HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred BALB CHLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Mice, Inbred C57BLGenes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.HLA-DR Serological Subtypes: HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Dimercaprol: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Mice, Inbred C3HHIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred CBACell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HemocyaninGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Because T cells recognise only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen ... in which they lose the phagocytic capacity and develop an increased ability to communicate with T-cells by antigen-presentation ... HLA-DO and HLA-DM) catalyses the exchange of part of the CD74 (CLIP peptide) with the peptide antigen. Peptide-MHC-II complexes ... protein/protein interactions and more for genes involved in antigen processing and presentation antigen presentation at the US ...
Antigen processing and presentation. Using clones of antigen-specific B and T cells, he demonstrated that B cells efficiently ... Finally, he addressed the role of HLA class II molecules as receptors for self versus foreign peptides and showed how ... In subsequent studies, he showed that antigens can be effectively targeted to surface molecules other than membrane ... T cells that home to peripheral tissues provide immediate protection but have shorter lifespan and reconstitution capacity. ...
HLA-A2 presentation has been investigated. The HLA-A antigens can mediate apoptosis in autoimmune disease and HLA A*0201 in ... Qiao SW, Bergseng E, Molberg O, Xia J, Fleckenstein B, Khosla C, Sollid LM (2004). "Antigen presentation to celiac lesion- ... but the binding capacity is substantially lower. HLA-DQ8 confers susceptibility to coeliac disease but in a fashion somewhat ... Kim C, Quarsten H, Bergseng E, Khosla C, Sollid L (2004). "Structural basis for HLA-DQ2-mediated presentation of gluten ...
HLA)). This MHC: antigen complex is recognized by T-cells passing through the lymph node. Exogenous antigens are usually ... Genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as the class I and class II genes, are closely linked within the ... Adaptive immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to distinguish between the body's own cells and unwanted invaders. The ... Most large molecules, including virtually all proteins and many polysaccharides, can serve as antigens. The parts of an antigen ...
Some mTECs are phagocytosed by thymic dendritic cells; this allows for presentation of self-antigens on MHC class II molecules ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Markers of T cell activation include CD69, CD71 and CD25 (also a marker for Treg cells), and HLA-DR (a marker of human T cell ... At first cells lose their ability to produce IL-2 and TNFα followed by the loss of high proliferative capacity and cytotoxic ...
RA is strongly associated with genes of the inherited tissue type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen HLA-DR4 is the ... The most common presentation is due to involvement of small- and medium-sized vessels. Rheumatoid vasculitis can thus commonly ... "Dynamic exercise programs (aerobic capacity and/or muscle strength training) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane ... which normally maintain tolerance of the self are overtaken by positive feedback mechanisms for certain antigens, such as IgG ...
Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... DCs also have the capacity to directly induce anergy in T cells that recognize antigen expressed at high levels and thus ... Placental trophoblast cells express a unique Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-G) that inhibits attack by maternal NK cells. These ... which suppresses the function of DCs and macrophages involved in inflammation and antigen presentation to reactive T cells ...
That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... March 2009). "An extensive screen of the HLA region reveals an independent association of HLA class I and class II with ... They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. For the purpose of identifying ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ...
Mehra sits on the editorial board of HLA (journal) (formerly known as Tissue Antigens) and is a member of the International ... "The HLA Complex in Biology & Medicine: A Resource Book" (PDF). Presentation. Association des Collèges des Enseignants ... in the capacity of a professor and served out his career at AIIMS in that position. He also served as the member secretary of ... "Spectrum of Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Levetiracetam and Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in North-Indian Patients". J ...
... is designed to harness this activation capacity as a 'chemo-immunotherapeutic', increasing antigen presentation in the ... was a randomised open-label four-arm trial comparing a selected set of 8 HLA-A2 melanoma peptide antigens with or without ... The investigators for this work used influenza matrix protein antigen and the tumor antigens Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin when ... However, on dendritic cells LAG-3 is an activator, causing increased antigen presentation to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells when it ...
... through activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and increased antigen presentation on MHC class I, as well as secretion ... This can be attributed to a number of things; CD4+ T cells respond only to presentation of antigens by MHC class II, however, ... Th17 cells have also been found to have the capacity to differentiate into IFN-γ secreting cells, thus suppressing tumor growth ... Inactivation of class II transactivator by DNA methylation and histone deacetylation associated with absence of HLA-DR ...
The single known HNA-2a antigen is located on CD177. The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on ... found that the neutrophil phagocytic capacity to engulf bacteria is affected when simple sugars are digested,[16] and that ... Neutrophil antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... The HNA-4 and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. HNA-4 is located ...
Antigen presentation stimulates naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to respectively become mature "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells and "helper" ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ... Of note, recent evidence suggest that functional plasticity is an intrinsic capacity of T helper cells. Indeed, a study in mice ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ...
Studies on the polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and HLA-DQ gene regions in SS patients show differential ... Strombeck B.E., et al, Effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and fatigue in women with primary Sjögren's syndrome, ... Studies on mice models suggest estrogen deficiency stimulates presentation of autoantigens, inducing SS-like symptoms.[14] ... of B-cell tolerance leading to production of antibodies directed against diverse organ-specific and organ nonspecific antigens. ...
Some mTECs are phagocytosed by thymic dendritic cells; this allows for presentation of self-antigens on MHC class II molecules ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Markers of T cell activation include CD69, CD71 and CD25 (also a marker for Treg cells), and HLA-DR (a marker of human T cell ... At first cells lose their ability to produce IL-2 and TNFα followed by the loss of high proliferative capacity and cytotoxic ...
Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... DCs also have the capacity to directly induce anergy in T cells that recognize antigen expressed at high levels and thus ... Placental trophoblast cells express a unique Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-G) that inhibits attack by maternal NK cells. These ... which suppresses the function of DCs and macrophages involved in inflammation and antigen presentation to reactive T cells[24] ...
T cells are another specialized subset that plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens. ... They constitute a reliable and easily usable platform to stimulate and amplify antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Here, we review ... They constitute a reliable and easily usable platform to stimulate and amplify antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Here, we review ... To address this challenge, artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) have been developed. ...
Class II molecule was questioned since β-cells may not have the capacity to process and load these molecules with antigens. The ... Antigen presentation to T cells is mediated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via two classes of HLA molecules: HLA Class I, ... Role of aberrant HLA-DR expression and antigen presentation in induction of endocrine autoimmunity. Lancet 1983;2:1115-1119pmid ... heterogeneously displayed upregulated mRNA expression of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-F Class I mRNA transcripts as well as the ...
Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain ... Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its ... Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its ... Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune ...
... which are commonly used for antigen presentation studies (18, 19), were transfected with DQcis or DQtrans expression constructs ... 3C). A summary of the T cell clones, their proliferative capacity, and cytokine secretion is summarized in table S3. Thus, ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ8 transdimer (HLA-DQA1*0501/DQB1*0302) confers exceptionally high risk in autoimmune diabetes. ... or HLA-DQ2 (encoded by HLA-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 and hereafter referred to as DQ2cis) haplotypes (3, 4). HLA-DQ8/DQ2 heterozygous ...
Additionally, a lower HLA-DR expression was found on naïve B cells, impairing antigen presentation. Upon CD40/TLR-9-dependent ... Drug efflux capacity of naïve B cells was diminished in cyclosporin A-treated patients, additionally contributing to an ... Antigens, Surface. Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex ... 1 Tax in an HLA-restricted fashion and demonstrated strong CTL activities against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA ...
Additionally, a lower HLA-DR expression was found on naïve B cells, impairing antigen presentation. Upon CD40/TLR-9-dependent ... Drug efflux capacity of naïve B cells was diminished in cyclosporin A-treated patients, additionally contributing to an ... Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 ...
The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting ... We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs ... cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T ... subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to ...
... or to any consistent changes in the expression of cell surface molecules implicated in antigen presentation (HLA-DR), ... including identification of appropriate tumor-associated antigens, delivery of antigens to DC, and maintaining DC in a highly ... However, it markedly reduced the allostimulatory capacity of BM-derived APC exposed to the cytokine for the last 3 days of ... Antigen presentation appears to be spared. The molecular events affected by tacrolimus continue to be discovered. ...
These cells show strongly reduced inflammatory and antigen-presentation capacity. Diminished monocyte expression of the major ... and presentation of antigens. Recent work has shown that monocytes can phagocytose bacteria independently from Fc gamma, ... Dec, 2005 , Pubmed ID: 16214828 Single-center trials have shown that monocytic HLA-DR is a good marker for monitoring the ... 10 and IFN-gamma on monocytic CD14-dependent phagocytosis may reflect a further mechanism counterbalancing antigen-presentation ...
Accessory cell function of human eosinophils: HLA-DR dependent, MHC-restricted antigen-presentation and interleukin-1α ... Mature human eosinophils have the capacity to express HLA-DR. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 1348-1351. ... Mouse respiratory tract dendritic cell subsets and the immunological fate of inhaled antigens. Immunol. Cell Biol. 85: 182-188 ... Antigen presentation to naive CD4 T cells in the lymph node. Nat. Immunol. 4: 733-739. ...
... prior knowledge of CTL and Th epitopes in the antigen and leads to the presentation of multiple epitopes for several HLA ... Here we studied the migration capacity and the antigen expression of mRNA-electroporated DC (mRNA-DC) in lymph nodes after ... In situ Expression of Tumor Antigens by Messenger RNA-Electroporated Dendritic Cells in Lymph Nodes of Melanoma Patients. ... Together these data show that mature DC electroporated with mRNA encoding TAA migrate and express antigens in the lymph nodes ...
Because T cells recognise only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen ... in which they lose the phagocytic capacity and develop an increased ability to communicate with T-cells by antigen-presentation ... HLA-DO and HLA-DM) catalyses the exchange of part of the CD74 (CLIP peptide) with the peptide antigen. Peptide-MHC-II complexes ... protein/protein interactions and more for genes involved in antigen processing and presentation antigen presentation at the US ...
HLA-DR expression on monocytes is important to antigen presentation to T cells. We observed that in patients with moderate to ... suggesting that this population has a patrolling profile and lower capacity to present antigens to T cells [35, 36, 38]. ... The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as ... High levels of TNF-α produced by PBMC stimulated with Schistosoma antigens or in nonstimulated cells have been found in ...
Capacity of Cross-Presentation of mo-DCs, LCs, and LCs/IFN-γ. To determine whether LCs and LCs/IFN-γ derived from healthy HLA-A ... In peripheral tissues, DCs internalize antigens and then migrate to lymphoid organs where they process the sequestered antigens ... ELISPOT assay for presentation of HLA-A*0201-restricted NY-ESO-1-derived epitope to antigen-specific CD8+ T cell clone49 by mo- ... MHC class I presentation from endogenous antigen and MHC class II presentation from exogenous antigen, were intact in both LCs ...
... antigen-stimulated B cells. Occasionally, B cells undergo malignant transformation, which may lead to the development of ... Model system to assess the antigen-presentation capacity of CLL cells: HLA-DRB1*0401+ CLL cells are cocultured with a human Th ... As centrocytes, they screen antigens on the surface of FDC using their newly mutated BCR. High-affinity interaction with ... Thus, to study the antigen-presentation capacity of CLL cells, we used a human Th cell clone that is specific for a peptide ...
Facilitation of antigen presentation. NK cells have the natural capacity to kill virally infected or malignantly transformed ... Drug- and cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicities modulate cross-presentation of tumor antigens by myeloid dendritic cells. ... C, NK cells kill iDCs because of low HLA-E expression. The ligation of NKp30 enhances this NK cell function. By elimination of ... with unique pathways for antigen uptake and presentation to T cells (Fig. 1B; refs. 20, 21). These NK cells with DC-like ...
These trials are based on the administration of multiple HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from differentiation antigens ... a chimeric transcript made of the lysosomal-associated membrane antigen-1 was fused to the target antigen, thus improving the ... doubts on the efficiency of their presentation by tumor cells still remain (28, 29). An example of such a phenomenon has been ... although a screening of single patients to analyze their capacity to mount an anti-hTERT immune response seems advisable (26). ...
... class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells, class I molecules are heterodimeric ... Antigens binding to class I molecules are 8-10 amino acids long and play an important role in recognition of the virus infected ... Clone REA142 recognizes HLA A2 and HLA A28, ... The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway: strategies for ... Anti-HLA-A2 A28-PE-Vio770, human for 30 tests. (1). × Capacity. ... Molecular mass of antigen [kDa]: 38 * Distribution of antigen: ...
They do not generally induce long-term drug-free remission or restoration of immune tolerance to self-antigens, and lifelong ... The development of antigen-specific strategies in RA has so far been limited by insufficient knowledge of autoantigens, of the ... Effective tolerance-inducing antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategies hold promise of greater specificity, of lower ... and emerging therapeutics that aim to leverage normal tolerance mechanisms for implementation of antigen-specific therapy in RA ...
... presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B∗2705. We found that cross-reactive CD8+ T cell clonotypes were mobilized to ... ultimately driving the development of more complex viral escape variants that disrupt antigen presentation. ... The capacity of the immune system to adapt to rapidly evolving viruses is a primary feature of effective immunity, yet its ... These newly recruited clonotypes expressed TCRs that engaged wild-type and mutant KK10 antigens with similar affinities and ...
IL-10 down-regulates antigen-presenting capacity such as HLA-DR expression, co-stimulatory molecules, and several cytokines in ... HR2 acts as a suppressive molecule for antigen-presentation capacity, suppresses IL-12 production, and enhances IL-10 ... Regulatory T-cell immunotherapy for tolerance to self antigens and alloantigens in humans. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7:585-598. ... Decreased antigen-specific T cell response and cutaneous late-phase response after natural high dose antigen exposure. (A) The ...
Capacity of CD141+, CD1c+, and CD16+ DCs to cross-present soluble and cell-associated HCMV pp65 antigen. (A) CD8+ T cell clone ... Cross-presentation, dendritic cell subsets, and the generation of immunity to cellular antigens. Immunol. Rev. 199:9-26. doi: ... HLA-DR+, CD3−, CD141−), NK cells (CD16+, CD56+, CD3−, CD141−, HLA-DR−), and monocytes (CD14+, CD3−, CD19−, CD141−) were flow ... As a result, data on antigen presentation, and in particular on antigen cross-presentation, remained scarce. This limited ...
01 restricted MiHA rather seems to be determined by intracellular antigen processing and presentation mechanisms and/or surface ... Since the HLA-B*40:01 restricted MiHA were identified as targets for CD8+ T cells in a patient with CML, we tested the capacity ... which are both presented by HLA-A*02:01, CD8+ T cells were induced against 4 MiHA in HLA-B*40:01 and one MiHA in HLA-B*08:01, ... All antigens may have contributed to a graft-versus-leukemia effect, and one minor histocompatibility antigen (LB-SWAP70-1Q) ...
... since variations in the binding capacity of self antigens to the slot in the MHC may affect the process of T cell education in ... thus making it possible for the antigen presentation to be exacerbated.8 Autoallergens cannot be excluded since recently " ... and HLA-B44.9,12-16 There were even some inverse (protective) relationships, with HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-A24 and HLA-A33.12,14,16 ... did not have statistically different prevalence of the HLA alleles studied (HLA-A, HLA-B and DRB1), in relation to the control ...
HLA)-DR molecules on human fibroblast cells known for their capacity to function as antigen-presenting cells. We have also ... HLA-DR Antigens, Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II, Humans, Imaging, Three- ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated antigen presentation involves an array of interacting molecules. ... Interaction of HLA-DR and CD74 at the cell surface of antigen-presenting cells by single particle image analysis. Research ...
  • It obviates prior knowledge of CTL and Th epitopes in the antigen and leads to the presentation of multiple epitopes for several HLA alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that in this population group, there was no specific association between the HLA alleles studied and chronic urticaria. (scielo.br)
  • Summary and characteristics of the articles and results of the HLA-B alleles reported. (bjid.org.br)
  • Genetic studies suggest HLA-B alleles play an important role on HIV-1 transmission, progression, and control of HIV-1 infection. (bjid.org.br)
  • instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. (prolekare.cz)
  • While limited associations were observed between individual HLA alleles or haplotypes and variable lymphocyte proliferative (LP) responses to AVA, analyses of homozygosity supported the hypothesis of a "heterozygote advantage. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, transfectants of the HLA-B alleles carrying Thr at P4 into 721.221 cells could not inhibit killing by CD94/NKG2A NK clones in contrast to those from other HLA-A, -B, -C and -G alleles with a Met at P4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Severe drug hypersensitivity reactions that resemble acute GvHD are linked to certain specific HLA alleles. (intechopen.com)
  • The enhanced cross-presentation reflects, at least in part, the efficient uptake of IC-bound antigen by means of plasma membrane Fcγ receptors ( 5 , 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • These DCs are distinguished by their cell surface expression for CD103/CD8/XCR1 and CD11b/CD4/SIRPα ( 2 - 4 ), as well as pattern recognition receptors, Ag presentation and processing, and, particularly, transcription factors involved in their development (Batf3 or IFN regulatory factor 4, respectively) ( 1 , 5 , 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A protective CD8+ T cell repertoire therefore encompasses the capacity to control TCR-accessible mutations, ultimately driving the development of more complex viral escape variants that disrupt antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • This mechanism is thought to be of major importance for the recognition of viral or bacterial antigens when DCs are not directly infected. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, we were able to demonstrate the excellent immune stimulating (humoral and cellular) and prophylactic capacity of ORFV-based recombinants against numerous different viral diseases manifold. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The importance of CTL function in control of viral infection is highlighted by numerous examples of viral proteins disrupting MHC-I antigen presentation pathways ( Hansen and Bouvier, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Some caveats for using recombinant viral vector are due to either prior systemic immunity to poxviruses or immunodominance of viral antigens which may reduce the induction of immune response against weaker tumor antigens. (unibas.ch)
  • However, while vaccines have proven to be effective in combating pathogenic microorganisms, based on the immune recognition of these foreign antigens, vaccines aimed at inducing effective antitumor activity are still unsatisfactory. (asm.org)
  • In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. (fiocruz.br)
  • Both precursor subsets mature at day 12-14 into DC with typical morphology and phenotype (CDS0, CD83, CD86, CD58, high HLA class II). (psu.edu)
  • In this context, considering the disappointing results up to now, the quest for specific and selective tumor antigens for developing tumor-specific cancer vaccines, optimal delivery systems (i.e., dendritic cell [DC]-based vaccines), adjuvants, and strategies to overcome immune tolerance and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses is the main goal for several research groups and leading health care companies. (asm.org)
  • The capacity of the immune system to adapt to rapidly evolving viruses is a primary feature of effective immunity, yet its molecular basis is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • To avoid chronic cell activation and inflammation against nonpathogenic antigens through skin, ingestion, and inhalation, the immune system has developed efficient peripheral tolerance mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF- α , and TGF- β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood were collected pre- and post-cetuximab treatment to analyze frequency of monocytic MDSC (CD11b + CD14 + HLA-DR lo/- ), granulocytic MDSC (LIN − CD11b + CD15 + ) and CD11b + CD14 + HLA-DR hi monocytes by flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides, CD11b + CD14 + HLA-DR hi monocytes were sorted for qPCR analysis of IL-10 and IL-12B transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, circulating CD11b + CD14 + HLA-DR hi monocytes of cetuximab responders displayed attenuated M2 polarization, with decreased CD163 + expression and IL-10 transcripts after cetuximab treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This binding activates the complement cascade, which causes polymorphonuclear leukocytes (i.e., neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) antigen and monocytes to infiltrate the glomerulus (Brenner & Rector, 1996). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When exogenous free proteins are added to DCs in vitro , most of the presentation will occur on MHC class II ( 2 ), but proteins may also be processed and presented by the MHC class I pathway if high concentrations of protein are used ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Immune responses targeting these proteins could thus result in a limited or no generation of antigen-loss variants and, therefore, they may efficiently control in vivo tumor growth, thus meeting the requirements for an ideal TAA set forth above. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteins derived from the microorganisms are processed to generate antigens. (asahq.org)
  • One such strategy is the selective upregulation of surface expression of HLA-E in humans and Qa-1 in mice, the non-classical MHC-I proteins that serve as ligands for the NK cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A. (elifesciences.org)
  • Co-expression of ER-Melan-A/Mart-127-35 appeared to partially compensate for the ICP47 related surface MHC class-I down-regulation and preserve a strong capacity to induce CTL response against the TAA derived peptide. (unibas.ch)
  • The immunisation with this novel DC cancer vaccine was well tolerated and all patients developed delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction and specific T-cell response against hTERT and survivin tumour antigens. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • There are three compartements involved in this antigen presentation pathway: early endosomes, late endosomes or endolysosomes and lysosomes, where antigens are hydrolized by lysosome-associated enzymes (acid-dependent hydrolases, glycosidases, proteases, lipases). (wikipedia.org)
  • To develop a vaccine strategy by using IC, it is essential to understand the mechanism of antigen transport from the membrane to the cytosol by means of the cross-presentation pathway in DCs, which remains to be elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • Rather, IFN-γ acted at least in part by potentiating the maturation of otherwise refractory LCs, enabling in turn exogenous antigen to reach the processing machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Although various HLA class I associated MiHA have been identified in the last decades, 3 - 7 the number of MiHA with therapeutic relevance is still limited. (haematologica.org)
  • Mocetinostat synergized with interferon γ (IFN-γ) in regulating class II transactivator ( CIITA ), a master regulator of class II HLA gene expression. (springermedizin.de)
  • This manifestation belongs to the spondyloarthropathies (SpA) and occurs with increased frequency in patients bearing the HLA-B27 class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele ( 1 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Class I presentation is shown to work efficiently for a limited number of bacteria that survive intracellularly, such as listeriae, mycobacteria, salmonellae, and chlamydiae ( 22 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • class I (HLA-A) and class II (HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1) homozygosity was significantly associated with an overall decrease in LP compared with heterozygosity at those three loci. (cdc.gov)
  • Significant improvements may result from the selection of the appropriate tumor-specific target antigen (to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance) and/or the development of immunization strategies effective at inducing a protective immune response. (asm.org)
  • A study by Neilson and colleagues (1993) suggested that the target antigen in Goodpasture syndrome is the alpha-3 (IV) collagen chain. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This target antigen is found primarily on the inner aspect of the lamina densa, which is the middle layer of the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes, that serves as part of the support structure (Ball & Young, 1998). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 10 In patients with ReA, the presence of microbial antigens in the joint has been demonstrated for Chlamydia trachomatis , 11 Yersinia , 12 Salmonella , 13 and Shigella . (bmj.com)
  • 14 Also, microbial antigens can persist for prolonged periods in the circulation, 15 in the gut, or in the skin. (bmj.com)
  • But in agreement with recent observations (60), mature DCs that have lost their aptitude to internalize antigens =-=(21, 44, 61)-=- cannot be recruited by these chemokines anymore. (psu.edu)
  • Here, we report a high degree of epitope overlap and T cell promiscuity between susceptible HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions immunoglobulin, antiserum, antibody, or antibody fragment, except conjugate or complex of the same with nonimmunoglobulin material binds antigen or epitope whose amino acid sequence is disclosed in whole or in part (e.g., binds specifically-identified amino acid sequence, etc. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • HSV-US12 gene, coding for ICP47 was introduced into wild type vaccinia virus (VV) and into r.VV expressing MART-1/Melan-A27-35 HLA-A201 ER-targeted epitope. (unibas.ch)
  • Based in part on recognition that eosinophils have distinct innate capacities to differentially secrete multiple preformed cytokines ( 5 ), additional roles for eosinophils in modulating host immune, and even lymphocyte-mediated responses are now being considered ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although neither the prevalence nor the levels of single microbial antibodies studied differed between the patients and the controls, current data suggest that the presence of single or multiple antibodies in patients with many recurrences of AAU compared with patients with none or few recurrences may be a sign of repeated infections, antigen persistence, or raised innate immune responsiveness. (bmj.com)
  • DSS correlation was strongest for stromal HLA-DR + CTLs ( P = 0.0005). (aacrjournals.org)
  • An important question is whether 'arthritogenic' bacteria such as yersinia or salmonella can generate HLA-B27-restricted bacteria-specific CTLs. (uvm.edu)
  • We describe such HLA-B27-restricted CTLs. (uvm.edu)
  • However, little is known about HLA-DQ8 transdimer-restricted CD4 T cell recognition, an event crucial for triggering HLA-DQ8 transdimer-specific anti-islet immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taken together, this novel vaccine platform is well suited to deliver antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to DCs and to initiate and maintain protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • This model of conditional cross-presentation establishes an original level of action for IFN-γ as an effective immune modulator and supports the use of IFN-γ in protein vaccination strategies targeting LCs. (pnas.org)
  • DO was discovered in association with another chaperone HLA-DM (DM) but unlike DM, its distribution is more tissue specific, and its function more subtle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The development of antigen-specific strategies in RA has so far been limited by insufficient knowledge of autoantigens, of the autoimmune pathogenesis of RA and of the mechanisms of immune tolerance in man. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper reviews current understanding of autoantigens and their relationship to immunopathogenesis of RA, and emerging therapeutics that aim to leverage normal tolerance mechanisms for implementation of antigen-specific therapy in RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The therapeutic landscape in rheumatoid arthritis: why are antigen-specific strategies needed? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Continuous exposure of nonallergic beekeepers to high doses of bee venom antigens induces diminished T cell-related cutaneous late-phase swelling to bee stings in parallel with suppressed allergen-specific T cell proliferation and T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death 1 play roles in allergen-specific T cell suppression. (rupress.org)
  • CD8 + T-cell clones specific for 4 HLA-B*40:01 restricted minor histocompatibility antigens were isolated which were identified by screening a plasmid cDNA library and whole genome association scanning. (haematologica.org)
  • There is another issue which is medically relevant - speaking of physiology/physiopathology-: this is fetal maternal incompatibility of platelet specific antigens (the HPA system) and the likely formation of maternal antibodies that often injure the newborn with risks of severe thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage. (doabooks.org)
  • Tumor antigen specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have emerged as important agents for cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the association between Yersinia -induced ReA and HLA-B27, it is speculated that arthritis could be driven by a pathogenic HLA-B27-restricted Yersinia -specific CD8 + T cell ( 9 , 35 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • These DCs elicited a strong HIV-1 Gag-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response by an HLA-A2-restricted CD8 + T-cell line. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Previously, we showed that IC formed with cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 were efficiently cross-presented by monocyte-derived DCs, but not by CD34-derived DCs ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Additional studies are needed to reproduce these findings and determine whether HLA-heterozygous individu- als generate stronger cellular immune response to other virulence factors ( Bacillus anthracis LF and EF) than HLA-homozygous subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • These vectors selectively targeted DCs in vitro and in vivo resulting in vector-mediated antigen expression and efficient maturation of DCs. (asm.org)