The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein that transports oxygen in the hemolymph of certain invertebrates, including arthropods and mollusks.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/5439)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/5439)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (3/5439)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (4/5439)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (5/5439)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Identification of MAGE-3 epitopes presented by HLA-DR molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (6/5439)

MAGE-type genes are expressed by many tumors of different histological types and not by normal cells, except for male germline cells, which do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Therefore, the antigens encoded by MAGE-type genes are strictly tumor specific and common to many tumors. We describe here the identification of the first MAGE-encoded epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were loaded with a MAGE-3 recombinant protein and used to stimulate autologous CD4(+) T cells. We isolated CD4(+) T cell clones that recognized two different MAGE-3 epitopes, MAGE-3114-127 and MAGE-3121-134, both presented by the HLA-DR13 molecule, which is expressed in 20% of Caucasians. The second epitope is also encoded by MAGE-1, -2, and -6. Our procedure should be applicable to other proteins for the identification of new tumor-specific antigens presented by HLA class II molecules. The knowledge of such antigens will be useful for evaluation of the immune response of cancer patients immunized with proteins or with recombinant viruses carrying entire genes coding for tumor antigens. The use of antigenic peptides presented by class II in addition to peptides presented by class I may also improve the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination.  (+info)

Calreticulin, a peptide-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, elicits tumor- and peptide-specific immunity. (7/5439)

Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by transporter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific immunity to the tumor used as the source of CRT but not to an antigenically distinct tumor. The immunogenicity is attributed to the peptides associated with the CRT molecule and not to the CRT molecule per se. It is further shown that CRT molecules can be complexed in vitro to unglycosylated peptides and used to elicit peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell response in spite of exogenous administration. These characteristics of CRT closely resemble those of HSPs gp96, hsp90, and hsp70, although CRT has no apparent structural homologies to them.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (8/5439)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

Histocompatibility antigens class II are a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, to immune cells called T cells. The class II antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. These genes are located on chromosome 6 in humans and are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different versions of the genes. This diversity of MHC class II antigens allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

Histocompatibility antigens class I (HLA class I) are a group of proteins found on the surface of almost all cells in the human body. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to immune cells called T cells. HLA class I antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA class I antigens, each with a unique structure and function. The specific HLA class I antigens present on a person's cells can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. In the context of transplantation, HLA class I antigens are important because they can trigger an immune response if the donor tissue is not a close match to the recipient's own tissue. This immune response, known as rejection, can lead to the rejection of the transplanted tissue or organ. Therefore, matching HLA class I antigens between the donor and recipient is an important consideration in transplantation.

HLA-DR antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. They play a crucial role in the recognition and presentation of antigens to T cells, which is a key step in the immune response. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by the HLA-DR gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are many different HLA-DR antigens, each with a unique sequence of amino acids that determines its specificity for different antigens. HLA-DR antigens are also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR antigens or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR antigens.

HLA-D antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-D antigens are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which is a group of genes that are located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA-D antigens, including HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and HLA-DP. Each of these antigens is encoded by a different gene and has a unique structure and function. HLA-D antigens are involved in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self cells. They are also important in the development of autoimmune diseases, which occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells. In addition, HLA-D antigens play a role in the transplantation of organs and tissues, as they can help to determine whether a transplant is likely to be successful or not.

Ovalbumin is a protein found in egg whites. It is a major allergen and can cause allergic reactions in some people. In the medical field, ovalbumin is often used as a model antigen for studying allergic reactions and for developing allergy vaccines. It is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as in the production of various medical products, such as diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals.

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming are proteins that are produced by certain types of polyomaviruses, which are a group of viruses that can cause cancer in humans and animals. These antigens are produced by the virus after it infects a cell and transforms it into a cancerous cell. The antigens are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, which can help to control the growth and spread of the cancerous cells. However, in some cases, the immune system may not be able to effectively recognize and attack the cancerous cells, which can lead to the progression of the cancer.

Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell are a type of immune cell receptors found on the surface of T cells in the immune system. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances or molecules that trigger an immune response. T-cell receptors (TCRs) are a type of antigen receptor that recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or abnormal cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. TCRs are highly specific and can recognize a wide variety of antigens, including viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells. Once a TCR recognizes an antigen, it sends a signal to the T cell to become activated and initiate an immune response. Activated T cells can then divide and differentiate into different types of effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells that can directly kill infected or abnormal cells, or helper T cells that can stimulate other immune cells to mount a more robust response. Overall, T-cell receptors play a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign antigens, and are an important target for the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell are a type of immune cell receptors found on the surface of B cells in the immune system. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, or other pathogens. When a B cell encounters an antigen that matches its receptor, it becomes activated and begins to produce antibodies, which are proteins that can recognize and neutralize the specific antigen. The production of antibodies by B cells is a key part of the adaptive immune response, which helps the body to defend against infections and other harmful substances.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.

CD80 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and macrophages. CD80 is also known as B7-1, and it plays a critical role in the activation of T cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to fight off infections and diseases. When an APC encounters a pathogen, it engulfs the pathogen and processes its antigens, which are small pieces of the pathogen that can be recognized by the immune system. The APC then presents these antigens on its surface, along with the CD80 protein, to T cells. This interaction between the APC and the T cell is a key step in the activation of the T cell, which then becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into effector T cells that can directly attack the pathogen or into memory T cells that can provide long-term protection against future infections by the same pathogen. Antigens, CD80 are often used in medical research and as a tool for developing vaccines and other immune-based therapies. They can be used to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack specific pathogens or cancer cells, or they can be used to suppress the immune system in cases where it is overactive or causing autoimmune diseases.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages, in response to viral or bacterial infections, as well as in response to certain types of cancer. IFN-γ has a wide range of effects on the immune system, including the activation of macrophages and other immune cells, the inhibition of viral replication, and the promotion of T cell differentiation and proliferation. It also plays a role in the regulation of the immune response, helping to prevent excessive inflammation and tissue damage. In the medical field, IFN-γ is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

HLA-A2 Antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is a part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A2 Antigen is a specific type of HLA-A protein that is expressed on the surface of cells in the body. It is one of the most widely studied HLA antigens because it is associated with the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to certain types of viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the medical field, the HLA-A2 Antigen is often used as a marker for certain diseases and conditions. For example, it is commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other therapies for these diseases. Overall, the HLA-A2 Antigen plays an important role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, and it is an important marker for certain diseases and conditions in the medical field.

CD86 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. It is a member of the B7 family of proteins, which play a key role in regulating the immune response. CD86 is involved in the activation of T cells, which are a type of immune cell that plays a central role in the body's defense against infection and disease. When dendritic cells present an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response) to a T cell, they also express CD86 on their surface. This allows the T cell to recognize the antigen and become activated, leading to the production of immune cells that can attack and destroy the invading pathogen. In addition to its role in activating T cells, CD86 has also been shown to play a role in the regulation of the immune response. For example, it has been shown to promote the differentiation of regulatory T cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells. Overall, CD86 is an important protein in the immune system that plays a role in both the activation and regulation of immune responses.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a protein that is produced by certain types of cancer cells, as well as by normal cells in the embryonic stage of development. It is a glycoprotein that is found in the blood and tissues of the body. In the medical field, CEA is often used as a tumor marker, which means that it can be measured in the blood to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer. CEA levels are typically higher in people with cancer than in people without cancer, although they can also be elevated in other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, and smoking. CEA is most commonly used as a tumor marker for colorectal cancer, but it can also be used to monitor the response to treatment and to detect recurrence of the cancer. It is also used as a tumor marker for other types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. It is important to note that while elevated CEA levels can be a sign of cancer, they do not necessarily mean that a person has cancer. Other factors, such as age, gender, and family history, can also affect CEA levels. Therefore, CEA should be interpreted in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical information.

CD40 is a protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including B cells and dendritic cells. Antigens, CD40 refers to molecules that bind to the CD40 protein on these cells, activating them and triggering an immune response. This can help the immune system to recognize and attack foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. CD40 ligands, which are also known as CD154, are proteins that bind to CD40 and can act as antigens. They are produced by activated T cells and other immune cells and play a role in the activation and differentiation of B cells.

HLA-A antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells. HLA-A antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a unique amino acid sequence. These variations, known as alleles, are responsible for the diversity of the HLA-A antigens that are expressed in the human population. HLA-A antigens are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, and they are also used in the field of transplantation to help match donors and recipients for organ and tissue transplants.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of all eukaryotic organisms. It is responsible for breaking down and recycling damaged or unnecessary proteins within the cell. The proteasome is composed of two main subunits: the 20S core particle, which contains the proteolytic active sites, and the 19S regulatory particle, which recognizes and unfolds target proteins for degradation. The proteasome plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, immune response, and protein quality control. Dysregulation of the proteasome has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair in cells. It is also known as Replication Factor C (RFC) subunit 4 or proliferating cell nuclear antigen-like 1 (PCNA-like 1). PCNA is a highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells. It is a homotrimeric protein, meaning that it is composed of three identical subunits. Each subunit has a central channel that can bind to DNA, and it is this channel that is responsible for the interaction of PCNA with other proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, PCNA forms a complex with other proteins, including DNA polymerase δ and the replication factor C (RFC) complex. This complex is responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix, synthesizing new DNA strands, and ensuring that the newly synthesized strands are correctly paired with the template strands. PCNA is also involved in DNA repair processes, particularly in the repair of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In this context, PCNA interacts with other proteins, such as the X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1), to facilitate the repair of DNA damage. Overall, PCNA is a critical protein in the maintenance of genomic stability and the prevention of DNA damage-induced diseases, such as cancer.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosyl group, which is a complex carbohydrate. These proteins play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell recognition. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell growth and differentiation, and nerve transmission. Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types: transmembrane glycoproteins, which span the entire cell membrane, and peripheral glycoproteins, which are located on one side of the membrane.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland in men. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but levels can increase if there is an abnormality in the prostate gland, such as cancer. PSA testing is commonly used as a screening tool for prostate cancer, as elevated levels of PSA can indicate the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland. However, it is important to note that not all cases of elevated PSA levels are due to cancer, and some men with prostate cancer may have normal PSA levels. Therefore, PSA testing should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and diagnostic tests.

In the medical field, O antigens refer to a type of polysaccharide found on the surface of certain bacteria. These antigens are part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that surrounds the bacterial cell membrane and play a role in the bacteria's ability to interact with the host immune system. The O antigens are named based on the chemical structure of the polysaccharide chain, which can vary greatly between different bacterial species. For example, the O antigen of Escherichia coli is composed of a repeating unit of a disaccharide, while the O antigen of Salmonella typhi is composed of a repeating unit of a trisaccharide. The presence of O antigens on the surface of bacteria can be important for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. For example, the O antigen of E. coli can be used to identify specific strains of the bacteria that are responsible for causing certain types of infections, such as urinary tract infections or food poisoning. Additionally, the O antigens can be used as targets for vaccines to help protect against bacterial infections.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 molecules, are a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These cells, called T cells, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and disease. CD4 antigens are specifically associated with helper T cells, which are a type of T cell that works to coordinate the immune response by activating other immune cells. Helper T cells express high levels of CD4 antigens on their surface, which allows them to bind to and activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages. In the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus specifically targets and destroys CD4+ T cells, leading to a weakened immune system and an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and certain types of cancer. Therefore, CD4+ T cell count is often used as a key indicator of HIV infection and disease progression.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a class of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins, specifically at the carboxyl side of a cysteine residue. These enzymes are involved in a variety of biological processes, including digestion, blood clotting, and the regulation of immune responses. They are also involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is important for tissue remodeling and repair. In the medical field, cysteine endopeptidases are often studied as potential therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

HLA-B antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-B antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a slightly different structure and function. HLA-B antigens are an important component of the immune system and are involved in many different types of immune responses, including the development of autoimmune diseases and the recognition of cancer cells.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large family of membrane proteins that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes. These transporters are found in all kingdoms of life, from bacteria to humans, and play important roles in many physiological processes, including drug metabolism, detoxification, and the transport of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes. In the medical field, ABC transporters are of particular interest because they can also transport drugs and other xenobiotics (foreign substances) across cell membranes, which can affect the efficacy and toxicity of these compounds. For example, some ABC transporters can pump drugs out of cells, making them less effective, while others can transport toxins into cells, increasing their toxicity. As a result, ABC transporters are an important factor to consider in the development of new drugs and the optimization of drug therapy. ABC transporters are also involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, cystic fibrosis, and certain neurological disorders. In these conditions, the activity of ABC transporters is often altered, leading to the accumulation of toxins or the loss of important molecules, which can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. As a result, ABC transporters are an important target for the development of new therapies for these conditions.

HLA-DQ antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in the human body. They are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-DQ antigens are particularly important in the immune response to certain types of infections, including those caused by viruses such as HIV and hepatitis C. They also play a role in the development of certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. HLA-DQ antigens are classified into two main groups: HLA-DQ1 and HLA-DQ2. These groups are further divided into several subtypes, each with a unique combination of amino acids in their protein structure. The specific HLA-DQ antigens present on the surface of a person's cells can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to certain treatments.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

HLA-B27 antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is a type of molecule called a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-B27 antigen is primarily associated with an increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis, a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine. It is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and reactive arthritis, as well as an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In addition to its role in autoimmune diseases, the HLA-B27 antigen is also important in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to infections. It plays a role in presenting antigens, or foreign substances, to immune cells, which then mount an immune response to eliminate the infection. Overall, the HLA-B27 antigen is an important molecule in the immune system that plays a role in both autoimmune diseases and infections.

CD11c is a type of antigen that is expressed on the surface of immune cells called dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system by capturing and presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell. CD11c is a member of the integrin family of proteins, which are involved in cell adhesion and migration. In the medical field, CD11c is often used as a marker to identify and study dendritic cells, as well as to monitor the activity of the immune system in various diseases and conditions.

HLA-B7 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is a type of protein found on the surface of most cells in the body, and it helps the immune system recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-B7 is a member of the HLA-B group of antigens, which are a subset of the HLA class I antigens. HLA-B7 is encoded by the HLA-B*07 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are several different variants of the HLA-B7 antigen, each with slightly different amino acid sequences and properties. The HLA-B7 antigen is expressed on the surface of cells that are infected with viruses or bacteria, and it is recognized by T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a T cell recognizes an HLA-B7 molecule on the surface of an infected cell, it becomes activated and releases chemicals that can kill the infected cell or help other immune cells respond to the infection. In addition to its role in the immune response, HLA-B7 has also been implicated in the development of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells that express the HLA-B7 antigen, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.

MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of some melanoma cells, a type of skin cancer. It is a member of a family of proteins called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs), which are thought to play a role in the development and progression of melanoma. MART-1 is recognized by the immune system as foreign, and T-cells that are able to recognize and bind to MART-1 can help to eliminate melanoma cells. As a result, MART-1 has been the subject of research as a potential target for immunotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Immunotherapy drugs that target MART-1 are still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, some early studies have shown promise, and it is hoped that these drugs may one day be used to treat patients with advanced melanoma.

Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.

Hypersensitivity, delayed, also known as type IV hypersensitivity or cell-mediated hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that occurs after an initial exposure to a foreign substance, such as a protein or a drug. Unlike immediate hypersensitivity, which occurs within minutes or hours of exposure, delayed hypersensitivity takes several days to develop. In delayed hypersensitivity, immune cells called T cells recognize and remember the foreign substance. When the immune system encounters the same substance again, the T cells become activated and release chemicals that cause inflammation and damage to the tissue where the substance is located. This can lead to symptoms such as redness, swelling, and itching, and in severe cases, can cause tissue damage or even organ failure. Delayed hypersensitivity is often associated with allergic reactions to certain drugs, metals, or chemicals, as well as with certain infections, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. It is also a key component of the immune response to transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the foreign tissue and mounts an attack against it.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response) binds to an antibody (a protein produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize antigens). When an antigen enters the body, it is recognized by specific antibodies that bind to it, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This complex can then be targeted by other immune cells, such as phagocytes, which engulf and destroy the complex. Antigen-antibody complexes can also deposit in tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. This can occur in conditions such as immune complex-mediated diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues that have been coated with antigens and antibodies. Overall, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes is a normal part of the immune response, but when it becomes dysregulated, it can lead to a variety of medical conditions.

Cancer vaccines are a type of vaccine designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. They work by introducing cancer-specific antigens, which are proteins or other molecules found on the surface of cancer cells, into the body. The immune system recognizes these antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response against them, which can help to slow the growth of cancer cells or even eliminate them entirely. There are several different types of cancer vaccines, including prophylactic vaccines, which are designed to prevent cancer from developing in the first place, and therapeutic vaccines, which are designed to treat existing cancer. Prophylactic vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as those with a family history of the disease or those who have certain genetic mutations. Therapeutic vaccines are given to people who have already been diagnosed with cancer, with the goal of boosting their immune system and helping it to attack cancer cells more effectively. Cancer vaccines are still an active area of research, and while some have shown promise in clinical trials, they are not yet widely available for use in the general population. However, they hold great potential for improving cancer treatment and prevention, and ongoing research is expected to lead to the development of more effective cancer vaccines in the future.

CD79 is a protein complex that is expressed on the surface of B cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. The CD79 complex consists of two subunits, CD79a and CD79b, which are encoded by different genes. Together, these subunits form a receptor that is activated by the binding of antigens, which are molecules that trigger an immune response. Antigens, CD79 are antigens that specifically bind to the CD79 receptor on B cells. When these antigens bind to the receptor, they activate the B cell and stimulate it to produce antibodies, which are proteins that can recognize and neutralize specific pathogens or foreign substances in the body. Antigens, CD79 are often used as diagnostic markers for certain types of B cell lymphomas, which are a type of cancer that affects the B cells. They may also be used as targets for immunotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer.

HLA-DR1 Antigen is a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. It is a member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II family of proteins, which play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign antigens to immune cells. HLA-DR1 Antigen is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, where it can bind to foreign antigens and present them to T cells. The HLA-DR1 Antigen plays an important role in the immune response to infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. It is also used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes.

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.

In the medical field, "alum compounds" typically refer to compounds that contain aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) as a key ingredient. These compounds are often used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. They may also be used as astringents to help reduce swelling and inflammation in the mouth and throat. Alum compounds are available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. They are generally considered safe for short-term use, but long-term use or high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to health problems such as bone loss, kidney damage, and neurological disorders. It is important to note that while alum compounds may be effective in treating certain conditions, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. If you are experiencing symptoms of acid reflux or other digestive issues, it is important to speak with your doctor or a qualified healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for your individual needs.

CD45 is a type of protein found on the surface of many different types of immune cells, including white blood cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen or lymphocyte common antigen. CD45 plays an important role in the function of the immune system by helping to regulate the activity of immune cells. It is also used as a marker to identify different types of immune cells in the laboratory. Antigens, CD45 refers to molecules that bind to CD45 on the surface of immune cells and trigger an immune response. These antigens can be found on viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances, as well as on abnormal cells in the body.

HLA-DR3 Antigen is a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. It is a member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II family of antigens, which play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign substances (antigens) to immune cells. HLA-DR3 Antigen is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene and is expressed primarily on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. It is one of the most common HLA-DR antigens in the human population, with an estimated frequency of 10-20%. The HLA-DR3 Antigen plays a role in the immune response by presenting antigens to T cells, which are a type of immune cell that can recognize and respond to foreign substances. T cells that recognize antigens presented by HLA-DR3 Antigen are called CD4+ T cells, and they play a key role in the adaptive immune response by activating other immune cells and producing cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. HLA-DR3 Antigen is also associated with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, as well as with some infectious diseases, such as Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Receptors, Antigen are proteins on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules called antigens. Antigens can be found on the surface of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, as well as on the surface of normal cells that have been damaged or are undergoing changes. When an antigen binds to its corresponding receptor on an immune cell, it triggers a series of events that lead to the activation and proliferation of immune cells, ultimately resulting in an immune response against the pathogen or abnormal cell.

Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

In the medical field, a multienzyme complex is a group of two or more enzymes that are physically and functionally linked together to form a single, larger enzyme complex. These complexes can work together to catalyze a series of sequential reactions, or they can work in parallel to carry out multiple reactions simultaneously. Multienzyme complexes are found in a variety of biological processes, including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, and signal transduction. They can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and they can be composed of enzymes from different cellular compartments. One example of a multienzyme complex is the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which is involved in the citric acid cycle and the metabolism of amino acids. This complex consists of three enzymes that work together to catalyze the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA. Multienzyme complexes can have important implications for human health. For example, mutations in genes encoding enzymes in these complexes can lead to metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease and glutaric acidemia type II. Additionally, some drugs target specific enzymes in multienzyme complexes as a way to treat certain diseases, such as cancer.

HLA-DR7 antigen is a specific type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that is found on the surface of certain white blood cells. HLA molecules play a crucial role in the immune system by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, that may pose a threat to the body. The HLA-DR7 antigen is a member of the HLA-DR locus, which is located on chromosome 6 and encodes for proteins that are involved in the presentation of antigens to T cells. The HLA-DR7 antigen is characterized by the presence of a specific combination of amino acids in its protein structure, which allows it to bind to and present specific antigens to T cells. In the medical field, the HLA-DR7 antigen is often studied in the context of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, as well as in transplantation medicine, where it can play a role in determining the compatibility of organ donors and recipients. Understanding the role of the HLA-DR7 antigen in these and other conditions can help researchers develop new treatments and improve patient outcomes.

Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Receptors, IgG are a type of immune system receptor that recognizes and binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. When an IgG antibody binds to its specific antigen, it can activate these immune cells through the interaction with their IgG receptors. This activation can lead to the destruction of the antigen-antibody complex, as well as the recruitment of additional immune cells to the site of infection or inflammation. Receptors, IgG play an important role in the immune response to infections and other diseases, and their dysfunction can contribute to various immune disorders.

Beta 2-Microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is produced by most cells in the body, including immune cells such as T cells and B cells. It is a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which are found on the surface of most cells and are responsible for presenting antigens (foreign substances) to the immune system. In the medical field, β2M is often used as a marker of kidney function. High levels of β2M in the blood can indicate kidney damage or failure, as the kidneys are responsible for removing β2M from the bloodstream. In addition, high levels of β2M have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. β2M is also used as a diagnostic tool in the laboratory to help identify and monitor certain diseases and conditions, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. It is also used as a component of some types of cancer treatments, such as immunotherapy.

Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.

Muramidase is an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as lysozyme or muramidase lysozyme. The enzyme cleaves the bond between the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues in the peptidoglycan chain, leading to the breakdown of the cell wall and ultimately the death of the bacterium. Muramidase is found in various organisms, including humans, and is used as an antimicrobial agent in some medications. It is also used in laboratory research to study bacterial cell wall structure and function.

Lectins, C-Type are a type of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are found in a variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are characterized by the presence of a conserved cysteine residue in their carbohydrate recognition domain, which is responsible for their binding specificity to specific carbohydrate structures. C-Type lectins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. They are also used in medical research and have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders. In the medical field, C-Type lectins are often studied for their ability to bind to specific carbohydrate structures on the surface of cells, which can be used to target and modulate cellular processes. They are also used as diagnostic tools to detect specific carbohydrate structures in biological samples, such as in the diagnosis of certain diseases or to monitor the progression of a disease.

Hemocyanin is a respiratory pigment found in the hemolymph (the circulatory fluid in invertebrates) of certain mollusks, crustaceans, and some arthropods. It is responsible for the transport of oxygen from the gills to the tissues of these organisms. In contrast to hemoglobin, which is the respiratory pigment found in the red blood cells of vertebrates, hemocyanin does not contain iron but instead contains copper ions. It is a large protein complex made up of two subunits, each of which contains a copper ion coordinated by histidine residues. The copper ions in hemocyanin are capable of binding to oxygen molecules, allowing the protein to transport oxygen throughout the body. When oxygen is not needed, the copper ions are released from the protein, allowing it to return to its original form. Hemocyanin is an important biomolecule in the study of comparative physiology and evolution, as it is found in a wide range of invertebrates and has evolved independently in different lineages.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by activated T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's defense against infection and disease. IL-2 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the growth and differentiation of T cells, which helps to increase the number of immune cells available to fight infection. It also stimulates the production of other cytokines, which can help to amplify the immune response. IL-2 is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and kidney cancer. It works by stimulating the immune system to attack cancer cells. It is typically given as an injection or infusion, and can cause side effects such as fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In addition to its use in cancer treatment, IL-2 has also been studied for its potential role in treating other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses a small piece of genetic material, usually DNA, to stimulate an immune response in the body. This genetic material is designed to encode a specific protein that is found on the surface of a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria. When the DNA is introduced into the body, it is taken up by cells and used to produce the protein. The immune system recognizes the protein as foreign and mounts an immune response against it, which can provide protection against future infections by the pathogen. DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stage and have not yet been widely used in humans. However, they have shown promise in preclinical studies and are being investigated as a potential way to prevent a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and malaria. One advantage of DNA vaccines is that they can be easily and quickly produced, and they do not require the use of live or attenuated pathogens, which can be more difficult to work with and may pose a risk of causing disease.

Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and toxins. They are Y-shaped molecules that recognize and bind to specific antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of pathogens. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Immunoglobulins play a critical role in the immune response by neutralizing pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells, and activating the complement system, which helps to destroy pathogens. They are also used in medical treatments, such as immunoglobulin replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiencies, and in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of various diseases.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.

CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. It plays a critical role in the immune response by binding to the CD40 receptor on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and B cells. This interaction triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation and proliferation of APCs, as well as the differentiation of T cells into effector cells that can attack infected cells or cancer cells. CD40L is also involved in the regulation of inflammation and the development of autoimmunity. In the medical field, CD40L is being studied as a potential target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Cathepsins are a family of proteolytic enzymes that are found in the lysosomes of cells. They are responsible for breaking down a variety of proteins, including enzymes, hormones, and cellular debris. In the medical field, cathepsins are of interest because they play a role in many physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, immune function, and the degradation of damaged proteins. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. As such, cathepsins are the subject of ongoing research in the field of medicine, with the goal of developing new therapeutic strategies based on their activity.

Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta are a type of immune cell receptor found on the surface of T-cells in the human body. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances that trigger an immune response. The alpha-beta receptors are a type of T-cell receptor that recognizes antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected or cancerous cells. When the alpha-beta receptors bind to the antigen-MHC complex, it triggers a series of events that lead to the activation and proliferation of the T-cell, which then mounts an immune response against the infected or cancerous cells.

CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) is a protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells and B cells. It plays a role in regulating the immune response and preventing autoimmune diseases. In the context of the medical field, the CTLA-4 antigen is often studied in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer cells can sometimes evade the immune system by expressing molecules that inhibit the activity of T cells. One such molecule is CTLA-4, which can bind to a protein on the surface of T cells called CD80 or CD86, effectively turning off the T cell's ability to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapies that target CTLA-4 have been developed to help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. These therapies work by blocking the interaction between CTLA-4 and CD80/CD86, allowing T cells to mount a stronger immune response against cancer cells. While these therapies have shown promise in some types of cancer, they can also cause side effects such as autoimmune reactions.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

Breech presentation is a term used in obstetrics to describe a fetal position in which the baby's buttocks or feet are positioned at the front of the mother's pelvis, rather than the head. This is in contrast to cephalic presentation, in which the baby's head is positioned at the front of the mother's pelvis. Breech presentation can occur in any gestational age, but it is more common in full-term pregnancies. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the fetal position during labor and delivery, as breech presentation can pose challenges for vaginal delivery and may require a cesarean section (C-section). There are several types of breech presentation, including frank breech, complete breech, and footling breech. Each type has its own characteristics and management considerations.

CD28 is a protein found on the surface of T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system. CD28 is a co-stimulatory molecule, meaning that it works together with other molecules to help activate and regulate T cells. Antigens, CD28 refers to molecules that bind to the CD28 protein on T cells and activate them. These antigens are typically found on the surface of other cells, such as infected cells or cancer cells, and are recognized by T cells as foreign or abnormal. When a T cell encounters an antigen that binds to its CD28 receptor, it becomes activated and begins to divide and produce more T cells, which can then attack and destroy the infected or cancerous cells. CD28-based antigens are being studied as potential targets for immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. By activating T cells with CD28-based antigens, researchers hope to boost the immune system's ability to recognize and attack cancer cells.

HLA-DR2 Antigen is a protein complex found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. It is a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and plays a crucial role in the immune response to infections and other foreign substances. The HLA-DR2 Antigen is specifically associated with the HLA-DR2 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. This gene codes for a protein called the HLA-DR2 molecule, which is composed of two subunits: a heavy chain and a light chain. The HLA-DR2 Antigen is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages, where it can bind to foreign antigens and present them to T cells. This process is a key step in the activation of the immune response and the elimination of pathogens from the body. In addition to its role in the immune response, the HLA-DR2 Antigen has also been associated with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.

HLA-C antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human body. These proteins are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-C antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA-C alleles, which are variations of the HLA-C protein that are determined by differences in the DNA sequence of the HLA-C gene. These alleles can be classified into different supertypes based on their structural and functional similarities. HLA-C antigens are expressed on the surface of cells in the body, where they can be recognized by immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. These immune cells use the HLA-C antigens to distinguish between "self" cells (which are normal, healthy cells of the body) and "non-self" cells (which are foreign substances or infected cells). In the context of transplantation, HLA-C antigens are an important factor to consider because they can affect the success of a transplant. If the donor and recipient have different HLA-C antigens, the immune system of the recipient may recognize the donor cells as foreign and attack them, leading to rejection of the transplant. Therefore, it is important to match the HLA-C antigens of the donor and recipient as closely as possible in order to increase the chances of a successful transplant.

Aminopeptidases are a group of enzymes that cleave amino acids from the N-terminus (amino end) of peptides and proteins. These enzymes play important roles in various physiological processes, including protein degradation, regulation of hormone levels, and immune response. There are several types of aminopeptidases, including metalloproteases, serine proteases, and cysteine proteases. Each type of aminopeptidase has a specific substrate specificity and cleavage site, and they are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. In the medical field, aminopeptidases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, some aminopeptidases have been implicated in the development of cancer, while others play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and the immune response. Additionally, aminopeptidases are used as diagnostic markers in various diseases, such as kidney and liver disorders, and as targets for the development of new drugs.

Tetanus toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is responsible for causing the disease tetanus, which is characterized by muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles. The toxin is produced by the bacterium when it infects a wound, and it enters the bloodstream and travels to the central nervous system, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, leading to muscle spasms. The toxin is highly potent and can cause death if left untreated. Treatment for tetanus typically involves vaccination, antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and medications to manage the symptoms of the disease.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a type of complex carbohydrate found on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of a lipid A moiety, a core polysaccharide, and an O-specific polysaccharide. LPS are important components of the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the innate immune response of the host. In the medical field, LPS are often studied in the context of sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation. LPS can trigger a strong immune response in the host, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators that can cause tissue damage and organ failure. As a result, LPS are often used as a model for studying the pathophysiology of sepsis and for developing new treatments for this condition. LPS are also used in research as a tool for studying the immune system and for developing vaccines against bacterial infections. They can be purified from bacterial cultures and used to stimulate immune cells in vitro or in animal models, allowing researchers to study the mechanisms of immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Additionally, LPS can be used as an adjuvant in vaccines to enhance the immune response to the vaccine antigen.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Vaccines are biological preparations that are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response against specific infectious diseases. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the pathogen or its components, such as proteins or sugars, that trigger an immune response without causing the disease. When a vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the foreign substance and produces antibodies to fight it off. This process primes the immune system to recognize and respond more quickly and effectively if the person is later exposed to the actual pathogen. This can prevent or reduce the severity of the disease and help to control its spread in the population. Vaccines are an important tool in public health and have been responsible for the eradication or control of many infectious diseases, such as smallpox, polio, and measles. They are typically given through injection or oral administration and are recommended for individuals of all ages, depending on the disease and the individual's risk factors.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. In a healthy immune system, the body recognizes and attacks foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, to protect itself. However, in autoimmune diseases, the immune system becomes overactive and begins to attack the body's own cells and tissues. There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, and they can affect various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, muscles, blood vessels, and organs such as the thyroid gland, pancreas, and liver. Some common examples of autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves managing symptoms and reducing inflammation, and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Glycolipids are a type of complex lipid molecule that consists of a carbohydrate (sugar) moiety attached to a lipid (fatty acid) moiety. They are found in the cell membrane of all living organisms and play important roles in cell signaling, recognition, and adhesion. In the medical field, glycolipids are of particular interest because they are involved in many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, some glycolipids are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other glycolipids are involved in the formation of cancer cells and can be targeted for the development of new cancer therapies. Glycolipids are also used in medical research as markers for certain diseases, such as Gaucher disease, which is caused by a deficiency in an enzyme that breaks down glycolipids. Additionally, glycolipids are used in the development of new drugs and vaccines, as they can modulate immune responses and target specific cells or tissues.

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the cells that produce the pigment melanin. It is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, as it has the potential to spread to other parts of the body and be difficult to treat. Melanoma can occur in any part of the body, but it most commonly appears on the skin as a new mole or a change in an existing mole. Other signs of melanoma may include a mole that is asymmetrical, has irregular borders, is a different color than the surrounding skin, is larger than a pencil eraser, or has a raised or scaly surface. Melanoma can also occur in the eye, mouth, and other parts of the body, and it is important to see a doctor if you have any concerning changes in your skin or other parts of your body.

Trinitrobenzenes, also known as TNT, are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring with three nitro groups (-NO2) attached to it. They are commonly used as explosives and have been used in various military and industrial applications. In the medical field, trinitrobenzenes are not typically used for therapeutic purposes. However, they have been studied for their potential use as antitumor agents. TNT has been shown to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and it has been proposed as a potential treatment for various types of cancer. However, further research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of TNT as an antitumor agent.

Galactosylceramides (GalCer) are a type of sphingolipid, which are a class of lipids that are important components of cell membranes. GalCer is composed of a sphingosine backbone, a fatty acid chain, and a galactose sugar molecule. In the medical field, GalCer is known to play a role in various diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and immune system disorders. For example, GalCer is involved in the development of certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, and it has been studied as a potential target for cancer therapy. GalCer is also involved in the development of certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Niemann-Pick disease, which are caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the metabolism of sphingolipids. In these disorders, the accumulation of GalCer in cells can lead to cell damage and death. Finally, GalCer is involved in the regulation of immune responses, and it has been studied as a potential target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and allergies.

Egg proteins are the proteins found in eggs. They are a rich source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins in the body. Egg proteins are commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement for people who are unable to consume enough protein through their regular diet, such as people with certain medical conditions or athletes who engage in strenuous physical activity. Egg proteins are also used in the production of medical products such as vaccines and antibodies.

Thy-1 is a type of antigen found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. It is also known as CD90 and is expressed on a variety of cell types, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. The function of Thy-1 is not fully understood, but it is thought to play a role in cell adhesion and migration. In the medical field, Thy-1 is often used as a marker to identify and study specific types of immune cells. It is also used as a target for immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer cells.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine, which is a type of signaling molecule that plays a role in regulating the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells, in response to infection or inflammation. IL-10 has anti-inflammatory properties and helps to suppress the immune response, which can be beneficial in preventing excessive inflammation and tissue damage. It also has immunosuppressive effects, which can help to prevent autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. In the medical field, IL-10 is being studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. For example, IL-10 has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation and improving symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions. It is also being investigated as a potential treatment for cancer, as it may help to suppress the immune response that allows cancer cells to evade detection and destruction by the immune system.

Cathepsin L is a protease enzyme that is found in the lysosomes of cells in the human body. It is involved in the degradation of proteins and plays a role in the normal turnover of cellular proteins. Cathepsin L is also involved in the immune response, as it is activated during the process of phagocytosis, in which immune cells engulf and destroy pathogens. In addition, cathepsin L has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

CD95, also known as Fas or Apo-1, is a cell surface protein that plays a role in the regulation of immune responses and cell death. Antigens, CD95 refers to molecules that bind to the CD95 protein on the surface of immune cells, triggering a cascade of events that can lead to cell death. This process is known as apoptosis and is an important mechanism for eliminating damaged or infected cells from the body. CD95 antigens are also involved in the regulation of immune responses, including the activation and differentiation of T cells and B cells. In the medical field, CD95 antigens are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections.

Macrophage-activating factors (MAFs) are a group of molecules that stimulate the activity of macrophages, a type of immune cell that plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infections and diseases. MAFs can be endogenous (produced by the body) or exogenous (from external sources such as bacteria or viruses). MAFs can activate macrophages by binding to specific receptors on their surface, leading to changes in the macrophage's phenotype and function. Activated macrophages can then phagocytose (engulf and destroy) pathogens, produce inflammatory mediators, and stimulate the immune response. Some examples of MAFs include interferons, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). MAFs play a critical role in the immune response and are involved in many diseases, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine that plays a critical role in the immune response to infections and cancer. It is produced by activated immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and acts on other immune cells, such as natural killer cells and T cells, to enhance their ability to kill pathogens and tumor cells. IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which are encoded by separate genes. The p35 subunit is responsible for the biological activity of IL-12, while the p40 subunit is shared with other cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL-27. IL-12 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which produce IFN-γ and other pro-inflammatory cytokines that are important for the clearance of intracellular pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the activity of natural killer cells, which are important for the elimination of tumor cells and virally infected cells. In addition to its role in innate and adaptive immunity, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis, and has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer and infectious diseases.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug that was first discovered in the 1930s. It is a synthetic derivative of quinine, a natural alkaloid found in the bark of the cinchona tree. Chloroquine is used to treat and prevent malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and other species of Plasmodium. Chloroquine works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the Plasmodium parasite within red blood cells. It does this by interfering with the parasite's ability to synthesize heme, a vital component of hemoglobin, which is necessary for the survival of the parasite. Chloroquine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to foreign substances, reducing inflammation and pain. Chloroquine is available in tablet form and is usually taken orally. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. Long-term use of chloroquine can also cause retinopathy, a condition that affects the eyes and can lead to vision loss.

Melanoma, Experimental refers to a type of research being conducted to develop new treatments or therapies for melanoma, a type of skin cancer. These experimental treatments may involve the use of new drugs, vaccines, or other interventions that have not yet been approved for use in humans. The goal of this research is to find more effective and safer ways to treat melanoma and improve outcomes for patients with this disease. Experimental melanoma treatments are typically tested in clinical trials, where they are given to a small group of patients to evaluate their safety and effectiveness before they can be approved for widespread use.

HLA-DRB1 chains are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and play a crucial role in the body's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-DRB1 chain is a type of protein called a "dr" protein, which is part of the MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules are found on the surface of cells that are involved in the immune response, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells use the MHC class II molecules to present pieces of foreign substances, called antigens, to other immune cells, such as T cells. The HLA-DRB1 chain is one of several different types of MHC class II molecules that are found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. Each type of MHC class II molecule has a unique structure and is capable of presenting a different set of antigens to the immune system. This allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide variety of different foreign substances. HLA-DRB1 chains are important for the proper functioning of the immune system and are the target of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. In these diseases, the immune system mistakenly attacks the HLA-DRB1 chains on the surface of healthy cells, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissues.

Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.

Receptors, cell surface are proteins that are located on the surface of cells and are responsible for receiving signals from the environment. These signals can be chemical, electrical, or mechanical in nature and can trigger a variety of cellular responses. There are many different types of cell surface receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. These receptors play a critical role in many physiological processes, including sensation, communication, and regulation of cellular activity. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of cell surface receptors is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune system. IL-4 is primarily produced by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to fight off parasitic infections and allergies. IL-4 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the differentiation of Th2 cells and stimulates the production of other Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13. IL-4 also promotes the activation and proliferation of B cells, which are responsible for producing antibodies. Additionally, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to suppress the activity of T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, which are involved in fighting off bacterial and viral infections. In the medical field, IL-4 is being studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it is being investigated as a treatment for allergies, asthma, and certain autoimmune diseases. IL-4 is also being studied as a potential cancer immunotherapy, as it can help to activate immune cells that can recognize and attack cancer cells.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

GP100 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of melanoma cells, which are a type of cancer that originates in the cells that produce pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The GP100 protein is a type of melanoma antigen, which is a protein that is found on the surface of cancer cells and can be recognized by the immune system as foreign. Melanoma antigens are being studied as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy, which is a type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer.

Mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and play an important role in the innate immune system. They are part of the complement system, which is a complex network of proteins that helps to defend the body against infections. MBLs are able to bind to specific carbohydrate structures on the surface of microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, and mark them for destruction by other components of the immune system. They also play a role in activating the complement system, which helps to recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote inflammation. In the medical field, MBLs are often measured as a way to assess the body's ability to mount an immune response. Low levels of MBLs have been associated with an increased risk of infections, while high levels have been linked to certain autoimmune disorders. MBLs are also being studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for infectious diseases and other conditions.

Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta are a type of T-cell receptor (TCR) found on the surface of certain T cells. These receptors are composed of two chains, gamma and delta, that are encoded by the TCR gamma and TCR delta genes, respectively. T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a critical role in the immune system by recognizing and responding to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The gamma-delta T cells are a subset of T cells that have a unique set of TCRs and are thought to play a role in the immune response to certain infections and tumors. The gamma-delta T cells recognize antigens, which are molecules that are foreign to the body and can trigger an immune response. When a gamma-delta T cell encounters an antigen, it binds to it through its TCR and becomes activated, leading to the production of immune cells and molecules that help to fight off the infection or tumor. Overall, the gamma-delta T cells and their receptors play an important role in the immune system and are the subject of ongoing research in the field of immunology.

Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine that contains a weakened form of the tetanus toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The vaccine is used to prevent tetanus, a serious and potentially fatal disease that affects the nervous system. Tetanus is caused by the entry of the tetanus toxin into the body, usually through a deep puncture wound or cut that is contaminated with the bacterium. The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the tetanus toxin if it enters the body. Tetanus Toxoid is typically given as a series of injections, with the first dose usually given in the early childhood and booster doses given at regular intervals to maintain immunity.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.

Nucleoproteins are complex molecules that consist of a protein and a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. In the medical field, nucleoproteins play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, DNA replication, and DNA repair. One example of a nucleoprotein is histone, which is a protein that helps package DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. Histones are important for regulating gene expression, as they can affect the accessibility of DNA to transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. Another example of a nucleoprotein is ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which is a complex molecule that consists of RNA and one or more proteins. RNPs play important roles in various cellular processes, including mRNA processing, translation, and RNA interference. In the context of viral infections, nucleoproteins are often found in viral particles and play important roles in viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, the nucleoprotein of influenza virus is involved in the packaging of viral RNA into viral particles, while the nucleoprotein of HIV is involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. Overall, nucleoproteins are important molecules in the medical field, and their study can provide insights into various biological processes and diseases.

Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins (LAMPs) are a family of proteins that are found on the surface of lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that are responsible for breaking down and recycling cellular waste. LAMPs are glycoproteins, which means that they are made up of both proteins and carbohydrates. They are characterized by their ability to bind to mannose, a type of sugar, and are involved in the regulation of lysosomal function. LAMPs have been studied in a variety of medical contexts, including their role in the immune response, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Antibodies, Protozoan refers to a type of antibody that is produced by the immune system in response to infections caused by protozoan parasites. Protozoan parasites are single-celled organisms that can cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including malaria, sleeping sickness, and giardiasis. Antibodies are proteins that are produced by immune cells called B cells. They are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. When an antibody binds to a pathogen, it can help to neutralize the pathogen or mark it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies, Protozoan are specific to the antigens found on the surface of protozoan parasites. They are produced in response to an infection with a specific protozoan parasite and can help to protect the body against future infections with that parasite.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

Emetine is a medication that is used to treat amoebic dysentery, a type of infection caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It works by killing the amoeba and stopping it from multiplying. Emetine is usually given in combination with another medication called tinidazole, which also helps to kill the parasite. It is usually taken by mouth as a tablet or a liquid. Side effects of emetine may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. It is important to take emetine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as stopping the medication too soon can lead to the parasite coming back.

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins that mediate the attachment of cells to each other or to the extracellular matrix. They play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue development, wound healing, immune response, and cancer progression. There are several types of CAMs, including cadherins, integrins, selectins, and immunoglobulin superfamily members. Each type of CAM has a unique structure and function, and they can interact with other molecules to form complex networks that regulate cell behavior. In the medical field, CAMs are often studied as potential targets for therapeutic interventions. For example, drugs that block specific CAMs have been developed to treat cancer, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. Additionally, CAMs are used as diagnostic markers to identify and monitor various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Receptors, Fc refers to a type of protein receptor found on the surface of immune cells, such as antibodies and immune cells, that recognize and bind to the Fc region of other proteins, particularly antibodies. The Fc region is the portion of an antibody that is located at the base of the Y-shaped structure and is responsible for binding to other proteins, such as antigens or immune cells. When an Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of an antibody, it can trigger a variety of immune responses, such as the activation of immune cells or the destruction of pathogens. Fc receptors play a critical role in the immune system and are involved in many different immune responses, including the clearance of pathogens and the regulation of inflammation.

In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.

Skin diseases caused by viruses are a group of conditions that affect the skin and mucous membranes. These diseases are caused by viruses that infect the skin cells and can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, blisters, sores, and itching. Some common viral skin diseases include: 1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, which can cause cold sores, genital herpes, and herpes zoster (shingles). 2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections, which cause chickenpox and shingles. 3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which can cause warts and some types of cancer. 4. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which can cause skin rashes and other symptoms in people with weakened immune systems. 5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, which can cause infectious mononucleosis and some types of skin cancer. Treatment for viral skin diseases typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to reduce symptoms and prevent the virus from spreading. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to remove warts or other skin growths caused by viral infections. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a viral skin disease, as prompt treatment can help to prevent complications and improve your overall health.

Ki-67 is a protein found in the nuclei of cells that are actively dividing. It is a useful marker for assessing the growth rate of tumors and is often used in conjunction with other markers to help diagnose and predict the behavior of cancer. The Ki-67 antigen is named after the Danish pathologist, Kai Erik Nielsen, who first described it in the 1980s. It is typically measured using immunohistochemistry, a technique that uses antibodies to detect specific proteins in tissue samples.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites. It is produced by B cells in response to specific antigens, such as those found in pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. When an allergen enters the body, it triggers the production of IgE antibodies by B cells. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells that are involved in the inflammatory response. When the same allergen enters the body again, the IgE antibodies on the mast cells and basophils bind to the allergen and cause the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. This leads to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. IgE is also involved in the immune response to parasites, such as worms. In this case, the IgE antibodies help to trap and kill the parasites by binding to them and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Overall, IgE is an important part of the immune system's defense against allergens and parasites, but it can also contribute to allergic reactions and other inflammatory conditions when it binds to inappropriate antigens.

Antibodies, Helminth refers to a type of immune response that occurs when the body is exposed to helminth parasites, which are a group of large, multicellular worms that can cause various diseases in humans and animals. Helminths can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs, intestines, liver, and brain. When the body is exposed to helminth parasites, it produces antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies are specific to the antigens present on the surface of the helminth and can help to neutralize the parasite or mark it for destruction by other immune cells. The production of antibodies in response to helminth infections is an important part of the immune response and can help to protect the body from future infections. However, in some cases, the immune response to helminth infections can also cause damage to the body, leading to symptoms such as inflammation, tissue damage, and organ dysfunction.

Chimerin proteins are a family of proteins that are characterized by their ability to bind to and activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are named after the chimera, a mythical creature with the body of a lion, the head of a goat, and the tail of a snake. Chimerin proteins are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the development and function of the nervous system, and the immune response. They are also implicated in a number of diseases, including hypertension, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. There are several different chimerin proteins, including chimerin-1, chimerin-2, and chimerin-3. These proteins are encoded by different genes and have different functions, but they all share the ability to bind to and activate GPCRs. Chimerin proteins are typically found in the cytoplasm of cells, but they can also be secreted into the extracellular environment. They are thought to act as signaling molecules, transmitting signals from the cell surface to the interior of the cell. Overall, chimerin proteins play important roles in many physiological processes and are involved in a number of diseases. Further research is needed to fully understand the functions of these proteins and their potential therapeutic applications.

Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a protein that plays a critical role in the development and function of white blood cells, particularly granulocytes and macrophages. It is produced by a variety of cells, including bone marrow cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In the bone marrow, GM-CSF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into granulocytes and macrophages. These cells are important components of the immune system and play a key role in fighting infections and removing damaged or infected cells from the body. GM-CSF also has a number of other functions in the body, including promoting the survival of granulocytes and macrophages, enhancing their ability to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) pathogens, and stimulating the production of cytokines and other signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. In the medical field, GM-CSF is used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including cancer, bone marrow suppression, and certain immune disorders. It is typically administered as a recombinant protein, either as a standalone therapy or in combination with other treatments.

CD14 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including macrophages and monocytes. It is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of certain types of bacteria. When CD14 binds to LPS, it triggers a signaling cascade that activates the immune system and leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CD14 is also involved in the recognition and processing of other types of antigens, including bacterial and viral proteins. In the medical field, CD14 is often used as a marker for the activation of the innate immune system and is studied in the context of various diseases, including sepsis, infectious diseases, and cancer.

Perforin is a protein that is produced by certain immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells. It is a key component of the immune system's ability to destroy infected or cancerous cells. Perforin is stored in granules within the immune cells and is released when the cell encounters a target cell that it needs to destroy. Once released, perforin forms pores in the target cell's membrane, allowing other immune molecules, such as granzymes, to enter the cell and trigger its death. Perforin is also involved in the destruction of virus-infected cells and cancer cells. It is an important part of the immune system's ability to protect the body against infections and diseases.

Glutaral is a colorless, crystalline compound that is a derivative of glutaric acid. It is used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic, particularly for the treatment of skin and mucous membrane infections. Glutaral is also used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and contact lens solutions. It is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people.

Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.

Herpesviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae. These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong infections in their hosts, with periods of latency and reactivation. There are eight known herpesviruses that infect humans, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and human herpesvirus 36 (HHV-36). Herpesviridae infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, skin rashes, and genital sores. Some infections can also cause more serious complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Herpesviridae infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as viral culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Treatment options for herpesviridae infections include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce symptoms and prevent complications. However, there is currently no cure for herpesviridae infections, and the viruses can remain dormant in the body for long periods of time before reactivating.

HLA-DR4 Antigen is a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the human immune system. It is a member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II family of proteins, which play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign antigens to immune cells. The HLA-DR4 antigen is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are several different alleles of the HLA-DRB1 gene, each of which can produce a slightly different version of the HLA-DR4 antigen. The HLA-DR4 antigen is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. When these cells encounter a foreign antigen, they process it and present it to T cells, which then initiate an immune response. The HLA-DR4 antigen is also associated with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and celiac disease. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, and the HLA-DR4 antigen may play a role in triggering or exacerbating the immune response.

Viral vaccines are a type of vaccine that use a weakened or inactivated form of a virus to stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response against the virus. This immune response can provide protection against future infections with the virus. There are several different types of viral vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate, but is not strong enough to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines use a killed form of the virus that is no longer able to replicate. Subunit vaccines use only a small part of the virus, such as a protein or a piece of genetic material, to stimulate an immune response. Viral vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases, including influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus (HPV). They are typically given by injection, but can also be given by mouth or nose in some cases. Viral vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of viral diseases and reducing the number of cases and deaths caused by these diseases. They are generally safe and effective, and are an important part of public health efforts to control the spread of viral diseases.

Brefeldin A (BFA) is a naturally occurring macrolide compound that was first isolated from the fungus Brefeldia nivea. It is a potent inhibitor of the Golgi apparatus, a organelle in eukaryotic cells responsible for sorting, packaging, and transporting proteins and lipids to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell. In the medical field, BFA is used as a tool to study the function and dynamics of the Golgi apparatus and other intracellular organelles. It is often used in cell biology research to visualize and analyze the transport of proteins and lipids through the Golgi apparatus and to study the role of the Golgi apparatus in various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and signaling. BFA is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and to develop safe and effective treatments based on BFA.

In the medical field, viral matrix proteins refer to a group of proteins that are produced by viruses and play a crucial role in the assembly and release of new virus particles from infected cells. These proteins are typically synthesized as precursor proteins that are cleaved into smaller, functional units during or after virus assembly. The viral matrix proteins are often involved in the organization of the viral components, including the viral genome, envelope proteins, and other structural proteins, into a stable structure that can be released from the host cell. They may also play a role in protecting the virus from host immune defenses and facilitating the entry of new virus particles into neighboring cells. Examples of viral matrix proteins include the matrix protein of influenza virus, the matrix protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the matrix protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Understanding the function of viral matrix proteins is important for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines.

In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.

In the medical field, antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. Antigens can be found on the surface of cells or in the body's fluids, and they can be foreign substances like bacteria or viruses, or they can be part of the body's own cells, such as antigens found in the nucleus of cells. Nuclear antigens are antigens that are found within the nucleus of cells. These antigens are typically not exposed on the surface of cells, and they are not usually recognized by the immune system unless there is damage to the cell or the nucleus. In some cases, the immune system may mistakenly recognize nuclear antigens as foreign and mount an immune response against them, which can lead to autoimmune diseases.

Listeriosis is a rare but serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. It can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Listeriosis can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, it can lead to meningitis, sepsis, and even death. Listeriosis is typically spread through contaminated food, particularly soft cheeses, deli meats, and raw milk or raw milk products. It can also be transmitted through contact with contaminated soil or water, or from person to person in healthcare settings. Diagnosis of listeriosis typically involves culturing the bacteria from a blood, spinal fluid, or other bodily fluid sample. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the effectiveness of treatment can be limited in severe cases. Preventing listeriosis involves avoiding contaminated food and practicing good hygiene, particularly when handling raw meat or dairy products. Healthcare providers should also take precautions to prevent the spread of the bacteria in healthcare settings.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of neoplasms (abnormal growths of cells) in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or in vitro cell cultures. These studies are typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of neoplasms and to develop new treatments for cancer and other types of neoplastic diseases. Experimental neoplasms may be induced by various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, or other forms of cellular stress. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of neoplasms and help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In the medical field, viral core proteins refer to the internal proteins that are essential for the replication and survival of a virus. These proteins are typically found within the viral capsid, which is the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome. The viral core proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the replication of the viral genome and the assembly of new virus particles. They may also be involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation or preventing the host immune system from recognizing and eliminating the virus. Examples of viral core proteins include the core protein of the hepatitis B virus, which is essential for the replication of the viral genome, and the core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which plays a role in the assembly of new virus particles. Understanding the structure and function of viral core proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.

Receptors, IgE (Immunoglobulin E receptors) are proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, such as mast cells and basophils. These receptors bind to specific molecules called allergens, which are typically harmless substances that trigger an allergic reaction in some people. When an allergen binds to an IgE receptor, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions that leads to the release of histamine and other inflammatory molecules, causing symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Receptors, IgE play a key role in the development and progression of allergic diseases, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies.

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and cell signaling. It is expressed on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells. ICAM-1 functions as a receptor for immune cells, allowing them to adhere to and migrate across the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. This process is essential for the immune system to respond to infections and other inflammatory stimuli. ICAM-1 also plays a role in cell signaling, mediating the interaction between cells and their environment. It can be activated by various stimuli, including cytokines, hormones, and growth factors, and can regulate processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the medical field, ICAM-1 is often studied in the context of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. For example, increased expression of ICAM-1 has been associated with the development and progression of several types of cancer, including breast cancer and lung cancer. Additionally, ICAM-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

HLA-A1 antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A1 antigen is encoded by the HLA-A1 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are many different variations of the HLA-A1 antigen, each with slightly different amino acid sequences. These variations are known as alleles, and they can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to certain medications. In the medical field, the HLA-A1 antigen is often tested as part of organ transplantation. Because the immune system can recognize and attack foreign tissue, it is important to match the HLA antigens of the donor and recipient as closely as possible to reduce the risk of rejection. The HLA-A1 antigen is just one of many antigens that are tested in this context.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the innate immune system. They are expressed on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and are responsible for recognizing and responding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are molecules that are unique to microorganisms and not found in host cells. When TLRs recognize PAMPs, they trigger a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of immune cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This helps to initiate an immune response against the invading pathogen. TLRs are also involved in the recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are molecules that are released by damaged or dying host cells. This can help to trigger an inflammatory response in cases of tissue injury or infection. Overall, TLRs play a critical role in the immune system's ability to detect and respond to pathogens and tissue damage.

In the medical field, immunoconjugates refer to a type of drug delivery system that combines a targeting molecule, such as an antibody, with a therapeutic agent, such as a cytotoxic drug or radioactive isotope. The targeting molecule is designed to specifically bind to a particular antigen or biomarker that is expressed on the surface of cancer cells or other diseased cells. Once the immunoconjugate binds to the target cell, the therapeutic agent is delivered directly to the cell, where it can cause damage or death. Immunoconjugates have the potential to be highly effective in cancer therapy because they can selectively target cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells. They can also be used to deliver drugs to hard-to-reach areas of the body, such as the brain or the eye. There are several different types of immunoconjugates, including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), antibody-radioisotope conjugates (ARCs), and antibody-drug nanocarriers (ADCNs). ADCs are the most common type of immunoconjugate and are composed of an antibody that is covalently linked to a cytotoxic drug. ARCs are similar to ADCs, but instead of a cytotoxic drug, they contain a radioactive isotope that is targeted to cancer cells. ADCNs are a newer type of immunoconjugate that use nanocarriers to deliver drugs to cancer cells.

CD58, also known as LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3), is a cell surface protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as on some types of dendritic cells and macrophages. CD58 functions as a ligand for the integrin CD2, which is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The interaction between CD58 and CD2 is important for the activation and proliferation of these immune cells, as well as for the formation of immune synapses between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In the medical field, CD58 is often studied in the context of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer. For example, CD58 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and it is also involved in the regulation of immune responses to viral infections. In cancer, CD58 has been implicated in the immune evasion of tumors, as it can help tumor cells to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system.

In the medical field, oligopeptides are short chains of amino acids that typically contain between two and 50 amino acids. They are often used in various medical applications due to their unique properties and potential therapeutic effects. One of the main benefits of oligopeptides is their ability to penetrate the skin and reach underlying tissues, making them useful in the development of topical treatments for a variety of conditions. For example, oligopeptides have been shown to improve skin elasticity, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and promote the growth of new skin cells. Oligopeptides are also used in the development of medications for a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension. They work by interacting with specific receptors in the body, which can help to regulate various physiological processes and improve overall health. Overall, oligopeptides are a promising area of research in the medical field, with potential applications in a wide range of therapeutic areas.

In the medical field, antiporters are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the exchange of ions or molecules across a cell membrane. Unlike transporters, which move molecules or ions down a concentration gradient, antiporters move molecules or ions against a concentration gradient, meaning they require energy to function. Antiporters typically function by coupling the movement of one molecule or ion across the membrane with the movement of another molecule or ion in the opposite direction. This process is known as symport or antiport, depending on whether the two molecules or ions move in the same or opposite direction. Antiporters play important roles in many physiological processes, including the regulation of ion concentrations in cells, the transport of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes, and the maintenance of pH balance in cells and tissues. They are also involved in a number of diseases, including neurological disorders, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer.

Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases are a group of enzymes that are involved in the breakdown of peptides, which are chains of amino acids. These enzymes cleave peptides at specific sites, releasing smaller peptides or individual amino acids. Dipeptidyl-Peptidases (DPPs) specifically cleave dipeptides, which are composed of two amino acids, from the N-terminus (the end closest to the amino acid chain) of larger peptides. There are several types of DPPs, including DPP-IV, which is an important enzyme in the metabolism of incretins, hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. Tripeptidyl-Peptidases (TPPs) cleave tripeptides, which are composed of three amino acids, from the N-terminus of larger peptides. TPPs are less well-studied than DPPs, but they are thought to play a role in the regulation of immune function and the metabolism of certain drugs. DPPs and TPps are found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including the gut, liver, and pancreas. They are important for maintaining normal peptide metabolism and regulating various physiological processes. In some cases, abnormalities in the activity of these enzymes have been linked to certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of herpes simplex virus: HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 is primarily responsible for oral herpes, which can cause cold sores or fever blisters on or around the mouth and lips. HSV-2 is primarily responsible for genital herpes, which can cause painful sores on the genital area. Herpes simplex is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with the skin or mucous membranes of an infected person. The virus can remain dormant in the body for long periods of time and can reactivate periodically, causing outbreaks of symptoms. There is no cure for herpes simplex, but antiviral medications can help to reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks and prevent the virus from spreading to other parts of the body or to other people. It is important to practice safe sex and to avoid close contact with an infected person to prevent the spread of herpes simplex.

HLA-A24 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that is expressed on the surface of cells in the immune system. It is a type of protein that plays a critical role in the immune response by helping the body to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-A24 is a member of the HLA-A serotype, which is one of the three major serotypes of HLA antigens. HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6 and are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these antigens. This polymorphism allows the immune system to recognize a wide variety of different foreign substances. HLA-A24 has been associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including certain types of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, HLA-A24 has been found to be overrepresented in patients with certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. It has also been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, HLA-A24 is often used as a marker to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for certain diseases or conditions. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Receptors, immunologic are proteins on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, such as antigens, to initiate an immune response. These receptors play a crucial role in the body's ability to defend against infections and other harmful substances. There are many different types of immunologic receptors, including T cell receptors, B cell receptors, and natural killer cell receptors, each with its own specific function and mechanism of action.

Polysaccharides, bacterial are complex carbohydrates that are produced by bacteria. They are composed of long chains of sugar molecules and can be found in the cell walls of many bacterial species. Some common examples of bacterial polysaccharides include peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and teichoic acid. These molecules play important roles in the structure and function of bacterial cells, and they can also have medical significance. For example, lipopolysaccharide is a component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria and can trigger an immune response in the body. In some cases, bacterial polysaccharides can also be used as vaccines to protect against bacterial infections.

Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of proteins that are rapidly and transiently expressed in response to various cellular signals, such as mitogenic growth factors, stress, and viral infection. They are also known as early response genes or immediate-early genes. IEPs play a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. They are involved in various cellular processes, including gene transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell signaling. Some of the well-known IEPs include c-fos, c-jun, and Egr-1. The expression of IEPs is tightly regulated by various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Dysregulation of IEP expression has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections. In summary, IEPs are a class of proteins that play a critical role in regulating cellular processes in response to various signals. Their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making them an important area of research in the medical field.

Vaccinia is a smallpox-like virus that is used as a vaccine to prevent smallpox. It was first isolated in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who used it to develop the first smallpox vaccine. Vaccinia is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus and is closely related to variola virus, which causes smallpox. The virus is typically spread through contact with infected skin or respiratory secretions. Symptoms of vaccinia include fever, headache, and a characteristic rash that forms on the skin. The virus can be treated with antiviral medications and supportive care, but there is no specific cure. Vaccinia is no longer a public health concern in most parts of the world, as smallpox has been eradicated through a global vaccination campaign.

Conalbumin is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma. It is also known as albumin B or albumin C. Conalbumin is synthesized in the liver and is one of the most abundant proteins in the blood, making up about 50-60% of the total protein content. Conalbumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a carrier for various ions and nutrients. It is also involved in the immune response and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the medical field, the measurement of conalbumin levels can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess liver function and detect certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, and malnutrition. Abnormal levels of conalbumin can also be an indicator of other health conditions, such as inflammation, infection, and cancer.

Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) is a protein that is found in the myelin sheath, which is a fatty layer that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS). MBP plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of the myelin sheath, and it is thought to be involved in the development and progression of several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and some forms of leukodystrophy. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath, leading to inflammation and damage to the nerve fibers. MBP is also being studied as a potential biomarker for these disorders, as levels of MBP in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid may be elevated in people with these conditions.

Pore-forming cytotoxic proteins (PFTs) are a class of proteins that are capable of forming pores in the membranes of cells, leading to cell death. These proteins are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and some eukaryotic cells, and are used as a mechanism of attack against host cells. PFTs typically function by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, and then inserting themselves into the cell membrane. Once inside the membrane, the PFTs oligomerize (form multiple copies of themselves) and create a pore that allows ions and other molecules to pass through the membrane. This disruption of the cell membrane can lead to a loss of osmotic balance, cell swelling, and ultimately cell death. PFTs are a major component of the immune response and are used by the immune system to kill infected or cancerous cells. However, some pathogens have evolved to produce PFTs as a means of evading the immune system or causing disease. For example, the anthrax toxin produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis is a PFT that is capable of killing host cells and causing severe illness. In the medical field, PFTs are the subject of ongoing research as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and autoimmune disorders. They are also being studied as potential targets for the development of new vaccines and antiviral drugs.

CD27 is a protein that is found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells and B cells. It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and plays a role in the activation and differentiation of these immune cells. Antigens, CD27 refers to molecules that bind to the CD27 protein on the surface of immune cells. These antigens can be either self-antigens, which are normally present on the body's own cells and can be recognized by the immune system as "self," or foreign antigens, which are found on the surface of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. The binding of antigens to CD27 on immune cells can trigger a variety of immune responses, including the activation and proliferation of T cells and B cells, the production of antibodies, and the release of cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. CD27 is therefore an important molecule in the immune system and plays a role in the body's ability to defend itself against infection and disease.

HLA-DR is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. The HLA-DR serological subtypes refer to the different variations of the HLA-DR molecule that are identified through serological methods, which involve the use of antibodies to detect specific antigens on the surface of cells. There are many different HLA-DR serological subtypes, which are designated by a combination of two letters. For example, HLA-DR1 is one of the most common HLA-DR subtypes, and HLA-DR3 is another common subtype. The specific HLA-DR subtype that a person expresses can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to certain treatments.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can be transmitted to others who are nearby. TB is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, but it is treatable with a combination of antibiotics taken over several months. However, if left untreated, TB can be life-threatening and can spread to others. There are two main types of TB: latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is when the bacteria are present in the body but do not cause symptoms or harm. Active TB, on the other hand, is when the bacteria are multiplying and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB is a major global health problem, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths each year. It is most common in low- and middle-income countries, where access to healthcare and treatment may be limited.

CD11b is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. It is a member of the integrin family of proteins, which are involved in cell adhesion and signaling. CD11b is also known as the alpha chain of the integrin receptor Mac-1 (Macrophage-1 antigen). Antigens, CD11b are molecules that bind to CD11b on the surface of immune cells. These antigens can be foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, or they can be self-molecules that have been altered in some way. When CD11b binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of signaling events that activate the immune cell and cause it to respond to the presence of the antigen. This response can include the production of inflammatory molecules, the recruitment of other immune cells to the site of the antigen, and the destruction of the antigen. CD11b and its antigens play an important role in the immune response and are the subject of ongoing research in the field of immunology.

Lymphoma, T-cell is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. T-cells are responsible for identifying and attacking foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, in the body. In T-cell lymphoma, the T-cells become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other parts of the body. There are several subtypes of T-cell lymphoma, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma,, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. T-cell lymphoma can present with a variety of symptoms, including fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for T-cell lymphoma depend on the subtype and stage of the disease, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Viral envelope proteins are proteins that are found on the surface of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, as they are involved in the attachment of the virus to host cells, entry into the host cell, and release of new virus particles from the host cell. There are several different types of viral envelope proteins, including glycoproteins, which are proteins that have attached carbohydrates, and matrix proteins, which help to stabilize the viral envelope. These proteins can be important targets for antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for the virus to infect host cells. In addition to their role in viral infection, viral envelope proteins can also play a role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. For example, some viral envelope proteins can trigger an immune response in the host, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other viral envelope proteins can help the virus evade the host immune system, allowing the virus to persist and cause disease. Overall, viral envelope proteins are important components of enveloped viruses and play a critical role in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of viral diseases.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. It is the most abundant antibody in the mucous membranes, which line the surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. IgA is produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and is secreted into the bloodstream and mucous membranes. It is particularly important in protecting against infections in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, where it helps to neutralize and eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. IgA can also be found in tears, saliva, and breast milk, where it provides protection against infections in the eyes, mouth, and digestive tract. In addition, IgA plays a role in the immune response to certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Overall, IgA is a critical component of the body's immune system and plays a vital role in protecting against infections and diseases.

Lymphoma, B-Cell is a type of cancer that affects the B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. B cells are responsible for producing antibodies that help the body fight off infections and diseases. In lymphoma, B cells grow and divide uncontrollably, forming tumors in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. There are several subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The symptoms of B-cell lymphoma can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumors, but may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Treatment for B-cell lymphoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of lymphoma, the stage of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended.

Disease susceptibility refers to an individual's increased risk of developing a particular disease or condition due to genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. Susceptibility to a disease is not the same as having the disease itself, but rather an increased likelihood of developing it compared to someone who is not susceptible. Genetic factors play a significant role in disease susceptibility. Certain genetic mutations or variations can increase an individual's risk of developing certain diseases, such as breast cancer, diabetes, or heart disease. Environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins or pollutants, can also increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases. Lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and smoking, can also impact disease susceptibility. For example, a diet high in saturated fats and sugar can increase an individual's risk of developing heart disease, while regular exercise can reduce the risk. Understanding an individual's disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers develop personalized prevention and treatment plans to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to manage existing conditions more effectively.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are found in many different types of biological materials, including plant cell walls, animal tissues, and microorganisms. In the medical field, polysaccharides are often used as drugs or therapeutic agents, due to their ability to modulate immune responses, promote wound healing, and provide other beneficial effects. Some examples of polysaccharides that are used in medicine include hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and dextran.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a group of viral infections caused by the cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family. CMV is a common virus that can infect people of all ages, but it is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, or through breast milk. In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause mild flu-like symptoms. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, or pregnant women with HIV, CMV infections can cause serious complications, including pneumonia, encephalitis, and retinitis. CMV infections can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Treatment for CMV infections typically involves antiviral medications to help control the virus and prevent complications.

Saposins are a group of enzymes that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids, which are a type of lipid found in cell membranes. There are four different types of saposins, named Saposin A, B, C, and D, each with a specific function in the body. Saposins play a crucial role in the functioning of lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down various types of cellular waste. Saposins help to activate these enzymes by binding to them and facilitating their entry into the lysosome. Deficiencies in saposins can lead to a group of inherited disorders known as sphingolipidoses, which are characterized by the accumulation of sphingolipids in various tissues throughout the body. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including neurological problems, skin abnormalities, and organ damage. In the medical field, saposins are used as diagnostic tools to help identify and monitor sphingolipidoses, and they are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for these disorders.

Adaptor Protein Complex 3 (AP-3) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the sorting and transport of proteins and lipids within cells. It is composed of four subunits: μ1A, μ1B, μ2A, and μ2B, which are encoded by different genes. AP-3 is involved in the sorting of cargo molecules destined for lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma membrane. It recognizes specific sorting signals on the cargo molecules and mediates their binding to vesicles that transport them to their final destinations. Mutations in the genes encoding AP-3 subunits have been associated with several human diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and a form of retinitis pigmentosa. These diseases are characterized by defects in the immune system, bleeding disorders, and vision problems, respectively.

Dermatitis, Contact is a skin condition that occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen. It is also known as contact dermatitis. The condition can be acute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the exposure to the irritant or allergen. The symptoms of contact dermatitis can include redness, itching, swelling, blistering, and cracking of the skin. In some cases, the skin may also become dry, scaly, or thickened. Contact dermatitis can be caused by a wide range of substances, including soaps, detergents, perfumes, cosmetics, metals, plants, and certain chemicals. People who work in certain industries, such as healthcare, construction, and manufacturing, are at a higher risk of developing contact dermatitis due to their exposure to these substances. Treatment for contact dermatitis typically involves avoiding the substance that caused the reaction, as well as using topical creams or ointments to soothe the skin. In severe cases, oral medications may be prescribed to help reduce inflammation and itching.

Membrane transport proteins are proteins that span the cell membrane and facilitate the movement of molecules across the membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside of cells, and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction. There are several types of membrane transport proteins, including channels, carriers, and pumps. Channels are pore-forming proteins that allow specific ions or molecules to pass through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Carriers are proteins that bind to specific molecules and change shape to transport them across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Pumps are proteins that use energy to actively transport molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Membrane transport proteins are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for these diseases.

HLA-A3 Antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A3 antigen is encoded by the HLA-A3 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is expressed on the surface of most cells in the body, but is particularly abundant on cells of the immune system, such as T cells and B cells. The HLA-A3 antigen is an important target for the immune system, as it can be recognized by certain immune cells as "self" and therefore not attacked. However, in some cases, the immune system may mistake the HLA-A3 antigen for a foreign substance and mount an attack against cells that express it, leading to autoimmune diseases. In addition to its role in the immune system, the HLA-A3 antigen has also been studied in the context of cancer. Some studies have suggested that the presence of the HLA-A3 antigen on cancer cells may make them more susceptible to attack by the immune system, while others have found that the antigen may actually help cancer cells evade immune detection.

In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Bacterial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against bacterial infections. They work by stimulating the immune system to recognize and fight off specific bacteria that cause disease. Bacterial vaccines can be made from live, attenuated bacteria (bacteria that have been weakened so they cannot cause disease), inactivated bacteria (bacteria that have been killed), or pieces of bacteria (such as proteins or polysaccharides) that are recognized by the immune system. Bacterial vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of bacterial infections, including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. They are typically given by injection, but some can also be given by mouth. Bacterial vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease in the population.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

HLA-B44 is a specific type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein that is found on the surface of cells in the immune system. HLA proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, that may pose a threat to the body. The HLA-B44 antigen is a specific variant of the HLA-B protein, which is one of several different HLA proteins that are encoded by the HLA-B gene. The HLA-B44 antigen is characterized by a specific sequence of amino acids that is unique to this variant of the protein. In the medical field, the HLA-B44 antigen is often tested for in the context of organ transplantation. Because the HLA system is so complex and there are so many different HLA proteins, it is important to match the HLA antigens of the donor and recipient as closely as possible in order to minimize the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ. The HLA-B44 antigen is just one of many different HLA antigens that may be tested for in this context.

In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a lectin, a type of protein that binds to specific carbohydrate structures on the surface of cells. It was first isolated from the seeds of the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) in the 1960s and has since been widely used in research and medical applications. In the medical field, Con A is often used as a tool to study cell-cell interactions and immune responses. It can bind to a variety of cell types, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages, and has been shown to activate these cells and stimulate their proliferation. Con A is also used as a diagnostic tool to detect and quantify certain types of cells in the blood, such as T cells and natural killer cells. In addition to its use in research and diagnostics, Con A has also been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some cancer models by activating the immune system and promoting the destruction of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic benefits of Con A and to determine its safety and efficacy in humans.

HLA-DP antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and play a crucial role in the immune response. HLA-DP antigens are responsible for presenting antigens (foreign substances) to T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When HLA-DP antigens present an antigen to a T cell, the T cell becomes activated and can mount an immune response against the antigen. HLA-DP antigens are important for the proper functioning of the immune system and are involved in a number of autoimmune diseases, as well as in the development of certain types of cancer.

Cathepsin B is a protease enzyme that is found in the lysosomes of cells in the human body. It plays a role in the degradation of proteins and other molecules within the cell, and is involved in a number of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In the medical field, cathepsin B has been studied in relation to a number of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infections. For example, cathepsin B has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of certain types of cancer, including breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. It has also been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and in the pathogenesis of certain viral infections, including HIV and influenza. In addition to its role in disease, cathepsin B has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target. For example, drugs that inhibit the activity of cathepsin B have been investigated as potential treatments for cancer and other diseases.

Hepatitis B vaccines are a type of vaccine that are used to prevent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is a serious viral infection that can cause liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different types of hepatitis B vaccines available, including recombinant vaccines, plasma-derived vaccines, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B vaccines are typically given in a series of three or four injections, with the second and third doses given one to two months and six months after the first dose, respectively.

Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS). EAE is induced by the administration of myelin antigens, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), to susceptible animals, which triggers an autoimmune response against the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the CNS. In EAE, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath, leading to inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. This results in a range of neurological symptoms, including paralysis, loss of coordination, and cognitive impairment, which are similar to those seen in MS patients. EAE is widely used in research to study the pathogenesis of MS and to test potential treatments for the disease. It is a valuable tool for understanding the complex interplay between the immune system, the nervous system, and the environment that contributes to the development of MS.

Leishmaniasis, cutaneous (also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis) is a skin disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. The symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis can vary depending on the species of Leishmania that causes the infection. Common symptoms include skin sores or ulcers that may be painful, itchy, or crusty. The sores may also be accompanied by fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is typically treated with antimonial drugs, which are effective in most cases. However, treatment may not be necessary in some cases, particularly if the infection is mild and resolves on its own. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is most common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in parts of Africa, Asia, and South America. It is a significant public health problem in many of these areas, and efforts are underway to control the spread of the disease through vector control and other measures.

In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Interferon Type I is a group of signaling proteins produced by the body's immune system in response to viral infections. These proteins are also known as cytokines and are released by cells that have been infected with a virus. Interferon Type I helps to activate other immune cells and proteins, such as natural killer cells and macrophages, which can help to destroy the virus and prevent it from spreading to other cells. Interferon Type I also has antiviral effects on the infected cells themselves, which can help to limit the severity of the infection. In the medical field, interferon Type I is often used as a treatment for viral infections, such as hepatitis B and C, and certain types of cancer.

Hemagglutinins, viral are a type of protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as influenza viruses. These proteins have the ability to bind to and agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells, which is why they are called hemagglutinins. This property is important for the virus to infect host cells, as it allows the virus to attach to and enter the cells. Hemagglutinins are also used as diagnostic tools in the laboratory to detect the presence of certain viruses.

Cathepsin D is a protease enzyme that is primarily found in the lysosomes of cells. It is involved in the degradation of proteins and peptides, including those that are involved in cell signaling and the turnover of extracellular matrix components. In the medical field, cathepsin D is often studied in relation to cancer, as it is overexpressed in many types of tumors and is thought to play a role in tumor growth and progression. It is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins that are produced in response to cellular stress, such as heat, oxidative stress, or exposure to toxins. They are also known as stress proteins or chaperones because they help to protect and stabilize other proteins in the cell. HSPs play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing the aggregation of misfolded proteins, which can lead to cell damage and death. They also play a role in the immune response, helping to present antigens to immune cells and modulating the activity of immune cells. In the medical field, HSPs are being studied for their potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. They are also being investigated as potential biomarkers for disease progression and as targets for drug development.

In the medical field, isoantibodies are antibodies that react with specific antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) that are not present on the individual's own RBCs. These antigens are called isoantigens because they are different from the individual's own antigens. Isoantibodies can be produced by the immune system in response to exposure to foreign RBCs, such as during a blood transfusion or pregnancy. When isoantibodies bind to RBCs, they can cause a variety of problems, including hemolysis (the breakdown of RBCs), jaundice, and anemia. There are many different types of isoantibodies, and they can be detected through blood tests. The presence of isoantibodies can be a cause for concern in certain medical situations, such as before a blood transfusion or during pregnancy, and may require special precautions to prevent complications.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. IL-1 is produced by various types of immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells, in response to infection, injury, or inflammation. IL-1 has multiple functions in the immune system, including promoting the activation and proliferation of immune cells, enhancing the production of other cytokines, and regulating the inflammatory response. It can also stimulate the production of fever, which helps to fight off infections. In the medical field, IL-1 is often studied in the context of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also being investigated as a potential target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.

Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic, also known as Ab2 antibodies, are a type of antibody that is produced in response to the binding of an antigen to an Ab1 antibody. Ab2 antibodies recognize and bind to the unique epitopes on the Ab1 antibody, rather than the original antigen. This type of immune response is known as an anti-idiotypic response, because Ab2 antibodies are directed against the idiotypes of Ab1 antibodies. Anti-idiotypic antibodies can play a role in the regulation of the immune system, as they can bind to and neutralize Ab1 antibodies, preventing them from binding to their target antigens. This can help to prevent an overactive immune response and reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases. Anti-idiotypic antibodies can also be used as a diagnostic tool, as they can be detected in the blood of individuals with certain diseases. In summary, Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic are a type of antibody that is produced in response to the binding of an antigen to an Ab1 antibody, they recognize and bind to the unique epitopes on the Ab1 antibody, and they play a role in the regulation of the immune system and can be used as a diagnostic tool.

Orthomyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are characterized by their ability to cause both respiratory and systemic infections in humans and animals. The most well-known member of the Orthomyxoviridae family is the influenza virus, which causes seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Other viruses in this family include the parainfluenza viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, and the equine influenza virus, which can cause respiratory infections in horses. Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other complications. Treatment for Orthomyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Antiviral medications may also be used to treat certain types of Orthomyxoviridae infections, such as influenza. Vaccines are available to prevent influenza and some other Orthomyxoviridae infections.

Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine. It is triggered by the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. When gluten is ingested, the immune system of people with celiac disease responds by damaging the lining of the small intestine, leading to a range of symptoms and long-term health complications. The symptoms of celiac disease can vary widely and may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, anemia, and weight loss. In some cases, people with celiac disease may not experience any symptoms at all. Celiac disease is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, genetic testing, and a biopsy of the small intestine. Once diagnosed, the only effective treatment is a strict gluten-free diet for life. This means avoiding all foods and products that contain gluten, including wheat, barley, and rye, as well as any processed foods or medications that may contain gluten as an ingredient. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead healthy, active lives.

AIDS vaccines are vaccines designed to prevent the acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack HIV, thereby preventing infection or reducing the severity of the disease if infection occurs. There are several types of AIDS vaccines being developed, including preventive vaccines that aim to prevent initial infection and therapeutic vaccines that aim to treat already infected individuals. Preventive vaccines typically use antigens from HIV to stimulate an immune response, while therapeutic vaccines aim to boost the immune system's ability to fight off the virus. Despite significant progress in the development of AIDS vaccines, no vaccine has yet been approved for widespread use. However, several vaccines are currently in clinical trials, and researchers continue to work on developing effective vaccines to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body's inability to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, as it typically develops in childhood or adolescence. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leaving the body unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) cannot enter the body's cells for energy, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. Treatment typically involves insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Hemagglutinin glycoproteins, also known as HA glycoproteins, are a type of protein found on the surface of influenza viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the ability of the virus to infect host cells. HA glycoproteins are responsible for binding to receptors on the surface of host cells, allowing the virus to enter the cell and replicate. There are 18 different subtypes of HA glycoproteins, which are classified based on their antigenic properties. Each subtype has a unique structure, which allows the immune system to recognize and respond to the virus. HA glycoproteins are also the target of the influenza vaccine, which is designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By recognizing and binding to the HA glycoproteins, these antibodies can prevent the virus from infecting host cells and protect against influenza. In summary, HA glycoproteins are a key component of the influenza virus and play a critical role in its ability to infect host cells. They are also the target of the influenza vaccine and are an important area of research in the development of new treatments for influenza.

CD30 is a protein found on the surface of certain types of immune cells, including T cells and B cells. Antigens, CD30 refers to molecules that bind to the CD30 protein on the surface of these cells, triggering an immune response. These antigens can be found on the surface of normal cells, but they are often expressed at higher levels on abnormal cells, such as those found in certain types of cancer. In the medical field, CD30 antigens are often used as a marker to identify and diagnose certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. They may also be used as a target for cancer treatment, particularly in the context of immunotherapy.

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) is a viral infection caused by the LCM virus (LCMV). It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected rodents, particularly mice. The virus can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe neurological complications. LCM is most commonly found in the Americas, Europe, and Asia, and is most prevalent in rural areas where rodent populations are high. The virus can also be found in laboratory animals, such as mice and hamsters. The symptoms of LCM can vary depending on the severity of the infection. In most cases, the virus causes a mild flu-like illness, with symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In some cases, the virus can cause more severe symptoms, such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (a disorder that affects the nerves and can cause muscle weakness and paralysis). LCM is usually self-limiting and resolves on its own within a few weeks. However, in severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary. There is no specific antiviral treatment for LCM, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers and antipyretics. Vaccines are available for laboratory workers and others who are at high risk of exposure to the virus.

Granzymes are a family of serine proteases that are produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. They are stored in granules within these immune cells and are released upon activation. Granzymes are important mediators of cell death in the immune response, particularly in the elimination of virus-infected cells and cancer cells. They can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in target cells by activating caspases, a family of proteases that are essential for the execution of apoptosis. Granzymes are also involved in the regulation of immune cell activation and differentiation.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Attenuated" refers to vaccines that are made by weakening or attenuating a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, so that it can no longer cause disease in a healthy individual. This weakened pathogen is then introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response, which helps the body to recognize and fight off the pathogen if it is encountered again in the future. Attenuated vaccines are often used to prevent infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. They are typically made by growing the pathogen in a laboratory and then exposing it to conditions that weaken it, such as low temperatures or the absence of certain nutrients. The weakened pathogen is then injected into the body, where it triggers an immune response without causing the disease. Attenuated vaccines are generally considered to be safe and effective, and they are one of the most common types of vaccines used in the world. However, like all vaccines, they can cause side effects, such as fever, soreness at the injection site, and rare allergic reactions.

In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

Succinimides are a class of organic compounds that are formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine. They are typically used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds, and they have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry. In the medical field, succinimides have been studied for their potential use as anticonvulsants. They are believed to work by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes that are involved in the production of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that transmit signals between nerve cells in the brain. By inhibiting these enzymes, succinimides may be able to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures in people with epilepsy. Succinimides have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of these compounds for the treatment of these conditions.

In the medical field, capsid proteins refer to the proteins that make up the outer shell of a virus. The capsid is the protective layer that surrounds the viral genome and is responsible for protecting the virus from the host's immune system and other environmental factors. There are two main types of capsid proteins: structural and non-structural. Structural capsid proteins are the proteins that make up the visible part of the virus, while non-structural capsid proteins are involved in the assembly and maturation of the virus. The specific function of capsid proteins can vary depending on the type of virus. For example, some capsid proteins are involved in attaching the virus to host cells, while others are involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation. Understanding the structure and function of capsid proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.

HLA-B35 is a specific type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein that is found on the surface of cells in the immune system. HLA proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by helping to identify and target foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, for destruction. HLA-B35 is a specific subtype of the HLA-B35 antigen, which is a member of the HLA-B group of antigens. The HLA-B group is one of the three major groups of HLA antigens, and it is encoded by the HLA-B gene, which is located on chromosome 6. HLA-B35 is a relatively rare antigen, and it is associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. In the medical field, HLA-B35 is often tested as part of the process of determining a patient's immune status and identifying potential risks for certain diseases. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other treatments for infectious diseases.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva. Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness that resolves on its own to a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The severity of the infection depends on the age of the person infected, the immune system's response to the virus, and the presence of other liver diseases. Symptoms of hepatitis B can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Treatment for hepatitis B depends on the severity of the infection and the presence of any complications. Antiviral medications can help to control the virus and prevent liver damage, while a vaccine is available to prevent infection. It is important for people who are infected with hepatitis B to receive regular medical care and to follow their treatment plan to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.

HLA-B8 Antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein that is expressed on the surface of cells in the immune system. HLA proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, that may pose a threat to the body. The HLA-B8 antigen is a specific type of HLA-B protein that is encoded by the HLA-B8 gene. It is one of several different HLA-B antigens that are found in the human population, and each of these antigens is associated with a different set of genetic variations. HLA-B8 is a Class I antigen, which means that it is expressed on the surface of almost all cells in the body. It is particularly abundant on cells of the immune system, such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and it plays a role in the recognition and elimination of infected or cancerous cells. In the medical field, the HLA-B8 antigen is often studied in the context of transplantation medicine, as it can play a role in the immune response to transplanted organs and tissues. It is also studied in the context of autoimmune diseases, as certain genetic variations in the HLA-B8 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Receptors, CCR7 are a type of cell surface receptor protein that are expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as T cells and dendritic cells. These receptors are activated by a chemical messenger called chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), which are produced by cells in the lymphatic system and the spleen. When CCR7 receptors are activated by CCL19 or CCL21, they trigger a signaling cascade within the immune cell that promotes its movement towards the site of infection or inflammation. This process, known as chemotaxis, is an important mechanism for the recruitment of immune cells to the site of an infection or injury. In addition to their role in immune cell trafficking, CCR7 receptors have also been implicated in the development and progression of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. In these cases, the overexpression of CCR7 receptors on cancer cells can promote their migration and spread to other parts of the body, making them more difficult to treat.

HSP70 heat shock proteins are a family of proteins that are produced in response to cellular stress, such as heat, toxins, or infection. They are also known as heat shock proteins because they are upregulated in cells exposed to high temperatures. HSP70 proteins play a crucial role in the folding and refolding of other proteins in the cell. They act as molecular chaperones, helping to stabilize and fold newly synthesized proteins, as well as assisting in the refolding of misfolded proteins. This is important because misfolded proteins can aggregate and form toxic structures that can damage cells and contribute to the development of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In addition to their role in protein folding, HSP70 proteins also play a role in the immune response. They can be recognized by the immune system as foreign antigens and can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and the activation of immune cells. Overall, HSP70 heat shock proteins are important for maintaining cellular homeostasis and protecting cells from damage. They are also of interest in the development of new therapies for a variety of diseases.

Adenovirus E3 proteins are a group of proteins encoded by the E3 region of the adenovirus genome. These proteins play important roles in the replication and pathogenesis of the virus. The E3 proteins are involved in several processes, including the regulation of viral gene expression, the assembly of viral particles, and the evasion of host immune responses. Some of the specific functions of the E3 proteins include: 1. Modulation of host cell signaling pathways: The E3 proteins can interfere with host cell signaling pathways, such as the NF-κB pathway, to promote viral replication and inhibit host immune responses. 2. Assembly of viral particles: The E3 proteins are involved in the assembly of viral particles, including the incorporation of viral proteins into the capsid and the packaging of viral genome into the viral particle. 3. Immune evasion: The E3 proteins can help the virus evade host immune responses by downregulating the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected cells, making it more difficult for the immune system to recognize and eliminate the virus. Overall, the E3 proteins play important roles in the replication and pathogenesis of adenoviruses, and understanding their functions may lead to the development of new antiviral therapies.

Fluoresceins are a group of organic compounds that are commonly used as fluorescent dyes in various medical applications. They are highly fluorescent, meaning that they absorb light at one wavelength and emit light at a different wavelength, making them highly visible under ultraviolet light. In the medical field, fluoresceins are used in a variety of diagnostic tests, including: 1. Fluorescein angiography: This is a test used to diagnose and monitor diseases of the retina, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. A small amount of fluorescein dye is injected into a vein, and then the circulation of the dye in the retina is monitored using an ultraviolet camera. 2. Fluorescein dye test: This test is used to diagnose conditions that affect the tear film, such as dry eye syndrome. A small amount of fluorescein dye is applied to the eye, and then the tear film is examined under a microscope to look for areas of abnormality. 3. Fluorescein dye stain: This test is used to diagnose fungal infections of the skin and nails. A small amount of fluorescein dye is applied to the affected area, and then the stain is examined under a microscope to look for fungal cells. Overall, fluoresceins are a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing doctors to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions with greater accuracy and precision.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. It occurs when lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and divide uncontrollably, forming abnormal masses or tumors in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other parts of the body. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is a less common type of lymphoma that typically affects younger adults and has a better prognosis than non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a more common type of lymphoma that can affect people of all ages and has a wide range of outcomes depending on the specific subtype and the stage of the disease. Symptoms of lymphoma can include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and itching. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for lymphoma depends on the subtype, stage, and overall health of the patient. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be necessary.

Antibodies, fungal, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungal antigens. These antigens are molecules found on the surface of fungi that can trigger an immune response. When the immune system encounters fungal antigens, it produces antibodies that can recognize and bind to these antigens. This binding can help to neutralize the fungi and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Antibodies, fungal, can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids of individuals who have been exposed to fungi or who have an active fungal infection. They are an important part of the immune response to fungal infections and can be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and monitor fungal infections.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the lining of the joint capsule, which leads to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. RA can also affect other organs, such as the lungs, heart, and eyes. RA is a systemic disease, meaning that it affects the entire body, not just the joints. It is an inflammatory disease, meaning that it is caused by the immune system attacking healthy cells and tissues in the body. RA is a progressive disease, meaning that it can worsen over time if left untreated. However, with proper treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. The exact cause of RA is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors for RA include being female, having a family history of the disease, and smoking.

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of neurons in the central nervous system. GABA is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, anxiety reduction, and sleep regulation. In the medical field, GAD is primarily studied in the context of neurological disorders, particularly those that involve an imbalance in GABA levels. For example, GAD deficiency has been implicated in the development of certain forms of epilepsy, while excessive GABA activity has been linked to anxiety disorders and depression. GAD is also a target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions. For example, medications that increase GABA levels in the brain, such as benzodiazepines, are commonly used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Additionally, drugs that target GAD directly, such as GABA agonists or antagonists, are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of neurological disorders.

Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. There are two types of hepatitis B antibodies: surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and core antibodies (anti-HBc). Surface antibodies are produced after the body has successfully cleared an HBV infection or has been vaccinated against the virus. They are the antibodies that provide protection against future HBV infections. A positive result for anti-HBs indicates that a person has developed immunity to the virus. Core antibodies are produced during the early stages of an HBV infection and can persist for years after the infection has resolved. A positive result for anti-HBc indicates that a person has been infected with HBV in the past, but it does not necessarily mean that they are currently infected or immune to the virus. In the medical field, hepatitis B antibodies are commonly tested as part of routine blood tests to screen for HBV infection and to determine the effectiveness of vaccination against the virus. They are also used to monitor the progression of chronic HBV infection and to assess the response to antiviral therapy.

Infection is a disease caused by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, in the body. These microorganisms can enter the body through various routes, such as the respiratory system, digestive system, skin, or bloodstream. Infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the type of microorganism and the affected body. Common symptoms of infections include fever, chills, fatigue, body aches, cough, sore throat, runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting, and skin rashes. Infections can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antifungal medications, or antiparasitic drugs, depending on the type of microorganism causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and pain relief, may be necessary to help the body fight off the infection. Preventing infections is also important, and can be achieved through good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Vaccines can also be used to prevent certain types of infections, such as influenza, measles, and pneumonia.

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are short chains of DNA or RNA that are synthesized in the laboratory. They are typically used as tools in molecular biology research, as well as in therapeutic applications such as gene therapy. ODNs can be designed to bind to specific DNA or RNA sequences, and can be used to modulate gene expression or to introduce genetic changes into cells. They can also be used as primers in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to amplify specific DNA sequences. In the medical field, ODNs are being studied for their potential use in treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. For example, ODNs can be used to silence specific genes that are involved in disease progression, or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.

CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed on many different types of cells, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and cancer cells. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and plays a role in cell-cell interactions, cell migration, and signaling. In the context of the immune system, CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid, a large glycosaminoglycan that is found in the extracellular matrix. CD44 is expressed on the surface of many immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages, and is involved in the adhesion and migration of these cells to sites of inflammation or infection. CD44 is also expressed on many types of cancer cells, where it can play a role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In some cases, CD44 can be used as a marker to identify and target cancer cells for therapy.

Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used in the medical field for various diagnostic and research purposes. It is a water-soluble, yellow-green fluorescent dye that is highly sensitive to light and can be easily excited by ultraviolet light. In medical applications, FITC is often used as a fluorescent marker to label cells, proteins, and other molecules. It can be conjugated to antibodies, nucleic acids, and other molecules to enable visualization and analysis of these molecules in cells and tissues. FITC is also used in diagnostic tests, such as flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, to detect and quantify specific cells or molecules in biological samples. It is also used in research to study cell biology, immunology, and other areas of biomedical science. Overall, FITC is a valuable tool in the medical field due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

CD24 is a type of antigen, which is a molecule that is present on the surface of cells and can be recognized by the immune system. CD24 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells. It is also known as sialomucin or cluster of differentiation 24. CD24 plays a role in cell adhesion and signaling, and it has been implicated in a number of different biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. It is also involved in the regulation of immune responses, and it has been shown to play a role in the development and function of various immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. In the medical field, CD24 is often studied in the context of cancer. It has been found to be overexpressed in a number of different types of cancer, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. This overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of recurrence. As a result, CD24 has been proposed as a potential target for cancer therapy, and there are ongoing efforts to develop drugs that can specifically target CD24 on cancer cells.

CD56 is a protein found on the surface of certain types of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells and some subsets of T cells. Antigens, CD56 refers to molecules that bind to the CD56 protein on the surface of these immune cells, triggering an immune response. These antigens can be found on viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells, among other things. The binding of CD56 antigens to immune cells can lead to the activation and proliferation of these cells, which can help to fight off infections and diseases.

In the medical field, 'precipitins' refer to antibodies that form visible immune complexes when mixed with specific antigens. These immune complexes can cause precipitation, or the formation of visible clumps or aggregates, when the mixture is centrifuged or otherwise agitated. Precipitins are often used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of specific antibodies in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids. They can also be used to study the immune response to specific antigens or infections.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.

Immunoglobulin Fab fragments, also known as Fab fragments or Fabs, are a type of protein that is derived from the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of an immunoglobulin (antibody). They are composed of two antigen-binding sites, which are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens. Fab fragments are often used in medical research and diagnostic testing because they have a high specificity for their target antigens and can be easily produced and purified. They are also used in the development of therapeutic antibodies, as they can be engineered to have a variety of functions, such as delivering drugs to specific cells or tissues. In addition to their use in research and diagnostic testing, Fab fragments have also been used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. They are typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly and can be used alone or in combination with other therapies.

CD38 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. It is also found on some non-immune cells, such as endothelial cells and platelets. CD38 plays a role in the regulation of immune cell activation and function. It is involved in the metabolism of certain signaling molecules, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which can affect the activity of immune cells. Antigens, CD38 are molecules that bind to the CD38 protein on the surface of immune cells. These antigens can trigger an immune response, leading to the activation and proliferation of immune cells. CD38 antigens are often used as targets in the development of immunotherapies for various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Hemolysin proteins are a group of toxins produced by certain bacteria that can cause damage to red blood cells (erythrocytes). These proteins are capable of disrupting the integrity of the cell membrane, leading to the release of hemoglobin, which can cause hemoglobinemia (an excess of hemoglobin in the blood) and hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine). Hemolysins can be classified into several types based on their mechanism of action and the target cells they affect. Some hemolysins, such as streptolysin O and pneumolysin, are pore-forming toxins that create holes in the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis and death. Other hemolysins, such as alpha-hemolysin, act by disrupting the cell membrane's lipid bilayer, leading to cell lysis. Hemolysins are produced by a variety of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens. Infections caused by these bacteria can lead to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, hemolysin production can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by widespread inflammation and organ dysfunction.

Protein precursors are molecules that are converted into proteins through a process called translation. In the medical field, protein precursors are often referred to as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins, each with its own unique function in the body. Protein precursors are essential for the proper functioning of the body, as proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune function. They are also important for tissue repair and growth, and for maintaining the structure and function of organs and tissues. Protein precursors can be obtained from the diet through the consumption of foods that are rich in amino acids, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. In some cases, protein precursors may also be administered as supplements or medications to individuals who are unable to obtain sufficient amounts of these nutrients through their diet.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood plasma. They are a component of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body against infections and diseases. There are several different types of gamma-globulins, including immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin D (IgD). Each type of gamma-globulin has a specific function in the immune system and is produced by different types of white blood cells. Gamma-globulins can be measured in the blood as part of a routine blood test and can be used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions.

DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

Chemokine CCL19, also known as Exodus-2, is a type of chemokine protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a small signaling molecule that is produced by various cells in the body, including immune cells such as dendritic cells and T cells. CCL19 is involved in the recruitment and migration of immune cells to specific areas of the body, such as the lymph nodes and the spleen. It does this by binding to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the movement of the cells towards the source of the chemokine. In the medical field, CCL19 is of interest because it has been implicated in a number of different diseases and conditions, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, CCL19 has been shown to play a role in the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body, and it may also be involved in the development of certain autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. As such, CCL19 is a potential target for the development of new therapies for these conditions.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.

HLA-A11 Antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A11 antigen is encoded by the HLA-A11 gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is expressed on the surface of cells in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, blood, and lymph nodes. The HLA-A11 antigen is recognized by the immune system as "self" and is not targeted for destruction. However, in some cases, the immune system may mistake the HLA-A11 antigen for a foreign substance and mount an attack against cells that express it. This can lead to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. In addition, the HLA-A11 antigen is also important in the transplantation of organs and tissues. It is used to match donors and recipients to minimize the risk of rejection of the transplanted tissue.

HIV Envelope Protein gp120 is a glycoprotein that is found on the surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It plays a critical role in the virus's ability to infect and infect cells. gp120 binds to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, allowing the virus to enter and infect the cell. This protein is also a major target for the immune system, and antibodies against gp120 can help to prevent HIV infection. In addition, gp120 is a major component of the virus's structure, and it is involved in the formation of the viral envelope.

Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that interact with RNA molecules, either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of cells. These proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression, RNA stability, and RNA transport. In the medical field, RBPs are of particular interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and viral infections. For example, some RBPs have been shown to regulate the expression of genes that are involved in cell proliferation and survival, and mutations in these proteins can contribute to the development of cancer. Other RBPs have been implicated in the regulation of RNA stability and turnover, and changes in the levels of these proteins can affect the stability of specific mRNAs and contribute to the development of neurological disorders. In addition, RBPs play important roles in the regulation of viral infections. Many viruses encode proteins that interact with host RBPs, and these interactions can affect the stability and translation of viral mRNAs, as well as the overall pathogenesis of the infection. Overall, RBPs are an important class of proteins that play critical roles in many cellular processes, and their dysfunction has been implicated in a number of diseases. As such, they are an active area of research in the medical field, with the potential to lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for a variety of diseases.

Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including: 1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Acetylcysteine is used to help break up mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 2. Bronchitis: Acetylcysteine can help to thin and loosen mucus in the bronchial tubes, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 3. Pneumonia: Acetylcysteine can help to thin and loosen mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: Acetylcysteine is used to prevent liver damage in people who have taken a large amount of paracetamol. 5. Cystic fibrosis: Acetylcysteine is used to help break up mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. Acetylcysteine is usually taken by mouth as a liquid or tablet. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking acetylcysteine.

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system. They are produced by various cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation and act as chemical messengers to attract immune cells to the site of injury or infection. Chemokines bind to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and guide them to the site of infection or injury. They also play a role in regulating the migration and activation of immune cells within tissues. In the medical field, chemokines are important for understanding and treating various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. They are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs to treat these conditions.

CD53 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins and plays a role in regulating immune cell activation and function. Antigens, CD53 refers to molecules that bind to the CD53 protein on the surface of immune cells. These antigens can be foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, or they can be self-antigens, which are proteins that are normally present in the body but can become abnormal and trigger an immune response. When an antigen binds to CD53, it can activate the immune cell and trigger an immune response, such as the production of antibodies or the release of cytokines.

Chemokine CCL21 is a type of protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is also known as Exodus-2, 6Ckine, and CC chemokine ligand 21. CCL21 is produced by cells in the lymphatic system and is involved in the recruitment and migration of immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, to specific areas of the body where they are needed. It does this by binding to specific receptors on the surface of these cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to their movement. CCL21 is also involved in the development and maintenance of immune system tissues, such as lymph nodes and the spleen. In the medical field, CCL21 is being studied as a potential target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Protein isoforms refer to different forms of a protein that are produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. Alternative splicing is a process by which different combinations of exons (coding regions) are selected from the pre-mRNA transcript of a gene, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms with slightly different amino acid sequences. Protein isoforms can have different functions, localization, and stability, and can play distinct roles in cellular processes. For example, the same gene may produce a protein isoform that is expressed in the nucleus and another isoform that is expressed in the cytoplasm. Alternatively, different isoforms of the same protein may have different substrate specificity or binding affinity for other molecules. Dysregulation of alternative splicing can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing and the functional consequences of protein isoforms is an important area of research in the medical field.

In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.

Peptide hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, which are the covalent bonds that link amino acids together to form peptides and proteins. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, immune response, and hormone regulation. There are several subclasses of peptide hydrolases, including proteases, peptidases, and endopeptidases. Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides, while peptidases break down peptides into individual amino acids. Endopeptidases cleave peptide bonds within the peptide chain, while exopeptidases cleave peptide bonds at the ends of the chain. Peptide hydrolases are important in the medical field because they are involved in many diseases and conditions. For example, certain proteases are involved in the development of cancer, and inhibitors of these enzymes are being developed as potential cancer treatments. Peptide hydrolases are also involved in the immune response, and defects in these enzymes can lead to immune disorders. Additionally, peptide hydrolases are involved in the regulation of hormones, and imbalances in these enzymes can lead to hormonal disorders.

Antigen presentation Is the Subject Area "Antigen presentation" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Partial requirement for: Ph.D., Arizona State University, ...
Chapter 3 Antigens. Substances which can be recognized by Ig of B cells (at F ab sites) and TCRs of T cells (when accompanied ... Antigens. Antigens. Objectives. What is an antigen? What type of molecules are antigens? Can any particle/foreign body that ... The Antigens. Introduction. The Antigens. Antigens. Antigens: any substance that when introduced into the body may stimulate ... ANTIGENS. BACTERIAL ANTIGENS. MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANTIGENS. BACTERIAL ANTIGENS. MAJOR ...
It can theoretically improve antigen presentation and enhance T-cell infiltrate. Again, in the tumors that dont have a T-cell ... Please feel free to comment on these presentations and my suggestions. Im Jeffrey Weber and I thank you for your attention. ...
Dive into the research topics of Enhancement of antitumor immunity by prolonging antigen presentation on dendritic cells. ...
... infiltrating T cells are compatible with this concept since the thyroid epithelial cells are the source of these antigens. ... a hypothesis concerning the relevance of class II expression and antigen presentation to the induction and maintenance of ... In 1983, a hypothesis concerning the relevance of class II expression and antigen presentation to the induction and maintenance ... infiltrating T cells are compatible with this concept since the thyroid epithelial cells are the source of these antigens. ...
A Critical Analysis of the Role of SNARE Protein SEC22B in Antigen Cross-Presentation. In: Cell Reports. 2017 ; Vol. 19, No. 13 ... A Critical Analysis of the Role of SNARE Protein SEC22B in Antigen Cross-Presentation. Cell Reports. 2017 Jun 27;19(13):2645- ... A Critical Analysis of the Role of SNARE Protein SEC22B in Antigen Cross-Presentation. / Wu, S. Julia; Niknafs, Yashar S.; Kim ... Cross-presentation initiates immune responses against tumors and viral infections by presenting extracellular antigen on MHC I ...
Categories: Antigen Presentation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
In vivo detection of dendritic cell antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. J Exp Med. 1997 Jun 16. 185(12):2133-41. [QxMD ... Dendritic cells disappear from the lymph nodes 1-2 days after antigen presentation, possibly because of apoptosis. [33, 34] ... The effective function of antigen presentation by dendritic cells is presumed to reflect that these cells, in addition to MHC ... The importance of dendritic cells in the capture, uptake, processing, and, ultimately, presentation of antigens to T and B ...
Studies of FC-Epsilon-RI as an antigen Presentation Structure at Mucosal Surfaces * ...
MHC class II antigen presentation by intestinal epithelial cells fine-tunes bacteria-reactive CD4 T cell responses ... MHC class II antigen presentation by intestinal epithelial cells fine-tunes bacteria-reactive CD4 T cell responses ...
... of Antigenic Peptides Either by the Immunoproteasome or by the Standard Proteasome Results in Differential Antigen Presentation ... of Antigenic Peptides Either by the Immunoproteasome or by the Standard Proteasome Results in Differential Antigen Presentation ...
... explanation for this phenomenon is that CD8+ T cells of different specificities compete for access to epitopes on antigen- ... Antigen Presentation / immunology * Antigens, Viral / immunology * CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / cytology * CD8-Positive T- ... It strongly depended on the timing of viral antigen expression in infected APCs, and it was characterized by poor proliferation ... Our findings provide a basis for novel strategies for how boost vaccination to defined antigens can be selectively improved. ...
... antigen presentation (for example, H2-Ab1, H2-K1, Cd74), neutrophil degranulation (for example, B2m, Cstb, Bst2) and the ... Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation. ... was enriched in the EAE microglia antigen-presenting MgIII cluster31 (Fig. 5a,b and Supplementary Table 12). The BMDM iC3b gene ... whereas others were enriched in antigen-presenting and phagocytic genes (MgIII and MpIII clusters)31. We found that stimulation ...
Antigen processing and presentation. Documents. Product Manuals *Western Blot Protocols. FAQs *Over-expression Cell Lysate ...
Williams, A., Peh, C. A., and Elliott, T. (2002). The cell biology of MHC class I antigen presentation. Tissue Antigens 59, 3- ... At the same time, since major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II antigen presentation molecules used for AIV ... Gromme, M., and Neefjes, J. (2002). Antigen degradation or presentation by MHC class I molecules via classical and non- ...
Additionally, we described the interference of FMDV with DC maturation and antigen presentation capacity. Moreover, FMDV ... Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune response by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. ... These findings have allowed the design of new immune adjuvants that will be discussed during the presentation. ...
... antigen processing and presentation; role of B and T cells in immune responses; immunological techniques e.g. flow cytometry ... This will give you experience in summarising information and presentation skills. On-line literature searches. Literature ... oral presentations, short discussions, class tests and exams. ...
SQZ TACs leverage the bodys natural mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) clearance and antigen presentation to induce immune ... SQZ TACs are designed to be rapidly engulfed by professional APCs and to act as a "Trojan horse" to present antigens in a non- ... TACs are derived from patient RBCs and are designed to carry disease-specific antigen cargos to specialized immune cells that ... SQZ TACs are a red blood cell-derived cell therapy platform being developed as an antigen-specific immune tolerance approach ...
Howland, S.W.; Wittrup, K.D. Antigen release kinetics in the phagosome are critical to cross-presentation efficiency. J. ... the epitopes displayed on the surface of particles can provide the most efficient antigen presentation to B cells, which is ... The epitope antigen with c-myc were displayed on the surface of cell wall by AGA2 interaction with AGA1. (b) The 5 × Aβ1-15 ... The epitope antigen with c-myc were displayed on the surface of cell wall by AGA2 interaction with AGA1. (b) The 5 × Aβ1-15 ...
cryptococcal meningitis: a compatible clinical presentation with the detection of cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid ... Significant variation in presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis across a high resolution of CD4 strata. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. ... Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV- ... Despite several years availability of HAART in Libya, late presentation and poor HAART uptake by patients were common; a ...
Antigen processing and presentation. 2.04. map04020. Calcium signaling pathway. 1.77. map05120. Epithelial cell signaling in ... Structure of New Antigen Receptor variable domain from sharks. 1ves. Structure of New Antigen Receptor variable domain from ... Structure of new antigen receptor variable domain from sharks. 2ywz. Structure of new antigen receptor variable domain from ... Structure of new antigen receptor variable domain from sharks. 2cqv. Solution structure of the eighth Ig-like domain of human ...
"Antigen presentation and T…. Fri, 03/11/2011 - 11:30. - Fri, 03/11/2011 - 12:30. ...
Of course antigen presentation, but vascular function and all sorts of functions that really wouldnt be classified as immune ... They can present antigen, but they can also cross-present antigen, and theyre also essential to the acquisition of adaptive ... for the antigen presentation, pattern recognition receptors.. And so what has really happened is that the first 60 or so, 70 ... The first question is from Henry van Brocklin to Yanique, and its, "I may have missed this, but what is the antigen that you ...
Antigen processing defects in cervical carcinomas limit the presentation of a CTL epitope from human papillomavirus 16 E6. The ... A novel tumor antigen derived from enhanced degradation of Bax protein in human cancers. Cancer Research 71 (16), pp.5435-5444 ... T cell responses against viral and tumour associated antigens. We test T cell responses in a phase I clinical trial of an HPV ... More recently the laboratory has been involved in the definition of novel T cell antigens. This is based on the concept that ...
Production of antibodies, including autoantibodies directed against self antigens. *Antigen presentation or identification of ... The CD20 antigen is not found on stem cells or early pro-B cells so these can regenerate the B lymphocyte population. ... Biologic, Monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigen, IgG1 kappa, Mechanism of action of rituximab, B-cell lymphoma, Pemphigus ... Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. ...
... play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Charles Serhan on Novel lipid mediators in resolution of inflammation, part ... Antigen processing and presentation: modulation by innate immune signals *Prof. Colin Watts ...
  • The most frequently used engagers are antibodies targeting one tumor antigen and one molecule on T cells (mostly CD3). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The cellular response is mainly a lymphocyte-mediated reaction, whereas the humoral response includes production of antibodies against the antigen by the plasma cells. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs), the term is sometimes used interchangeably with "antibodies," are glycoprotein molecules produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to an immunogen or after recognition of specific epitopes on the antigen. (medscape.com)
  • The antibodies then specifically bind to only those particular antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies can bind to the different antigens causing agglutination and precipitation of the antigens leading to neutralization of the antigen effect. (medscape.com)
  • They can also stimulate the destruction of antigen by cells like macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils by covering the surface of the antigen by the Fc portion of the antibodies in a process known as "opsonization. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies targeting two tumor antigens and CD3 are being tested. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These cells, such as dendritic cells, process foreign antigens and then present them to T-cells, causing their intense activation. (oncolink.org)
  • In fact, immature dendritic cells can actually cause the suppression of responses to antigen. (oncolink.org)
  • In certain lymphomas, the immunoglobulin antigen that the lymphoid cell is supposed to be producing becomes mutated, and hence a potential target for vaccines. (oncolink.org)
  • Co-stimulatory molecules are presenting along with the antigen by APCs to induce an aggressive response by the T-cells. (oncolink.org)
  • The comings and goings of MHC class I molecules herald a new dawn in cross-presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antigens are the molecules that are recognized and stimulate the cells of immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Variable region constitutes the antibody binding region of the molecule to the different antigens as it consists of about 110 amino acids that vary widely among the different antibody molecules. (medscape.com)
  • New data concerning the multiplicity of thyroid autoantigens recognized by in vivo activated thyroid infiltrating T cells are compatible with this concept since the thyroid epithelial cells are the source of these antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antigen presentation by lung epithelial cells directs CD4 + T RM cell function and regulates barrier immunity. (nih.gov)
  • The body's immune system can react adaptively against the antigen via 2 pathways: cellular or humoral. (medscape.com)
  • Psoriasis is an idiopathic chronic immune-mediated skin condition in which the body's immune system undergoes several derangements, including increased antigen presentation by T cells and increased T-helper cell type 1 cytokines, resulting in skin lesions as well as arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • One insight is the identification of tumor antigens (small proteins recognized as "foreign" by the immune system) that stimulate the T-cells of the immune system. (oncolink.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) recognize specific proteins on the surface of tumor cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Concomitant use of interferon enhances the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and TAAs on tumor cells, thereby augmenting the killing of tumor cells by the infused effector cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We will be investigating the antigen specificity and function of these CD8 T cells, in particular examining the influence of persistent viruses such as HCMV. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Any molecule capable of being recognized by the immune system is considered an antigen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • These tumor specific antigens are the result of mutations that cancer cells undergo, and in many cases that involve viral carcinogens, viral antigens. (oncolink.org)
  • In several instances, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and myocarditis, the autoimmune disease can be induced experimentally by administering self-antigen in the presence of adjuvant (col- lagen, myelin basic protein, and cardiac myosin, respec- tively) (3). (cdc.gov)
  • CoV-2 antigen and 0.3-0.6 mg/mL aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. (who.int)
  • However, extremely strong immune responses have been generated using a "boost" to the immune system, provided by viruses that encode antigens similar to the target. (oncolink.org)
  • Epitopes are a component of the antigen that are recognized by the immune system and determine whether the cellular or the humoral arm of the immune system shall be activated against that particular antigen. (medscape.com)
  • WATERTOWN, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--SQZ Biotechnologies (NYSE: SQZ), focused on unlocking the full potential of cell therapies for multiple therapeutic areas, today announced that the first clinical translation of the company's Tolerizing Antigen Carrier (TAC) platform in autoimmune diseases will be for celiac disease, a chronic autoimmune disorder that afflicts millions of patients and has no approved drug treatment. (pharmiweb.com)
  • AstraZeneca's early stage immuno-oncology platform centers on three therapeutic target areas: antigen presentation, T-cell killing, and the tumor's micro-environment. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune response by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. (usda.gov)
  • TACs are derived from patient RBCs and are designed to carry disease-specific antigen cargos to specialized immune cells that are capable of inducing tolerance through multiple mechanisms. (pharmiweb.com)
  • SQZ TACs were shown to delete antigen-specific T cells, without causing broad immune suppression. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Importantly, SQZ TACs also increased antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) that exerted potent bystander suppression, showing the ability to suppress pathogenic T cells with different autoantigen specificities. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The CD20 antigen is not found on stem cells or early pro- B cells so these can regenerate the B lymphocyte population. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Plasma cells are B cells that do not usually express the CD20 antigen, so they mostly survive. (dermnetnz.org)
  • It contains purified surface antigen of the virus obtained by culturing genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, which carry the surface antigen gene of the hepatitis B virus. (druglib.com)
  • The surface antigen expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells is purified by several physicochemical steps and formulated as a suspension of the antigen adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. (druglib.com)
  • Rather than attempting to determine the exact antigen on the cancer cells themselves, an alternative approach has been to isolate and to study the immunogobulins that our bodies have produced in recognition of these foreign antigens. (oncolink.org)
  • Recently, cells called antigen presenting cells (APCs) were discovered to play a pivotal role in the immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • Hence, it would help create more T-cells that react to the antigen presented. (oncolink.org)
  • As noted above, a more vigorous dendritic cell presentation of antigens could trigger the immune response by T-cells. (oncolink.org)
  • COVID-19: Attacks Immune Cells and Interferences With Antigen Presentation Through MHC-Like Decoy System. (cdc.gov)
  • Tumor Antigens Many tumor cells produce antigens, which may be released in the bloodstream or remain on the cell surface. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Earlier this year, the company presented preclinical findings at the Antigen-Specific Immune Tolerance Digital Summit and the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies demonstrating that its engineered TACs can drive antigen-specific immune tolerance in complex models of autoimmune disease. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In preclinical models, SQZ™ TACs have demonstrated the ability to induce multi-mechanism antigen-specific tolerance relevant to many immune mediated disorders. (pharmiweb.com)
  • SQZ TACs leverage the body's natural mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) clearance and antigen presentation to induce immune tolerance. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Our preclinical research has found that SQZ TACs can leverage physiological processes to induce T cell tolerance to disease-driving antigens through multiple mechanisms," said Howard Bernstein, M.D., Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer at SQZ Biotechnologies. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The flexibility and scalability of the company's manufacturing system allows it to be used for both the TAC and Oncology platforms despite different cell types and antigen cargos. (pharmiweb.com)
  • It can theoretically improve antigen presentation and enhance T-cell infiltrate. (medscape.com)
  • T cell activation and antigen presentation in human thyroid autoimmunity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • More recently the laboratory has been involved in the definition of novel T cell antigens. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In fact, this type of antigen was the target of the first monoclonal antibody therapy for a malignancy (B-cell lymphoma) in 1982. (oncolink.org)
  • Regulation of the Cell Biology of Antigen Cross-Presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The clinical presentations vary greatly, ranging from mild to life threatening. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, late presentation with severe immunosuppression was common, and was associated with significant in-hospital mortality. (who.int)
  • Repetitive organic dust exposure significantly decreases markers of antigen presentation and host defense function in MDMs. (cdc.gov)
  • 2018). An evolutionarily conserved function of polycomb silences the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway and enables immune evasion in cancer. (edu.au)
  • In 1983, a hypothesis concerning the relevance of class II expression and antigen presentation to the induction and maintenance of endocrine autoimmunity was published. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These are carefully spaced out across each trimester to avoid clashes and include many different types of assessment such as essays, lab reports, posters, oral presentations, short discussions, class tests and exams. (napier.ac.uk)
  • The Fab portion binds to the CD20 antigen on the surface of pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. (dermnetnz.org)
  • 3-5 Norovirus antigen testing (using enzyme immunoassays) and cultures for Staphylococcus were also performed on the stool specimens using Columbia colistin nalidixic agar with sheep blood (Thermo Fischer Scientific, Scoresby, Victoria, Australia). (who.int)
  • The vaccine formulations targeting these antigens have caused a relatively weak immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Antigen presentation" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Zika virus in breast milk and sexual transmission of Zika virus will be discussed later in the presentation. (cdc.gov)
  • Please submit your questions via the Q&A box any time during the presentation. (nih.gov)
  • You may submit questions through the Webinar system at any time during the presentation by selecting Q&A Tab at the top of the Webinar screen and typing in your question. (cdc.gov)