The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/5439)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/5439)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (3/5439)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (4/5439)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (5/5439)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Identification of MAGE-3 epitopes presented by HLA-DR molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (6/5439)

MAGE-type genes are expressed by many tumors of different histological types and not by normal cells, except for male germline cells, which do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Therefore, the antigens encoded by MAGE-type genes are strictly tumor specific and common to many tumors. We describe here the identification of the first MAGE-encoded epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were loaded with a MAGE-3 recombinant protein and used to stimulate autologous CD4(+) T cells. We isolated CD4(+) T cell clones that recognized two different MAGE-3 epitopes, MAGE-3114-127 and MAGE-3121-134, both presented by the HLA-DR13 molecule, which is expressed in 20% of Caucasians. The second epitope is also encoded by MAGE-1, -2, and -6. Our procedure should be applicable to other proteins for the identification of new tumor-specific antigens presented by HLA class II molecules. The knowledge of such antigens will be useful for evaluation of the immune response of cancer patients immunized with proteins or with recombinant viruses carrying entire genes coding for tumor antigens. The use of antigenic peptides presented by class II in addition to peptides presented by class I may also improve the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination.  (+info)

Calreticulin, a peptide-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, elicits tumor- and peptide-specific immunity. (7/5439)

Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by transporter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific immunity to the tumor used as the source of CRT but not to an antigenically distinct tumor. The immunogenicity is attributed to the peptides associated with the CRT molecule and not to the CRT molecule per se. It is further shown that CRT molecules can be complexed in vitro to unglycosylated peptides and used to elicit peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell response in spite of exogenous administration. These characteristics of CRT closely resemble those of HSPs gp96, hsp90, and hsp70, although CRT has no apparent structural homologies to them.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (8/5439)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

Source data: Western blot scans to accompany Burr et al., An Evolutionarily Conserved Function of Polycomb Silences the MHC Class I Antigen Presentation Pathway and Enables Immune Evasion in Cancer, Cancer Cell (2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2019.08.008
After viral infection, cells rapidly present peptides derived from newly synthesized viral proteins on MHC class I molecules for T cell activation (1). This rapidity of presentation, coupled with the relatively long half-life (t1/2) of most viral proteins, engendered the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of Ag presentation: a subset of newly synthesized proteins are defective in some manner and rapidly degraded intracellularly, yielding peptides for MHC class I Ag presentation to enable rapid immunosurveillance of viral and cellular translation products (2).. More than a decade after the birth of the DRiP hypothesis, there are only a few clues regarding the physical and biochemical properties of DRiPs that give rise to class I peptide ligands (3). Although large amounts of rapidly degraded polypeptides (RDPs) are relatively easy to detect (3-6), their relationship with DRiPs is uncertain (3, 7). The DRiP hypothesis is strongly supported, however, by functional studies that temporally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I presentation by examining a special feature of professional APC, namely their ability to process exogenous forms of antigen for class I presentation. Incubation of highly purified bone marrow-derived precursor cells with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) led to the efficient presentation of the major class I-restricted OVA determinant by mature dendritic cells (DC), but not by macrophages (MΦ) derived from the precursor population. DC as well as macrophages were, however, able to mediate class II presentation of OVA, suggesting ...
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In the current study, we investigated the requirements of MHC I presentation during Chlamydia infection using C57BL/6 mice, the mouse DC line JAWS II, and the nonavian C. psittaci (DC15) as an infection model system. The most intriguing finding of our work is that autophagy constitutes a critical pathway in MHC I processing of chlamydial Ags in infected DCs.. Our data demonstrate that the disease in C. psittaci-infected C57BL/6 mice is comparable to what was recently described for infected cattle (37), the natural host of C. psittaci strain DC15. In particular, the onset of the most pronounced clinical signs due to bronchopneumonia, the pathological features, and the course of disease are remarkably similar. Chlamydia-infected DCs show morphological, as well as functional, maturation, which is characterized by elevated expression of distinct activation/maturation markers and secretion of chemokines/cytokines known to be associated with optimal Ag presentation and clearance of bacterial ...
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
Clone REA1080 recognizes the human CD205 (DEC205) antigen, a glycoprotein also known as Ly-75. CD205 is a 210 kDa C-type lectin single-pass membrane protein (type I), which is highly expressed on thymic epithelial cells and dendritic cells. Unlike murine CD205, human CD205 is also found at low levels on other peripheral blood lymphocytes, eg., monocytes, T cells, B cells, and NK cells. CD205 belongs to the macrophage mannose receptor family and acts as an endocytic receptor to uptake antigens, direct the captured antigens from the extracellular space to the antigen-processing compartment for antigen presentation on MHC class II and cross-presentation on MHC class I molecules. Another function of CD205 is the clearance of apoptotic cells, potentially an important pathway for the uptake of self-antigen in intrathymic and peripheral tolerance. Additional information: Clone REA1080 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Sverige
Introduction: Despite the unrecognized nature of fetal antigens for maternal immune system, the fetus is usually not rejected and is rather sustained by maternal imm...
Anti-CD137 mAb are capable of inducing tumor rejection in several syngeneic murine tumor models and are undergoing clinical trials for cancer. The anti-tumor effect involves co-stimulation of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells.. Whether antigen cross-presenting DC are required for the efficacy of anti-CD137 mAb treatment has never been examined. Here we show that the administration of anti-CD137 mAb eradicates EG7-OVA tumors by a strictly CD8beta(+) T-cell-dependent mechanism that correlates with increased CTL activity. Ex vivo analyses to determine the identity of the draining lymph node cell type responsible for tumor antigen cross-presentation revealed that CD11c(+) cells, most likely DC, are the main players in this tumor model. A minute number of tumor cells, revealed by the presence of OVA cDNA, reach tumor-draining lymph nodes. Direct antigen presentation by tumor cells themselves also participates in anti-OVA CTL induction.. Using CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor-green fluorescent ...
Whole protein delivery to B-cells by cell squeezing enables robust MHC class I antigen presentation and antigen-specific CD8+T-cell priming in vitro.. A) Experimental timeline for antigen loading (endocytosis, peptide, or squeezed) on day 0 followed by co-culture with purified, CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+T-cells. B) Representative histogram overlay showing data from day 4 proliferation of endocytosis+CpG or SQZ+CpG co-cultures; green gates were used to calculate percent of divided input cells and proliferation indices as described in Methods. C,D) Quantitative analysis of percent divided input OT-I CD8+(C) and OT-II CD4+(D) T-cells at day 4 of co-culture. E) Normalized total OT-I CD8+T-cell counts on day 4 of co-cultures were also calculated as described in Methods. All data were shown as means±standard deviation (n = 7 independent experiments for B & D; n = 3 independent experiments for D). Pairs of conditions were tested in C), D) and E) for statistically significant pairwise differences with ...
Thymocytes adoptively transferred into syngeneic irradiated recipients can be primed with antigen (KLH) to generate two types of helper function termed specific and non-specific. Low doses of KLH given without adjuvant generate high levels of non-specific compared to specific helper T cells. Large doses of KLH given in adjuvant (FCA) generate high levels of both types of helper T cell. Explantations for this observation are discussed.
Das Proteasom ist eine ATP- abhängige Protease, die sich aus vielen Untereinheiten zusammensetzt. Es ist für die Generierung der MHC Klasse I- restringierten Peptide verantwortlich, die im Folgenden auf der Zelloberfläche präsentiert werden. Nicht-funktionelle Proteine, die als so genannte defective ribosomal products (DRIP) bezeichnet werden, stellen eine wichtige Quelle für die Generierung von antigenen Peptiden, insbesondere jedoch von viralen Peptiden dar. Generell wird die Lehrmeinung vertreten, dass der Abbau von polyubiquitinierten Proteinen durch das 26S Proteasom zur Generierung von MHC Klasse I- Liganden führt. Allerdings ist weiterhin unklar, ob virale Proteine Ubiquitin- abhängig vom Proteasom abgebaut werden. Demnach sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit der Proteasom- abhängige Abbau des mCMV ie pp89 Proteins vor allem hinsichtlich einer Ubiquitinierung untersucht werden. Folglich wurden Konstrukte sowohl für ein rekombinantes pp89 (rek pp89) als auch für ein ODCpp89 ...
Das Proteasom ist eine ATP- abhängige Protease, die sich aus vielen Untereinheiten zusammensetzt. Es ist für die Generierung der MHC Klasse I- restringierten Peptide verantwortlich, die im Folgenden auf der Zelloberfläche präsentiert werden. Nicht-funktionelle Proteine, die als so genannte defective ribosomal products (DRIP) bezeichnet werden, stellen eine wichtige Quelle für die Generierung von antigenen Peptiden, insbesondere jedoch von viralen Peptiden dar. Generell wird die Lehrmeinung vertreten, dass der Abbau von polyubiquitinierten Proteinen durch das 26S Proteasom zur Generierung von MHC Klasse I- Liganden führt. Allerdings ist weiterhin unklar, ob virale Proteine Ubiquitin- abhängig vom Proteasom abgebaut werden. Demnach sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit der Proteasom- abhängige Abbau des mCMV ie pp89 Proteins vor allem hinsichtlich einer Ubiquitinierung untersucht werden. Folglich wurden Konstrukte sowohl für ein rekombinantes pp89 (rek pp89) als auch für ein ODCpp89 ...
In this first serologic case-control study of MCV infection and SCC, MCV seroreactivity was statistically significantly associated with MCV DNA-positive SCC. There are several possible explanations for the observed serologic associations. MCV seroreactivity could simply be a marker of a general systemic immunosuppression, an established risk factor for SCC. If this was the case, then associations with SCC would be expected to be observed also for JCV seroreactivity, given that JCV reactivates with immunosuppression (20). Although a greater proportion of SCC cases were JCV-seropositive than controls, the difference was not statistically significant, and no trend was observed between increasing quartiles of JCV antibody levels and SCC risk. Uncontrolled MCV replication resulting from localized cutaneous immunosuppression is theoretically possible, given the previously described effects of UV radiation on antigen presentation and cytokine production in the skin (21-24). However, no associations ...
On this web page you will find the presentations from the WARCnet kickoff meeting 4-6 May 2020. The presentations are organised according to the meeting sessions. Presentations are either a video or a slideshow with voice-over. Please note that when you view the slideshows online they do not have the voice-over, you will have to download the slideshow to view it with sound. ...
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the bodys ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth. As such, understanding the processes and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation provides us with crucial insights necessary for the design of vaccines and therapeutic strategies to bolster T-cell responses.. ...
Ubiquitin-Dependent Control of Class II MHC Localization Is Dispensable for Antigen Presentation and Antibody Production. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
The following presentations were recorded during the APS Annual Meeting in Pasadena, CA, August 1-5, 2015. ​ Presentations are grouped by Session Title. To view the presentation titles use the image to expand/collapse....
Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the treatment of viral infections and relapsed hematologic malignancies. In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it …
The IFNE Congress 2017 Committee thanks all faculty and delegates for their support and contributions to the success of the 2017 meeting. Consented presentations are available for your interest below. Click on the author name and presentation title to download.. Benjamin Wharf - Saving Lives and growing brains ...
Presentations are one of the first managerial skills which a junior engineer must acquire. This article looks at the basics of Presentation Skills as
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Business presentations are a collateral reflection of who you are. A glimpse of your personality could be seen in the ways and the content of your presentation.. The way you carry yourself, the way you speak, deliver your sentences, tackle tricky questions with confidence and successfully convey your message, speak volumes about your personality.. Still, there are much more ways in which you can support your business presentation to reach its maximum potential.. HIGHLIGHT YOUR SUPERPOWER. A positive way to keep your audience attentive to you is to show them that you are worth their time and trust. Rather than speaking about your achievements and future goals, speak about your credibility because if even little points will exist with which the crowd will not feel connected to then the tables will instantly turn.. Talk about your goals within the first few minutes of the presentation. Choose your presentation design which corresponds with your goals, which should be introduced to your audience as ...
Business presentations are a collateral reflection of who you are. A glimpse of your personality could be seen in the ways and the content of your presentation.. The way you carry yourself, the way you speak, deliver your sentences, tackle tricky questions with confidence and successfully convey your message, speak volumes about your personality.. Still, there are much more ways in which you can support your business presentation to reach its maximum potential.. HIGHLIGHT YOUR SUPERPOWER. A positive way to keep your audience attentive to you is to show them that you are worth their time and trust. Rather than speaking about your achievements and future goals, speak about your credibility because if even little points will exist with which the crowd will not feel connected to then the tables will instantly turn.. Talk about your goals within the first few minutes of the presentation. Choose your presentation design which corresponds with your goals, which should be introduced to your audience as ...
The informal research seminar of the ALGO and AGA groups. Talks last roughly 25 minutes, with five extra minutes allocated for discussion. Many presentations are focussed on recent conference presentations, or practice talks for upcoming conferences. New members are often asked to give an overview of their field of research. Talks given by invited speakers may take up to 45-60 minutes including questions.. To be kept up-to-date about noon seminar presentations, please subscribe to the algoseminar-l mailing list.. All noon seminar schedules: 2018 · 2017 · 2016 · 2015 · 2014 · 2013 · 2012 · 2011 · 2010 · 2009 · 2008 · 2007 · 2006 · 2005. ...
The informal research seminar of the ALGO and AGA groups. Talks last roughly 25 minutes, with five extra minutes allocated for discussion. Many presentations are focussed on recent conference presentations, or practice talks for upcoming conferences. New members are often asked to give an overview of their field of research. Talks given by invited speakers may take up to 45-60 minutes including questions.. To be kept up-to-date about noon seminar presentations, please subscribe to the algoseminar-l mailing list.. All noon seminar schedules: 2018 · 2017 · 2016 · 2015 · 2014 · 2013 · 2012 · 2011 · 2010 · 2009 · 2008 · 2007 · 2006 · 2005. ...
Full development of the approved capstone project. The strategies set forth in the proposal are put into action: developing a research concept, solving a strategic management challenge, or launching an entrepreneurial business. Primary data using quantitative and qualitative methods are a required part of the project. Oral and formal presentations are required. Taken in the final semester of the MBA program. Prerequisite: successful completion of all foundation and core MBA courses, inclusive of MBA 6450 or NUR 5670. Corequisite for Nursing Administration students: NUR 6310 ...
Full development of the approved capstone project. The strategies set forth in the proposal are put into action: developing a research concept, solving a strategic management challenge, or launching an entrepreneurial business. Primary data using quantitative and qualitative methods are a required part of the project. Oral and formal presentations are required. Taken in the final semester of the MBA program. Prerequisite: successful completion of all foundation and core MBA courses, inclusive of MBA 6450 or NUR 5670. Corequisite for Nursing Administration students: NUR 6310 ...
Everything is going more virtual these days. TBOOKS stays paper. So youll never find a publication online. The publications are handmade in alternative print techniques. , cause sales money will be invested in another publication. Following this, the aim of TBOOKS is to have affordable prices for the publications. Accessible prices combined with high quality content and a devoted presentation are what constitutes TBOOKS COLOGNE. ...
Presentations are the key to your success. They connect your ideas, your know-how, your stories, and your offerings with your target groups. But: it gets increasingly difficult to hold peoples attention. Youll lose if you dont master the art of presenting.
If youve ever watched Iron Chef or any of the many cooking shows on TV, youll know that plating and presentation are just as influential as the taste of
Note: All presentations are scheduled for 10 minutes, including setup and questions, and should be targetted towards the discussion topics for the session. At the end of each technical session there will be a discussion period ...
These pre-recorded, on-demand presentations are less than 10 minutes in length and offer a quick take on a story, case study, idea or technique.
Where Can I Buy Hyzaar Cheap Lake Geneva and its iconic plume of water will michaeldorogifineart.com atypical presentation are more difficult to diag
So guys, E3 presentations are over for the big guys. And wouw what a ride! Microsoft kicked it this year and it made me go from YES! To OMG to WOUW!...
Most health and safety managers spend significant time in meetings, including ones that they direct or chair. They also may have numerous opportunities to make presentations, ranging from formal ones before large audiences to informal sessions with only a few attenders. Both meetings and presentations may have significant impacts on health and safety programs, so facility in these areas can enhanc
Background The MHC molecules are glycoproteins encoded in a large cluster of genes located on chromosome 6. They were first identified by their potent
Presentation on Results for the 1st Quarter FY 2014 Idemitsu Kosan Co.,Ltd. August 5, 2014 Table of Contents 1. FY st Quarter Financials (1) Overview (2) Segment Information (3) Streamlining (4)
Please provide below the URL and description of an activity you would like to add to OpenCME. You are welcome to add activities as often as you like. To prevent spam or other abuse, activities are reviewed by our editorial team before appearing on OpenCME. ...
Drug Development , Creative Biolabs provides cytokine development services to improve the efficacy of cancer vaccines. https://www.creative...
Individuals may propose sections, panels or papers by completing the attached form to be available very soon on this website. A section consists of a number of panels (up to 10) on a particular theme. A panel consists of up to four papers, a discussant/chairperson, or it can take the form of a Round Table. Each panel lasts for 90 minutes. Papers givers will have not more than 12 minutes for their presentation, as will the discussant. Chairpersons of both panels and Round Tables should leave 30 minutes for discussion from the floor.. Papers will be given in English. It is expected that paper givers will circulate their paper to all other participants on their panel. In principle, the only equipment provided is an overhead projector, although equipment for a Powerpoint presentation may be provided if requested in advance. A paper will be allocated to an appropriate panel, tabled or rejected. Section and Panel proposals should include an international element among its participants or the Programme ...
In this new paper by Nir Hacohen et al., researchers found that by analyzing the DNA of tumors from patients who developed resistance to checkpoint therapy, they found changes in the DNA of a key gene that is critical for tumors to be detected by the immune system.
A successful presentation contains more than good material and the most convincing arguments. It displays good organization of subject matter. The most forceful and persuasive presenter may fail to have a plan, idea, or information accepted by the audience if the message is not organized well.. The introduction and conclusion cannot be neglected. At the outset, the presentation should gain the interest of the audience and convey to the listeners what is to be covered.. In the conclusion, the presenter should review the key points of the presentation and pinpoint the action to be taken, if any.. The body of the presentation, located between the introduction and the conclusion, contains the bulk of the message. It should be presented to the listener in a meaningful form. An outpouring of plans, ideas, or information without form or relationship will not hold the attention of any audience very long.. Organization of the presentation involves fitting the parts into a coherent whole. The method ...
Design of the British Gas presentation for the successful media pitch by Carat. Creation of a main template with all the graphic assets, colour palette and images reflecting the brand value. Production of all elements for the deck including icons, charts …
slides, OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP,Home,openwetware.org OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Labs,Labs,OpenWetWare labs OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Protocols,Protocols,Protocol collection OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Courses,Courses,Wiki courses ,/slides, ...
GO:0019724. Any process involved with the carrying out of an immune response by a B cell, through, for instance, the production of antibodies or cytokines, or antigen presentation to T cells. ...
Presentation Zen has analysed two presentation slides from the recent presentation by Bill Gates on Live Platforms. There are couple of interesting
Thank you very much for your valuable presentation today. It was a very good morning. Your topic and your presentation style was very much appreciated by
Function in antigen presentation[edit]. HSPs are indispensable components of antigen presentation pathways - the classical ones ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... MHCII presentation[edit]. In MHCII presentation, HSPs are involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis.[29] Also when HSPs are ... Given their role in antigen presentation,[35] HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants (DAMPS) in boosting the response to a ...
antigen processing and presentation. • positive regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity. • regulation of ... and presentation of antigens from those pathogens. Next the Th1 helper cells aggregate around the macrophages and release IFNγ ... and further presentation of antigens to Th1 helper cells with further release of IFNγ. Finally, macrophages surround the Th1 ... Causes normal cells to increase expression of class I MHC molecules as well as class II MHC on antigen-presenting cells-to be ...
K3 and K5 - ubiquitin E3 ligases - regulate antigen presentation K4 - vCCL2 - chemokine ... ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates host gene ... state expressing the viral latency-associated nuclear antigen, LANA. Crucial for the Entry of the KSHV [10] is the EPH receptor ...
Cells such as macrophages are specialists at this antigen presentation.[16] Evading the immune system[change , change source]. ... These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration (hiding away); blocking antigen presentation; cytokine ...
Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens in the presence of "self", during the process of antigen presentation. ... Genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as the class I and class II genes, are closely linked within the ...
Antigen presentationEdit. Immature dendritic cells (DCs) can phagocytose, but mature DCs cannot due to changes in Rho GTPases ... Savina, Ariel; Amigorena, Sebastian (October 2007). "Phagocytosis and antigen presentation in dendritic cells". Immunological ... as DCs are mainly involved in antigen presentation rather than pathogen degradation. They need to retain protein fragments of a ... The peptide antigens are presented to lymphocytes, where they bind to T-cell receptors and activates T-cells, bridging the gap ...
It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... "The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway: strategies for viral immune evasion". Immunology. 110 (2): 163-9. doi:10.1046/j. ... "MHC class I antigen presentation: learning from viral evasion strategies". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 9 (7): 503-13. doi: ... "Exogenous antigens are processed through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) in cross-presentation by ...
May 2016). "The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 ... MR1 stimulation is needed for MAIT development in thymus, the mechanism of antigen presentation in thymus is not clear. The MR1 ... Karamooz E, Harriff MJ, Lewinsohn DM (December 2018). "MR1-dependent antigen presentation". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ... "Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones stabilize ligand-receptive MR1 molecules for efficient presentation of metabolite antigens". ...
Morris AG, Hewitt C, Young S (1994). The major histocompatibility complex: its genes and their roles in antigen presentation. ... A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive ... "antigen presentation". The infected cells then become targets for types of cytotoxic T-cells, which kill the infected cells so ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Human Leukocyte Antigen A - 142800 Retrieved 21 September 2011. Azuma A, Kudoh S ( ...
... through activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and increased antigen presentation on MHC class I, as well as secretion ... This can be attributed to a number of things; CD4+ T cells respond only to presentation of antigens by MHC class II, however, ... Cancer cells, through mutation, may actually have mutations in some of the proteins involved in antigen presentation, and as ... The simplest approach involves upregulation of adhesion molecules, thus extending the presentation of antigens by APC. ( ...
Gobin SJ, Wilson L, Keijsers V, Van den Elsen PJ (1997). "Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell ... Townsend A, Trowsdale J (1993). "The transporters associated with antigen presentation". Semin. Cell Biol. 4 (1): 53-61. doi: ... "A functionally defective allele of TAP1 results in loss of MHC class I antigen presentation in a human lung cancer". Nat. Genet ... "Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex". Nature. 345 (6274): 449-452. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in antigen presentation. This protein forms a heterodimer with ABCB2 in order to ... "The transporters associated with antigen presentation". Semin. Cell Biol. 4 (1): 53-61. doi:10.1006/scel.1993.1007. PMID ... TAP2 is a gene in humans that encodes the protein Antigen peptide transporter 2. The membrane-associated protein encoded by ... WHO Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system". Tissue Antigens. 39 (4): 161-73. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992. ...
... phagocytosis and antigen presentation. Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ...
... (human leukocyte antigen DM) is an intracellular protein involved in the mechanism of antigen presentation on antigen ... Apart from CLIP-antigen exchange, HLA-DM also facilitates antigen-antigen exchange. It releases weakly bound peptides from the ... the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation". Immunity. 9 (3): 377 ... For example, proper antigen presentation benefits T cell activation, and memory T cell survival and generation. Without it, T ...
These studies indicate that potentially a small change or increase in the presentation of a potential self-antigen can result ... As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft versus ... HLA DQ functions as a cell surface receptor for foreign or self antigens. The immune system surveys antigens for foreign ... DQ3 is known as broad antigen serotypes, because they recognize a broad group of antigens. However, because of this broad ...
It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ...
Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... This presentation may be accompanied by cPC infiltrations into other tissues to result in swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver, ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ...
"Methamphetamine inhibits antigen processing, presentation, and phagocytosis". PLoS Pathog. 4 (2): e28. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat ... "CD8+ T-cell concentration determines the efficiency of killing of cognate antigen-expressing syngeneic mammalian cells in vitro ...
October 2005). "Apolipoprotein-mediated pathways of lipid antigen presentation". Nature. 437 (7060): 906-10. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... lipid antigen presentation facilitation (by CD1) to natural killer T cell as well as modulation of inflammation and oxidation. ...
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... "Entrez Gene: CD1E CD1e molecule". Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. ... CD1E+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD1A genome location and CD1A gene ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ...
Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-890. doi:10.1146/ ... and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. CD1d is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d- ... iGb3, a self antigen which has been implied in iNKT selection. HS44, a synthetic amino cyclitolic ceramide analogue which has ...
Cruz-Tapias P, Castiblanco J, Anaya J (2013-07-18). Major histocompatibility complex: Antigen processing and presentation. El ... MHC Class II molecules, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ and HLA-DP, are only present on antigen presenting cells and are responsible for ... The target of these antibodies, or the human leukocyte antigens (HLA), were discovered to be the human homologue of Snell and ... "Human leukocyte antigens". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2018-01-25. Ingulli E (January 2010). "Mechanism of cellular ...
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-90. doi:10.1146/ ... 2000). "Separate pathways for antigen presentation by CD1 molecules". Immunity. 11 (6): 743-52. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80148 ...
Savina A, Amigorena S (October 2007). "Phagocytosis and antigen presentation in dendritic cells". Immunological Reviews. 219 (1 ... as DCs are mainly involved in antigen presentation rather than pathogen degradation. They need to retain protein fragments of a ... Peptides from the bacteria are trafficked to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The peptide antigens are presented to ...
Some mTECs are phagocytosed by thymic dendritic cells; this allows for presentation of self-antigens on MHC class II molecules ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... "MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution". Proceedings of the ...
Suppress cell adhesion, antigen presentation, chemotaxis and cytotoxicity. Increase apoptosis. Release of corticotropin- ... They found that the immune responses to innocuous antigens triggers an increase in the activity of hypothalamic neurons and ...
Antigen presentation: MHC molecules bind to both T cell receptor and CD4/CD8 co-receptors on T lymphocytes, and the antigen ... Diversity of an individual's self-antigen presentation, mediated by MHC self-antigens, is attained in at least three ways: (1) ... binding an antigen derived from self-proteins, or from pathogens, and bringing the antigen presentation to the cell surface for ... The presented self-antigens prevent an organism's immune system from targeting its own cells. The presentation of pathogen- ...
Antigen presentation may occur in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The Langerhans cells, once they are activated, rapidly migrate ... The epidermis antigens are connected with some cells of the skin. Among them there are the APC, antigen presenting cells ( ... and presentation of antigens to T lymphocytes in local lymphoid organs. As a result, T lymphocytes express the cutaneous ... Once the activated lymphocytes arrive, they get in contact with the antigen, they proliferate and develop their effector ...
These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Phagocytosis is the process of uptake of microbes and ... This process is called antigen presentation and it leads to activation of T lymphocytes, which then mount a specific immune ... Microbial fragments that remain after such digestion can serve as antigens. The fragments can be incorporated into MHC ... response against the antigen. Other microbial products can directly activate monocytes and this leads to production of pro- ...
Her work on ABC transporters includes investigating their role in resistance to chemotherapy drugs; antigen presentation in ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
"Ebola Virus, Clinical Presentation". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.. ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... West TE, von Saint André-von Arnim A (November 2014). "Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease". ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ...
However, these typical presentations do not always hold true, which created problems with this system. A more recently proposed ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... History, classification, and clinical presentation". Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology. 78 (2): 189-93. doi: ... Lalla, RV; Patton, LL; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A (April 2013). "Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... In North America, facial palsy is the typical early neuroborreliosis presentation, occurring in 5-10% of untreated people, in ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... Puius YA, Kalish RA (June 2008). "Lyme arthritis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management". Infectious Disease ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... "Membranous nephropathy in children: clinical presentation and therapeutic approach". Pediatric Nephrology. 25 (8): 1419-28. ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens.[4] ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ...
Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ...
TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... http://web.archive.org/web/20050301183018/http://www.obgyn.net/english/pubs/features/presentations/panda13/ABO-Rh.ppt ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ...
Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... of learning in which an organism decreases or desists its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.. ... which act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as ... system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens.[2] ...
A changing pattern of presentation". Annals of Surgery. 220 (5): 644-52. doi:10.1097/00000658-199411000-00007. PMC 1234452. ... Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... Bergquist A, Glaumann H, Persson B, Broomé U (February 1998). "Risk factors and clinical presentation of hepatobiliary ...
Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. 2009 ... Memorijske T ćelije su podskup antigen - specifičnih T ćelijs koje traju dugoročno nakon savladavanja infekcije.[1] One se brzo ... Ove ćelije prepoznaju svoje ciljeve putem vezanja za antigen koji je asociran sa molekulama MHC klase I, koje se ispoljavaju na ... koje se ispoljavaju na površini antigen-prezentirajućih ćelija (APC).[1] Jednom aktivirane, brzo se dele i luče male proteine ...
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen ... "The intersectin 2 adaptor links Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Identification of an infectious agent for a minor illness can be as simple as clinical presentation; such as gastrointestinal ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ...
Sometimes, influenza may have abnormal presentations, like confusion in the elderly and a sepsis-like syndrome in the young.[34 ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ... Therapeutic biologics are designed to activate the immune response to virus or antigens. Typically, biologics do not target ...
Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
As a young research fellow in 1964, Alter co-discovered the Australian antigen with Baruch Blumberg. This work was a major ... Clinical Center News October 2000 2000 Awards Presentation of Clinical Award by Leon Rosenberg The Lasker Foundation Award ... Alter co-discovered the Australia antigen, a key to detecting hepatitis B virus. For many investigators that would be the ...
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens, transform into multinucleated giant cells. ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ...
Holm J, Willumsen N, Würtzen PA, Christensen LH, Lund K (April 2011). "Facilitated antigen presentation and its inhibition by ... CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells expressing CD23 are able to ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ...
The classic presentation (in 40-50% of the cases) is episodic frank hematuria which usually starts within a day or two of a non ... In order to be a match for a kidney transplant, patients must match blood type and human leukocyte antigen factors with their ...
Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ... Each well of a microtitre plate is coated with either a single antigen or multiple antigens to detect specific antibodies or to ... Target antigen. Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. Sjögren ...
Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ... The classic presentation for the nonaggressive form (in 40-50% of the cases) is episodic hematuria, which usually starts within ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ... It has also been proposed that IgA itself may be the antigen. ... abnormal mucosal antigen handling) and not the ultimate cause ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... Miller DC, Hafez KS, Stewart A, Montie JE, Wei JT (September 2003). "Prostate carcinoma presentation, diagnosis, and staging: ... Prostate cancer screening is controversial.[1][3] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does ... Although the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the US has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and ...
Figure 6. The second mechanism of IL-15 action is cis-presentation, when IL-15 is presented by IL-15Rα to 15Rβγc signaling ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... Figure 3. The main mechanism of IL-15 signaling is trans-presentation which is mediated by membrane-bound complex IL-15/IL-15Rα ... Figure 5. Signaling pathway of IL-15 begins with binding to IL-15Rα receptor, with subsequent presentation to surrounding cells ...
The clinical presentation among invasive disease is also dominated by skin and soft tissue infections, including a small subset ... Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... The clinical presentation is dominated by severe sepsis and the formation of microabscesses, and a relationship between disease ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ...
The first step of peptide selection in antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules Malgorzata A. Garstka, Alexander Fish, ... MERS-CoV and H5N1 influenza virus antagonize antigen presentation by altering the epigenetic landscape Vineet D. Menachery, ... Mutations in early follicular lymphoma progenitors are associated with suppressed antigen presentation Michael R. Green, Shingo ... Cocapture of cognate and bystander antigens can activate autoreactive B cells Nicholas S. R. Sanderson, Maria Zimmermann, Luca ...
Antigen processing and presentation. Definition. Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ... T cell antigen discovery via trogocytosis Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its ... Regulation of the innate immune system by autophagy: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and antigen presentation ... T cell antigen discovery via signaling and antigen-presenting bifunctional receptors Engineered, bifunctional receptors present ...
Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, ... Differential lysosomal proteolysis in antigen-presenting cells determines antigen fate. Science 307, 1630-1634 (2005). [ ... However, Delamarre et al. now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor ... It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because ...
... and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation. ... We have multiple vaccine development strategies for antigen ... and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation.. Antigen discovery. Vaccine development starts with antigen discovery. ... Antigen presentation. A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging ... In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. ...
... a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the ... A neural network trained on diverse datasets improves prediction of HLA class II epitope presentation. ... expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our ... Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine ...
We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. ...
Antigen presentation in dendritic cells is finely regulated: antigen uptake, intracellular transport and degradation, and the ... Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells.. Guermonprez P1, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, Théry C, Amigorena S. ... Dendritic cells take up antigens in peripheral tissues, process them into proteolytic peptides, and load these peptides onto ... Dendritic cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and become competent to present antigens to T lymphocytes, thus ...
Interestingly, this enhancement of antigen presentation appears specific for the antigen contained within the IC. The addition ... efficient antigen uptake, and processing of antigen for both MHC class I and class II antigenic presentation for priming of ... facilitated uptake of antigen, class I and II presentation of antigen, and induction of DC activation and maturation. Our ... this enhancement of antigen presentation appears specific for the antigen contained within the IC. Thus, addition of " ...
ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy.. Faraco J1, Lin L, Kornum BR, Kenny EE, Trynka G, ... These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this ... Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease ...
The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. Peptide binding ... Coordinate defects in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II expression and antigen presentation in bare ... Antigen presentation and assembly by mouse I-Ak class II molecules in human APC containing deleted or mutated HLA DM molecules ... Defective processing and presentation of exogenous antigens in mutants with normal HLA class II genes. Nature 1990; 343: 71-74. ...
The Antigen Presentation Research Group (APRG) is located on the Northwick Park and St. Marks site of the London North West ... Antigen Presentation Research Group. North West London Hospitals Campus. Northwick Park & St. Marks Site. Level 7W, St Marks ... The Antigen Presentation Research Group (APRG) is located on the Northwick Park and St. Marks site of the London North West ... The Antigen Presentation Research Group continues to provide a scientific focus for clinical treatment improvements, building ...
Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the ... HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(4):334-41. doi: 10.1038/sj. ... Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the ... and that class II-positive tumors could be employed for direct antigen presentation, and CD4+ T-cell mediated tumor ...
FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to d ... FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to ... Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG- ... Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG- ...
HLA-I Antigen Presentation and Tapasin Influence Immune Responses Against Malignant Brain Tumors - Considerations for ... HLA class I is most tightly linked to levels of tapasin compared with other antigen-processing proteins in glioblastoma Thuring ... Tapasin and human leukocyte antigen class I dysregulation correlates with survival in glioblastoma multiforme. Thuring, Camilla ...
... Alison M. McDonnell,1 Bruce W. S. Robinson,1,2 ... Alison M. McDonnell, Bruce W. S. Robinson, and Andrew J. Currie, "Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and the Dendritic Cell: ...
... by the antigen-presenting cell, of two distinct signals. The first results from the engagement of the TCR:CD3:CD4 complex, and ... Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance? Immunol Rev. 1999 Dec;172:297-314. doi: 10.1111/j. ... In this context, the physiological significance and the functional consequences of antigen presentation by B7-deficient ... own findings are summarised in a model which is consistent with the suggestion of an important role for antigen presentation by ...
Spatial and mechanistic separation of cross-presentation and endogenous antigen presentation. Nat Immunol 2008;9:558-566pmid: ... Presentation of exogenous insulin by B cells infers cross-presentation. Some data show that exogenous soluble antigens ... This dominance of B-cell presentation may shift antigen presentation away from other APC types that engender regulatory T cells ... B-Cell Cross-Presentation of Autologous Antigen Precipitates Diabetes. Eliana Mariño, Bernice Tan, Lauren Binge, Charles R. ...
Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including ...
The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting ... We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs ... cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T ... Specific Antigen CTL Presentation Assay: IFN Gamma ELISPOT Assay. Antigen-specific CD8 T cells producing IFN gamma were ...
Presentation of an exogenous antigen by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Eur. J. Immunol. 24:1590-1596. View ... creating multiple altered peptide ligands for increased MHC presentation. Antigen processing and presentation were further ... For antigen presentation, 5 × 104 irradiated EL-4 cells, T2 lymphoma cells, or HLA-A*0201/K562 cells pulsed with 10 μg/ml ... Optimization of a self antigen for presentation of multiple epitopes in cancer immunity. José A. Guevara-Patiño,1 Manuel E. ...
Dijkstra and Yamaguchi (2018) review the evolution of the MHC class II antigen presentation system in jawed vertebrates. They ... Peter Cresswells review (Cresswell 2019) is a personal retrospective focusing on the biochemistry of antigen presentation. His ... Kasahara M, Flajnik MF (2019) Origin and evolution of the specialized forms of proteasomes involved in antigen presentation. ... This article is part of the Topical Collection on Biology and Evolution of Antigen Presentation ...
"Antigen Presentation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigen Presentation" was a major or minor ... Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments ... "Antigen Presentation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Polyglutamine-Related Aggregates Can Serve as a Potent Antigen Source for Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells. J Immunol. ...
... protein/protein interactions and more for genes involved in antigen processing and presentation antigen+presentation at the US ... Because T cells recognize only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen ... This antigen presentation pathway enables the immune system to detect transformed or infected cells displaying peptides from ... Antigen presentation is a vital immune process that is essential for T cell immune response triggering. ...
Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by ... In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to ...
γδT-antigen-presenting cells (APC), activated γδT cells with antigen-presentation function, might be a valuable alternative to ... αβT cells via antigen cross-presentation, a process involving the uptake and proteasomal processing of exogenous antigen and ... Antigen-Presentation Assay. Intracellular IFNγ assay. Day 14 γδT cells from HLA-A2+ blood donors were incubated for 16-24 h in ... Antigen-Presentation by Expanded γδT Cells (γδT-APCs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether expanded γδT cells ...
Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers, P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers, P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers and P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis ... The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse ... Antigen presentation requires transport of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum ... Antigen presentation requires transport of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum ...
Evasion and subversion of antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tissue Antigens74: 189-204. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 molecules and the generation of lipid-specific T cell immunity. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.64: 1824-1840. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 lipids, T cells, and NKT cells in microbial immunity. Adv. Immunol.102: 1-94. ... An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens ... antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have ... antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the ... promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine ...
  • We have developed a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model in which CD4 + cells are positively and negatively selected by endogenous peptides. (pnas.org)
  • Fig. 4: MARIA trained on human HLA-DQ ligand peptides identified celiac-related gluten antigens. (nature.com)
  • Dendritic cells take up antigens in peripheral tissues, process them into proteolytic peptides, and load these peptides onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides. (springer.com)
  • Invariant chain peptides in most HLA-DR molecules of an antigen-processing mutant. (springer.com)
  • Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate a carbohydrate antigen processing system analogous to that used for peptides and an ability of T cells to recognize processed fragments of complex glycolipids. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs to CD8 T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by DCs requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigens by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that usually present endogenous cytoplasmic antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • There are two types of MHC molecules which differ in the behaviour of the antigens: MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) bind peptides from the cell cytosol, while peptides generated in the endocytic vesicles after internalisation are bound to MHC class II (MHC-II). (wikipedia.org)
  • This antigen presentation pathway enables the immune system to detect transformed or infected cells displaying peptides from modified-self (mutated) or foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presentation process, these proteins are mainly degraded into small peptides by cytosolic proteases in the proteasome, but there are also other cytoplasmic proteolytic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, peptides are distributed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the action of heat shock proteins and the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) which translocates the cytosolic peptides into the ER lumen in an ATP-dependent transport mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that trophoblasts are able to provide antigenic peptides for presentation by nonclassical MHC class I molecules that are naturally expressed by this cell type. (jimmunol.org)
  • TAP-deficient cells lack peptide transport, which results in a reduced supply of peptides for binding to MHC class I antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, DC presentation of peptides in a favorable costimulatory protein environment is required to subsequently activate T cells and appears to be a critical target for the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. (asm.org)
  • A foreign antigen is first degraded into short peptides by antigen-processing cells(APCs). (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Variation in the mechanisms that mediate antigen processing, MHC-loading, and presentation of peptides allows cells to significantly modulate the repertoire of peptides presented by both MHC class I or class II. (fluidigm.com)
  • Proteomics-based comprehensive cataloging of peptides eluted from MHC is a challenging but ideal way of identifying peptide sequences influenced by variable modes of processing and presentation. (fluidigm.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) presents antigenic peptides to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs). (lu.se)
  • Antigen processing machinery (APM) proteins are involved in the maturation of HLA-I and in the selection of which peptides are - or are not - presented. (lu.se)
  • infection on MHC Class I self-antigen presentation by enhancing presentation of peptides derived from defective ribosomal products (DRiPs). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The La-dependent presence of naturally processed antigenic peptides also in nonpresenting cells located the inhibitory function subsequent to the step of antigen processing. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • An abundant protein has a higher chance of yielding peptides available for presentation. (who.int)
  • In intracellular eukaryotic parasites like Trypanosoma cruzi , proteins that are secreted may be a major source of peptides for the MHC class I presentation pathway (3). (who.int)
  • Cleavage site-specific proteases and transporter proteins involved in the processing of protein antigens into peptides also seem to play a role in the selection of antigenic peptides. (who.int)
  • DCs process antigens into small peptides consisting of 13-18 amino acids and HLA class II molecules are loaded with these peptides within endosomes and subsequently transported to the plasma membrane of DCs. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Normal presentation of endogenous antigens and cross-presentation of exogenous antigens requires that proteins are degraded to small 8-10 amino acid peptides by the proteosome. (fredhutch.org)
  • T cell lymphocytes express on their surface the T cell receptor (TCR), which allows the recognition of cellular (self) or microbial (non-self) antigens that are processed and presented as peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by antigen presenting cells (APC). (bio-protocol.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the presence of specific gp120/V3 peptides during antigen presentation can modify the activation of normal T-cells leading to altered immune function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zhang X, Zhang Y, Xu J, Wang H, Zheng X, Lou Y, Han B. Antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B lymphocytes enhances the killing effect of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on tumor stem-like cells derived from cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. (jcancer.org)
  • The present study investigated whether antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B lymphocytes can enhance the killing effect of CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on lung stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs). (jcancer.org)
  • The CTLs were generated using an accelerated co-cultured dendritic cells (DC) (acDC) assay by incubating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small-cell lung cancer patients with antigen peptides of Oct4 and Sox2 in the presence of several DC-activating agents. (jcancer.org)
  • Activated B cells were co-cultured with CTLs to present antigen peptides of Oct4 and Sox2. (jcancer.org)
  • Antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B cells can enhance the killing effect of CTLs towards lung SLCCs. (jcancer.org)
  • Antigen-specific receptors on T lymphocytes recognize antigen only after it has been processed into small fragments or peptides, and presented on the cell surface bound in the peptide-binding cleft of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • The peptides presented can be generated from protein antigens via a number of pathways in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Peptides can be produced from antigens expressed within a virus-infected APC, when presentation is termed direct-priming. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternatively, peptides can be produced from proteins that are transferred from other cells to APC prior to presentation, a process known as cross-priming. (elsevier.com)
  • They are very efficient at internalizing antigens, either by phagocytosis (e.g. macrophages), or by receptor-mediated endocytosis (B cells), processing the antigen into peptide fragments and then displaying those peptides (bound to a class II MHC molecule) on their membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. (nature.com)
  • Antigen presentation in dendritic cells is finely regulated: antigen uptake, intracellular transport and degradation, and the traffic of MHC molecules are different in dendritic cells as compared to other antigen-presenting cells. (nih.gov)
  • Yet, endocytosis or phagocytosis of extracellular antigens by antigen uptake receptors is processed primarily by APCs via the exogenous endosomal/lysosomal pathway, which ultimately delivers peptide onto surface MHC class II but not MHC class I molecules. (jci.org)
  • An essential role for HLA-DM in antigen presentation by class II major histocompatibility molecules. (springer.com)
  • The extracellular domains of MHC class II molecules determine their processing requirements for antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this context, the physiological significance and the functional consequences of antigen presentation by B7-deficient parenchymal cells, which express MHC class II molecules as a result of inflammation, remains a matter of debate. (nih.gov)
  • and identification of class II-like molecules involved in class II antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Accumulated evidence indicates that many key molecules involved in antigen processing, such as TAP (transporter associated in antigen processing), immunoproteasome subunits, tapasin, and DO/DM molecules, are encoded in the MHC region. (springer.com)
  • They also discuss that the nature of immunopeptidomes presented by MHC class II molecules is influenced by the type of antigen-presenting cells, their maturation state, and environmental conditions such as inflammation. (springer.com)
  • If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens generated endogenously within these cells are bound to MHC-I molecules and presented on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cross-presentation is a special case in which MHC-I molecules are able to present extracellular antigens, usually displayed only by MHC-II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens from the extracellular space and sometimes also endogenous ones, are enclosed into endocytic vesicles and presented on the cell surface by MHC-II molecules to the helper T cells expressing CD4 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only APCs such as dendritic cells, B cells or macrophages express MHC-II molecules on their surface in substantial quantity, so expression of MHC-II molecules is more cell-specific than MHC-I.[citation needed] APCs usually internalise exogenous antigens by endocytosis, but also by pinocytosis, macroautophagy, endosomal microautophagy or chaperone-mediated autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules. (rupress.org)
  • In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to present three different virus-derived epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) despite expressing the correct restricting HLA-B27 molecules on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by otherwise normal B2702 molecules in this family. (rupress.org)
  • From these observations, it can be inferred that the TAP complex and other molecules involved in Ag processing and presentation by MHC class I molecules are functionally active in these trophoblast-derived cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was examined by use of a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the E19 glycoprotein from adenovirus. (sciencemag.org)
  • This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis, not the level of class I cell surface expression, and (ii) association of class I molecules with antigen is likely to occur within the endoplasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. (dovepress.com)
  • This targeted-nanoparticle facilitates presentation of the H250 peptide in major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. (sri.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules present a variety of posttranslationally modified epitopes at the cell surface, although the consequences of such presentation remain largely unclear. (rcsb.org)
  • Antigen presentation to T cells is mediated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via two classes of HLA molecules: HLA Class I, recognized by CD8 + -expressing T cells (Class I is present on nearly all nucleated cells), and HLA Class II, recognized by CD4 + -expressing T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To activate T cells, fragments of molecules that provoke an immune response-called antigens-must be bound to a 'major histocompatibility complex' (MHC) and presented to these cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Other previous work has identified chlamydial antigens displayed in MHC Class I molecules. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We hypothesize that enhancing self-antigen presentation is a novel immune evasion strategy by which Chlamyidae saturate MHC Class I molecules with self-antigen and therefore decrease the likelihood that chlamydial antigens are presented. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Background In donor kidneys subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplant, phagocytes coexpressing the F4/80 and CD11c molecules mediate proinflammatory responses and trigger adaptive immunity in transplantation through antigen presentation. (asnjournals.org)
  • At this site DCs present HIV-1 derived antigen on MHC class I and II molecules and trigger an HIV-1 specific T cell response. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the discovery of MHC-class-I-like CD1 antigen-presentation molecules now explains how the immune system also recognizes the abundant and diverse universe of lipid-containing antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The CD1 molecules bind and present amphipathic lipid antigens for recognition by T-cell receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells digest intracellular and extracellular proteins and display the resulting antigenic repertoire on cell surface molecules for recognition by T cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • To further examine the role of DM in class II-restricted antigen presentation, we asked if this defect would equally affect different allelic and species variants of class II molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of naturally processed antigen bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Davidson HW, Reid PA, Lanzavecchia A, Watts C. Processed antigen binds to newly synthesized MHC class II molecules in antigen-specific B lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Creative Biolabs provides SIAT® antigen presentation assay service to identify potential epitopes from biotherapeutic drugs in complex with HLA molecules by mass spectrometry. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The SIAT® antigen presentation assay can be used to measure antigen processing and presentation, which can directly identify the epitopes of a protein antigen that are bound to HLA molecules and displayed to T cells by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Antigen recognition by immune effector cells requires APCs, such as dendritic cells (DCs), to present the epitopes with human leukocyte antigen (HLA, also known as major histocompatibility complex, MHC) class II molecules on the cell surface. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Indeed, TLR signals specifically from phagosomes containing microbial pathogens favor the presentation of non-self-antigens within MHC-II molecules. (bio-protocol.org)
  • What is the antigen processing machinery used by tumor cells to process and present melanoma-associated antigens via class II molecules to CD4+ T cells? (osumicrobiology.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the agents that both induce and inhibit class II MHC expression, the function of class II MHC antigens with an emphasis on the ability of these proteins to act as signal transducing molecules, and the molecular regulation of class II MHC expression. (begellhouse.com)
  • In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a dendritic cell's pattern-recognition receptors recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antigen is phagocytosed and the dendritic cell becomes activated, upregulating the expression of MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that drive the various phases of MHC class II-dependent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thyroiditis, are not fully identified. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, ideally, antigenic processing of tumor antigenic targets by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) should access both the MHC class I and MHC class II pathways. (jci.org)
  • The encapsulation of recombinant proteins in biocompatible and biodegradable nano- and microparticles is emerging as a promising approach to boost their immunogenicity by passively targeting them to antigen presenting cells (APCs) [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By mimicking pathogen dimensions, microparticles are more prone to be phagocyted by APCs than soluble antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (harvard.edu)
  • They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8 + T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8 + T-cells remain to be elucidated. (dovepress.com)
  • Further investigation revealed that CTL activity could be restored partly with additions of IL-2 and fully by coimmunization with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression plasmids, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be a critical target of ethanol's action to promote impaired CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming ( 6 , 9 , 10 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that, beyond their neurotoxic effects, certain oligomeric Aβ forms can act as immunomodulatory agents on cerebral APCs and interfere with brain antigen presentation. (uzh.ch)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells, express MHC class I and class II and efficiently process both extracellular and intracellular antigens to activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and CD4+ helper T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • In response, APCs have evolved mechanisms to efficiently uptake antigens released from infected or tumor cells and cross-present these antigens to CD8+ T-cells via MHC-I. (fredhutch.org)
  • A new study by postdoctoral fellow Dr Jodie Goodridge and colleagues in the laboratory of Dr. Dan Geraghty (Clinical Research Division) have uncovered a novel mechanism of how non-professional APCs can load extracellular antigens onto MHC-I and activate an immune response. (fredhutch.org)
  • In the current study, the researchers asked if HLA-F helped load exogenous antigens to MHC-I for cross-presentation from activated lymphocytes and monocytes, both non-professional APCs that express HLA-F upon activation. (fredhutch.org)
  • Importantly, this pathway did not require the proteins TAP or tapasin as required for cross-presentation in most professional APCs. (fredhutch.org)
  • Cross-presentation, which is crucial for the generation of immunity against virus-infected and tumor cells, requires exogenous antigens to be internalized into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) followed by translocation to the cytosol by unknown mechanisms. (ovid.com)
  • We here describe that cholesterol is essential for cross-presentation of antigens loaded via macropinocytosis into APCs. (ovid.com)
  • APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the term "antigen-presenting cell" is often used specifically to describe professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professional APCs specialize in presenting antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (nature.com)
  • Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. (nature.com)
  • The antigen-presenting cells that initiate and maintain MHC class II-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (pnas.org)
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because they must degrade protein antigens to perform their function. (sciencemag.org)
  • now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor exceptionally low concentrations of lysosomal proteases when these levels are compared with those of macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, facilitating their dissemination to and survival in secondary lymphoid organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4 + T cells in human melanoma. (nature.com)
  • We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. J ger). (dkfz.de)
  • Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and become competent to present antigens to T lymphocytes, thus initiating antigen-specific immune responses, or immunological tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen uptake receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) provide efficient entry for the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. (jci.org)
  • Previous efforts to exploit this cross-presentation pathway enabling access of extracellular antigens to the endogenous pathway have focused on DC phagocytosis of dying cells. (jci.org)
  • ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy. (nih.gov)
  • These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. (springer.com)
  • Fling SP, Arp B, Pious D. HLA-DMA and -DMB genes are both required for MHC class II/peptide complex formation in antigen-presenting cells. (springer.com)
  • Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells. (springer.com)
  • A major programme of work is to study the impact of different commensal/probiotic bacteria on the functioning of antigen presenting cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance? (nih.gov)
  • In this paper we have attempted to critically review the often conflicting reports on the functional effects of antigen presentation by epithelial and endothelial cells to T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Our own findings are summarised in a model which is consistent with the suggestion of an important role for antigen presentation by parenchymal cells in the induction and the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show cross-presentation of islet-derived autoantigens by B cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • The most powerful antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs), which bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are capable of initiating a primary immune response by activating naïve T cells [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyglutamine-Related Aggregates Can Serve as a Potent Antigen Source for Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Display of Native Antigen on cDC1 That Have Spatial Access to Both T and B Cells Underlies Efficient Humoral Vaccination. (harvard.edu)
  • Latency reversal agents modulate HIV antigen processing and presentation to CD8 T cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Because T cells recognize only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen fragment, now bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists ("phosphoantigens") and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8 + αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigen presentation assays using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) showed that PASD1 could stimulate autologous T-cell responses, suggesting that PASD1 could be a promising target for future immunotherapy clinical trials. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8 + T-cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Although lymphoid dendritic cells (DC) are thought to play an essential role in T cell activation, the initial physical interaction between antigen-bearing DC and antigen-specific T cells has never been directly observed in vivo under conditions where the specificity of the responding T cells for the relevant antigen could be unambiguously assessed. (rupress.org)
  • These results demonstrate that antigen-bearing DC directly interact with naive antigen-specific T cells within the T cell-rich regions of lymph nodes. (rupress.org)
  • However, because methodologies did not exist for in situ detection of the few T cells specific for any given peptide- MHC complex in unimmunized individuals, it has not been possible to definitively demonstrate interactions between naive, peptide antigen-specific T cells and antigen-bearing dendritic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We used this system here, to characterize interactions between peptide-MHC-bearing DC and naive antigen-specific CD4 + T cells during in vivo immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • To better define the immunological mechanisms underlying HLA-B*27-mediated protection in HCV infection, we analyzed the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy and naïve precursor frequency of CD8+ T cells targeting the immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope as well as its antigen processing and presentation. (doaj.org)
  • This efficient proteasomal processing that could be blocked by proteasome inhibitors was highly dependent on the hydrophobic regions flanking the epitope and led to rapid and abundant presentation of the epitope on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. (doaj.org)
  • In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). (osti.gov)
  • The researchers have devolved an assay to monitor the effect of Methyldopa on the presentation of the DQ8 antigen through the isolation of specific cells found in the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human CD4\(^+\) T cells process and present functional class II MHC-peptide complexes, but the endogenous peptide repertoire of these non-classical antigen presenting cells remains unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • The lack of transporter-for-antigen-presentation (TAP)-1 expression by tumor cells prevents the processing and presentation of MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mixed tumor/lymphocyte culture, TAP1 expression by tumor cells significantly increased the IFN-γ production of antigen-specific spleen cells from immunized, but not from naive, mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The priming phase includes the processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in cancer cells. (sri.com)
  • Treatment with this system facilitates activation of a secondary immune response against cancer cells, bypassing the need to identify tumor-associated antigens or educate the immune system through a primary immune response. (sri.com)
  • The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cells to eliminate infected or tumoral cells. (embo.org)
  • Furthermore, the success of cancer immunotherapy, which in the past couple of years is dramatically changing the clinical expectations of cancer patients, is deeply rooted in how antigens are presented by cancer cells to T lymphocytes. (embo.org)
  • Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells Display Phagocytic and Antigen-Presenting Functions to Contribute to Intraperitoneal Immunity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Beta cells transfer vesicles containing insulin to phagocytes for presentation to T cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • We observed that ethanol not only suppressed allogeneic peptide presentation to T cells by DCs but also altered presentation of exogenous ovalbumin (OVA) peptide 323-339 to an OVA-specific DO11 T-cell line as well as to OVA-sensitized primary T cells. (asm.org)
  • The activation of cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses requires antigen presentation by professional antigen presenting cells. (queensu.ca)
  • We also addressed the capacity of diverse LCMV antigens, generated during virus infection, to induce LCMV-specific CTL responses via cross-presentation by employing antigen donor cells (ADCs) that provide sufficient LCMV antigens after virus inactivation with no possible direct antigen presentation. (queensu.ca)
  • These β-cells also expressed mRNA for Class II and Class II antigen presentation pathway components, but lacked the macrophage marker CD68. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effects of glycation of the model food allergen ovalbumin on antigen uptake and presentation by human dendritic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • More importantly, the specific cellular pathway by which dendritic cells (DCs) endocytosed these NPs and the relationship among guanidyl with the antigen cross-presentation, cytokine secretion, and lymph node targeting still remain unclear. (rsc.org)
  • Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DCs are specialized for antigen acquisition (by direct infection or uptake from neighboring cells), transport, processing, and MHC class I-restricted presentation of antigen to CTL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This impairment of antigen processing and presentation by corticosterone was also observed in non-immune cells, suggesting that stress may affect essential cellular protein management functions in all cells, and having possible implications for neurological or other diseases that may result from aberrant protein processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PR3 surface presentation on neutrophilic granulocytes, the main effector cells, is pathogenically important. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • MHC-II self-antigen presentation by lymph node stromal cells allowed the non-proliferative maintenance of antigen-specific Tregs and constrained antigen-specific immunity. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to these broad mechanisms that control the entire lymphocyte pool, lymph node stromal cells were also found to influence lymphocytes in a cognate antigen-dependent manner. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) of exogenous antigens on MHC class I is important for the generation of immune responses to intracellular pathogens, as well as for maintenance of self tolerance. (uzh.ch)
  • Using a recombinant vaccinia virus to transiently express the EBV nuclear antigens, we studied the antigen-processing efficiency of NPC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that, in contrast to cells from another EBV-associated malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma, NPC cells display normal antigen-processing function and are efficiently recognized by HLA class I-restricted, virus-specific CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies also provide a rationale for focusing on strategies designed to activate CTLs specific for EBV antigens that are expressed in NPC cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • s to present antigen to T cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, taking advantage of customized in vitro systems and RNAseq, we demonstrate that a preparation containing various forms of oligomeric Aβ1-42 inhibits antigen presentation by altering the transcription of key immune mediators in dendritic cells. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. (jci.org)
  • Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. (elifesciences.org)
  • MHC Class I antigen presentation is the adaptive immune system's answer to this problem by displaying both host and parasitic antigens, if present, to other cells such as CD8⁺ cytotoxic T cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Early analysis of this initial data revealed a strong cell-mediated immune response, with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for both the gag and env antigens encoded by the prime and boost agents. (biomedreports.com)
  • The regulation of antigen processing and presentation to MHC class I-restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes was studied in cells infected with murine cytomegalovirus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Further studies will determine whether the expressed antigen-presentation machinery enables LGAC to function as antigen-presenting cells in disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although macrophages from a donor kidney could also guide adaptive immune responses against renal tissue by virtue of their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells, data are lacking on whether donor-derived renal macrophages can function in this manner after being subjected to transplant-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • No data are currently available regarding the effects of transplant-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury on the ability of donor-derived resident renal macrophages to act as professional antigen-presenting cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusions IL-1R8 is a key regulator of donor renal macrophage functions after ischemia-reperfusion injury, crucial to guiding the phenotype and antigen-presenting role of these cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Virus-specific antigen presentation by different subsets of cells from lung and mediastinal lymph node tissues of influenza virus-infected mice. (asm.org)
  • Immune responses at mucosal sites are thought to be initiated in the draining lymph nodes, where dendritic cells present viral antigens and induce naive T cells to proliferate and to become effectors. (asm.org)
  • Formal proof that antigen-presenting cells (APC) do indeed localize to the regional lymph nodes has been lacking for viral infections of the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • All APC populations from lungs and MLN contained virus and thus had the potential to present antigen to CD8+ T cells. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that dendritic cells and macrophages are antigen positive in mice acutely infected with an influenza A virus and that dendritic cells are probably responsible for initiating the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to influenza virus in the draining lymph nodes. (asm.org)
  • cd8 t cells are blank t cells and kill cells that present antigens. (brainscape.com)
  • Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells and the pathophysiological implications of self-lipid antigen recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of age and Rhodococcus equi infection on CD1 expression by equine antigen presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Non-conventional T cell populations also exist that express TcRs with semi-invariant α-chains: MAIT (mucosal-associated invariant T) cells recognize antigens bound to the class Ib MHC molecule MR1, and iNKT (invariant natural killer T) cells respond to lipids and glycolipid antigens bound to CD1D. (prolekare.cz)
  • In agreement with this, Tmem176b[−/−] ATDCs specifically failed to cross-present male antigens or ovalbumin to CD8+ T cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Interestingly, both FcRIIB1 and FcRIIB2 isoforms of FcRII were able to restore antibody enhanced presentation in IIA1.6 cells but only if the cytoplasmic tails were intact. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, these studies also revealed that the antigen presentation defect observed for DR in the 9.5.3 cells did not compromise I-Ad-restricted antigen presentation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Decrease in macrophage antigen catabolism caused by ammonia and chloroquine is associated with inhibition of antigen presentation to T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • West MA, Lucocq JM, Watts C. Antigen processing and class II MHC peptide-loading compartments in human B-lymphoblastoid cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, the immunobiology of antigen recognition by T cells must be taken into account when designing new generation peptide- or gene-based vaccines. (who.int)
  • A large number of factors influence dominance and crypticity of peptide epitopes, basically availability for MHC binding, MHC binding itself, and the recognition of the MHC:peptide complex by T cells via their antigen receptors (1). (who.int)
  • While peptide vaccines may bind directly to the MHC, recombinant vaccines must undergo proteolytic processing through the MHC class II pathway in endosomal vesicles, and expression products of DNA vaccines enter both the cytoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum MHC class I pathway and can also be uptaken by professional antigen-presenting cells (2). (who.int)
  • The steps involved in antigen presentation and recognition by T cells that may influence the selection of antigenic protective epitopes from whole proteins will be reviewed. (who.int)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells process intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks after immunization-a remarkable finding since irradiated sporozoites are incapable of replication and do not differentiate beyond early liver stages. (prolekare.cz)
  • Persisting antigen was detected in lymphoid organs and depends on the presence of CD11c+ cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Firstly, reducing the time primed CD8+ T cells were exposed to antigen in vivo severely reduced the final size of the developing memory population. (prolekare.cz)
  • Finally, persisting antigen was able to prime naïve cells, including recent thymic emigrants, to become functional effector cells capable of eliminating parasites in the liver. (prolekare.cz)
  • Following initial antigen exposure CD8+ T cells expand into effector cells before forming a numerically stable memory population, a process that has been characterized as T cells on "autopilot" [9] . (prolekare.cz)
  • In the longer term, persisting antigen during chronic viral infection is often considered detrimental to T cell immunity as over-stimulated T cells may become exhausted and lose effector function [10] , [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • HLA-F binds and stabilizes open conformers of MHC-I on the cell surface and helps load exogenous antigens for cross-presentation to activate T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • The ability of the immune system to recognize and control tumor cells and pathogens depends on the processing and presentation of antigens. (fredhutch.org)
  • Both viruses and tumor cells have evolved immune evasion strategies that prevent MHC-I peptide presentation directly from affected cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • The researchers then examined if the activated B-cells could cross-present viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Indeed, exogenously added antigen activated cytotoxic T-cells to specifically lyse the B-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Presentation of antigens and activation of T-cells was blocked with brefeldin A, a drug that disrupts the Golgi compartment, confirming direct processing of longer antigens to short peptide epitopes through internalization. (fredhutch.org)
  • Interference with the surface expression of HLA-F and MHC-I OC with short hairpin RNA constructs blocked the processing and cross-presentation of exogenous viral antigens to activate T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • This same pathway was evident in activated cytotoxic T-cells that also express HLA-F, suggesting they can self-stimulate and cross-present antigens in inflammatory conditions. (fredhutch.org)
  • Antigen presenting cells (APC) are able to process and present to T cells antigens from different origins. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here, I detail a protocol designed to assess in vitro the capacity of APC to present antigens derived from bacteria, apoptotic and infected apoptotic cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • APC are able to process antigens and to present them to T cells, and MHC-TCR interactions are critical steps for T cell activation during both infectious and autoimmune responses. (bio-protocol.org)
  • On the other hand, self-antigens generated after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells are directed to lysosomal degradation because of the absence of TLR stimuli. (bio-protocol.org)
  • However, the segregation of self and non-self-antigens does not occur when both derive from infected apoptotic cells and are simultaneously carried by the same phagosome, which is optimally tailored by TLR signals for antigen presentation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • I developed an in vitro alternative protocol where A20 cells are directly infected by the cell invasive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes expressing a recombinant antigen, allowing to assess the capacity of BMDC to present self and non-self-antigens derived from the same infected apoptotic cargo (Campisi et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to map the specific transcriptional profile invoked by an HIV-1/V3 epitope in uninfected T cells during antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An effective vaccine must stimulate coordinated T cell responses, but the large size of the genome and the low frequency of HSV-1-specific T cells have hampered the search for the most effective T cell antigens for inclusion in a candidate vaccine. (eur.nl)
  • We used cross-presentation and CD137 activation-based FACS to enrich for polyclonal CD8+T effector T cells. (eur.nl)
  • In this era of microbial genomics, our methods - also demonstrated in principle for vaccinia virus for both CD8+and CD4+T cells - should be broadly applicable to the selection of T cell antigens for inclusion in candidate vaccines for many pathogens. (eur.nl)
  • To eliminate infected or transformed cells, the immune system must be capable of specifically recognizing antigen. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • LAMP-2A is required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), which promotes Ag capture and MHC class II (MHCII) presentation in B cells and signaling in T cells. (iupui.edu)
  • To examine LAMP-2C function in human B cells and specifically its role in Ag presentation, we used ectopic gene expression. (iupui.edu)
  • Increased LAMP-2C expression in B cells did not alter MHCII expression or invariant chain processing, but did perturb cytoplasmic Ag presentation via CMA. (iupui.edu)
  • MHCII presentation of epitopes from exogenous and membrane Ags was not affected by LAMP-2C expression in B cells. (iupui.edu)
  • Autophagy links antimicrobial activity with antigen presentation in Langerhans cells. (escholarship.org)
  • Autophagy enhanced the ability of M. leprae-infected LC to present antigen to CD1a-restricted T cells. (escholarship.org)
  • These data indicate that autophagy links the ability of DC to kill and degrade an invading pathogen, ensuring cell survival from the infection while facilitating presentation of microbial antigens to resident T cells. (escholarship.org)
  • Peptide length extension skews the minor HA-1 antigen presentation toward activated dendritic cells but reduces its presentation efficiency. (semanticscholar.org)
  • now use an in vivo human skin challenge model to show that ILC2 express CD1a, which is regulated by TSLP, and that CD1a + ILC2 can present endogenous lipid antigens to CD1a-reactive T cells and induce inflammatory responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Naive CD8+ T cells differentiate into effector cells only after recognition of peptide-MHC Class I complexes on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). (elsevier.com)
  • To examine this issue we will use recombinant viruses to express multiple protein antigens and will analyze antigen presentation to naive and effector CD8+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Delineation of the mechanisms governing the use of different antigen presentation pathways in vivo will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines and immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at induction of protective CD8+ T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the local presentation of MHC class I-restricted antigen expressed in photoreceptor cells (PC) and/or astrocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) purified from B10.A mice were inoculated into the anterior chamber of the eye at the time of T cell transfer to assess local antigen presentation. (arvojournals.org)
  • In GFAP-b-gal mice, antigen-specific T cells attacked the retinal astrocytes, optic nerve, and tissues of the anterior segment that expressed b-gal. (arvojournals.org)
  • The constitutive expression of class II MHC antigens is restricted primarily to B cells, dendritic cells, thymic epithelium, and macrophages, although a wide variety of other cell types can be induced to express class II antigens after exposure to cytokines. (begellhouse.com)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells fall into two categories: professional and non-professional. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells cannot recognize (and therefore cannot respond to) "free" or soluble antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation and are necessary for activation of naive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCs present antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-presentation allows for the activation of these T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immature dendritic cells are ineffective at presenting antigen to T helper cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. (nature.com)
  • The delivery system consists of a stealth liposome displaying a cancer-specific targeting peptide, named H1299.3, on its exterior surface and encapsulating H250, an immunogenic human leukocyte antigen class 1 restricted peptide. (sri.com)
  • Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism to facilitate presentation. (sri.com)
  • In addition, the phosphoamino acid stabilized the HLA peptide complex in an epitope-specific manner and was observed to exhibit discrete flexibility within the antigen-binding cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Antigen processing and peptide-MHCII complexes were evaluated by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to MHCII presentation, cross-presentation of exogenous OVA peptide via MHCI by DCs remained intact. (asm.org)
  • Ethanol inhibits exogenous and allogeneic antigen presentation and affects the formation of peptide-MHCII complexes, as well as altering costimulatory molecule expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Selective expression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule L a of a peptide derived from MCMV IE protein pp89 (Reddehase, M. J., J. B. Rothbard, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Since most immune responses against protein and peptide antigens are T-cell dependent, the molecular target of such vaccines is to generate at least 50-100 complexes between MHC molecule and the antigenic peptide per antigen-presenting cell, sensitizing a T cell population of appropriate clonal size and effector characteristics. (who.int)
  • Several factors influence the availability of a given peptide sequence for processing and presentation, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels. (who.int)
  • Superior induction of anti-tumor CTL immunity by extended peptide vaccines involves prolonged, DC-focused antigen presentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peptide Vaccine Formulation Controls the Duration of Antigen Presentation and Magnitude of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Libraries built with SABRs can screen thousands of epitopes for the discovery of T cell target antigens. (nature.com)
  • While the immunological and virological features of HLA-B*27-mediated protection are not fully understood, there is growing evidence that the presentation of specific immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes contributes to this phenomenon in both infections. (doaj.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms of lipid antigens processing: functional and structural studies of CD1e, definition of the repertoire of lipid-derived epitopes, characterization of lysosomal enzymatic activities involved in the generation of lipid epitopes. (ipbs.fr)
  • responses via cross-presentation, and characterized how different epitopes from LCMV are cross presented in vitro and in vivo. (queensu.ca)
  • To more quickly determine how these different modes or modulations of presentation translate into altered immune responses, higher throughput methods for identifying T cell epitopes are needed. (fluidigm.com)
  • One mAb, 10G5, induced strikingly enhanced presentation of T cell determinants located in the N-terminal region of TTCF while other antibodies inhibited presentation of these and other epitopes. (soton.ac.uk)
  • SIAT® antigen presentation assay service from Creative Biolabs is able to deliver this information about TCR epitopes through interpretation of what DCs naturally says. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The functional relevance of the TCR epitopes identified by SIAT® antigen presentation assay can be confirmed by various other services of the SIAT® platform including in silico , in vitro, ex vivo , in vivo immunogenicity assessments. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • We have shown previously that antigen presentation can be deregulated by the presence of V3 epitopes on the surface of macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) inhibits the presentation of certain epitopes from influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP), haemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) by an unknown mechanism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cytotoxicity assays showed that deletion of the VV serpin genes B13R and B22R and other genes between B13R and B24R did not increase the level of lysis, indicating that these genes are not involved in inhibition of antigen presentation of the epitopes tested. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus the cross-presentation pathway accessed by antigens acquired endocytically through Fc receptors links humoral and cellular immunity. (jci.org)
  • Schuurhuis ( 13 ) has shown that this pathway can induce antigen-specific CD8 responses in vivo, but the physiological relevance and potency of this pathway in effector immunity, including tumor immunity, have not yet been demonstrated. (jci.org)
  • A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region controlling the class I antigen presentation pathway. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on this development, Jurewicz and Stern ( 2018 ) review recent progress in our understanding of the MHC class II antigen processing and presentation pathway, focusing on HLA-DM and HLA-DO and their role in shaping the MHC class II immunopeptidome. (springer.com)
  • There are three compartments involved in this antigen presentation pathway: early endosomes, late endosomes or endolysosomes and lysosomes, where antigens are hydrolized by lysosome-associated enzymes (acid-dependent hydrolases, glycosidases, proteases, lipases). (wikipedia.org)
  • article{osti_1282176, title = {Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway}, author = {Tooker, Brian C. and Brindley, Stephen M. and Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L. and Turteltaub, Kenneth W. and Newman, Lee S.}, abstractNote = {We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). (osti.gov)
  • Mechanistically, we defined the cytosolic pathway as the dominant cross-presentation pathway used by Sp-MØ. (queensu.ca)
  • This minireview provides an overview of the components of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway and describes our recent published work on the effects of corticosterone on this process in virally infected DCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through gene ontology and pathway analyses, we identified a significant reduction in expression of immune-response-related genes, especially on the antigen presentation pathway, in high-risk ovarian cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antigenic repertoire is generated by the antigen processing and presentation pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • Tetanus toxin has been a valuable model antigen to study the MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway and is also frequently used to provide T helper determinants in vaccine formulations. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Defective processing and presentation of exogenous antigens in mutants with normal HLA class II genes. (springer.com)
  • The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. (harvard.edu)
  • Recognition by cytolytic T lymphocytes of the phosphoprotein pp89, the immunodominant viral antigen expressed in the immediate-early phase of infection, was selectively prevented during the subsequent expression of viral early genes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Here, we combine a neoantigen prediction pipeline and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) peptidomics to identify TAAs and neoantigens in 16 tumors derived from seven patients with melanoma and characterize their interactions with their tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccinia virus serpins B13R and B22R do not inhibit antigen presentation to class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The class II genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode the α/β heterodimeric glycoproteins that play a critical role in the induction of immune responses through presentation of processed antigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes. (begellhouse.com)
  • Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its cognate T cell, allows the identification of neoepitopes targeted by T cell receptors with high sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Recent observations with in vitro systems ( 10 - 12 ) suggest that uptake of antigen through Fc receptors (FcγRs) may represent an alternative method for cross-presentation. (jci.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interplay between the virus and the DCs is complex and the initial receptor binding may affect antigen uptake, infection, and antigen presentation. (diva-portal.org)
  • DC, through the uptake, processing, and presentation of antigen, are responsible for activation of T cell responses to defend the host against infection, yet it is not known if they can directly kill invading bacteria. (escholarship.org)
  • Ishido and Kajikawa ( 2018 ) summarized recent progress in the study of March family proteins, which ubiquitinate MHC class II and regulate MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • E19 blocked the presentation of vaccinia and influenza virus proteins to CTLs in a MHC class I allele-specific manner identical to its inhibition of MHC class I transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • 11 ⇓ - 13 EBV modulates cellular antiviral responses in various ways, including down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins 14 and blocking proteasomal degradation and antigen synthesis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As a result of examining the antigen presentation of Sp-MØ during differentiation, we reported that Sp-MØ down-regulated their ability to cross-present the cell-associated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein (LCMV-NP) but not the soluble OVA proteins without altering their capacity to directly present LCMV antigens after infection. (queensu.ca)
  • These findings support our hypothesis that increased IFN-γ level can promote increased expression and activity of CTSS and other proteins involved in antigen presentation, and reduce Rab3D expression, changes seen in murine models of SS and/or in SS patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging from the use of live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, vector vaccines and protein vaccines to RNA or DNA vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • B-cell cross-presentation of insulin required proteolytic cleavage and endosomal localization and was sensitive to inhibitors of protein trafficking. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Eight antigens were solely recognised by patient sera including the recently described CT antigen, PASD1, and the cancer-related SSX2 interacting protein, SSX2IP. (uniprot.org)
  • Our study provides insights into the action of guanidyl-decorated nanoscale adjuvants and new adjuvants for vaccines containing protein antigens. (rsc.org)
  • Recently several cell lines have been identified with mutations in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked protein that lead to defects in class II-restricted antigen presentation and a defect in the formation of class II SDS-stable dimers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our underlying hypothesis is that alteration in protein expression can, and does, direct in vivo antigen presentation into direct or cross-priming pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Tapasin and human leukocyte antigen class I dysregulation correlates with survival in glioblastoma multiforme. (lu.se)
  • This study has profound significance in clarifying the downregulation of human leukocyte antigen class I antigen presentation machinery that characterizes high-risk ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Every immunology student should read these two reviews in order to appreciate the creative experiments behind the textbook figures that focus on antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that targeting of antigen to Fc receptors on DCs accomplishes combined activation of Th1 CD4 and CD8 effector responses in vivo, namely delayed-type hypersensitivity and tumor immunity. (jci.org)
  • However, a requirement for CD8 cellular cytotoxicity for the efficacy of an antitumor mAb ( 18 ) suggests that in addition to mediating ADCC, FcγR-mediated enhancement of antigen presentation may also contribute to tumor immunity. (jci.org)
  • Fundamental to this process is the recognition, processing, and presentation of antigenic agents that allows integration of the various branches of the innate and adaptive immune systems that cooperate to confer maximal protective immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together these data show that the optimal development of protective CD8+ T cell immunity against malaria liver stages is dependent upon the prolonged presentation of sporozoite-derived antigen. (prolekare.cz)
  • These results define cholesterol as an essential factor for cross-presentation and suggest that specific modification of antigens to increase their affinity for cholesterol may be utilized to enhance immunity. (ovid.com)
  • Antigen presentation allows for specificity of adaptive immunity and can contribute to immune responses against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process, essential for the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines, is called cross presentation, and DCs are the main antigen cross presenting and cross priming cell type in vivo [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • additionally antigen cross-presentation was improved both in vitro and in vivo . (rsc.org)
  • Cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved in MDSC-depleted or tumor-bearing MPO-KO mice. (jci.org)
  • These results show that the B cell isoform of FcRII (FcRIIB1) can mediate capture and presentation of some antigen/antibody complexes and might play a role in BCR-independent antigen presentation in vivo. (soton.ac.uk)
  • ln Aim 1 we will determine the effects of targeting viral antigen for expression in specific tissues on the pathways of antigen presentation used in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, by using a natural example of antigen shuttled into different antigen presentation pathways in vivo we will compare the efficiency of CD8+ T cell priming via direct or cross-priming to the amount of antigen made in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • All cell types express MHC class I (MHC-I) and can present processed intracellular antigens to stimulate cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell activation. (fredhutch.org)
  • These recombinant subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to trigger CTLs responses required to fend off life-threatening infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials. (dovepress.com)
  • Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. (nature.com)
  • The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (sciencemag.org)
  • This treatise is a must-read for all immunologists interested in how the field progressed glacially from studies of "histocompatibility" to the true function of MHC, providing a context for T cell recognition of foreign antigen. (springer.com)
  • Because recognition of several other antigens occurred during the early phase, a general failure in processing and presentation was excluded. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Since neither rate of synthesis, amount, stability, nor nuclear transport of pp89 was modified, the failure in recognition indicates a selective interference with pp89 antigen processing and presentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Because several pathogens evade immune recognition by hampering this process, genes involved in antigen processing and presentation may represent common natural selection targets. (prolekare.cz)
  • Cell mediated immune responses are initiated by the recognition of an MHC/antigen complex on the surface of an APC (antigen presenting cell) by a T cell receptor (TcR). (prolekare.cz)
  • Previous works have described a mechanism of regulation of antigen presentation based on the stimulation of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) (Blander and Medzhitov, 2004 and 2006). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Parallel CD137-based CD4+T cell research showed discrete oligospecific recognition of HSV-1 antigens. (eur.nl)
  • How do microbes (i.e., mycobacterium) modify or abrogate the antigen presentation pathways of the host to avoid immune recognition and attack? (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Antigen detection, which serves as the initiating event in this cascade, occurs via numerous mechanisms having varying levels of sensitivity and specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two heroes of the post-1986 era, John Trowsdale and Peter Cresswell, have written reviews detailing the seminal discoveries mentioned above leading to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)
  • We previously described that some mycobacterial glycolipid antigens must be processed, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. (ipbs.fr)
  • Mechanisms of pathogenesis have often been used to elucidate host molecular pathways such as herpesvirus and the MHC Class I and MHC Class II antigen presentation pathways. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The most statistically significant enriched categories and networks identified by IPA were associated with cell cycle, gene expression, immune response, infection mechanisms, cellular growth, proliferation and antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potential mechanisms of resistance include lack of expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), decreased capacity to present tumor antigens, and the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (springermedizin.de)
  • Participants are selected from registered applicants and are prioritized FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS first by scientific excellence and novelty (based on recent ongoing and just published contributions and on submitted abstract), and second to enrich the Workshop with student, female and early career scientists participation. (embo.org)
  • In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. (wur.nl)
  • Little is known about the role of class II-restricted antigen presentation in eliminating invading pathogens or tumors, and in resolution of disease, which is the current focus of my laboratory. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Genes in the MHC that may affect antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Transcription of genes involved in class I presentation is increased in KS and after infection of LECs, but MHC-I and ICAM-1 surface expression are down-regulated in KLECs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Subsequent expression of MCMV early genes prevents presentation of pp89 (del Val, M., K. Mfinch, M. J. Reddehase, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We report on the mechanism by which MCMV early genes interfere with antigen presentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To investigate this, we transfected the parent cell lines T1 and 8.1.6 and their respective antigen presentation mutants T2 and 9.5.3 with the genes encoding I-Ad and examined the derived transfectants for their ability to present antigen, the conformation of I-Ad at the cell surface, association of I-Ad with invariant chain (Ii), and the ability to form I-Ad SDS-stable dimers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mocetinostat upregulated PD - L1 and antigen presentation genes including class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family members in a panel of NSCLC cell lines in vitro. (springermedizin.de)
  • We leveraged a collection of 14 ICI-resistant lung cancer samples to investigate whether alterations in genes encoding HLA Class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) components or interferon signaling play a role in acquired resistance to PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonistic antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In Aim 2 we will examine differential antigen presentation as a mechanism for the reduced immunogenicity of virus genes expressed late in the virus life cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of the IE promoter-driven bacterial gene lacZ by recombinant MCMV subjected antigen presentation of B-galactosidase to the same control and excluded antigen specificity. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In DCs, DC-SIGN is not the only receptor involved, and redundant pathways of virus capture leading to antigen presentation likely coexist. (pasteur.fr)
  • Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are important mediators of alloresponses, but structural insights on antibody:HLA interaction are still lacking. (nature.com)
  • Antigen binding is the primary function of antibodies and can result in protection of the host. (slideserve.com)
  • Now Offering Over 102,157 Antibodies & 44,722 Antigens! (avivasysbio.com)
  • Characterization of the repertoire of mycobacterial lipid antigens involved in T cell responses. (ipbs.fr)
  • Recent advances in processing and presentation of CD1 bound lipid antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Engineered, bifunctional receptors present antigens and initiate signaling in response to binding to the cognate T cell receptor. (nature.com)
  • FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lipids are important antigens that induce T cell-mediated specific immune responses. (ipbs.fr)
  • ref. 22 ) can alter the immunosuppressive milieu and aid in the initiation of antigen-specific immune responses ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages (MØ) can regulate CTL responses but little is known about the role played by splenic macrophages (Sp-MØ) in antigen cross-presentation. (queensu.ca)
  • The authors demonstrate in mice that such injury is sufficient to dampen donor renal macrophages' ability to present antigens, skewing them toward a proreparative phenotype. (asnjournals.org)
  • Results Cold ischemia and reversible ischemia-reperfusion injury dampened antigen presentation by renal macrophages, skewed their polarization toward the M 2 phenotype, and increased surface expression of IL-1R8, diminishing activation mediated by toll-like receptor 4. (asnjournals.org)
  • This finding implied that depressed effector T-cell functions in the setting of chronic ethanol feeding may be due in part to intrinsic defects in antigen presentation capacity by DCs. (asm.org)
  • The requirement for antigen in the full development of effector and memory responses in different microbial systems is an area of controversy. (prolekare.cz)
  • Depending on the nature of the antigen, immunomodulation is required to create effective vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • Altogether, lipid antigen properties make them attractive for their use in subunit vaccines against Mtb. (ipbs.fr)
  • These findings provide insights into the mode of phosphopeptide presentation by HLA as well as providing a platform for the rational design of a generation of posttranslationally modified tumor vaccines. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition, the efficacy of agents that interfere with antigen presentation process can also be evaluated by SIAT® antigen presentation assay. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • In the present work we investigated the use of mesoporous silicon microparticles (MSMPs) for adjuvant and antigen deliver purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • DCs are a critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor-associated antigens. (jci.org)
  • These results strongly suggested that ATDCs require TMEM176B to cross-present antigens in a tolerogenic fashion. (inserm.fr)
  • Furthermore, no T cell traceable antigens are present in the apoptotic cargo that internalized LPS. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Almost all cell types can present antigens in some way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8 + T-cell responses. (dovepress.com)
  • To achieve this, we have used 3β-[ N -( N' , N' -dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. (dovepress.com)
  • As Sp-MØ become more mature, their vesicular phagosomal system acquired high acidic characteristics, which adversely affected antigen cross-presentation due to potent and enhanced antigen degradation. (queensu.ca)
  • The lectin does not significantly protect captured virions against degradation and promotes MHC-I exogenous presentation of HIV-1 antigens. (pasteur.fr)
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • How an antigen is detected depends at once on the nature of the antigen itself as well as on the particular immune cell that detects it. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and the Dendritic Cell: Where it All Begins? (hindawi.com)
  • Alison M. McDonnell, Bruce W. S. Robinson, and Andrew J. Currie, "Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and the Dendritic Cell: Where it All Begins? (hindawi.com)
  • Coordinate defects in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II expression and antigen presentation in bare lymphocyte syndrome. (springer.com)
  • A gene required for class II restricted antigen presentation maps to the major histocompatibility complex. (springer.com)
  • We examined the role of DC-SIGN on the fate of incoming virions and on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-restricted HIV-1 antigen presentation. (pasteur.fr)
  • As a first step towards extending studies on this antigen into the murine system we have generated a panel of T cell clones and mAb in H-2b and H-2d mice. (soton.ac.uk)
  • These questions are currently being addressed in my laboratory by using the various antigen presentation-deficient mice as infectious disease and tumor progression models. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • We now demonstrate that this improved performance is primarily due to the focusing of CTL epitope presentation onto activated DC in the inflamed lymph nodes draining the vaccination site. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These data suggest MPO-driven lipid peroxidation in PMN-MDSC as a possible non-cell autonomous mechanism of inhibition of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and propose MPO as potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of current immunotherapies for patients with cancer. (jci.org)
Polarization dictates iron handling by inflammatory and alternatively activated macrophages | Haematologica