-terminal of the protein faces towards the cytoplasm of the cell, and lacks consensus sites for N-glycosylation ...
Mesothelial cells are capable of phagocytosis and are antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, the secretion of ... The mesothelium is composed of an extensive monolayer of specialized cells (mesothelial cells) that line the body's serous ... Cuboidal mesothelial cells may be found at areas of injury, the milky spots of the omentum, and the peritoneal side of the ... Cancer cells can also metastasize (spread) from their original site to other parts of the body. Most cases of mesothelioma ...
It binds onto the P2RX7 receptors of host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and activates the inflammasomes. As a result, the ... In white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells, purinergic signalling ... Generally speaking, all cells have the ability to release nucleotides. In neuronal and neuroendocrinal cells, this mostly ... It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. ...
... that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen-presenting cell (APC). That activation requires two signals (one of ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... an antigen-presenting cell must present two signals to the T cell. One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex ... and present it to the T cell receptor on the surface of the T cell. For signal 2, the APC must present a B7 protein on its cell ...
... priming them to kill other cells that present the antigen. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian ... These can be either infected cells, or Antigen-presenting cells (APCs). They are found in normal tissue and in tumor tissue, ... In normal physiology T-cells are activated by two signals: the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell ... Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and ...
Kupfer A, Singer SJ (November 1989). "The specific interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells. IV. Membrane ... It also allows cells to measure extracellular rigidity, since cells in which talin is prevented from forming mechanical ... Talin-1 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Talin-2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Integrins at the US ... Hynes RO (February 1987). "Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors". Cell. 48 (4): 549-54. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90233 ...
4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ... Lotze, Michael (2001). Dendritic Cells. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-455851-8.. ...
This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen-presenting cell. Second, a costimulatory signal is transmitted by ... the interaction between CD28 and B7 of the precursor cell and the licensed antigen-presenting cell. Last, a signal is induced ... The CTL precursors include naive Tc cells since they are incapable of killing target cells. After a precursor cell has been ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ...
Ptak W, Rozycka D, Askenase PW, Gershon RK (1980). "Role of antigen-presenting cells in the development and persistence of ... Ptak W, Bereta M, Ptak M, Gershon RK, Green DR (1984). "Antigen-specific T contrassupressor factor in cell-mediated immunity: ... Ptak W, Szczepanik M, Ramabhadran R, Askenase PW (1996). "Immune or normal gamma-delta T cels that assist alpha beta T cell in ... Together with Richard K. Gershon, he was the co-author of the discovery of regulatory T cells. Beside, he participated in ...
... is produced mainly by antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system. These cells include dendritic cells, ... and B-cells (naïve and effector). The T-regulatory cells that CCL18 attracts are not classical T-regulatory cells; these cells ... Neither T-cells nor B-cells are known to produce CCL18. Its production is upregulated in these cells by IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 ... PITPNM3 is a CCL18 receptor, but PITPNM3 is only expressed on breast cancer cells and not on T-cells nor B-cells, and PITPNM3- ...
... is expressed on antigen presenting cells including B cells and dendritic cells. The extracellular LRR is associated with ... CD180 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD180 gene. CD180 is a cell surface molecule consisting of ... 2003). "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nat. ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q62192 (Mouse CD180 antigen) at the PDBe-KB.. ...
The MHC Class II antigens are found on antigen presenting cells (APC) (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes). ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen-presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft-versus- ... T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells which, in turn recognize a different ...
"RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance". Cell ... Cell. 161 (3): 634-646. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.006. PMC 4409664. PMID 25910211. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Colantuoni V, ... D'Onofrio C, Colantuoni V, Cortese R (August 1985). "Structure and cell-specific expression of a cloned human retinol binding ... RBP4 is also secreted by adipocytes of the fat tissue in a smaller portion and acts as a signal to surrounding cells, when ...
... the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... As a general rule, candidiasis presenting with white lesions is mainly caused by Candida species in the hyphal form and red ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ...
The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... "Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". Biological ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ...
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ... Zhou T, Zhang J, Carter R, Kimberly R (2003). "BLyS and B cell autoimmunity.". Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 6: 21-37. PMID 12408045. ... Brink R (2007). "Regulation of B cell self-tolerance by BAFF.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 276-83. PMID 16916609. doi:10.1016/j. ...
These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... Transmission from person to person has been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers. The virus is present ... However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection.[7] An ELISA test for antigen and ... Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due to the accumulation of ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper cells) - T8 cells - Tanner staging - TAT - TB - template - TeachAIDS - ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ...
... when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7: ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ...
... proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These peptides are products of proteasomal degradation of proteins ... "Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins.[88] However, some cell ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
... presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. The T cell selectively ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large ... Endogenous antigens[edit]. Endogenous antigens are generated within normal cells as a result of normal cell metabolism, or ...
... and/or antigen presenting cells, in an effort to drive an immune response towards a cytotoxic effect against the virus. ... "Cell. 136 (3): 402-10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.029. PMC 2971533. PMID 19203576.. ... HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA ... Once inside the cell, the acidic conditions in the endosome cause two events to happen: First, part of the hemagglutinin ...
... binding affinity of TCR to MHC to prolong the cell-cell interaction between the antigen-presenting cell and the T cell. ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... The signal transduction mechanism by which a T cell elicits this response upon contact with its unique antigen is termed T-cell ...
... antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These ... Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ... Enteric microbiota and/or self antigens. Hyperactivation of T-cells, cytokine release, recruitment of macrophages and other ...
FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ... Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the ... those cells can be lysed or down-regulated, thus achieving the inhibition of the production of antigen-specific IgE and hence a ... which share a common haemopoietic progenitor with mast cells, upon the cross-linking of their surface bound IgE by antigens, ...
பிறபொருளெதிரியாக்கி - முன்வைக்கும் உயிரணுவாக (antigen-presenting cell = APC) இதன் முக்கியமான தொழில் டி நிணநீர்க்கலங்களை ... கிளையி உயிரணுக்கள் (Dendritic cell). வகை. நுண்ணோக்கித் தோற்றம். வரைபடம். அண்ணளவான %. வயது வந்தவர்களில்[2]. See also:. Blood ... 3.0 3.1 3.2 Alberts, B. (2005). "Leukocyte functions and percentage breakdown". Molecular Biology of the Cell. NCBI Bookshelf. ... வெண்குருதியணுக்கள் அல்லது வெண்குருதிச் சிறுதுணிக்கைகள் அல்லது இரத்த வெள்ளையணுக்கள் அல்லது லியூக்கோசைற் (White Blood Cells or ...
T-cells and B-cells) and antigen presenting cells. These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign ... the cell line was contaminated and displaced by HeLa cells, and has now been identified as actually HeLa cells.[54] ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ... The antigens are either from cell extracts or recombinant. Blood serum is incubated in the wells of the plate and is washed out ...
Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ... A urinalysis will show red blood cells, usually as red cell urinary casts. Proteinuria, usually less than 2 grams per day, also ... Very rarely (5% each), the presenting history is: *Nephrotic syndrome (3-3.5 grams of protein loss in the urine, associated ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ...
Cell signaling and ligand binding. Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (see also Molecule of the Month, presenting short accounts on selected ... Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Abundance in cells. It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli ...
Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human immune cells, is also harboured by ... including a small subset of patients presenting with severe necrotizing fasciitis. Moreover, it is an important cause of bone ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ...
Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line, which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ... and patients presenting with meningitis symptoms had a history of eating raw snails or prawns in the weeks before presenting ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR.[51] A rapid ... Once at the site of inflammation, type 2 cytokines are released from helper T cells, which communicate with the eosinophils, ...
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... Genuis SJ, Lobo RA (2014). "Gluten Sensitivity Presenting as a Neuropsychiatric Disorder". Gastroenterology Research and ... a high count of celiac disease cells (or CD/CD3 ratio) in immunohistochemical assessment of biopsies, or the presence of IgA ...
... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions),[20] they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells,[16] and they ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ...
In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... a case report of Neuroendocrine Small Cell Carcinoma of the Endometrium presenting as Paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome". Facts ... which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes). Underlying cancer or irreversible system impairment, seen in acute ... In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ...
... expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). Using these ligands is possible routing antigen-presenting ... Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are attracted to sites of ... Types by cell attractedEdit. *Monocytes / macrophages: the key chemokines that attract these cells to the site of inflammation ... CC chemokines induce the migration of monocytes and other cell types such as NK cells and dendritic cells. ...
It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and ... Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, known as Plasma Cells (for B cells), Cytotoxic T cells, and ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Janeway's Immunobiology, 9th edition, Chapter 1, ... Helper T cells.[1] Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] ...
Detection of antigens in urine of mice and humans infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease»։ Journal ... Systemic symptoms without erythema migrans as the presenting picture of early Lyme disease»։ The American Journal of Medicine ... Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope»։ Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and ... Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay ...
A specialized type of cell, bearing cell surface class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, involved in ... processing and presentation of antigen to inducer, or helper. ... Antigen-presenting cell, Accessory Cells T lymphocytes are part ... Examples of Antigen-processing cells include: * Macrophages These are large white blood cells that ingest antigens and other ... Dendritic Cell (DC) Follicular Dendritic Cell (FDC) Dendritic cells are the principle APC involved in primary immune responses ...
Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ...
... welcomes high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen presenting cells (APCs), ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology is devoted to the publication of high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology welcomes submissions of the following article types: Case Report, Classification, Clinical ... All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Antigen Presenting Cell Biology, where they are peer-reviewed by the ...
Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. Pathogen engulfment activates ...
Analysis of neonatal T cell and antigen presenting cell functions.. Trivedi HN1, HayGlass KT, Gangur V, Allardice JG, Embree JE ... The extent to which deficiencies in T cell or antigen presenting cell (APC) function underlie hyporesponsiveness is ... The data argue; (i) T cells are largely immunocompetent at birth, (ii) accessory cell function is not fully mature, and (iii) ... Irradiated neonatal cells consistently stimulated similar proliferative but substantially lower IFN gamma responses than did ...
Antigen presentation An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen ... See also: Antigen presentation An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen ... Immune cells. White blood cells (T cell, B cell, NK cell, Mast cell, Basophil, Eosinophil) • Phagocyte (Neutrophil, Macrophage ... There are three main types of professional antigen-presenting cells: * Dendritic cells. Dendritic cells have the broadest range ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. Dendritic cells have the ...
Low expression level but potent antigen presenting function of CD1d on monocyte lineage cells.. Spada FM1, Borriello F, Sugita ... CD1d is a key antigen-presenting molecule involved in the selection and activation of a highly conserved T cell subset known as ... In this study, we analyzed the expression, regulation and function of human CD1d by various antigen-presenting cells (APC) of ... myeloid lineage cells tested were extremely potent APC for responses of NK T cell clones to the synthetic glycolipid antigen, ...
... are immune cells that specialize in presenting an antigen to a T-cell. The main types of professional APCs are dendritic cells ... DC), macrophages, and B cells. A professional APC takes up an antigen, processes it, and returns part of it to its surface, ... along with a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The T-cell is activated when it interacts with the formed complex ...
... are immune cells that specialize in presenting an antigen to a T-cell. The main types of professional APCs are dendritic cells ... DC), macrophages, and B cells. A professional APC takes up an antigen, processes it, and returns part of it to its surface, ... along with a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The T-cell is activated when it interacts with the formed complex ... So cells that do this are called professional antigen presenting cells. This is what they do for a living, although they do ...
When they encounter foreign pathogens, the antigen presenting cells alert the T cells-"the soldiers of the immune system"-that ... CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and stimulate helper T cells (CD4 cells). It is the specific antigen or epitope ... "Nanoscale artificial antigen presenting cells for T cell immunotherapy". Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 10 ... "Particle shape dependence of CD8+ T cell activation by artificial antigen presenting cells". Biomaterials. 35 (1): 269-277. doi ...
Antigen-presenting cell activates T cells by alerting them to the presence of tumors. Using advanced imaging technology that ... antigen-presenting cells play an important role. They emerge from white blood cells (monocytes) that circulate in the blood. An ... How do T cells, the beat cops of the immune system, detect signs of disease without the benefit of eyes? Like most cells, they ... Infiltrating self-defense cells provoke kidney failure in a chronic autoimmune disease. The crucial role of dendritic cells in ...
Eosinophil as antigen-presenting cell: activation of T cell clones and T cell hybridoma by eosinophils after antigen processing ... 5⇓D) images confirmed the intimate cell-cell interactions of OVA-presenting eosinophil APCs with OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ... dendritic cells and antigen-specific CD4 T cells after subcutaneous injection of antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 2247-2252. ... demonstrating intimate cell-cell interactions between blue/green OVA-presenting eosinophils and red OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ...
Defective Cell Corpse-Associated Antigen Cross-Presentation.. In addition to presenting endogenous antigens on MHC class I ... Shown are the percentage and absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, NK cells, and B cells in the spleen of Vps34f/f or ... in specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as a DC subset expressing CD8α and CD103, extracellular antigens can be ... DCs and in the capacity of these cells to cross-present cell corpse-associated antigens to MHC class I-restricted T cells, a ...
Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T in Clinical with AbbVie. Apply Today. ... Working knowledge of antigen presenting cells and T cell based in vitro and in vivo differentiation and cell proliferation ... Fine tuning the immune inhibitory receptor signal on antigen presenting cells to induce immune tolerance during inflammation: ... Postdoc - Postdoctoral Fellow - Targeting Immunoregulatory Signals in Antigen presenting Cells and T. ...
Since these peptides activate APCs, we call these peptides as A-cell epitopes (antigen presenting cell epitopes). The A-cell ... Immunomodulatory peptide Antigen presenting cells A-cell epitopes Support vector machine Adjuvants ... expressed on major immune cells like activated T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, macrophages and epithelial cells. With two major ... playing important roles especially in the antigen presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells, macrophages, etc. ...
The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell ( ... The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell ( ... T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces. In: David C.S. (eds) H-2 Antigens. NATO ASI Series (Series A: ... The Presentation of Processed, Ia Restricted, T Cell Antigenic Peptides on Antigen Presenting Cell Surfaces. ...
Subtotal RF ablation treatment results in enhanced systemic antitumor T-cell immune responses and tumor regression that is ... associated with increased dendritic cell infiltration. ITDC injection mimics the RF ablation effect but does not increase ... Radiofrequency ablation induces antigen-presenting cell infiltration and amplification of weak tumor-induced immunity Radiology ... RF ablation, ITDC, and combined groups demonstrated similar levels of antigen-presenting cell infiltration; all groups ...
Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases ... that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T... ... Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. Regulation of the immune response by TGF-β-treated antigen-presenting cells ... by antigen-specific autoreactive T cells. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-treated antigen-presenting cells induce a very ...
CD1.1 Expression by Mouse Antigen-Presenting Cells and Marginal Zone B Cells. Jessica H. Roark, Se-Ho Park, Jayanthi ... CD1.1 Expression by Mouse Antigen-Presenting Cells and Marginal Zone B Cells ... CD1.1 Expression by Mouse Antigen-Presenting Cells and Marginal Zone B Cells ... CD1.1 Expression by Mouse Antigen-Presenting Cells and Marginal Zone B Cells ...
... unlike the recombinant genes generated in somatic cells, which determine clonotypic recognition by T and B lymphocytes in the ... This chapter discusses selected scavenger and lectinlike antigen-presenting cell (APC) receptors in relation to innate immunity ... Chapter 15 : Antigen-Presenting Cell Receptors and Innate Immunity: Diversity, Recognition, and Responses Author: Siamon Gordon ... Antigen-Presenting Cell Receptors and Innate Immunity: Diversity, Recognition, and Responses, p 287-299. In Kaufmann S, ...
Thus, MHC class I-restricted antigens are efficiently transferred in vivo to bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, ... Antigen presentation models predict that the tumor cell itself should present these antigens to T cells. However, when ... Role of bone marrow-derived cells in presenting MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens ... Role of bone marrow-derived cells in presenting MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens ...
Antigen-Presenting Cells / drug effects*, physiology. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects*, immunology, physiology. Cell Communication ... Previous Document: Casein kinase 1 is a novel negative regulator of E-cadherin-based cell-cell contacts.. Next Document: ... While specific inhibition of MEK1/2 did not reduce CT-B induction of cell surface marker expression, it did attenuate CT-B- ... In order to elucidate mechanisms of immune modulation by CT-B alone, primary B cells and macrophages were assessed for ...
We describe a diverse population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to ... recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. ... A class of γδ T cell receptors recognize the underside of the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 Science. 2019 Dec 20;366(6472): ... T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. ...
T cells not only killed tumor cells efficiently but also strongly induced primary CD4,sup,+,/sup, and CD8,sup,+,/sup, ,i,αβ,/i ... T cells from patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, tumor-activated ,i,γδ,/i, T cells can induce adaptive immune ... However, it is not clear whether ,i,γδ,/i, T cells perform APC-like functions under pathological conditions. In this study, we ... More importantly, they abrogated the immunosuppression induced by CD4,sup,+,/sup,CD25,sup,+,/sup, Treg cells and induced the ...
Dendritic cells with antigen-presenting capability reside in airway epithelium, lung parenchyma, and visceral pleura.. K Sertl ... Dendritic cells with antigen-presenting capability reside in airway epithelium, lung parenchyma, and visceral pleura. ... In human tissue, these DC were shown to be positive for HLA-DR and T200 antigens. In the mouse, the DC expressed not only Ia ... We were able to demonstrate that mouse pulmonary DC function in antigen presentation, as observed with the other DC. Thus, the ...
What is antigen-presenting cell? Meaning of antigen-presenting cell as a finance term. What does antigen-presenting cell mean ... Definition of antigen-presenting cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to antigen-presenting cell: dendritic cell, T cell cell. an independent team of operatives who work together in a ... Antigen-presenting cell financial definition of antigen-presenting cell ...
These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell ... Formulations comprising combinations of APCs and tumor cells and APCs and virally infected cells are disclosed. ... wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic ... wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic ...
  • Because teleosts possess one of the earliest recognizable adaptive immune systems, we sought to identify antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the zebrafish to better understand the potential origins of DCs and their evolutionary relationship to lymphocytes. (
  • Seminal studies using purified DCs demonstrated their ability to induce T-cell activation and proliferation, establishing their role as "professional" APCs ( 6 ). (
  • Antigen Presenting Cell Biology welcomes high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen presenting cells (APCs), encompassing dendritic cells and macrophages, precursors in the bone marrow and the blood, immature APCs resident in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and mature APC. (
  • Antigen Presenting Cell Biology is devoted to the publication of high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen presenting cells (APCs), one of the most actively progressing topics in immunology. (
  • The section focuses on all APC types, in particular, but not limited to, dendritic cells and macrophages and on their ontogenesis, commencing with precursors in the bone marrow and the blood, on to immature APCs resident in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and finally to mature APC that migrate into secondary lymphatic organs for initiating adaptive immunity or immune tolerance. (
  • Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. (
  • Pathogen engulfment activates professional APCs, causing the cells to migrate to lymph nodes where they encounter T cells. (
  • Additional professional APC classes include macrophages and B cells, whereas fibroblasts and certain epithelial cell subtypes become non-professional APCs under the appropriate conditions. (
  • A full description of APC mechanism and function remains incomplete due to the difficulty of isolating the small percentage of APCs from other cell types. (
  • To help distinguish between the two types of APCs, those that express MHC class II molecules are often called professional antigen-presenting cells . (
  • These professional APCs are very efficient at internalizing antigen, either by phagocytosis or by endocytosis , and then display a fragment of the antigen, bound to a class II MHC molecule, on their membrane. (
  • As well, there are specialized cells in particular organs (e.g., microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver) derived from macrophages that are also effective APCs. (
  • APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. (
  • In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (
  • Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. (
  • however, the term "antigen-presenting cell" is often used specifically to describe professional APCs. (
  • APCs can also present foreign and self lipids to T cells and NK cells by using the CD1 family of proteins, which are structurally similar to the MHC class I family. (
  • Professional APCs specialize in presenting antigens to T cells. (
  • Under normal physiological conditions APCs continuously monitor GI tract and maintain mucosal homeostasis through strong induction of regulatory T cell responses. (
  • However, in IBD patients, the intestinal dysbiosis and break in intestinal epithelial barrier lead to activation of gut resident APCs and T cells that initiate IBD pathology. (
  • Therefore targeting regulatory signaling in APCs and T cells could help restore the immune homeostasis at site of inflammation and offer a novel therapeutic replacement for currently available broad spectrum immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • The capacity of airway eosinophils, potentially pertinent to allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways, to function as professional APCs, those specifically able to elicit responses from unprimed, Ag-naive CD4 + T cells has been uncertain. (
  • By three-color fluorescence microscopy, OVA Ag-loaded eosinophil APCs were physically interacting with naive OVA-specific CD4 + T cells in paratracheal LN after eosinophil airway instillation. (
  • Thus, recruited luminal airway eosinophils are distinct allergic "inflammatory" professional APCs able to activate primary CD4 + T cell responses in regional LNs. (
  • In this regard, DCs are well established as APCs for their roles in initiating primary T cell-mediated immune responses ( 10 ). (
  • DCs exhibit the three requisite attributes of "professional" APCs in that DCs can: 1) process and present MHC class II restricted Ags, 2) provide required second-signal costimulation of T cells, and 3) initiate T lymphocyte responses among Ag-naive T cells ( 11 ). (
  • Modeled after APCs, aAPCs need to have at least two signals to stimulate antigen specific T cells. (
  • MHC class I are found on all cells and stimulate cytotoxic T cells (CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and stimulate helper T cells (CD4 cells). (
  • aAPCs remove the need to harvest patient specific APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs) and the process of activating the DCs in the stimulation of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • These include the use of difficult-to-label target cells, or, regarding reporter gene transfection-based assays, the use of difficult-to-transfect targets such as primary human professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Here, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in APCs is a potent inducer of CD1d-dependent iNKT cell autoreactivity. (
  • Surprisingly, the neutral but not the polar lipids generated within APCs undergoing ER stress are capable of activating iNKT cells. (
  • All the mechanisms of vaccine adjuvants ensuing immunostimulatory effects directly or indirectly stimulate antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • We named the peptides that can activate APCs as A-cell epitopes and developed methods for their prediction in this study. (
  • Keeping in view the role of peptide ligands of PRRs in the activation of APCs, we introduce the term 'A-cell epitopes' for these immunomodulatory peptides. (
  • Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T cells. (
  • The mechanisms that are involved in the induction of tolerance by TGF-β-treated APCs are very complex and require the interaction of a variety of cell types, as well as soluble and membrane-bound factors. (
  • Altogether, the results support the idea that CD1.1 may function in recruiting a form of innate help from specialized cytokine producer αβ T cells to APCs, a role that might be important at the preadaptive phase of immune responses to some microbial pathogens. (
  • This review focuses on the study of bionic particle adjuvants, especially the effect of those particles' properties on their interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • By mimicking natural pathogens, these particles possess the ability to increase the cellular uptake of antigens, activate APCs, and promote the lysosomal escape of antigens. (
  • Here, we compare responsiveness and immune competence of circulating T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during periods of relative protection (birth) and susceptibility (8 months) to islet autoimmunity. (
  • Formulations comprising combinations of APCs and tumor cells and APCs and virally infected cells are disclosed. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • These cell populations also constitute the professional APCs, which are responsible for the mounting of adaptive immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • These high-mannose containing glycopeptides were tested for enhanced targeting to human antigen presenting cells (APCs), putatively mediated via the mannose receptor, and for processing by the APCs for presentation to human CD8+ T cells specific for a 9-mer epitope within the peptide. (
  • Glycopeptides bearing high-mannose N -glycan structures at a single site outside the T cell epitope were processed and presented by the APCs to allow activation of a T cell clone. (
  • Although the MR is expressed primarily by macrophages, the fact that it is expressed more widely on antigen presenting cells (APCs) led to the realisation 4 that the MR is involved in antigen processing and presentation. (
  • APCs are cells that take up antigens and present them to lymphocytes during an immune response (Sherwood et al, 2009). (
  • The components of APCs that actually do the presenting are Major Histocompatibility complexes (MHCs): Class I and Class II MHC molecules (Sompayrac, 2003). (
  • All nucleated cells of the body express MHC class I molecules and are therefore referred to as non-professional APCs (Kropshofer et al, 2005). (
  • The main focus of MHC class I APCs is on events within the cell. (
  • For this to happen, T cells need to recognise its cognate antibody in an MHC complex and they also need a co-stimulatory signal which can only be provided by professional APCs (, 2010). (
  • Co-stimulation is provided by a protein (B7) on APCs which interlocks with another protein (CD28) on the surface of T cells. (
  • Examples of professional APCs are activated macrophages, activated dendritic cells (DC) and activated B cells. (
  • DCs are the most important of the APCs as it capable of initiating an immune response by activating naïve T cells (Sompayrac, 2003). (
  • Processing of antigens within antigen presenting cells (APCs) is necessary for an immune response. (
  • Prior to efficient antigen presentation to MHC II, antigens have to be proteolytically degraded by proteases, the cathepsins, inside the endocytic compartment of APCs. (
  • To test this, we developed an adoptive T cell transfer model that allows us to study the different potentials of certain APCs for inducing memory. (
  • These are then stimulated in vitro with antigen and APCs. (
  • Notably, lower levels of viral infectivity in B6.S antigen-presenting cells (APCs) correlated with the disease resistance and T-cell-type response. (
  • In vitro studies using APCs from B6.S and SJL mice show that TLR2, -3, -4, and -7, but not TLR9, signaling can replace viral infection and augment the effect of viral infection in the differentiation of the pathogenic Th17 cell type. (
  • Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the viral replication levels in APCs critically affect the induction of protective versus pathogenic Th cell types via the signaling of pattern recognition receptors for innate immune responses. (
  • A major obstacle to the success of this objective derives from our inability to simply and rapidly isolate and/or expand large numbers of highly efficient antigen presenting cells (APCs) for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. (
  • We, therefore, contend that CD40-activated B cells are an alternative source of highly efficient APCs with which to generate antigen-specific T cells ex vivo for autologous adoptive immunotherapy. (
  • The question of whether the CNS contains professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) has been debated for many years. (
  • Myeloid cells from the uveal tract (known to contain APCs) of Cx3cr1-GFP mice were also included for comparison. (
  • Professional APCs express MHC class II while non-professional APCs express MHC class I. Only professional APCs are able to activate a helper T-cell that has never encountered its antigen before. (
  • Non-professional APCs include fibroblasts (skin cells), thymic epithelial cells, thyroid epithelial cells, glial cells (brain cells), pancreatic beta cells and vascular endothelial cells. (
  • While almost every cell in the body is technically an APC because they can present antigens to T-cells, the term is usually used to describe professional APCs. (
  • Macrophages are the primary antigen-presenting cells, but B cells and dendritic cells also can act as APCs. (
  • The binding of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) initiates the transendothelial migration of T cells to the paracortical region of draining lymph nodes, where both naive T cells and Tregs interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most important antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the upstream of immunomodulatory pathway. (
  • In the PLAT-03 trial, patients will receive "booster" infusions of a second T-cell product, called T antigen-presenting cells (T-APCs). (
  • T cells can take plasma membrane fragments of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via T-cell receptor (TCR) and antigen (Ag)/class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC), when these cells form an immunological synapse. (
  • Dendritic Cells (DCs) are widely distributed in tissues and organs and they are the body's most efficient Antigen- Presenting Cells (APCs) [ 1 ]. (
  • We aimed to target antigen presenting cells (APCs) by conjugating CpG oligonucleotides to an E2 protein nanoparticle surface (CpG-PEG-E2). (
  • Adult healthy human corneas bear a distinctive number of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) important for the fate of a graft. (
  • The purpose of this study was to differentiate between Langerhans cells (LCs) and other dendritic cells (DCs) and between mature and immature APCs in fresh and cultured human corneas using specific markers. (
  • The most capable antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in several tissues, primarily skin, are dendritic cells (DCs), including Langerhans cells (LCs). (
  • Besides macrophages, these cells function as professional APCs of the cornea and ocular surface. (
  • Corneal LCs, similar to skin LCs, are bone-marrow-derived cells that represent the professional APCs of the ocular surface. (
  • Here, we address these questions in two types of myeloid antigen presenting cells (APCs), macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), before and after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent stimulator of the innate immune response. (
  • A number of recent studies have emphasized a central role of the lineage-determining Ets family member PU.1 in defining cell type-specific enhancers in APCs. (
  • The myeloid APCs analysed in this study present a useful system for integrative analysis since there is an abundance of genome-wide data available for these cells. (
  • The immune system is able to recognize tumor antigens through the activity of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Antigen-presenting cell vaccine - An antigen presenting cell vaccine is a vaccine made of antigens and antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • In this review we will discuss the role of different players in these responses, including dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells and basophils as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stromal cells and epithelial cells as non-professional APCs. (
  • When a pathogen is detected, these APCs will phagocytose the pathogen and digest it to form many different fragments of the antigen. (
  • Before activation and differentiation, B cells can also function as APCs. (
  • APCs express MHC on their surfaces, and when combined with a foreign antigen, these complexes signal a "non-self" invader. (
  • The skin is one of the largest immune organs in the first line of contact with pathogens and is rich in potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans cells in the epidermis and dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis. (
  • for this reason, these types of cells are sometimes referred to as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) . (
  • APC, identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. (
  • After dendritic cells or macrophages swallow pathogens, they usually migrate to the lymph nodes , where most T cells are. (
  • Professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes, are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of immunity. (
  • We postulate that host control of HHV-8 infection and development of KS is linked to T cell interactions with HHV-8 infected, professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes. (
  • And when we're talking about phagocytes or macrophages or dendritic cells that are particular cases of phagocytes, the major histocompatibility complexes that they present after they've digested this molecule-- this is an MHC class II. (
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • They are very efficient at internalizing antigens, either by phagocytosis (e.g. macrophages), or by receptor-mediated endocytosis (B cells), processing the antigen into peptide fragments and then displaying those peptides (bound to a class II MHC molecule) on their membrane. (
  • The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (
  • Macrophages can be stimulated by T cell secretion of interferon. (
  • In this model, F4/80 peritoneal exudate cells (macrophages) cultured with antigen and TGF-β2 injected iv induce populations of regulatory T cells that mediate long-lasting antigen-specific tolerance in mice. (
  • Remarkably, CD1.1 was mainly expressed by dendritic cells, B cells, and macrophages, suggesting a function in Ag presentation to Th cells. (
  • In strong support of the hypothesis that CD1.1 is directly or indirectly involved in Ag presentation to Th cells, we found that it was conspicuously expressed at high levels on dendritic cells, MHC class II + macrophages, and B cells. (
  • In order to elucidate mechanisms of immune modulation by CT-B alone, primary B cells and macrophages were assessed for responses to CT-B in vitro, as measured by the expression of cell surface markers, cellular signaling events, and cytokine secretion. (
  • Unlike alveolar macrophages, the DC were negative for nonspecific esterase staining and shared ultrastructural similarities with the DC described by Steinman (1), and with Langerhans' cells, even though they did not contain Birbeck granules. (
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (
  • However, a number of studies have demonstrated that the infiltration of tumors by macrophages and DCs contributed to their aggressive phenotype by supplying different classes of factors necessary for tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness, such as growth and angiogenic factors, as well as proteolytic enzymes ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Phagolysomes and Birbeck granules were not observed in such cells, indicating these were distinct from dermal macrophages and from classical epidermal Langerhans cells, respectively. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Distinction of class II MHC+ Langerhans cell-like interstitial dendritic antigen-presenting cells in murine dermis from dermal macrophages. (
  • The population of cells able to present antigen to class II MHC-restricted, CD4 + T helper cells appears heterogenous and, in the mouse, includes B lymphocytes, macrophages and DC. (
  • In this paper, we tested whether B cells and macrophages could play a role in antigen presentation in an anamnestic response in vivo , and compared the antigen presentation during a secondary versus a primary response. (
  • There are three main types of professional antigen-presenting cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and B-cells. (
  • Macrophages are white blood cells that are found inside the tissues of all vertebrates. (
  • Macrophages are phagocytes, which means they are able to engulf antigens that enter the body. (
  • He also found that Plasmodium GPI would hyperactivate macrophages and antigen-presenting cells in the immune system, and cause red blood cells to adhere to blood vessels--all conditions associated with deadly cerebral malaria. (
  • Class-2 MHC molecules are produced only by antigen-presenting cells -macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (
  • What is the interaction between macrophages and t lymphocytes when antigen presents? (
  • We have shown that HIV-1 Tat interaction with MAP2K3, MAP2K6, and IRF7 promoters is key to IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) activation in immature dendritic cells and macrophages. (
  • We evaluated how Tat alleles and mutants differ in cellular gene modulation of immature dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages and what similarities this modulation has with that induced by interferons. (
  • A cellular gene modulation similar to that induced by Tat and Tat mutants in immature dendritic cells could be observed in monocyte-derived macrophages, with the most significant pathways affected by Tat being the same in both cell types. (
  • Tat expression in cells deleted of the type I IFN locus or receptor resulted in a gene modulation pattern similar to that induced in primary immature dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, excluding the involvement of type I IFNs in Tat-mediated gene modulation. (
  • Includes macrophages, endothelium, dendritic cells and Langerhans cells of the skin. (
  • Subsequent in vivo experiments performed in mice, ferrets and non-human primates indicated that preferential targeting of dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages was observed after respiratory administration, although subtle differences were observed between the respective animal species. (
  • MHC I are found on all nucleated body cells, and MHC II are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells (along with MHC I). The antigen-binding cleft of MHC I is formed by domains α 1 and α 2 . (
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are phagocytes that ingest and kill pathogens that penetrate the first-line barriers (i.e., skin and mucous membranes). (
  • In addition, whereas macrophages and dendritic cells recognize pathogens through nonspecific receptor interactions (e.g. (
  • Third, unlike B cells and dendritic cells that are capable of presenting soluble protein antigens, eosinophils, like macrophages, are especially able to degrade particulate antigens. (
  • Alveolar macrophages are poor antigen-presenting cells. (
  • T lymphocytes are part of the immune system involved in identifying antigens . (
  • DCs act as immune sentries in various tissues and, upon encountering pathogen, engulf and traffic foreign antigen to secondary lymphoid tissues, stimulating antigen-specific T lymphocytes. (
  • Importantly, we show that PNA hi cells can activate T lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner. (
  • In evolutionary terms, teleosts possess one of the earliest recognizable adaptive immune systems, containing B and T lymphocytes with somatically rearranged antigen receptors, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and immunological memory ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system are critical for displaying foreign antigens to T lymphocytes, a process called "antigen presentation. (
  • The class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a role in both canonical and noncanonical autophagy, key processes that control the presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T lymphocytes. (
  • Genes for the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system have become fixed in the germ line during evolution, unlike the recombinant genes generated in somatic cells, which determine clonotypic recognition by T and B lymphocytes in the acquired immune response. (
  • Dendritic cells use phagocytosis to break up molecules from pathogens to present on their cell surface to warn other lymphocytes of an invasion. (
  • Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) is a cancer immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma patients based on autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). (
  • Background Adoptive cell therapy with ex vivo expanded autologous antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes represents an important therapeutic option as an anticancer strategy. (
  • In order to identify a reliable method for producing adequate amounts of functional antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes with a potentially long in vivo lifespan, we tested the T-cell expansion efficiency of a new artificial antigen-presenting cell-based system. (
  • The majority of circulating human γδT lymphocytes are of the Vγ9Vδ2 lineage, and have T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity for nonpeptide phosphoantigens. (
  • γδT cells comprise less than 5% of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in most populations. (
  • Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (
  • Boon T, Cerottini JC, Van den Eynde B, van der Bruggen P, Van Pel A. Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes. (
  • Murine dendritic cells loaded in vitro with soluble protein prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes against tumor antigen in vivo. (
  • Control of the immune response at the level of antigen-presenting cells: a comparison of the function of dendritic cells and B lymphocytes. (
  • The cells then secrete interferons, lysozyme and other factors that stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the antigens. (
  • Artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC), which deliver stimulatory signals to cytotoxic lymphocytes, are a powerful tool for both adoptive and active immunotherapy. (
  • Adoptive immunotherapy using tumor-reactive T lymphocytes has emerged as a powerful approach for the treatment of bulky, refractory cancer [ 1 ], however the ability to generate large numbers of TILs for therapy is a challenge that has significant regulatory hurdles, and requires technically sophisticated cell processing and extended in vitro lymphocyte culturing periods. (
  • This presentation is necessary for some T lymphocytes that are unable to recognize soluble antigens. (
  • Immature DCs uptake antigens and mature DCs present antigens to naive T-lymphocytes, then stimulate naive T cells to differentiate to be effector T cells [ 2 ], thus, DCs are important key mediators between innate and acquired immune responses [ 3 ]. (
  • On co-culture with allogeneic (normal donors) peripheral blood lymphocytes, hybrid cell lines induced elevated levels of T-cell proliferation compared with their relevant tumour cells, which was dependent on expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and MHC class I and class II antigens. (
  • Depending on that, tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were induced in vitro by stimulation of allogeneic or autologous PBMCs for multiple rounds with selected hybrid cell lines in the presence of rhIL-2. (
  • BAPCs were not increased in renal cell carcinoma, whereas we found a systemic increase with elevated fractions in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PBMCs of patients with colorectal cancer and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. (
  • These cells present their class-2 MHC molecules together with the foreign polypeptide antigen to helper T lymphocytes. (
  • This activates the helper T lymphocytes, so that they can promote the B-cell immune response. (
  • The helper T lymphocytes can only be activated by antigens presented to them in association with class-2 MHC molecules. (
  • Killer (cytotoxic) T lymphocytes, by contrast, can be activated to destroy a victim cell only if the cell presents antigens to them in association with class-1 MHC molecules. (
  • A foreign antigen is presented to T lymphocytes in association with MHC molecules. (
  • Unlike NK cells of the innate immune system, B cells (B lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that gives rise to antibodies, whereas T cells (T lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the immune response. (
  • Note that T lymphocytes cannot properly respond to the antigen unless it is processed and embedded in an MHC II molecule. (
  • Helper T- cells are one of the main lymphocytes that respond to antigen-presenting cells. (
  • An antigen from the bacterium is presented on the cell surface in conjunction with an MHC II molecule Lymphocytes of the adaptive immune response interact with antigen-embedded MHC II molecules to mature into functional immune cells. (
  • The cell therapy platform at Iovance Biotherapeutics is built around the properties of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), immune cells that surround and infiltrate malignant tissues and are critical for immunosurveillance. (
  • Lymphocytes comprise 20-40% (1000 - 4000 cells/μl) of all leukocytes. (
  • Fifth, eosinophil trafficking from the airway lumen into lymphocytes provides a mechanism for antigens inhaled into the airways to be processed and transported into tissues for presentation to lymphocytes. (
  • Hypotheses are that eosinophils are effective at presenting inhaled antigens to lymphocytes, that this eosinophil antigen processing and trafficking occur in vivo within the airways, that eosinophil high affinity IgE receptors function to enhance eosinophil antigen presentation of allergens, and that antigen presentation by eosinophils, perhaps based on their release of preformed, cytokines, skews Th2-mediated responses to inhaled antigens. (
  • Eosinophils, incubated with OVA Ag in vitro, were instilled intratracheally into wild-type recipient mice that adoptively received i.v. infusions of OVA Ag-specific CD4 + T cells from OVA TCR transgenic mice. (
  • With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. (
  • 14. The formulation of claim 13, wherein said dendritic cells are selected from the group consisting of cutaneous epidermal Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells, lymph node dendritic cells, spleen dendritic cells and dendritic cells derived through in vitro culture of precursors. (
  • APC were transfected either with plasmid DNA containing the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) or directly with in vitro-transcribed (IVT) GPF mRNA as a surrogate antigen. (
  • This was a general phenomenon, as T cells presenting influenza (flu) antigen also fail to activate otherwise potent flu-specific CTLs either in vitro or in vivo. (
  • Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. (
  • Retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells do not upregulate APC markers following systemic inflammation and are incapable of presenting antigen to naïve CD4 + T cells in vitro . (
  • CD40-B cells were shown to not only prime naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells effciently, but also expand memory T cells in vitro. (
  • Furthermore they express the full lymph node homing triad (CD62L, CCR7/CXCR4 and LFA-1) and were shown to induce T-cell chemotaxis in vitro. (
  • Despite their T-cell stimulatory capacity in vitro being inferior to murine dendritic cell (mDC) subsets, we demonstrated that vaccination with antigen-loaded mCD40B effectively induces specifc CTL responses against viral and model peptide antigen in vivo. (
  • This is the first description of nanoscale aAPC that induce antigen-specific T cell proliferation in vitro and lead to effective T cell stimulation and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. (
  • In vitro systems that culture immune cells have contributed greatly in shaping our understanding of immune cell functions and in the development of immunotherapies. (
  • Given that preliminary work has indicated that prostaglandins can play a role in modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, we addressed the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthetic capacity of mouse DC produced in vitro from bone marrow cells. (
  • BAPCs isolated from tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients with cancer showed increased percentages of tumor antigen-specific B cells and induced responses of autologous T cells in vitro . (
  • Studies aim to define the capacity of human eosinophils in vitro to function as antigen-presenting cells and to define the role of eosinophil IgE receptors in facilitating antigen presentation by eosinophils. (
  • RMA-S cells pulsed with peptides isolated from ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing tumor cells were highly effective at inducing primary, OVA-specific CTL responses in vitro and priming CTL responses in vivo. (
  • A T-cell receptor can now recognise the antigen linked with the MHC and thus binds to it. (
  • T cell receptor complexes recognize these antigen-MHC complexes and other necessary stimulatory macromolecules, inducing them to promote the appropriate immunological responses. (
  • T-cells may recognize this complex using their T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • This is achieved by interacting with a professional APC which presents an antigen recognized by their T cell receptor. (
  • The peptide-loaded MHC engages with the cognate T cell receptor (TCR) found on the T cells. (
  • Surprisingly, these animals displayed a defect in the homeostatic maintenance of splenic CD8α + DCs and in the capacity of these cells to cross-present cell corpse-associated antigens to MHC class I-restricted T cells, a property that was associated with defective expression of the T-cell Ig mucin (TIM)-4 receptor. (
  • Furthermore, the cell type that expressed the highest levels of CD1.1 was the splenic marginal zone B cell, a distinct subset of B cells that also expresses CD21 (the C3d receptor) and may be involved in natural responses to bacterial Ags. (
  • L.A. Casten, E.K. Lakey, M.L. Jelachich, E. Margoliash and S.K. Pierce, Anti-immunoglobulin augments B cell antigen-presentation function independently of internalization of receptor antigen complex, Proc. (
  • T cells at birth are mostly naïve, thereby requiring strong signals through the T-cell receptor and costimulation for priming. (
  • ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. (
  • Ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cell receptor transgenic CD4+ T cells are labeled with CFSE, allowing us to visualize cell division. (
  • Previous attempts to stimulate and expand these cells have therefore focused on stimulation using ligands of the Vγ9Vδ2 receptor, whereas relatively little is known about variant blood γδT subsets and their potential role in cancer immunotherapy. (
  • This stems from their capacity to be specifically activated and expanded by potent but nontoxic small-molecule ligands of the gamma-delta T-cell receptor (γδTCR) Vγ9Vδ2. (
  • Exogenous antigens gain access to the major histocompatibility complex class I processing pathway in B cells by receptor-mediated uptake. (
  • This complex forms epitopes (part of a foreign substance that can be recognized by the immune system), which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to. (
  • Antigen presentation by B cells is characterised by their ability to take-up, process and present antigen via MHC-II in a B cell receptor dependent and independent fashion. (
  • Artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) expressing ligands for the T cell receptor and costimulatory molecules can activate and expand T cells for transfer, while improving their potency and function. (
  • A cell, such as a macrophage, a B cell or a dendritic cell, that presents processed antigenic peptides and MHC class II molecules to the T cell receptor on CD4 T cells. (
  • Epitopes described in αβ T cell antigen receptor recognition of CD1a presenting self lipid ligands. (
  • This study demonstrates that abrogation of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells significantly and specifically enhanced the ability of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. (
  • We hypothesize that: 1) To escape T cell immunity, HPV16 L2 suppresses the maturation of LC through interaction with the cell surface receptor ANXA2;and 2) The use of immune-modulating compounds will enable reversal of the immune-suppressive phenotype and function of HPV-exposed LC from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients, and induce activation of HPV-specific T cells. (
  • This event is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR) , which transduces these extracellular signals by initiating a wide array of intracellular signalling pathways. (
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) is a complex of integral membrane proteins that participates in the activation of T cells in response to the presentation of antigen by antigen presenting cells. (
  • Fourth, antibodies of several classes, by Fc receptor-mediated mechanisms, can dramatically enhance antigen uptake and presentation by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • When a cytotoxic cell discovers any infected cell the content of the cytotoxic granules is released by receptor-mediated exocytosis. (
  • R. Steinman and collaborators 1 have shown that an antigen injected intravenously at high dose in a naive mouse was present in an immunogenic form on DC only, a finding that correlates with the unique capacity of the DC in stimulating antigen-specific, naive T cells. (
  • Although almost every cell in the body is technically an APC, since it can present antigen to CD8 + T cells via MHC class I molecules, the term is often limited to those specialized cells that can prime T cells (i.e., activate a T cell that has not been exposed to antigen, termed a naive T cell ). (
  • These cells generally express MHC class II as well as MHC class I molecules, and can stimulate CD4 + ("helper") cells as well as CD8 + ("cytotoxic") T cells . (
  • Activated DCs are especially potent T H cell activators because, as part of their composition, they express co-stimulatory molecules such as B7 . (
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the few human viruses that primarily targets these APC for infection, altering their cytokine profiles, manipulating their surface expression of MHC molecules, and altering their ability to activate HHV-8-specific T cells. (
  • Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (
  • They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (
  • They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (
  • Once a dendritic cell's pattern-recognition receptors recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antigen is phagocytosed and the dendritic cell becomes activated, upregulating the expression of MHC class II molecules. (
  • It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. (
  • When they encounter foreign pathogens, the antigen presenting cells alert the T cells-"the soldiers of the immune system"-that there is something foreign in the body with specific cell surface molecules. (
  • T cells need another signal to become activated in addition to Signal 1, this is done by co-stimulatory molecules such as the proteins CD80 (B7.1) or CD86 (B7.2), although other additional co-stimulation molecules have been identified. (
  • Cell-based aAPCs have been produced by transfecting murine fibroblasts to express specific peptide-loaded HLA molecules with co-stimulatory signal B7.1, and cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. (
  • The requirement for processing and presentation of antigens for T cell recognition would not appear to apply only to T cells of the helper subset, in that recent studies have indicated that cytolytic T cells may also recognize processed forms of their antigens in the context of the MHC class I molecules. (
  • Many tumors express tumor-specific antigens capable of being presented to CD8+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. (
  • In contrast, antigen presentation and expression of these molecules had reached competent adult levels by the high incidence age of 8 months. (
  • MHC class I molecules are like 'billboards' that display on the surface of the cell, peptides of processed endogenous proteins (Sompayrac, 2003).The endogenous proteins could be those encoded by viruses or parasites that have infected the cell. (
  • After which MHC class I molecules within the cell are loaded with these peptides along with a sample of other normal proteins being made by the cell. (
  • The protein fragments are displayed on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells (Tc) (Schindler, 1991). (
  • MHC class II molecules are designed to present peptides to helper T cells (Th). (
  • Unlike the MHC class I molecules, MHC class II molecules are restricted to certain cell types termed professional APC's. (
  • In normal tissues DCs are immature, expressing few B7 protein and MHC molecules on their surfaces so are poor antigen presenters. (
  • In order to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccination, HA was targeted to either major histocompatibility complex class II molecules or chemokine receptors 1, 3, and 5 (CCR1/3/5) that are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • The aAPCs currently being established at CCIT are genetically modified with various T-cell co-stimulatory molecules and Fc receptors for antibody loading. (
  • Rock KL, Rothstein L, Gamble S, Fleischacker C. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells that present exogenous antigens in association with class I MHC molecules. (
  • Despite this, retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells did not upregulate I-A/I-E, or the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and were phenotypically identical to CD45 lo CD11b + F4/80 lo I-A.I-E - microglia. (
  • CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B) are professional antigen-presenting cells comparable to dendritic cells (DC) exhibiting a high expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules. (
  • Using DAP.3 cells transfected with I-Ag7 or I-Ak, we show that the expression of compact dimers in the same cell type is proportionally less for I-Ag7 molecules than for I-Ak molecules, implying an intrinsic defect of the I-Ag7 molecule as the cause for the low generation of compact dimers. (
  • A cell that breaks down antigens and displays their fragments on surface receptors next to major histocompatibility complex molecules. (
  • Priming DCs with microbial compounds up-regulates the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which drives T-helper (Th) cells to differentiate to Th1 or Th2 cells [ 4 ]. (
  • Immunotherapy is a promising investigational approach, especially hybrid cell vaccination, in which a professional APC is fused to a tumour cell, and the fusion product mostly combines the antigenicity of the tumour cell partner, processed and presented through the relevant APC-machinery, and associated with co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40 expression, for proper induction of anti-tumour immune responses. (
  • We also observed that exogenous PGE(2) diminished the expression of MHC class II molecules by BM-DC and that prostaglandin and indomethacin had antagonistic effects on cell proliferation during the mixed lymphocyte reaction using BM-DC as stimulatory cells. (
  • CTLA4 ligands are important costimulatory molecules because soluble CTLA4Ig blocks the induction of T cell responses and induces T cell tolerance. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex of genes produces two classes of MHC molecules , designated class 1 and class 2, that are found on the cell surface. (
  • The class-1 molecules are produced by all cells in the body except red blood cells . (
  • ments for class-1 or class-2 MHC molecules result from the presence of coreceptors, which are proteins associated with the T cell receptors. (
  • antigen presenting cell - A cell that carries on its surface antigen bound to MCH Class I or Class II molecules, and presents the antigen in this context to T cells. (
  • the fragments are then loaded onto MHC class I or MHC class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface for antigen presentation, as illustrated in the figure below. (
  • Recall that all other nucleated cells of the body expressed MHC I molecules, which signal "healthy" or "normal. (
  • The company's proprietary Cell Squeeze platform is based on the discovery that squeezing cells through a constriction temporarily disrupts their membranes and allows the delivery of molecules. (
  • As discussed in Cellular Defenses , major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are expressed on the surface of healthy cells, identifying them as normal and "self" to natural killer (NK) cells . (
  • MHC molecules also play an important role in the presentation of foreign antigens, which is a critical step in the activation of T cells and thus an important mechanism of the adaptive immune system. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ) is a collection of genes coding for MHC molecules found on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body. (
  • Mature red blood cells , which lack a nucleus, are the only cells that do not express MHC molecules on their surface. (
  • Both types of MHC molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that assemble as dimers in the cytoplasmic membrane of cells, but their structures are quite different. (
  • In order to present abnormal or non-self-antigens to T cells, MHC molecules have a cleft that serves as the antigen-binding site near the "top" (or outermost) portion of the MHC-I or MHC-II dimer. (
  • All nucleated cells in the body have mechanisms for processing and presenting antigens in association with MHC molecules. (
  • Proteases process bacterial antigens, and the most antigenic epitopes are selected and presented on the cell's surface in conjunction with MHC II molecules. (
  • The differentiation of Th1 and Th2 T cell subsets is determined by a number of factors, including the antigen itself, antigen dose, route of administration, nature of the antigen-presenting cell and co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) molecules on Antigen Presenting Cells that present antigen peptides to TCR complexes trigger TCR and induce a series of intracellular signalling cascades. (
  • In 1868, Paul Langerhans made the first description of dendritic cells (DCs) found in human skin that he regarded as "intraepidermal receptors for extracutaneous signals of the nervous system" ( 1 ). (
  • They display these antigens on their cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptors. (
  • T cells may recognize these complexes using their T cell receptors (TCRs). (
  • As a parallel development, due to maturation of technology and promising clinical data, the interest in redirecting adoptively transferred T cells by recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) and chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has moved into the spotlight [ 8 , 9 ], as has the pursuit of cancer-cell surface directed antibodies recruiting and activating immune effectors such as FcR positive immune cells (ADCC) or the complement cascade (CDC). (
  • These CD1-specific αβ T cells, which are CD4-positive or CD4/CD8-negative, also express NK receptors and have been referred to as NK1.1 + T cells ( 5 , 14 , 15 ). (
  • This chapter discusses selected scavenger and lectinlike antigen-presenting cell (APC) receptors in relation to innate immunity to illustrate principles and provide questions for further study. (
  • In the mouse, the DC expressed not only Ia and the T200 antigen, but also Fc-IgG and C3bi receptors. (
  • One of these functional differences is the expression of differential sets of chemoattractant receptors, which is responsible for the selective recruitment of specific cell subpopulations according to their lineage, origin, and maturation state ( 2 ). (
  • Before dendritic cells can begin to phagocytose pathogens, they need to be activated by non-specific receptors like Toll-like receptors, which are some of the first responders to an invasion of foreign particles. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the cell walls of bacteria and is recognized by Toll-like receptors. (
  • A team of scientists from VIB, UGent, and Institute Curie in France investigated the interaction between the aggregation of lysosomes and dendritic cells after Toll-like receptors bind LPS, looking at pathways important for "antigen degradation and cross-presentation. (
  • Previous studies have used aminobisphosphonates or functional equivalents to expand the Vγ9Vδ2 lineage, but strategies to expand γδT cells bearing other receptors have not been developed as clinical applications. (
  • PAMPs , toll-like receptors , and receptors for opsonizing complement or antibody), B cells interact with foreign pathogens or their free antigens using antigen-specific immunoglobulin as receptors (monomeric IgD and IgM ). (
  • When the immunoglobulin receptors bind to an antigen, the B cell internalizes the antigen by endocytosis before processing and presentting the antigen to T cells. (
  • To understand the interaction between T-cells and antigen presenting cells, it is important to understand what all receptors are present on these cells and how they interact. (
  • The models developed in this study were implemented in a web-based platform VaxinPAD to predict and design immunomodulatory peptides or A-cell epitopes. (
  • 2 demonstrated that cytolytic T cells specific for influenza virus infected cells recognize peptides of the nucleocapsid protein which is not normally expressed in its native form on the cell surface. (
  • Thus, the ability to process and present both extracellular and intracellular proteins appears to be a general function of all cells which presumably have the machinery to anchor T cell antigenic peptides on their surfaces. (
  • E.K. Lakey, E. Margoliash, G. Flouret and S.K. Pierce, Peptides related to the antigenic determinant block T cell recognition of the native protein as processed by antigen-presenting cells, Eur. (
  • E.K. Lakey, L.A. Casten, M.S. Anderson, L. Smolenski, J.A. Smith, E. Margoliash and S.K. Pierce, T. cell activation by processed antigen is equally blocked by I-E and I-A restricted peptides. (
  • Viral proteins are broken down into peptides by enzymes within the cell (proteasomes) (DeFranco et al, 2007). (
  • Tc cells detect foreign peptides bound to an MHC so if a cell has been invaded by a virus or parasite, the Tc cells are alerted and respond by destroying the abnormal cell thus preventing the spread of viruses throughout the body (DeFranco et al, 2007). (
  • We found that the mononuclear cells from a CAEBV patient also produce BRLF1 tetramer specific CTLs after stimulation with specific peptides. (
  • Vaccination with peptides isolated from tumor cells circumvents the need for identifying specific tumor rejection antigens and extends the use of active immunotherapy to the majority of cancers where specific tumor antigens have not yet been identified. (
  • In this study, we examined the efficacy of tumor vaccines composed of unfractionated tumor peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC) to induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and tumor immunity. (
  • To enhance the clinical relevance of these studies, cells pulsed with tumor peptides were evaluated in the poorly immunogenic, B16/F10.9 melanoma post-surgical metastasis model. (
  • This study suggests that APC loaded with unfractionated peptides derived from poorly immunogenic, highly metastatic tumor cells may represent a potent form of tumor vaccine. (
  • Antigen presentation allows for specificity of adaptive immunity and can contribute to immune responses against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (
  • CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells constitute a common glycolipid-reactive innate-like T-cell subset with a broad impact on innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • In a recent study published in Immunity , scientists identified just how antigen presentation works for dendritic cells. (
  • n This Mcgrahill animation shows you how the interaction btw Ag and TH cell occur during active immunity. (
  • In the course of modeling the naturally occurring tumor immunity seen in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), we discovered an unexpectedly high threshold for breaking CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) tolerance to the PCD autoantigen, CDR2. (
  • Jr Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induce antigen-specific CTL-mediated protective tumor immunity. (
  • McKenna, K, Beignon AS, Bhardwaj N. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells: Linking Innate and Adaptive Immunity. (
  • In summary, highly activated mCD40B cells indeed exhibit antigen-presenting capacity sufficient to induce protective anti-tumour immunity in B16 melanoma. (
  • The role of B cells in antitumor immunity and their impact on emerging immunotherapies is increasingly gaining attention. (
  • Our results highlight the relevance of BAPCs as professional antigen-presenting cells in tumor immunity and provide a mechanistic rationale for the observed correlation of B-cell abundance and response to immune checkpoint inhibition. (
  • This is required in order to achieve tolerance towards self and non-self harmless antigens and immunity towards pathogenic microorganisms. (
  • they present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or nonself pathogens to the effector T cells involved in cellular immunity. (
  • One of the potential mechanisms by which HPV escapes immunity is inducing tolerance via antigen presentation in the absence of co-stimulation by Langerhans cells (LC), the antigen-presenting cells at the site of HPV infections. (
  • Adaptive immunity is an immunity that occurs after exposure to an antigen either from a pathogen or a vaccination. (
  • In addition, tumor peptide-pulsed RMA-S cells induced protective immunity in mice when challenged with OVA-expressing tumor cells. (
  • In essence, they lose most of their ability to further swallow pathogens, and they develop an increased ability to communicate with T cells. (
  • Antigen presenting cells are the sentinels of the immune system and patrol the body for pathogens. (
  • This transient activity of mature DCs might restrict them in a way that they need to internalize and cross-present foreign antigens while pathogens are present, but before tissue destruction becomes too dominant," said Rudi Bevaert, PhD. (
  • Each type of T-cell is specially equipped to deal with different pathogens, which may be a bacteria, virus or toxin. (
  • Upon activation, these cells travel toward the site of injury, and they engulf pathogens. (
  • These cells represent a first line of defence against pathogens as part of the innate immune system, and play a role in the subsequent activation of the adaptive immune system. (
  • The molecule's positive charge allows for binding to phospholipids and cardiolipin, both of which can be found as epitopes on the surfaces of pathogens, and its 2nd and 3rd helices are principle players in lysing foreign or infected cells. (
  • We show that PNA hi myeloid cells possess the classical morphological features of mammalian DCs as revealed by histochemical and ultrastructural analyses, phagocytose-labeled bacterial preparations in vivo, and exhibit expression of genes associated with DC function and antigen presentation, including il12 , MHC class II invariant chain iclp1 , and csf1r . (
  • Together, these studies suggest that the cellular constituents responsible for antigen presentation are remarkably conserved from teleosts to mammals, and indicate that the zebrafish may serve as a unique model to study the origin of APC subsets and their evolutionary role as the link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation, and are probably the most important APC. (
  • this process is known as antigen presentation. (
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation and are necessary for activation of naive T cells. (
  • Cross-presentation allows for the activation of these T cells. (
  • We found that DCs from these animals have a partially activated phenotype, spontaneously produce cytokines, and exhibit enhanced activity of the classic MHC class I and class II antigen-presentation pathways. (
  • Finally, consistent with their defect in the cross-presentation of apoptotic cells, DC-specific Vps34 -deficient animals developed increased metastases in response to challenge with B16 melanoma cells. (
  • Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the adaptive immune cell activation by a coordination of antigen presentation to the naïve adaptive immune cell with the release of cytokine milieu mediated by PRR activation. (
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JY, Shadduck JA: Systemic immune unresponsiveness induced in adult mice by anterior chamber presentation of minor histocompatibility antigens. (
  • Although the function of CD1 remains elusive, several observations recently suggested that it might perform specialized functions of Ag presentation to specialized αβ T cells. (
  • E.K. Lakey, E. Margoliash and S.K. Pierce, A peptide binding protein which plays a role in antigen presentation, Proc. (
  • Antigen presentation models predict that the tumor cell itself should present these antigens to T cells. (
  • However, when conditions for the priming of tumor-specific responses were examined in mice, no detectable presentation of MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens by the tumor itself was found. (
  • We were able to demonstrate that mouse pulmonary DC function in antigen presentation, as observed with the other DC. (
  • Thus, the respiratory tract contains DC that are capable of functioning in antigen presentation and that may be important in pulmonary immune responses. (
  • We propose that temporal changes in islet autoimmunity seroconversion in infants are a consequence of the changing balance between homeostatic drive and antigen presentation competence. (
  • The dermal antigen-presentation activities were totally abrogated by removal of class II MHC+ cells, but not by removal of CD11b+ cells or Ly6c+ cells, indicating that potent antigen-presenting cell activity was restricted to the class II MHC+ CD11b- Ly6c- subset (Langerhans cell-like/indeterminant cells). (
  • These two complexes provide two different pathways of antigen presentation that stimulates different population of T cells to eliminate the invading pathogen concerned. (
  • This MHC-peptide complex is then transported to the cell surface for presentation. (
  • A "fusion between phagosomes and lysosomes" is created during antigen activation that "influences the presentation of antigens. (
  • However, a precise understanding of the antigen processing and presentation machinery is needed to generate specific immune modulators since the MHC antigen- processing pathway is subsequently regulated during tumorigenesis, infection, or autoimmunity. (
  • The proper presentation of antigens is a crucial step in the orchestration of immune responses. (
  • Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • Steinman RM, Witmer-Pack M, Inaba K. Dendritic cells: antigen presentation, accessory function and clinical relevance. (
  • Presentation of exogenous protein antigens by dendritic cells to T cell clones. (
  • In that context, it has become clear that antigen presentation by B cells is critically involved in both physiologic immune responses as well as pathologic immune reaction such as autoimmune diseases. (
  • Our aim was to develop and characterize a suitable antigen-presenting cell (APC) that expressed I-Ag7 in the context of a non-diabetes-prone antigen processing and presentation machinery. (
  • The DAP.3Ag7 cell line should be a valuable tool with which to dissect the role of the I-Ag7 molecule in antigen presentation and T-cell activation in NOD mice, which clearly contributes to the development of IDDM. (
  • B-cell effector functions include not only secretion of antibodies, but also presentation of antigens to T cells. (
  • Recent advances have highlighted that antigen presentation in the gastrointestinal tract is carried out by different specialized immune and non-immune cells. (
  • It covers all cell types involved in antigen presentation, providing the latest immunological facts with a focus on drug development. (
  • abstract = "Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response. (
  • i) T cells are largely immunocompetent at birth, (ii) accessory cell function is not fully mature, and (iii) the widely observed hyporesponsiveness to pathogenes may be primarily due to immaturity of APC function or costimulator molecule expression. (
  • The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen presenting cell. (
  • This is the molecule which is loaded with the specific antigen. (
  • The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell (APC) to a peptide containing an antigenic determinant, which is transported to and held on the APC surface, where it is recognized by the specific T cell in the context of the appropriate Ia molecule 1 . (
  • Genetically engineered artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) that express any desired T-cell activating or co-stimulatory molecule on the cell surface have the potential to eliminate the need to use PBMCs from multiple donors and could lead to improved effector-memory qualities with a longer persistence of TILs in the patients. (
  • The processed antigens are transported to the surface of the APC, bound with either an MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I or class II molecule. (
  • Once the T-cell recognizes and binds to the MHC molecule complex, the APC sends out an additional co-stimulatory signal to activate the T-cell. (
  • These NKT cells are able to identify and bind to self or nonself lipids/glycolipids through the expression of CD1d molecule on antigen-presenting cells after which they secrete several cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-[gamma] for activation of other immune response [33]. (
  • A major costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells, CTLA4 ligand A, is distinct from B7. (
  • A small peptide of the MBP nestles into a groove in the HLA-D molecule on an antigen-presenting cell and the TCR, on an approaching immune T-cell, locks on to both. (
  • The CD4, on helper T cells, and CD8 coreceptors on killer T cells, permit each type of T cell to interact only with a specific class of MHC molecule. (
  • Once the fragment of antigen is embedded in the MHC II molecule, the immune cell can respond. (
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-treated antigen-presenting cells induce a very potent form of tolerance in mice. (
  • Mouse CD1.1 is an MHC class I-like, non-MHC-encoded, surface glycoprotein that can be recognized by T cells, in particular NK1.1 + T cells, a subset of αβ T cells with semiinvariant TCRs that promptly releases potent cytokines such as IL-4 and IFN-γ upon stimulation. (
  • In conclusion, within a complex array of dermal leukocytes a murine dermal class II MHC+ cell population expressing a Langerhans cell-like/dendritic antigen-presenting cell phenotype and exhibiting potent antigen processing and presenting activity can be identified. (
  • The positioning of potent interstitial dendritic antigen-presenting cells at the interface of the vasculature with the dermal interstitium provides rapid access to an antigen-presenting cell as T cells first egress into the skin. (
  • Using IVT mRNA omits the danger of genomic integration and plasmid DNA constructs permit a more potent and longer lasting antigen expression. (
  • The Vδ1 lineage and the Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg lineage in the expanded populations are less differentiated and show potent antibody-independent cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells. (
  • We established a murine B-cell stimulation system based on potent B-cell activation maintained by co-cultivation with membrane-bound CD40 ligand and interleukin-4. (
  • DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • They've been interested in adding new, more potent products to the cell-based anticancer armamentarium. (
  • However it is unknown whether these TLR agonists will be potent enough to overcome the suppressive effects of HPV-exposed LC on T cells and induce HPV-specific T cell responses. (
  • Peptide specificity and MHC restriction of staphylococcal nuclease-specific T cell clones, J. Exp. (
  • A peptide from the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) tegument protein pp65 that incorporates a well-characterised T cell epitope, containing N -acetylglucosamine at specific Asn residues, was accessed by solid phase peptide synthesis, and used as an acceptor substrate. (
  • DNA can be easily amplified by PCR approaches and, as opposed to the peptide synthesis, allows simple and fast testing and optimization of responses to different antigens also in preclinical research laboratories. (
  • Moreover, transfer of flu peptide-pulsed T cells into flu-infected mice inhibits endogenous flu-specific CTLs. (
  • We used HLAA24 positive autologous B lymphobastoid cells (B-LCLs) as antigen presenting cells and peripheral mononuclear cells were stimulated with B-LCLs, pulsed with or without BRLF1 peptide. (
  • Thus far, aAPC have been synthesized by coupling T cell activating proteins such as CD3 or MHC-peptide to micron-sized beads. (
  • Tumour- and antigen-specificity of the activated T cells were assessed by IFN-γ releasing ELISpot, MHC class I (HLA-A2)-restricted tumour peptide-specific pentamer staining, and 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assays. (
  • Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with peptide-pulsed RMA-S cells or with adherent splenocytes (enriched for professional APC) caused a significant reduction in lung metastases. (
  • The antimetastatic effect of peptide-pulsed splenocytes could be further enhanced by pretreating the cells with antisense oligonucleotides directed against the TAP-2 gene which was previously shown to increase the density of specific peptide/MHC class I complexes and thereby improve the APC function of the treated cells. (
  • It is a pore-forming peptide, as it can puncture a microbial cell wall, allowing for other death-inducing enzymes to enter the microbe and cause microptosis. (
  • Dendritic cells are the principle APC involved in primary immune responses . (
  • As widely reported, polyclonally-stimulated T cell proliferation was found to be equivalent, while IFN gamma responses were markedly lower amongst neonates. (
  • Reasoning that such stimuli may elicit responses qualitatively different from those that would be obtained following MHC-dependent, cognate T cell activation, alloantigen-specific responses were evaluated. (
  • Wilcoxon P = 0.005) of alloantigen stimulated IL-5 responses were elevated among neonates, a finding equally evident using irradiated adult or neonatal cells as stimulators. (
  • Irradiated neonatal cells consistently stimulated similar proliferative but substantially lower IFN gamma responses than did adult APC, independent of responder origin. (
  • This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. (
  • This review covers various aspects of HHV-8 targeting of APC and T cell responses in host control of this infectious and oncogenic process. (
  • We investigated whether airway eosinophils are capable of initiating naive T cell responses in vivo. (
  • OVA-exposed eosinophils elicited activation (CD69 expression), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), and IL-4, but not IFN-γ, cytokine production by OVA-specific CD4 + T cells in paratracheal lymph nodes (LN). Exposure of eosinophils to lysosomotropic NH 4 Cl, which inhibits Ag processing, blocked each of these eosinophil-mediated activation responses of CD4 + T cells. (
  • While several microbial glycolipids are known to activate iNKT cells, the cellular mechanisms leading to endogenous CD1d-dependent glycolipid responses remain largely unclear. (
  • These data reveal that ER stress is an important mechanism to elicit endogenous CD1d-restricted iNKT cell responses through induction of distinct classes of neutral lipids. (
  • Animals treated with subtotal RF ablation showed significant increases in tumor-specific class I and II responses to HY antigens and tumor regression. (
  • Subtotal RF ablation treatment results in enhanced systemic antitumor T-cell immune responses and tumor regression that is associated with increased dendritic cell infiltration. (
  • We found naïve proinsulin- and GAD65-responsive T cells in cord blood (CB) of healthy newborns, with highest responses observed in children with type 1 diabetes-susceptible HLA-DRB1/DQB1 genotypes. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the antigen-presenting function of monocyte-derived DC vaccines could be enhanced by triggering OX40L/OX40 costimulation, ultimately improving antigen-specific CD4 + T-cell responses. (
  • In contrast, transfection of monocyte-derived and terminally matured DC with OX40L mRNA resulted in an improved antigen-specific CD4 + T-cell response, facilitated the Th-1 polarization of naïve CD4 + T cells, and augmented antigen-specific CTL responses without interfering with the PGE 2 -mediated migratory capacity of the mature DC. (
  • These findings suggest that transfection of monocyte-derived DC with OX40L mRNA represents a clinically applicable strategy that facilitates the generation of antigen-specific CD4 + T-cell responses that may be required to potentiate and maintain an effective CD8 + CTL response in vivo . (
  • Dermal cells are capable of initiating contact-hypersensitivity responses but the precise identification of the antigen-presenting cell within murine dermis is lacking. (
  • Suppression of immune responses by CD8 cells. (
  • Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting cells. (
  • No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA compared with the responses in patients with other rheumatic diseases. (
  • Higher responses to several bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA were found compared with peripheral blood from the same patient group. (
  • IMPORTANCE This study indicates that innate immune cytokines produced in antigen-presenting cells stimulating the T cell immune responses during early viral infection play a critical role in determining the susceptibility of mice to the development of demyelinating disease. (
  • This finding has an important implication in controlling not only chronic viral infections but also infection-induced autoimmune-like diseases, which are closely associated with the pathogenic type of T cell responses. (
  • B cells have mainly been recognized for their antibody-secreting function in humoral immune responses. (
  • Furthermore, during immune responses armed helper T cells interact with B cells by expression of CD40 Ligand (CD40L), which thereby become activated and in turn start to proliferate and differentiate. (
  • This model is indeed suitable to study the ability of mCD40B cells to induce protective anti-tumour responses in vivo. (
  • We clearly identifed injection route, cell dose and vaccination repetitions as parameters exerting dominant infuence on the effective induction of specifc T cell responses by mCD40B. (
  • The role of antigen-presenting cells in the regulation of allergen-specific T cell responses. (
  • 8 LCs are specialized to stimulate resting T cells and to induce primary T-cell immune responses. (
  • Using conditions similar to those currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the researchers showed that electroporation increased numbers of antigen-presenting cells at the site of administration that correlated with increases in antibody titers and T-cell responses to the encoded antigen. (
  • Antigen-specific T-cell responses to cancer testis antigens were determined using tetramer staining and sorted BAPCs in FluoroSpot assays for selected patients. (
  • Cytotoxic T cells destroy virus-infected cells in the cell-mediated immune response, and helper T cells play a part in activating both the antibody and the cell-mediated immune responses. (
  • Immunization with either of two large recombinant Hip polypeptides was well tolerated, induced B and T cell responses, and reduced the number of BCCs despite the self-nature of this protein. (
  • Implications of epithelial DCs in CD8 cell cross-priming suggested that vaccination via the t.c. route may be especially relevant in the induction of cellular immune responses. (
  • We use Cell Squeeze ® to engineer antigen-presenting cells, the cells that naturally activate T-cell responses," says Armon Sharei, PhD, CEO and founder of SQZ Biotech. (
  • Roles for eosinophils as antigen-presenting cells in sustaining allergic responses to inhaled particulate allergens would provide insights into the characteristically chronic nature of allergic diseases. (
  • There are two types of adaptive responses: the cell-mediated immune response , which is carried out by T cells, and the humoral immune response , which is controlled by activated B cells and antibodies. (
  • In mammals, dendritic cells (DCs) form the key link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • The level of innate immune cytokines reflects the level of initial viral infection in the antigen-presenting cells, and the level determines the development of T cell types, which are either protective or pathogenic. (
  • Antigen presenting cells, part of the innate immune system, play a central role in initiating and modulating the adaptive immune response. (
  • The first exon Tat SF2 1-72 and the minimal transactivator Tat SF2 1-58, all modulated genes to a significantly greater extent than full-length wild type, two-exon Tat, indicating that Tat second exon is critical in reducing the innate response triggered by HIV-1 in these cells. (
  • Taken together, these data indicate that the second exon of Tat is critical to the containment of the innate response stimulated by Tat in antigen presenting cells and support a role for Tat in stimulating cellular transcription via its interaction with transcription factors present at promoters. (
  • The innate immune system contains cells that detect potentially harmful antigens, and then inform the adaptive immune response about the presence of these antigens. (
  • Thus, MHC class I-restricted antigens are efficiently transferred in vivo to bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, which suggests that human leukocyte antigen matching may be less critical in the application of tumor vaccines than previously thought. (
  • APC recruitment is expected to contribute to the development of an antitumoral immune response, and such an effect has been demonstrated in a number of animal studies in which the forced expression of chemokines, such as RANTES, by tumor cell lines resulted in a decreased pathogenicity of these cells in vivo. (
  • De Becker G., Mockel P., Urbain J., Leo O., Moser M. (1997) Enhanced Antigen Presenting Cell Function Following in Vivo Priming. (
  • TIL therapy takes advantage of naturally existing tumor-reactive T cells already present within the tumor which are isolated from surgically resected tumor lesions, expanded ex vivo and re-infused into the patient after lymphodepleting chemotherapy and in combination with recombinant IL-2. (
  • Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. (
  • In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been technically difficult to generate sufficient numbers of these T cells, ex vivo. (
  • Dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells in vivo. (
  • Recently, we demonstrated that murine CD40B cells (mCD40B) specifically migrate to secondary lymphoid organs in vivo. (
  • However, most B cell-based vaccines tested so far failed to induce functional and protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) re- sponses in animal models in vivo. (
  • Incorporating these parameters into the vaccination algorithm, I showed that mCD40B induce in vivo cytolysis of antigen-specific target cells comparable to mDC. (
  • EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell line) with haematological ex vivo or immortalized tumour cells. (
  • The Duke clinical trial uses an ex vivo (outside the body) process in which dendritic cells (the most efficient antigen-presenting cells in the body) are isolated from the patient's blood, pulsed with telomerase RNA, and then used to vaccinate the patient. (
  • Different adjuvants currently used in cancer vaccine clinical trials were evaluated in the present study on immune cells from cancer patients before and after chemotherapy in an ex vivo setting. (
  • Here, immune function of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), from healthy, full-term neonates was compared with adult PBMC. (
  • The expression of microRNA will be analysed in cell subsets separated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • At present, a large number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from different blood donors is required to be used as feeders/stimulators for the rapid-expansion protocol (REP). (
  • These CD8 positive BRLF1 tetramer specific induction and proliferation of CTLs were observed in the mononuclear cells from both healthy volunteers and the CAEBV patient. (
  • These results indicated the possibility that mononuclear cells from both healthy volunteers and the CAEBV patients are able to induce and proliferate specific CTLs, but cytotoxic activities of specific CTLs from the patient is reduced as compared with those of healthy volunteers. (
  • We used multicolor flow cytometry and IHC to elucidate abundance and spatial distribution of these antigen-presenting B cells (BAPC) in blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC) and tumor samples of 237 patients with cancer. (
  • In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells. (
  • We showed that APC (consisting in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells) (PBMC), pre-stimulated with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and co-cultured with autologous non-adherent PBMC for 5-9 days, induced CD3-/CD56+ NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as well as CD3+/CD56+ T cell-mediated unrestricted cytotoxic activity. (
  • In: Ricciardi-Castagnoli P. (eds) Dendritic Cells in Fundamental and Clinical Immunology. (
  • Rescigno, M 2010, ' Functional specialization of antigen presenting cells in the gastrointestinal tract ', Current Opinion in Immunology , vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 131-136. (
  • Furthermore, circulating antigen-specific antibodies may form complexes with the antigen which can be taken up by FcR + cells 3 . (
  • The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with RA and of patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA to bacterial antigens such as cell wall fragments of the anaerobic intestinal flora, cell wall fragments of Streptococcus pyogenes, intestinal flora derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide complexes, the 65 kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and muramyldipeptide was investigated. (
  • FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors. (
  • However, for an antigen to be recognised by a T-lymphocyte, it must be first processed and "presented" in a form the antigen can recognise. (
  • K.L. Rock and B. Benacerraf, Inhibition of antigen-specific T lymphocyte activation by structurally related Ir gene controlled polymers, J. Exp. (
  • dermal cells also induced the syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. (
  • These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. (
  • Human autologous mixed lymphocyte reactivity is primarily specific for xenoprotein determinants adsorbed to antigen-presenting cells during rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes. (
  • Second, restimulation of T memory cells generated in 1 degree autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) against SRBC-separated autologous NT cells was exclusively seen when NT cells exposed to or separated with xenoproteins were used for restimulation. (
  • Any nonlymphocytic cell that helps in the induction of the immune response by presenting antigen to a helper T lymphocyte. (
  • Studies will investigate the ability of eosinophils to serve as antigen-presenting cells that contribute to propagating lymphocyte-dependent, IgE-mediated response to inhaled antigens in the respiratory tract. (
  • Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. (
  • Dendritic cells also play a role in peripheral tolerance, which contributes to prevention of auto-immune disease. (
  • 1. Evidence that an antigen-specific, ACAID-inducing, cell-associated signal exists in the peripheral blood. (
  • The antigen presenting cell population of the synovial fluid in patients with RA and the patients with other rheumatic diseases was found to be stimulatory for autologous peripheral blood T cells even in the absence of antigen. (
  • Studies also have demonstrated that peripheral dendritic cells mature in the spleen and do so in a process that is dependent on Flt3 expression. (
  • Nanoscale aAPC induced antigen-specific T cell proliferation from mouse splenocytes and human peripheral blood T cells. (
  • Louise Elliott, 'The characterisation of peripheral blood and intestinal antigen presenting cells in coeliac disease', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (
  • Langerin + /CD1a + /HLA-DR + LCs (approximately 100 cells/mm 2 in fresh corneas) were found in the limbal and peripheral regions of corneal epithelium and the anterior stroma up to 83 days of culture. (
  • Our results provide an insight into the mechanism by which NK cells are activated in peripheral blood and useful informations for therapeutic application of anti-CD40 antibodies. (
  • DCs present antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells. (
  • These immature dendritic cells are ineffective at presenting antigen to T helper cells. (
  • Mosmann TR, Coffman RL: Heterogeneity of cytokine secretion patterns and functions of helper T cells. (
  • Two pathways exist to present antigens to T cells: the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) pathway to activate cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and the MHC II route to stimulate T helper cells (Ths). (
  • This videos explains about Interaction of Antigen Presenting Cells and T Helper Cells. (
  • In addition to getting instructions from the antigen-presenting cells , CD8 T cells need assistance from helper T cells to become effective killers. (
  • Figure 15.16 Coreceptors on helper and killer T cells. (
  • There are three types of T cells: cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor T cells. (
  • The 15 kDa form is also able to act as a chemoattractant for different cells, such as NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and in higher concentrations, immature dendritic cells. (
  • Areas of interest also include cell biological and molecular mechanisms of pattern sensing and of antigen uptake and processing, as well as novel methods in APC research. (
  • So all of the membrane bound antibodies, all 10,000 or so of them on this B cell, they all expressed the same variable part. (
  • Design and Methods Our artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated with activating (anti-CD3), co-stimulating (anti-CD28) and adhesion (anti-LFA-1) biotinylated monoclonal antibodies preclusterted in microdomains held on a liposome scaffold by neutravidin rafts. (
  • If the antigen-presenting cells produce the peanut protein robustly enough, the responsibility for the immune response might shift away from the IgE antibodies and mast cells. (
  • If the part of HIV that is similar to the antigen-presenting cells were used as a vaccine, the antibodies generated against the vaccine material would also be capable of attacking the antigen-presenting cells themselves. (
  • B cells, on the other hand, do not function as phagocytes but play a primary role in the production and secretion of antibodies. (
  • As CTLA4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) binds B7 when the latter is expressed on fibroblasts, it was widely assumed that CTLA4Ig blocks T cell costimulation by blocking the function of B7. (
  • Here, we set out to generate dendritic cells (DCs) capable of presenting antigens from mouse and human fibroblasts. (
  • Artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) are a new technology and approach to cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Immunotherapy aims to utilize the body's own defense mechanism-the immune system-to recognize mutated cancer cells and to kill them the way the immune system would recognize and kill a virus. (
  • Activated and stimulated T cells can be studied in this biomimetic contex and used for adoptive transfer as an immunotherapy. (
  • Conclusions Our artificial antigen-presenting cells might represent an efficient tool to rapidly obtain a sufficient number of functional T cells for adoptive immunotherapy in patients with cancer. (
  • CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. (
  • From the Clinical Editor: Artifical antigen presenting cells could revolutionize the field of cancer-directed immunotherapy. (
  • To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. (
  • Hybrid cell vaccines generated in this way may therefore represent a novel strategy for use in immunotherapy of haematological malignancies, and possibly in other forms of cancer as well. (
  • The activity of our artificial antigen-presenting cells was compared with that of anti-CD3/-CD28 coated immunomagnetic microbeads and immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (OKT3 clone), the only two commercially available artificial systems. (
  • Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8 + T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. (
  • The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8 + T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. (
  • Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. (
  • To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias toward specific TCRs, we made use of artificial antigen-presenting cells loaded with an anti γδTCR antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. (
  • Here, we show that artificial antigen-presenting cells that can be used within good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocols can result in the unbiased expansion of a wide range of repertoires. (
  • The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes focused on dendritic cell activation and maturation. (
  • This study aimed to study the roles of Muramyl Dipeptide (MDP) which is an agonist of NOD2 in Dendritic Cells (DCs) exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide ( P. gingivalis - LPS) on maturation and antigen-presenting functions of DCs to provide experimental evidences to explore the possible mechanism of DCs in periodontitis. (
  • Intracellular NOD2 in DCs could be activated by MDP and this activation could promote maturation and the ability to prime Th0 cells to Th2 cells of DCs exposed to P. gingivalis -LPS. (
  • Thus, PRRs and their ligands have important roles in DCs maturation and antigen-presenting function. (
  • Pathogen recognition will further induce migration and maturation of the MoDCs, which can then prime newly arriving naive T cells or perpetuate the stimulation of already primed but 30 Lutz not fully differentiated T cells as a third wave for small antigens or a second wave for larger antigens. (
  • 15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration. (
  • Signal 3 is the APC secretion of stimulatory cytokines such as IL-2 which enhances T cell stimulation, though this is not required for T cell activation. (
  • The ability of MDP to promote DCs secreting cytokines was far below P. gingivalis- LPS but MDP could promote the functions of Th2 cell-promoting DCs induced by P. gingivalis -LPS. (
  • iDCs secrete inflammatory cytokines and have the ability to engulf, process, and present antigens to T cells. (
  • Their major function is to obtain antigen in tissues, migrate to lymphoid organs and activate T cells . (
  • However, the ability of antigen-presenting cells to activate naïve T cells was compromised at birth, and CB monocytes had low surface expression of CD40 and HLA class II. (
  • We term this cell population "antigen-presenting CAFs" (apCAFs), and find that they activate CD4+ T cells in an antigen-specific fashion in a model system, confirming their putative immune-modulatory capacity. (
  • B cells, which express antibody, can very efficiently present the antigen to which their antibody is directed, but are inefficient APC for most other antigens. (
  • Let's say we have a B cell and it's got its membrane bound antibody on it. (
  • Results generated were comparable to the 51 Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. (
  • Although killing by expanded Vδ2 cells was predominantly antibody dependent and proportionate to upregulated CD16, Vδ1 cells killed by antibody-independent mechanisms. (
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated that polyclonal-expanded populations of γδT cells are capable of both antibody-dependent and -independent effector functions in neuroblastoma. (
  • Lately, the focus of interest has moved to the antibody-independent functions of B cells. (
  • Rather, tumor antigens were exclusively presented by host bone marrow-derived cells. (
  • The first signal is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which in humans is also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (
  • Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)+ cells with dendritic shape and lacking endothelial factor VIII but expressing the dendritic antigen-presenting cell marker NLDC-145 were observed in the perivascular and interstitial dermis of BALB/c and C3H/HeN skin. (
  • The level of initial viral infection to the cells is controlled by a gene or genes that are not associated with the major histocompatibility antigen complex genes. (
  • T cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. (
  • CCK8 was used to assess CD4+ T cells proliferation after co-cultured with DCs stimulated by MDP and P. gingivalis -LPS, respectively or in synergism and ELISA was used to detect IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-13 secreted by these T cells. (
  • MDP could promote CD4+T cells proliferation primed by DCs exposed to P. gingivalis -LPS and elevate the ability of DCs exposed to P. gingivalis -LPS to prime Th0 cells to Th2 cells. (
  • The hybrid cell lines induced proliferation of naive, central memory, and effector memory populations of CD4+, CD8+ T-cells. (
  • Engagement of the TCR with antigen presenting cells initiates positive (signal-enhancing) and negative (signal-attenuating) cascades that ultimately result in cellular proliferation, differentiation, Cytokine production, and/or activation-induced cell death. (
  • Kosiewicz MM, Alard P, Streilein JW: Alterations in cytokine production following intraocular injection of soluble protein antigen: impairment in IFN-gamma and induction of TGF-beta and IL-4 production. (
  • Langerhans Cells are dendritic cells specific to the skin. (
  • Leishmania antigen containing Langerhans cells were found in the epidermis, dermis and the regional lymph nodes. (
  • Intact protein is presented best by immature, epidermal Langerhans cells. (
  • They are present in the skin (where they are often called langerhans cells) and the inner lining of the nose, stomach, lungs and intestines. (
  • 7 Birbeck granules become reliable markers for Langerhans cells, especially for immature cells. (
  • It was not until the 1970s that Steinman and Cohn clearly identified the DC as a distinct cell type with unique morphology, tissue distribution, cell-surface phenotype, and function ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • LFA-1-positive T cells of the CD45RO phenotype were found in the skin lesion. (
  • Recently published studies and our in-house data indicate that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DCs and terminally differentiated CD4 + T cells induces strong immunoregulatory phenotype. (
  • Electroporation of firefly luciferase IVT RNA into DCs and K562-A2 cells is nontoxic and leads to strong and long-lasting gene expression without affecting target cell phenotype. (
  • Both freshly isolated and expanded cells showed heterogeneity of differentiation markers, with a less differentiated phenotype in the Vδ1 and Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg populations. (
  • Expanded cells were largely of an effector memory phenotype, although there were higher numbers of less differentiated cells in the Vδ1 + and Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg populations. (
  • Indeed, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR expression was found upregulated in circulating dendritic cells, which promoted a CD4 + T cell differentiation towards an effector phenotype. (
  • However, DAP.3Ag7 cells are able to process and present antigen, as indicated by I-Ag7-dependent IL-2 production by a GAD67-specific NDO T-cell hybridoma after stimulation with GAD and live, but not fixed, DAP.3Ag7 cells. (
  • Enzymes in the APC break down the antigen into smaller fragments. (
  • The highest responsiveness in the synovial fluid of the patients with RA was to the streptococcal cell wall fragments and to the 65 kilodalton protein. (
  • Antigen fragments will then be transported to the surface of the APC, where they will serve as an indicator to other immune cells. (
  • A murine urothelial carcinoma (MB49) model expressing the male minor histocompatibility (HY) antigen was inoculated subcutaneously in female mice. (
  • And then those proteins get transported or get to the membrane or the outer surface of the cell and they present themselves along with the piece of the pathogen. (
  • Almost all cell types can present antigens in some way. (
  • Airway DCs can capture inhaled Ag, migrate to regional paratracheal lymph nodes (pLNs), and present Ag to naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells ( 10 ). (
  • Human CD1b-expressing monocytic and dendritic cells could present mycobacterial lipids loaded in an endosomal compartment to double negative αβ T cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (
  • Their focus is on events unfolding in the outside environment so can present samples of antigens derived from exogenous antigens in various parts of the body. (
  • The researchers discovered that a delay occurring during dendritic cell activation hinders phagosome and lysosome fusion to the point where dendritic cells have just enough time to properly present antigens after phagocytosis and internal breakdown. (
  • We hypothesised that retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells are a subset of microglia and thus would have a limited capacity to present antigen to naïve T cells. (
  • Dendritic cells are present in small amounts in the body tissues that frequently come into contact with the external environment. (
  • murine iDCs could also cross-present antigens to CD8 + T cells. (
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells and the attention summarizes present wisdom approximately ACPs often, and their position within the eye, specifically. (
  • We present evidence that most T cells proliferating in response to autologous sheep erythrocyte (SRBC)-separated non-T cells (NT) cells are not specific for autoantigens but for antigens derived from xenogeneic sources. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that murine iDCs generated here were able to cross-present antigens to CD8+ T cells. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the microenvironment of tumor-draining lymph nodes of cervical cancer patients, by comprehensive flowcytometry-based phenotyping and enumeration of immune-cell subsets in tumor-negative (LN-, n=20) versus tumor-positive lymph nodes (LN+, n=8), and by the study of cytokine release profiles (n=4 for both LN- and LN+). (
  • We are going after cancers that have a high mutational load and present many new different antigens, which makes these cancers very difficult to treat with one drug," Fardis continues. (
  • they present abnormal or nonself pathogen antigens for the initial activation of T cells. (
  • The 9 kDa form is also inhibited by cholesterol which is present in usually present in mammalian cells, but not in most pathogen cells. (
  • Over a century later, this DC subset bearing his name, the Langerhans cell (LC), remained an enigma to dermatologists. (
  • These animals displayed defects in the survival and function of a subset of DCs specialized in presenting antigens from dead cells to T cells. (
  • Ultrastructural examination of class II MHC+ cells revealed the presence of a Langerhans cell-like/indeterminant cell subset with indented nuclei, dendritic morphology, active cytoplasm, and dense intermediate filaments. (
  • Cells with a monocyte/macrophage ultrastructural appearance were also noted, likely representing the class II MHC subset expressing CD11b and Ly6c (monocyte/endothelial antigen). (
  • A physiologic B-cell subset with immunostimulatory properties was described in humans, defined by a high expression of CD86 and downregulation of CD21. (
  • Furthermore, in LN+ we found increased rates of a potentially regulatory antigen-presenting cell (APC) subset (CD11chiCD14+PD-L1+) and of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subsets, which in the case of the former correlated with significantly elevated frequencies of FoxP3+ Tregs in LN+. (
  • Several studies over the past decade using mouse model of colitis and human IBD samples have established the central role for antigen presenting cells and CD4 + T cells in induction and regulation of intestinal inflammation. (
  • Induction of cell signaling events by the cholera toxin B subunit in antigen-presenting cells. (
  • While specific inhibition of MEK1/2 did not reduce CT-B induction of cell surface marker expression, it did attenuate CT-B-mediated interleukin-6 secretion. (
  • Beside the form of antigen, the type of APC used for immune response induction may be crucial. (
  • Moreover, we found that IL-12 did not play a role in NK cells induction by anti-CD40 priming, while IL-2 and IL-15 did play a role. (
  • An antigen-presenting cell (APC) is an immune cell that detects, engulfs, and informs the adaptive immune response about an infection. (
  • The co-localization of T-cell ligands in microdomains and the targeting of an adhesion protein, increasing the efficiency of immunological synapse formation, represent the novelties of our system. (
  • In times of rapidly increasing numbers of immunological approaches entering the clinics, antigen delivery becomes a pivotal process. (
  • However, the immunological effect of adjuvants on immune cells from cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy remains to be demonstrated. (
  • The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. (
  • The cellular interactions leading to a specific immune response following the encounter with an antigen may be different in a primary and a secondary response. (
  • A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. (
  • However, both complete and abortive virus replication cycles in APC could directly affect viral pathogenesis and progression to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and HHV-8-associated B cell cancers. (
  • Typically in a viral infection, the virus enters the cell and uses the cells own biosynthetic machinery to produce proteins encoded by viral genes (Wagner et al, 2004). (
  • Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the treatment of viral infections and relapsed hematologic malignancies. (
  • Principles for adoptive T cell therapy of human viral diseases. (
  • The function of memory T cells is the primary factor in vaccine efficacy. (
  • An understanding of these mechanisms will provide very important information for the design of effective strategies for the treatment of a variety of diseases that are mediated by pathogenic T cells. (
  • On the other hand, neonates have active homeostatic mechanisms, including a high cell cycle rate and an increased serum IL-7 concentration favoring clonal expansion ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Both periods are characterized by the presence of autoantigen-responsive naïve T cells and T cells that are highly sensitive to homeostatic expansion mechanisms. (
  • We predict, therefore, that the combination of an HLA genotype-determined islet autoreactive naïve T-cell population, homeostatic expansion mechanisms, and immune competence provides a highly favorable environment for islet autoimmunity and, in part, determines the high incidence of seroconversion observed at ∼1 year of age. (
  • There are many complex mechanisms employed by the immune system to destroy invading organisms, abnormal cells and contain infections in order to maintain health and life. (
  • Antigen presenting cells (APC) are some of the cells that form part of these mechanisms. (
  • Dr. Vallières wants to unravel the mechanisms through which neutrophils exhibit their negative effects on MS by examining if they are interacting with another cell of the immune that is harmful in MS called T cells. (
  • Timo Burster, "Processing and Regulation Mechanisms within Antigen Presenting Cells: A Possibility for Therapeutic Modulation", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2013) 19: 1029. (
  • One of the mechanisms that impairs the function of TILs is the ability of cancer cells to evade detection. (
  • Once recognition occurs," she explains, "the cells lyse the tumor cells by multiple mechanisms, including direct killing by interferon gamma, granzyme B, and perforin. (
  • CTLs that respond to epithelial cells expressing CDR2 fail to respond to T cells expressing CDR2. (
  • In addition, high expression of Granulysin can be found in the placenta to protect fetal epithelial cells. (