The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/5439)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/5439)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (3/5439)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (4/5439)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (5/5439)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Identification of MAGE-3 epitopes presented by HLA-DR molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (6/5439)

MAGE-type genes are expressed by many tumors of different histological types and not by normal cells, except for male germline cells, which do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Therefore, the antigens encoded by MAGE-type genes are strictly tumor specific and common to many tumors. We describe here the identification of the first MAGE-encoded epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were loaded with a MAGE-3 recombinant protein and used to stimulate autologous CD4(+) T cells. We isolated CD4(+) T cell clones that recognized two different MAGE-3 epitopes, MAGE-3114-127 and MAGE-3121-134, both presented by the HLA-DR13 molecule, which is expressed in 20% of Caucasians. The second epitope is also encoded by MAGE-1, -2, and -6. Our procedure should be applicable to other proteins for the identification of new tumor-specific antigens presented by HLA class II molecules. The knowledge of such antigens will be useful for evaluation of the immune response of cancer patients immunized with proteins or with recombinant viruses carrying entire genes coding for tumor antigens. The use of antigenic peptides presented by class II in addition to peptides presented by class I may also improve the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination.  (+info)

Calreticulin, a peptide-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, elicits tumor- and peptide-specific immunity. (7/5439)

Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by transporter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific immunity to the tumor used as the source of CRT but not to an antigenically distinct tumor. The immunogenicity is attributed to the peptides associated with the CRT molecule and not to the CRT molecule per se. It is further shown that CRT molecules can be complexed in vitro to unglycosylated peptides and used to elicit peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell response in spite of exogenous administration. These characteristics of CRT closely resemble those of HSPs gp96, hsp90, and hsp70, although CRT has no apparent structural homologies to them.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (8/5439)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

After viral infection, cells rapidly present peptides derived from newly synthesized viral proteins on MHC class I molecules for T cell activation (1). This rapidity of presentation, coupled with the relatively long half-life (t1/2) of most viral proteins, engendered the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of Ag presentation: a subset of newly synthesized proteins are defective in some manner and rapidly degraded intracellularly, yielding peptides for MHC class I Ag presentation to enable rapid immunosurveillance of viral and cellular translation products (2).. More than a decade after the birth of the DRiP hypothesis, there are only a few clues regarding the physical and biochemical properties of DRiPs that give rise to class I peptide ligands (3). Although large amounts of rapidly degraded polypeptides (RDPs) are relatively easy to detect (3-6), their relationship with DRiPs is uncertain (3, 7). The DRiP hypothesis is strongly supported, however, by functional studies that temporally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I presentation by examining a special feature of professional APC, namely their ability to process exogenous forms of antigen for class I presentation. Incubation of highly purified bone marrow-derived precursor cells with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) led to the efficient presentation of the major class I-restricted OVA determinant by mature dendritic cells (DC), but not by macrophages (MΦ) derived from the precursor population. DC as well as macrophages were, however, able to mediate class II presentation of OVA, suggesting ...
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In the current study, we investigated the requirements of MHC I presentation during Chlamydia infection using C57BL/6 mice, the mouse DC line JAWS II, and the nonavian C. psittaci (DC15) as an infection model system. The most intriguing finding of our work is that autophagy constitutes a critical pathway in MHC I processing of chlamydial Ags in infected DCs.. Our data demonstrate that the disease in C. psittaci-infected C57BL/6 mice is comparable to what was recently described for infected cattle (37), the natural host of C. psittaci strain DC15. In particular, the onset of the most pronounced clinical signs due to bronchopneumonia, the pathological features, and the course of disease are remarkably similar. Chlamydia-infected DCs show morphological, as well as functional, maturation, which is characterized by elevated expression of distinct activation/maturation markers and secretion of chemokines/cytokines known to be associated with optimal Ag presentation and clearance of bacterial ...
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
Clone REA1080 recognizes the human CD205 (DEC205) antigen, a glycoprotein also known as Ly-75. CD205 is a 210 kDa C-type lectin single-pass membrane protein (type I), which is highly expressed on thymic epithelial cells and dendritic cells. Unlike murine CD205, human CD205 is also found at low levels on other peripheral blood lymphocytes, eg., monocytes, T cells, B cells, and NK cells. CD205 belongs to the macrophage mannose receptor family and acts as an endocytic receptor to uptake antigens, direct the captured antigens from the extracellular space to the antigen-processing compartment for antigen presentation on MHC class II and cross-presentation on MHC class I molecules. Another function of CD205 is the clearance of apoptotic cells, potentially an important pathway for the uptake of self-antigen in intrathymic and peripheral tolerance. Additional information: Clone REA1080 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Sverige
Introduction: Despite the unrecognized nature of fetal antigens for maternal immune system, the fetus is usually not rejected and is rather sustained by maternal imm...
Whole protein delivery to B-cells by cell squeezing enables robust MHC class I antigen presentation and antigen-specific CD8+T-cell priming in vitro.. A) Experimental timeline for antigen loading (endocytosis, peptide, or squeezed) on day 0 followed by co-culture with purified, CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+T-cells. B) Representative histogram overlay showing data from day 4 proliferation of endocytosis+CpG or SQZ+CpG co-cultures; green gates were used to calculate percent of divided input cells and proliferation indices as described in Methods. C,D) Quantitative analysis of percent divided input OT-I CD8+(C) and OT-II CD4+(D) T-cells at day 4 of co-culture. E) Normalized total OT-I CD8+T-cell counts on day 4 of co-cultures were also calculated as described in Methods. All data were shown as means±standard deviation (n = 7 independent experiments for B & D; n = 3 independent experiments for D). Pairs of conditions were tested in C), D) and E) for statistically significant pairwise differences with ...
Thymocytes adoptively transferred into syngeneic irradiated recipients can be primed with antigen (KLH) to generate two types of helper function termed specific and non-specific. Low doses of KLH given without adjuvant generate high levels of non-specific compared to specific helper T cells. Large doses of KLH given in adjuvant (FCA) generate high levels of both types of helper T cell. Explantations for this observation are discussed.
Das Proteasom ist eine ATP- abhängige Protease, die sich aus vielen Untereinheiten zusammensetzt. Es ist für die Generierung der MHC Klasse I- restringierten Peptide verantwortlich, die im Folgenden auf der Zelloberfläche präsentiert werden. Nicht-funktionelle Proteine, die als so genannte defective ribosomal products (DRIP) bezeichnet werden, stellen eine wichtige Quelle für die Generierung von antigenen Peptiden, insbesondere jedoch von viralen Peptiden dar. Generell wird die Lehrmeinung vertreten, dass der Abbau von polyubiquitinierten Proteinen durch das 26S Proteasom zur Generierung von MHC Klasse I- Liganden führt. Allerdings ist weiterhin unklar, ob virale Proteine Ubiquitin- abhängig vom Proteasom abgebaut werden. Demnach sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit der Proteasom- abhängige Abbau des mCMV ie pp89 Proteins vor allem hinsichtlich einer Ubiquitinierung untersucht werden. Folglich wurden Konstrukte sowohl für ein rekombinantes pp89 (rek pp89) als auch für ein ODCpp89 ...
Das Proteasom ist eine ATP- abhängige Protease, die sich aus vielen Untereinheiten zusammensetzt. Es ist für die Generierung der MHC Klasse I- restringierten Peptide verantwortlich, die im Folgenden auf der Zelloberfläche präsentiert werden. Nicht-funktionelle Proteine, die als so genannte defective ribosomal products (DRIP) bezeichnet werden, stellen eine wichtige Quelle für die Generierung von antigenen Peptiden, insbesondere jedoch von viralen Peptiden dar. Generell wird die Lehrmeinung vertreten, dass der Abbau von polyubiquitinierten Proteinen durch das 26S Proteasom zur Generierung von MHC Klasse I- Liganden führt. Allerdings ist weiterhin unklar, ob virale Proteine Ubiquitin- abhängig vom Proteasom abgebaut werden. Demnach sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit der Proteasom- abhängige Abbau des mCMV ie pp89 Proteins vor allem hinsichtlich einer Ubiquitinierung untersucht werden. Folglich wurden Konstrukte sowohl für ein rekombinantes pp89 (rek pp89) als auch für ein ODCpp89 ...
In this first serologic case-control study of MCV infection and SCC, MCV seroreactivity was statistically significantly associated with MCV DNA-positive SCC. There are several possible explanations for the observed serologic associations. MCV seroreactivity could simply be a marker of a general systemic immunosuppression, an established risk factor for SCC. If this was the case, then associations with SCC would be expected to be observed also for JCV seroreactivity, given that JCV reactivates with immunosuppression (20). Although a greater proportion of SCC cases were JCV-seropositive than controls, the difference was not statistically significant, and no trend was observed between increasing quartiles of JCV antibody levels and SCC risk. Uncontrolled MCV replication resulting from localized cutaneous immunosuppression is theoretically possible, given the previously described effects of UV radiation on antigen presentation and cytokine production in the skin (21-24). However, no associations ...
On this web page you will find the presentations from the WARCnet kickoff meeting 4-6 May 2020. The presentations are organised according to the meeting sessions. Presentations are either a video or a slideshow with voice-over. Please note that when you view the slideshows online they do not have the voice-over, you will have to download the slideshow to view it with sound. ...
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the bodys ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth. As such, understanding the processes and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation provides us with crucial insights necessary for the design of vaccines and therapeutic strategies to bolster T-cell responses.. ...
Ubiquitin-Dependent Control of Class II MHC Localization Is Dispensable for Antigen Presentation and Antibody Production. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
The following presentations were recorded during the APS Annual Meeting in Pasadena, CA, August 1-5, 2015. ​ Presentations are grouped by Session Title. To view the presentation titles use the image to expand/collapse....
Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the treatment of viral infections and relapsed hematologic malignancies. In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it …
The IFNE Congress 2017 Committee thanks all faculty and delegates for their support and contributions to the success of the 2017 meeting. Consented presentations are available for your interest below. Click on the author name and presentation title to download.. Benjamin Wharf - Saving Lives and growing brains ...
Presentations are one of the first managerial skills which a junior engineer must acquire. This article looks at the basics of Presentation Skills as
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The informal research seminar of the ALGO and AGA groups. Talks last roughly 25 minutes, with five extra minutes allocated for discussion. Many presentations are focussed on recent conference presentations, or practice talks for upcoming conferences. New members are often asked to give an overview of their field of research. Talks given by invited speakers may take up to 45-60 minutes including questions.. To be kept up-to-date about noon seminar presentations, please subscribe to the algoseminar-l mailing list.. All noon seminar schedules: 2018 · 2017 · 2016 · 2015 · 2014 · 2013 · 2012 · 2011 · 2010 · 2009 · 2008 · 2007 · 2006 · 2005. ...
The informal research seminar of the ALGO and AGA groups. Talks last roughly 25 minutes, with five extra minutes allocated for discussion. Many presentations are focussed on recent conference presentations, or practice talks for upcoming conferences. New members are often asked to give an overview of their field of research. Talks given by invited speakers may take up to 45-60 minutes including questions.. To be kept up-to-date about noon seminar presentations, please subscribe to the algoseminar-l mailing list.. All noon seminar schedules: 2018 · 2017 · 2016 · 2015 · 2014 · 2013 · 2012 · 2011 · 2010 · 2009 · 2008 · 2007 · 2006 · 2005. ...
Full development of the approved capstone project. The strategies set forth in the proposal are put into action: developing a research concept, solving a strategic management challenge, or launching an entrepreneurial business. Primary data using quantitative and qualitative methods are a required part of the project. Oral and formal presentations are required. Taken in the final semester of the MBA program. Prerequisite: successful completion of all foundation and core MBA courses, inclusive of MBA 6450 or NUR 5670. Corequisite for Nursing Administration students: NUR 6310 ...
Full development of the approved capstone project. The strategies set forth in the proposal are put into action: developing a research concept, solving a strategic management challenge, or launching an entrepreneurial business. Primary data using quantitative and qualitative methods are a required part of the project. Oral and formal presentations are required. Taken in the final semester of the MBA program. Prerequisite: successful completion of all foundation and core MBA courses, inclusive of MBA 6450 or NUR 5670. Corequisite for Nursing Administration students: NUR 6310 ...
Everything is going more virtual these days. TBOOKS stays paper. So youll never find a publication online. The publications are handmade in alternative print techniques. , cause sales money will be invested in another publication. Following this, the aim of TBOOKS is to have affordable prices for the publications. Accessible prices combined with high quality content and a devoted presentation are what constitutes TBOOKS COLOGNE. ...
If youve ever watched Iron Chef or any of the many cooking shows on TV, youll know that plating and presentation are just as influential as the taste of
Note: All presentations are scheduled for 10 minutes, including setup and questions, and should be targetted towards the discussion topics for the session. At the end of each technical session there will be a discussion period ...
So guys, E3 presentations are over for the big guys. And wouw what a ride! Microsoft kicked it this year and it made me go from YES! To OMG to WOUW!...
Most health and safety managers spend significant time in meetings, including ones that they direct or chair. They also may have numerous opportunities to make presentations, ranging from formal ones before large audiences to informal sessions with only a few attenders. Both meetings and presentations may have significant impacts on health and safety programs, so facility in these areas can enhanc
Background The MHC molecules are glycoproteins encoded in a large cluster of genes located on chromosome 6. They were first identified by their potent
Presentation on Results for the 1st Quarter FY 2014 Idemitsu Kosan Co.,Ltd. August 5, 2014 Table of Contents 1. FY st Quarter Financials (1) Overview (2) Segment Information (3) Streamlining (4)
Please provide below the URL and description of an activity you would like to add to OpenCME. You are welcome to add activities as often as you like. To prevent spam or other abuse, activities are reviewed by our editorial team before appearing on OpenCME. ...
Drug Development , Creative Biolabs provides cytokine development services to improve the efficacy of cancer vaccines. https://www.creative...
In this new paper by Nir Hacohen et al., researchers found that by analyzing the DNA of tumors from patients who developed resistance to checkpoint therapy, they found changes in the DNA of a key gene that is critical for tumors to be detected by the immune system.
Design of the British Gas presentation for the successful media pitch by Carat. Creation of a main template with all the graphic assets, colour palette and images reflecting the brand value. Production of all elements for the deck including icons, charts …
slides, OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP,Home,openwetware.org OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Labs,Labs,OpenWetWare labs OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Protocols,Protocols,Protocol collection OpenWetWare:Presentations/NCI-ICBP/Courses,Courses,Wiki courses ,/slides, ...
GO:0019724. Any process involved with the carrying out of an immune response by a B cell, through, for instance, the production of antibodies or cytokines, or antigen presentation to T cells. ...
Dear all, The main purpose of this site is to educate and inform those with this disease. There are so many questions as this is a complex disease. Attached is a video presentation given by Dr Gavin Giovannoni - he ...
Download DNA Computing PPT Presentation .The main objective of this paper is to give idea of DNA computing. The framework which is being used from the room sized
2 presentations will be held in ICMU2017 - センサ・デバイス・ネットワークが連携し、センサから取り 込まれる実世界データを処理・集約・解析することで、高度なサービスを 効率良くユーザに提供するシステム―ユビキタスコンピューティングシス テム―の実現に向けた研究に取り組んでいます。
Overloaded. Groups the elements of a sequence according to a specified key selector function and creates a result value from each group and its key. Key values are compared by using a specified comparer, and the elements of each group are projected by using a specified function.(Defined by Enumerable.) ...
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+Analysis andIsolation ofPlasminogenActivator fromMammalian CellCulture BrothDelaine Zayas-Bazán BurgosJohn Muñoz TorresVibha Bansal PhDMr. Javier RosadoMr. Ca…
dict.cc | Übersetzungen für presentation method im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen, ...
医薬品・医療機器・再生医療等製品の承認審査・安全対策・健康被害救済の3つの業務を行う組織。
Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments is a lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperones. Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its mouse analog H2-O, herein called DO. While DO was originally discovered decades ago, elucidating its function has proven challenging. DO was discovered in association with
Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. Current computational methods trained on in vitro binding data are limited by insufficient training data and algorithmic constraints. Here we describe MARIA (major histocompatibility complex analysis with recurrent integrated architecture; https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our improved machine learning framework, MARIA (area under the curve = 0.89-0.92) outperformed existing methods
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
We applied doses between 1-25 Gy, which is lower or comparable with doses received by patients, and observed that ionizing radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in MHC class I presentation in two phases (Fig. 6). The first phase represents peptides derived from existing proteins, because inhibition of translation does not affect the generation of these peptides. More polyubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation are observed swiftly after radiation even at doses of 1-4 Gy, resulting in more peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation and enhanced MHC class I expression as peptides are the limiting step in complex formation (37). Irradiation will result in the formation of free radicals even at low doses, and proteins will be modified directly by radiation or indirectly by radicals formed after water radiolysis, resulting in oxidation of various amino acids. These modifications may target the affected proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome. Although this will reflect a ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from the family Herpesviridae causes lifelong latent infections in immunocompetent patients. HCMV encodes multiple molecules which interfere with host immune responses, thus helping the virus to escape from them and persist in the host. Inhibition of antigen presentation by MHC class i glycoproteins is an important immune evasion mechanism, which enables the virus to protect infected cells from recognition by CD8+ T lymphocytes. Most of the molecules inhibiting MHC class i presentation is encoded withing the US2 to US11 region of HCMV genome, including five glycoproteins (US2, US3, US6, US10 a US11) and one miRNA (US4-1). gpUS2 and gpUS3 are also able to block MHC class II antigen presentation and supress the response of CD4+ T lymphocytes. This thesis summarises current knowledge about the immune evasion molecules encoded within the US2-US11 genomic region of HCMV. Keywords: human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), immune evasion, MHC I, MHC II, US2, US3, US4-1, US6, US10, ...
The importance of antiviral CD8+ T cell recognition of alternative reading frame (ARF)-derived peptides is uncertain. In this study, we describe an epitope (NS1-ARF21-8) present in a predicted 14-residue peptide encoded by the +1 register of NS1 mRNA in the influenza A virus (IAV). NS1-ARF21-8 elicits a robust, highly functional CD8+ T cell response in IAV-infected BALB/c mice. NS1-ARF21-8 is presented from unspliced NS mRNA, likely from downstream initiation on a Met residue that comprises the P1 position of NS1-ARF21-8 Derived from a 14-residue peptide with no apparent biological function and negligible impacts on IAV infection, infectivity, and pathogenicity, NS1-ARF21-8 provides a clear demonstration of how immunosurveillance exploits natural errors in protein translation to provide antiviral immunity. We further show that IAV infection enhances a model cellular ARF translation, which potentially has important implications for virus-induced autoimmunity ...
The invariant chain (Ii) binds nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, blocking peptide binding until the complex dissociates in the endosomes. This may serve to differentiate the MHC class I and II antigen presentation pathways and enable class II molecules to efficiently bind peptides in the endosomes. This hypothesis was addressed by probing spleen cells from a combination of knock-out and transgenic mice with a large panel of T cell hybridomas. The Ii molecule blocked the presentation of a range of endogenously synthesized epitopes, but some epitopes actually required Ii. Thus, the influence of Ii on presentation does not follow simple rules. In addition, mice expressing Ii were not tolerant to epitopes unmasked in its absence, a finding with possible implications for autoimmunity. ...
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. This process involves two distinct pathways for processing of antigens from an organisms own (self) proteins or intracellular pathogens (e.g. viruses), or from phagocytosed pathogens (e.g. bacteria); subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing. Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the ...
Antigen presentation is a key rate-limiting step in the immune response. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells for naive T cells, due to their high expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, but little is known about the biochemical pathways that regulate this function. We here demonstrate that monocyte-derived mature DC can be infected with adenovirus at high efficiency (|95%) and that this procedure can be used to dissect out which pathways are essential for inducing DC antigen presentation to naive T cells. Using adenoviral transfer of the endogenous inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, we show that DC antigen presentation is NF-kappaB dependent. The mechanism for this is that NF-kappaB is essential for three aspects of antigen-presenting function: blocking NF-kappaB coordinately down-regulates HLA class II, co-stimulatory molecules like CD80, CD86 and CD40, and immuno-stimulatory cytokines like IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In contrast adhesion molecules
Author(s): Chen, Keling | Advisor(s): Shastri, Nilabh | Abstract: Cytotoxic T cells monitor MHC class I complexes on antigen presenting cells for the potential presence of any non-self peptides that could derive from viral infection or cancerous cells. Effective immune surveillance requires that MHC class I molecules display a peptide repertoire on the surface representing all cellular proteins. This ensures that foreign antigens from all sources are presented. How the peptide repertoire can be comprehensive despite the large differences in abundance and stability of individual proteins is not known. The pioneer round of translation is the first round of translation that occurs on newly spliced mRNA. It is associated with nonsense-mediated decay of mRNAs, allowing cells to detect and eliminate the aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons. We showed here that the peptide presentation by MHC I molecules was strongly influenced by the pioneer round of translation. Inhibition of the pioneer round of
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cells can escape recognition and lysis by tumor antigen (TA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) by downregulation of antigen processing machinery (APM) components, such as the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-1/2 heterodimer. APM component upregulation by interferon gamma (IFN-g) restores SCCHN cell susceptibility to lysis by CTL, but the mechanism underlying TAP1/2 downregulation in SCCHN cells is not known. Because IFN-g activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, we investigated phosphorylated (p)-STAT1 as a mediator of low basal TAP1/2 expression in SCCHN cells. SCCHN cells were found to express basal total STAT1 but low to undetectable levels of pSTAT1. The association of increased pSTAT1 levels and APM components likely reflects a cause-effect relationship, since STAT1 knockdown significantly reduced both IFN-g-mediated APM component expression and TA-specific CTL recognition of IFN-g ...
DCs are bone marrow-derived APCs that express high levels of MHC, adhesion molecules, and other important costimulatory molecules required for antigen presentation (32 , 33) . Their ability to take-up antigens and induce antigen-specific immunity has stimulated considerable interest in using them to treat cancer. However, naturally occurring DCs are exceptionally rare, comprising only 0.01-0.5% of circulating and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes (19 , 34) . Even when present, DCs harvested from cancer patients often fail to express normal levels of antigen-presenting molecules and lack the ability to stimulate effective immune responses (27 , 34 , 35) . Enk et al. (35) purified CD83+ DCs from the tumors of patients with both regressing and progressing melanoma metastases. Whereas the DCs from regressing metastases expressed CD86 and functioned as APCs, the DCs recovered from progressing metastases expressed little CD86 and induced T-cell anergy instead of stimulation. Similarly, ...
Dendritic cells have the ability to control the balance between immunity and tolerance. Upon viral exposure, Dendritic Cells (DCs) steadily detect pathogens and exert their antigen presentation function to induce adaptive ...
Antigen presented to CD4+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHCII) plays a key role in adaptive immunity. Antigen presentation is initiated by the proteolytic cleavage of pathogenic or self proteins and loading of resultant peptides to MHCII. The loading and exchange of peptides to MHCII is catalyzed by a nonclassical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM (DM). It is well established that DM promotes peptide exchange in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of DM-catalyzed peptide association and dissociation, and how this would affect epitope selection in human responses to infectious disease remain unclear. The work presented in this thesis was directed towards the understanding of mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange and its role in epitope selection. In Chapter II, I measured the binding affinity, intrinsic dissociation half-life and DM-mediated dissociation half-life for a large set of peptides derived from vaccinia virus and compared these properties to the peptide-specific
Cytotoxic T cells (also known as Tc, killer T cell, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)) express CD8 coreceptor are a population of T cells that are specialised for inducing programmed cell death of other cells. Cytotoxic T cells regularly patrol all body cells to maintain the organismal homeostasis. Whenever they encounter signs of disease, caused for example by the presence of viruses or intracellular bacteria or a transformed tumor cell, they initiate processes to destroy the potentially harmful cell.[1] All nucleated cells in the body (along with platelets) display class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I molecules). Antigens generated endogenously within these cells are bound to MHC-I molecules and presented on the cell surface. This antigen presentation pathway enables the immune system to detect transformed or infected cells displaying peptides from modified-self (mutated) or foreign proteins.[4][5]. In the presentation process, these proteins are mainly degraded into small peptides by ...
Tetanus toxin has been a valuable model antigen to study the MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway and is also frequently used to provide T helper determinants in vaccine formulations. To date most basic studies on the processing of this antigen have utilized human T and B cell clones. As a first step towards extending studies on this antigen into the murine system we have generated a panel of T cell clones and mAb in H-2b and H-2d mice. We investigated the presentation of tetanus toxin C fragment (TTCF) by the murine B cell lines LB27.4 (H-2dxb), A20 (H-2d) and IIA1.6 (H-2d) and the extent to which this could be modulated by the addition of mAb. One mAb, 10G5, induced strikingly enhanced presentation of T cell determinants located in the N-terminal region of TTCF while other antibodies inhibited presentation of these and other epitopes. The enhancing effects of the 10G5 antibody were blocked by the anti-FcR antibody 2.4G2 and were not observed in the FcR-negative IIA1.6 cell line. ...
Although myelin is composed of mostly lipids, the pathological role of myelin lipids in demyelinating diseases remains elusive. The principal lipid of the myelin sheath is β-galactosylceramide (β-Galcer). Its α-anomer (α-Galcer) has been demonstrated to be antigenically presented by macrophages via CD1d, a MHC class I-like molecule. Myelin, which is mostly composed of β-Galcer, has been long considered as an immunologically-inert neuron insulator, because the antigen-binding cleft of CD1d is highly α-form-restricted. Here, we report that CD1d-mediated antigenic presentation of myelin-derived galactosylceramide (Mye-GalCer) by macrophages contributed significantly to the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Surprisingly, this presentation was recognizable by α-Galcer:CD1d-specific antibody (clone L363), but incapable of triggering expansion of NKT cells and production of NKT signature cytokines (IFNγ and IL-4). Likewise, a synthesized analog of Mye-Galcer, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early antigen presentation of protective HIV-1 KF11Gag and KK10Gag epitopes from incoming viral particles facilitates rapid recognition of infected cells by specific CD8+ T Cells. AU - Kløverpris, Henrik N.. AU - Payne, Rebecca P.. AU - Sacha, Jonah B.. AU - Rasaiyaah, Jane T.. AU - Chen, Fabian. AU - Takiguchi, Masafumi. AU - Yang, Otto O.. AU - Towers, Greg J.. AU - Goulder, Philip. AU - Prado, Julia G.. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - CD8+ T cells are major players in antiviral immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through recognition of viral epitopes presented on the surface of infected cells. However, the early events involving HIV-1 epitope presentation to CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood but are nonetheless crucial for the rapid clearance of virus-infected cells. Here, we comprehensively studied the kinetics of antigen presentation of two protective epitopes, KF11Gag and KK10Gag, restricted by HLA alleles B*57:01 and B*27:05, respectively, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNAJC17 is localized in nuclear speckles and interacts with splicing machinery components. AU - Pascarella, A.. AU - Ferrandino, G.. AU - Credendino, S. C.. AU - Moccia, C.. AU - DAngelo, F.. AU - Miranda, B.. AU - DAmbrosio, C.. AU - Bielli, P.. AU - Spadaro, O.. AU - Ceccarelli, M.. AU - Scaloni, A.. AU - Sette, C.. AU - De Felice, M.. AU - De Vita, G.. AU - Amendola, E.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - DNAJC17 is a heat shock protein (HSP40) family member, identified in mouse as susceptibility gene for congenital hypothyroidism. DNAJC17 knockout mouse embryos die prior to implantation. In humans, germline homozygous mutations in DNAJC17 have been found in syndromic retinal dystrophy patients, while heterozygous mutations represent candidate pathogenic events for myeloproliferative disorders. Despite widespread expression and involvement in human diseases, DNAJC17 function is still poorly understood. Herein, we have investigated its function through high-throughput ...
FUNCTION: Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II ...
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are expert evaders of nearly every aspect of our immune system. One of these strategies is the downregulation of surface MHC I molecules (major histocompatibility molecules class I). As MHC I molecules present peptides (small fragments) of all proteins generated within the cells to cytotoxic T cells, downregulation of MHC I molecules is an effective way of hiding a viral presence inside the cell from T cells.. Natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes that belong to innate immune systems, possess receptors called Ly49 in mice or KIR in humans. These receptors recognize MHC I molecules on the cell surface and inhibit the NK cell, preventing it from uncontrolled killing of cells. The NK cell is thus said to recognize self molecules. When MHC I molecules are downregulated upon virus infection, the NK cell is no longer inhibited by KIR or Ly49 receptors. In particular, when there are other activating signals or inflammation, the NK cell will kill the infected cell with ...
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering. Because T cells recognise only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen fragment, now bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T cell receptor. If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. There are two types of MHC molecules which differ in the source of the antigens: MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) bind peptides from the cell cytosol, while peptides generated in the endocytic vesicles after internalisation are bound to MHC class II (MHC-II). Cellular membranes separate these two cellular environments - intracellular and extracellular. Each T cell can finally recognise only ten to hundreds ...
First described in 1973 by Ralf Steinman, dendritic cells have since attracted considerable attention. Their properties of antigen capture, presentation and T cell activation, place them both as a key bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity, as well as a switch between tolerance and immunity. Although, the human and mouse DC network share many similarities, one subset was discovered in mouse that had not yet found its equivalent in human: the CD8+ DC characterised by their ability produce IL-12, but most particularly to uptake dead cells and cross-present these exogenous antigens on MHC class I molecules. This function has been shown to be essential in the immune defense against many viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors as well as for the maintenance of self tolerance. Four studies in J. Exp. Med provide insight into a potential human homologue to the mouse cross-presentation specialist CD8+ DC. A nice minireview from two DC experts: Villadangos and Shortman. ...
PRESENTATION PREFERENCES. Each submitter will be able to choose an abstract type among three categories:. Oral: Full oral presentations are 7 minutes long (5 minutes for presentation, 2 minutes Q&As) and Brief oral presentations are 3 minutes long (2 minutes for presentation, 1 minutes Q&As). Poster: Posters for ESOT 2017 will be accepted and presented as ePosters ONLY. A digital version of the poster will be required after you have received a notification of acceptance of your abstract. You can download a template for this submission from the Abstracts tab of the platform.. Video: Abstracts selected for video presentations will be evaluated separately and submitters will be informed of its acceptance in time for the full video to be presented and evaluated.. Guidelines for Video submission: ...
May 4, 2010 - PACT Web Seminar. The NHLBI and EMMES (PACT Coordinating Center) presentations are available for viewing and printing using the link below. The 5 PACT facility speaker presentations are not available on our website. Please contact the speakers regarding their presentations. Speaker contact information can be found in the Webcast Overview Document embedded in the link below:. May 4, 2010 PACT Webcast Presentation Overview ...
Unlike B cells, CD8-positive and CD4-positive T cells of the adaptive immune system do not recognize intact foreign proteins but instead recognize polypeptide fragments of potential antigens. These antigenic peptides are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells bound to MHC class I and MHC class II proteins. Here, we review the basics of antigen acquisition by antigen presenting cells, antigen proteolysis into polypeptide fragments, antigenic peptide binding to MHC proteins, and surface display of both MHC class I-peptide and MHC class II-peptide complexes.
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented by the MHC-II molecule is therefore important for understanding the activation of T helper cells and can be used to identify T-cell epitopes. We here present updated versions of two MHC-II-peptide binding affinity prediction methods, NetMHCII and NetMHCIIpan. These were constructed using an extended data set of quantitative MHC-peptide binding affinity data obtained from the Immune Epitope Database covering HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP and H-2 mouse molecules. We show that training with this extended data set improved the performance for peptide binding predictions for both methods. Both methods are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. PMID: ...
It is generally accepted that antigens in the cytoplasm are loaded in the endoplasmic reticulum and presented at the cell surface on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, whereas peptides present in endo/phagocytic compartments are presented on MHC class II molecules ...
Clone REA230 recognizes a monomorphic epitope on MHC class I molecules, HLA A, B, and C. MHC class I molecules are expressed by all human nucleated cells and are involved in presentation of peptide ligands on the cell surface for recognition by cytotoxic T cells. Additional information: Clone REA230 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
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Peptide binding to MHC class I molecules is the single most selective step in antigen presentation and the strongest single correlate to peptide cellular immunogenicity. The cost of experimentally characterizing the rules of peptide presentation for a given MHC-I molecule is extensive, and predictors of peptide-MHC interactions constitute an attractive alternative. Recently, an increasing amount of MHC presented peptides identified by mass spectrometry (MS ligands) has been published. Handling and interpretation of MS ligand data is, in general, challenging due to the polyspecificity nature of the data. We here outline a general pipeline for dealing with this challenge and accurately annotate ligands to the relevant MHC-I molecule they were eluted from by use of GibbsClustering and binding motif information inferred from in silico models. We illustrate the approach here in the context of MHC-I molecules (BoLA) of cattle. Next, we demonstrate how such annotated BoLA MS ligand data can readily be
A set of T cell clones (TCC) isolated from HLA-DR-, Dw-, DQ-matched allogeneic MLCs was found to proliferate autonomously when stimulated with cells carrying a wide range of class I or II specificities. This apparently unrestricted proliferation was relatively weak, and only low levels of IL-2 were present in the supernatants of stimulated cells. Autologous as well as allogeneic PBMC and B lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) were capable of stimulating such clones, which were also restimulated by suppressive, but not by helper, TCC. Moreover, such clones displayed the unusual property of autostimulation. mAb inhibition experiments suggested that class II- or class II-restricted antigens were involved in stimulation. Thus, certain broad mAbs (TU39, SG520) reacting with multiple locus products inhibited activation of these reagents, but none of those reacting more specifically with DR (TU34, TU37, L243, Q2/70, SG157), DQ (TU22, SPV-L3, Leu 10), or DP (B7/21), or mixtures of these mAbs, were able ...
Taken together, these results may explain the paradox of why removal of the GAr sequence from EBNA1 has only a limited effect on EBNA1 expression in cells. Apparently, the increase in synthesis of EBNA1 after removal of GAr is almost completely compensated for by the subsequent increase in the rate of degradation. The idea that GAr-mediated inhibition of proteasomal degradation of full-length EBNA1 is sufficient to avoid EBNA1-derived peptides from being processed and loaded onto MHC class I molecules (9, 11) is not in accordance with the DRiP hypothesis (13, 14, 20). We therefore tested directly whether the inhibition of proteasomal degradation was sufficient to protect GAr chimeric proteins from being processed and presented on MHC class I molecules. To do this, we took advantage of the fact that GAr-mediated self-inhibition of mRNA translation is dependent on the location of GAr within the protein, whereas inhibition of proteasomal degradation is not (Fig. 3, A and B) (11). Thus, by changing ...
The most common reasons that business presentations are usually so awful, along with advice to make your presentations better. This is a quick gallery of photos to go through about problems with presentations. I love that the diagnosis of the problem, along with tips for avoiding it, are included with each image. Just click on the first image to cycle through the gallery. The core message? Without a coherent story, your presentation will fail. So take these tips to heart. | Just Story It
PREREQUISITE: A100 and A150 or permission of instructor CLASS PRESENTATIONS: Special presentations will be made throughout the course related to a particular grammar focus. These presentations will be graded based on creativity, sign production, usage of non-manual modifiers/signals, contextual accuracy, fluency and comprehension. These presentations should be done with a minimum amount of fingerspelling. Lesson presentations are graded on a scale of 1-100. If your lesson is not presented on the date assigned, the grade is lowered by 10 points. Presentations must be reviewed by an AI at least one week prior to the assigned presentation date. Check the AI office door (SG C101) for your presentation deadline date. Two points will be deducted from the presentation grade for each day past the deadline date if it has not been reviewed with an AI. SPECIAL PROJECT: A special project will be due. You must participate in three out-of-class activities involving Deaf culture, and interact with a Deaf ...
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Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
These presentations are classified and categorized, so you will always find everything clearly laid out and in context. We are staying up to date! We are looking for more relevant data on social networks. 2014 SlideSearchEngine.com Contact ...
These presentations are classified and categorized, so you will always find everything clearly laid out and in context. We are staying up to date! We are looking for more relevant data on social networks. 2014 SlideSearchEngine.com Contact ...
Morris AG, Hewitt C, Young S (1994). The major histocompatibility complex: its genes and their roles in antigen presentation. ... A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive ... "antigen presentation". The infected cells then become targets for types of cytotoxic T-cells, which kill the infected cells so ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Human Leukocyte Antigen A - 142800 Retrieved 21 September 2011. Azuma A, Kudoh S ( ...
... through activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and increased antigen presentation on MHC class I, as well as secretion ... This can be attributed to a number of things; CD4+ T cells respond only to presentation of antigens by MHC class II, however, ... Cancer cells, through mutation, may actually have mutations in some of the proteins involved in antigen presentation, and as ... The simplest approach involves upregulation of adhesion molecules, thus extending the presentation of antigens by APC. ( ...
... phagocytosis and antigen presentation. Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ...
"Antigen Presentation and Major Histocompatibility Complex". Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ... Enforcing the restriction that T cells are activated by peptide antigens only when the antigens are bound to self-MHC molecules ... "The foreign antigen binding site and T cell recognition regions of class I histocompatibility antigens". Nature. 329 (6139): ... MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a T cell can interact with a self-major ...
It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ...
Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... This presentation may be accompanied by cPC infiltrations into other tissues to result in swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver, ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ...
Cruz-Tapias P, Castiblanco J, Anaya J (2013-07-18). Major histocompatibility complex: Antigen processing and presentation. El ... MHC Class II molecules, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ and HLA-DP, are only present on antigen presenting cells and are responsible for ... The target of these antibodies, or the human leukocyte antigens (HLA), were discovered to be the human homologue of Snell and ... "Human leukocyte antigens". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2018-01-25. Ingulli E (January 2010). "Mechanism of cellular ...
Savina A, Amigorena S (October 2007). "Phagocytosis and antigen presentation in dendritic cells". Immunological Reviews. 219 (1 ... as DCs are mainly involved in antigen presentation rather than pathogen degradation. They need to retain protein fragments of a ... Peptides from the bacteria are trafficked to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The peptide antigens are presented to ...
Suppress cell adhesion, antigen presentation, chemotaxis and cytotoxicity. Increase apoptosis. Release of corticotropin- ... They found that the immune responses to innocuous antigens triggers an increase in the activity of hypothalamic neurons and ...
Antigen presentation may occur in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The Langerhans cells, once they are activated, rapidly migrate ... The epidermis antigens are connected with some cells of the skin. Among them there are the APC, antigen presenting cells ( ... and presentation of antigens to T lymphocytes in local lymphoid organs. As a result, T lymphocytes express the cutaneous ... Once the activated lymphocytes arrive, they get in contact with the antigen, they proliferate and develop their effector ...
These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Phagocytosis is the process of uptake of microbes and ... This process is called antigen presentation and it leads to activation of T lymphocytes, which then mount a specific immune ... Microbial fragments that remain after such digestion can serve as antigens. The fragments can be incorporated into MHC ... response against the antigen. Other microbial products can directly activate monocytes and this leads to production of pro- ...
Her work on ABC transporters includes investigating their role in resistance to chemotherapy drugs; antigen presentation in ...
Function in antigen presentation[edit]. HSPs are indispensable components of antigen presentation pathways - the classical ones ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... MHCII presentation[edit]. In MHCII presentation, HSPs are involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis.[29] Also when HSPs are ... Given their role in antigen presentation,[35] HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants (DAMPS) in boosting the response to a ...
Stuart, Elizabeth S.; Morshed, Fazeela; Sremac, Marinko; DasSarma, Shiladitya (15 June 2001). "Antigen presentation using novel ...
Stuart ES, Morshed F, Sremac M, DasSarma S (June 2001). "Antigen presentation using novel particulate organelles from ... Several antigens from various human pathogens have been recombined into the gvpC gene to create subunit vaccines with long- ... DasSarma P, Negi VD, Balakrishnan A, Kim JM, Karan R, Chakravortty D, DasSarma S (2015-01-01). "Salmonella antigens as a novel ... Potential vaccines using gas vesicle as an antigen display can be given via the mucosal route as an alternative administration ...
Amigorena's research focuses on antigen presentation by dendritic cells. In particular, Amigorena's research group has studied ... Guermonprez P, Saveanu L... Amigorena S (2003). ER-phagosome fusion defines an MHC class I cross-presentation compartment in ... induction of dendritic cell maturation and major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted antigen presentation after ... the processes by which dendritic cells take up, process, and display antigens to T cells, as well as how this process is ...
Brandes M, Willimann K, Moser B (July 2005). "Professional antigen-presentation function by human gammadelta T Cells". Science ... After activation, these cells may upregulate several antigen-presentation, adhesion, and co-stimulation molecules that mimic ... The Vδ2+ T cells recognize small non-peptide antigens, but unlike αβ T cells, these antigens do not need to be processed by ... While the αβ lineage has been widely studied, the γδ lineage has not due to the minimal number of defined antigens, the unusual ...
... presentation of antigens to T-cells; and production and release of cytokines. Although melanocytes are dendritic in form and ... Melanocytes are capable of expressing MHC Class II, a type of MHC expressed only by certain antigen presenting cells of the ... In addition to presenting antigen, one of the roles of melanocytes in the immune response is cytokine production. Melanocytes ... antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, and melanocytes. Importantly, melanocytes stimulated by ...
Parham P, Ohta T (April 1996). "Population biology of antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules". Science. 272 (5258): 67- ...
"Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen Presentation in Tertiary Lymphoid Organs". Frontiers in Immunology. 7: 481. doi:10.3389/ ... APC Activators (or Antigen-presenting cell activators) are a type of immunotherapy which leverages antigen-presenting cells ( ... antigens to T cells, facilitating antigen-specific immune responses. Professional APCs express MHC class II and CD40 molecules ... Professional antigen-presenting cells - including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells - serve an indispensable role in ...
"Ap4A Regulates Directional Mobility and Antigen Presentation in Dendritic Cells". iScience. 16: 524-534. doi:10.1016/j.isci. ... An increase in the intracellular amount Improves their motility and antigen presenting ability through alterations in small ...
Patel, K.J.; Neuberger, M.S. (1993). "Antigen presentation by the B cell antigen receptor is driven by the αβ sheath and occurs ... Patel, Ketan Jayakrishna (1994). Antigen presentation by the B cell antigen receptor (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. ...
"Establishment of a yeast-based VLP platform for antigen presentation". Microbial Cell Factories. 17 (1): 17. doi:10.1186/s12934 ... The genome has three overlapping open reading frames or ORFs: C-ORF - encoding the core antigen and pre-core protein which are ... The viral envelope is made up from host cell lipid, with viral surface antigens (DHBsAg). The icosahedral nucleocapsid within, ... is composed of the virus core antigen (DHBcAg) and surrounds the DNA genome and viral polymerase. The viral genome is a ...
Priming of naïve T cells requires dendritic cell antigen presentation. Priming of naive CD8 T cells generates cytotoxic T cells ... Priming of antigen-specific naive lymphocytes occurs when antigen is presented to them in immunogenic form (capable of inducing ... Priming is the first contact that antigen-specific T helper cell precursors have with an antigen. It is essential to the T ... This activation of naive T cell is controlled by a variety of signals: recognition of antigen in the form of a peptide: MHC ...
Parham P, Ohta T (1996). "Population biology of antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules". Science. 272 (5258): 67-74. ... Identification of these antigens has led to greater success and longevity in organ transplant. Antigens most responsible for ... human leukocyte antigens) were originally defined as cell surface antigens that mediate graft-versus-host disease. ... cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. Antigen-presenting cells ...
It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... Hewitt EW (October 2003). "The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway: strategies for viral immune evasion". Immunology. 110 ... "MHC class I antigen presentation: learning from viral evasion strategies". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 9 (7): 503-13. doi: ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MHC+Class+I+Genes at ...
... (human leukocyte antigen DM) is an intracellular protein involved in the mechanism of antigen presentation on antigen ... Apart from CLIP-antigen exchange, HLA-DM also facilitates antigen-antigen exchange. It releases weakly bound peptides from the ... the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation". Immunity. 9 (3): 377 ... For example, proper antigen presentation benefits T cell activation, and memory T cell survival and generation. Without it, T ...
... known to scientists as antigen. His work initiated a field of study known as antigen presentation; it is critical to the ... foreshadowing development of the field of antigen processing and presentation. In 1970, Unanue was given an appointment in the ... In the late 1970s, it was recognized that T lymphocytes could not recognize antigen directly and instead required an ... Nobel Prize winners, Rolf Zinkernagel and Peter C. Doherty showed that this recognition also required the antigen-presenting ...
This pMHC is capable of normal antigen presentation to effectors cells. Usually, the mechanism of cross-dressing serves ... Second route of allorecognition mimics normal antigen mechanism of T lymphocytes stimulation by nominal antigens. In this case ... Myeloid antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells in particular are one of the major exosome producers. There are known ... Population of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is localized inside donor's tissues and is co-transferred from donor to recipient ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
"Ebola Virus, Clinical Presentation". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.. ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... West TE, von Saint André-von Arnim A (November 2014). "Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease". ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ...
However, these typical presentations do not always hold true, which created problems with this system. A more recently proposed ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... History, classification, and clinical presentation". Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology. 78 (2): 189-93. doi: ... Lalla, RV; Patton, LL; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A (April 2013). "Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... "Membranous nephropathy in children: clinical presentation and therapeutic approach". Pediatric Nephrology. 25 (8): 1419-28. ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens.[4] ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ...
Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ...
TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... http://web.archive.org/web/20050301183018/http://www.obgyn.net/english/pubs/features/presentations/panda13/ABO-Rh.ppt ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ...
Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
A changing pattern of presentation". Annals of Surgery. 220 (5): 644-52. doi:10.1097/00000658-199411000-00007. PMC 1234452. ... Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... Bergquist A, Glaumann H, Persson B, Broomé U (February 1998). "Risk factors and clinical presentation of hepatobiliary ...
Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen ... "The intersectin 2 adaptor links Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Identification of an infectious agent for a minor illness can be as simple as clinical presentation; such as gastrointestinal ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ...
Sometimes, influenza may have abnormal presentations, like confusion in the elderly and a sepsis-like syndrome in the young.[34 ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ... Therapeutic biologics are designed to activate the immune response to virus or antigens. Typically, biologics do not target ...
Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
As a young research fellow in 1964, Alter co-discovered the Australian antigen with Baruch Blumberg. This work was a major ... Clinical Center News October 2000 2000 Awards Presentation of Clinical Award by Leon Rosenberg The Lasker Foundation Award ... Alter co-discovered the Australia antigen, a key to detecting hepatitis B virus. For many investigators that would be the ...
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens, transform into multinucleated giant cells. ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ...
Holm J, Willumsen N, Würtzen PA, Christensen LH, Lund K (April 2011). "Facilitated antigen presentation and its inhibition by ... CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells expressing CD23 are able to ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ...
The classic presentation (in 40-50% of the cases) is episodic frank hematuria which usually starts within a day or two of a non ... In order to be a match for a kidney transplant, patients must match blood type and human leukocyte antigen factors with their ...
Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ... Each well of a microtitre plate is coated with either a single antigen or multiple antigens to detect specific antibodies or to ... Target antigen. Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. Sjögren ...
Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ... The classic presentation for the nonaggressive form (in 40-50% of the cases) is episodic hematuria, which usually starts within ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ... It has also been proposed that IgA itself may be the antigen. ... abnormal mucosal antigen handling) and not the ultimate cause ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... Miller DC, Hafez KS, Stewart A, Montie JE, Wei JT (September 2003). "Prostate carcinoma presentation, diagnosis, and staging: ... Prostate cancer screening is controversial.[1][3] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does ... Although the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the US has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and ...
Figure 6. The second mechanism of IL-15 action is cis-presentation, when IL-15 is presented by IL-15Rα to 15Rβγc signaling ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... Figure 3. The main mechanism of IL-15 signaling is trans-presentation which is mediated by membrane-bound complex IL-15/IL-15Rα ... Figure 5. Signaling pathway of IL-15 begins with binding to IL-15Rα receptor, with subsequent presentation to surrounding cells ...
The clinical presentation among invasive disease is also dominated by skin and soft tissue infections, including a small subset ... Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... The clinical presentation is dominated by severe sepsis and the formation of microabscesses, and a relationship between disease ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ...
This process carried out by both DCs and macrophages is termed antigen presentation and represents a physical link between the ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens."[2] ... In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that potentiates and/or modulates the immune responses to an antigen to improve them. ...
The clinical presentation may be sufficient in most cases to distinguish a wheat allergy from other entities. It is excluded ... There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... In the "classical" presentation of NCGS, gastrointestinal symptoms are similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome, and are ... Fasano A (Apr 2005). "Clinical presentation of celiac disease in the pediatric population". Gastroenterology. 128 (4 Suppl 1): ...
... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... Antigen presentation/Professional APCs: Dendritic cell. *Macrophage. *B cell. *Immunogen. Antibodies. *Antibody *Monoclonal ...
Antigen processing and presentation. Definition. Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ... T cell antigen discovery via trogocytosis Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its ... Regulation of the innate immune system by autophagy: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and antigen presentation ... T cell antigen discovery via signaling and antigen-presenting bifunctional receptors Engineered, bifunctional receptors present ...
Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease. Lian Fan, Brian W. Busser, Traci Q. Lifsted, David Lo, ... Antigen presentation by keratinocytes directs autoimmune skin disease Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, ... Differential lysosomal proteolysis in antigen-presenting cells determines antigen fate. Science 307, 1630-1634 (2005). [ ... However, Delamarre et al. now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor ... It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because ...
... and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation. ... We have multiple vaccine development strategies for antigen ... and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation.. Antigen discovery. Vaccine development starts with antigen discovery. ... Antigen presentation. A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging ... In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. ...
... a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the ... A neural network trained on diverse datasets improves prediction of HLA class II epitope presentation. ... expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our ... Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine ...
We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. ...
Antigen presentation in dendritic cells is finely regulated: antigen uptake, intracellular transport and degradation, and the ... Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells.. Guermonprez P1, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, Théry C, Amigorena S. ... Dendritic cells take up antigens in peripheral tissues, process them into proteolytic peptides, and load these peptides onto ... Dendritic cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and become competent to present antigens to T lymphocytes, thus ...
Interestingly, this enhancement of antigen presentation appears specific for the antigen contained within the IC. The addition ... efficient antigen uptake, and processing of antigen for both MHC class I and class II antigenic presentation for priming of ... facilitated uptake of antigen, class I and II presentation of antigen, and induction of DC activation and maturation. Our ... this enhancement of antigen presentation appears specific for the antigen contained within the IC. Thus, addition of " ...
ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy.. Faraco J1, Lin L, Kornum BR, Kenny EE, Trynka G, ... These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this ... Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease ...
The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. Peptide binding ... Coordinate defects in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II expression and antigen presentation in bare ... Antigen presentation and assembly by mouse I-Ak class II molecules in human APC containing deleted or mutated HLA DM molecules ... Defective processing and presentation of exogenous antigens in mutants with normal HLA class II genes. Nature 1990; 343: 71-74. ...
FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to d ... FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to ... Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG- ... Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG- ...
HLA-I Antigen Presentation and Tapasin Influence Immune Responses Against Malignant Brain Tumors - Considerations for ... HLA class I is most tightly linked to levels of tapasin compared with other antigen-processing proteins in glioblastoma Thuring ... Tapasin and human leukocyte antigen class I dysregulation correlates with survival in glioblastoma multiforme. Thuring, Camilla ...
... Alison M. McDonnell,1 Bruce W. S. Robinson,1,2 ... Alison M. McDonnell, Bruce W. S. Robinson, and Andrew J. Currie, "Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and the Dendritic Cell: ...
... by the antigen-presenting cell, of two distinct signals. The first results from the engagement of the TCR:CD3:CD4 complex, and ... Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance? Immunol Rev. 1999 Dec;172:297-314. doi: 10.1111/j. ... In this context, the physiological significance and the functional consequences of antigen presentation by B7-deficient ... own findings are summarised in a model which is consistent with the suggestion of an important role for antigen presentation by ...
Spatial and mechanistic separation of cross-presentation and endogenous antigen presentation. Nat Immunol 2008;9:558-566pmid: ... Presentation of exogenous insulin by B cells infers cross-presentation. Some data show that exogenous soluble antigens ... This dominance of B-cell presentation may shift antigen presentation away from other APC types that engender regulatory T cells ... B-Cell Cross-Presentation of Autologous Antigen Precipitates Diabetes. Eliana Mariño, Bernice Tan, Lauren Binge, Charles R. ...
Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including ...
The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting ... We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs ... cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T ... Specific Antigen CTL Presentation Assay: IFN Gamma ELISPOT Assay. Antigen-specific CD8 T cells producing IFN gamma were ...
Presentation of an exogenous antigen by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Eur. J. Immunol. 24:1590-1596. View ... creating multiple altered peptide ligands for increased MHC presentation. Antigen processing and presentation were further ... For antigen presentation, 5 × 104 irradiated EL-4 cells, T2 lymphoma cells, or HLA-A*0201/K562 cells pulsed with 10 μg/ml ... Optimization of a self antigen for presentation of multiple epitopes in cancer immunity. José A. Guevara-Patiño,1 Manuel E. ...
Dijkstra and Yamaguchi (2018) review the evolution of the MHC class II antigen presentation system in jawed vertebrates. They ... Peter Cresswells review (Cresswell 2019) is a personal retrospective focusing on the biochemistry of antigen presentation. His ... Kasahara M, Flajnik MF (2019) Origin and evolution of the specialized forms of proteasomes involved in antigen presentation. ... This article is part of the Topical Collection on Biology and Evolution of Antigen Presentation ...
Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by ... In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to ...
Monovalent ligation of the B cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation. You-Me Kim, ... Monovalent ligation of the B cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation ... Monovalent ligation of the B cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation ... Monovalent ligation of the B cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation ...
γδT-antigen-presenting cells (APC), activated γδT cells with antigen-presentation function, might be a valuable alternative to ... αβT cells via antigen cross-presentation, a process involving the uptake and proteasomal processing of exogenous antigen and ... Antigen-Presentation Assay. Intracellular IFNγ assay. Day 14 γδT cells from HLA-A2+ blood donors were incubated for 16-24 h in ... Antigen-Presentation by Expanded γδT Cells (γδT-APCs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether expanded γδT cells ...
Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers, P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers, P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines.. S J Gobin, L Wilson, V Keijsers and P J Van den ... Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis ... The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse ... Antigen presentation requires transport of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum ... Antigen presentation requires transport of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum ...
Evasion and subversion of antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tissue Antigens74: 189-204. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 molecules and the generation of lipid-specific T cell immunity. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.64: 1824-1840. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 lipids, T cells, and NKT cells in microbial immunity. Adv. Immunol.102: 1-94. ... An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens ... antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have ... antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the ... promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine ...
In Vivo Detection of Dendritic Cell Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Cells. Elizabeth Ingulli, Anna Mondino, Alexander Khoruts, ... 1984) Antigen recognition by H-2-restricted T cells. II. A tryptic ovalbumin peptide that substitutes for processed antigen. J ... probably because all of the DC have access to antigen and are thus in competition with each other for antigen presentation to ... In Vivo Detection of Dendritic Cell Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Cells ...
Rapid antigen processing and presentation of a protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted hepatitis C virus-specific ... Rapid antigen processing and presentation of a protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted hepatitis C virus-specific ... regions flanking the epitope and led to rapid and abundant presentation of the epitope on the cell surface of antigen ... Our data suggest that rapid antigen processing may be a key immunological feature of this protective and immunodominant HLA-B* ...
Title: Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway. ... title = {Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway},. author ... "Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway". United States. ... Accepted Manuscript: Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation ...
... which also affect antigen presentation. The antigen presentation, IFN response, and cytokine groups included over 80% of the ... The antigen presentation group describes the ability of infected cells to directly present antigen to T lymphocytes. KSHV ... The KLEC antigen presentation surface phenotype is significantly compromised. Next, we investigated the effect of KSHV on the ... The antigen presentation, interferon (IFN) response, and cytokine transcriptomes of KLECs resemble those of KS. Transcription ...
  • There are two types of MHC molecules which differ in the behaviour of the antigens: MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) bind peptides from the cell cytosol, while peptides generated in the endocytic vesicles after internalisation are bound to MHC class II (MHC-II). (wikipedia.org)
  • This antigen presentation pathway enables the immune system to detect transformed or infected cells displaying peptides from modified-self (mutated) or foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presentation process, these proteins are mainly degraded into small peptides by cytosolic proteases in the proteasome, but there are also other cytoplasmic proteolytic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, peptides are distributed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the action of heat shock proteins and the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) which translocates the cytosolic peptides into the ER lumen in an ATP-dependent transport mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model in which CD4 + cells are positively and negatively selected by endogenous peptides. (pnas.org)
  • Fig. 4: MARIA trained on human HLA-DQ ligand peptides identified celiac-related gluten antigens. (nature.com)
  • Dendritic cells take up antigens in peripheral tissues, process them into proteolytic peptides, and load these peptides onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides. (springer.com)
  • Invariant chain peptides in most HLA-DR molecules of an antigen-processing mutant. (springer.com)
  • These data demonstrate a carbohydrate antigen processing system analogous to that used for peptides and an ability of T cells to recognize processed fragments of complex glycolipids. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs to CD8 T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by DCs requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigens by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that usually present endogenous cytoplasmic antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • This implies that trophoblasts are able to provide antigenic peptides for presentation by nonclassical MHC class I molecules that are naturally expressed by this cell type. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, DC presentation of peptides in a favorable costimulatory protein environment is required to subsequently activate T cells and appears to be a critical target for the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. (asm.org)
  • Variation in the mechanisms that mediate antigen processing, MHC-loading, and presentation of peptides allows cells to significantly modulate the repertoire of peptides presented by both MHC class I or class II. (fluidigm.com)
  • Proteomics-based comprehensive cataloging of peptides eluted from MHC is a challenging but ideal way of identifying peptide sequences influenced by variable modes of processing and presentation. (fluidigm.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) presents antigenic peptides to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs). (lu.se)
  • Antigen processing machinery (APM) proteins are involved in the maturation of HLA-I and in the selection of which peptides are - or are not - presented. (lu.se)
  • infection on MHC Class I self-antigen presentation by enhancing presentation of peptides derived from defective ribosomal products (DRiPs). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The La-dependent presence of naturally processed antigenic peptides also in nonpresenting cells located the inhibitory function subsequent to the step of antigen processing. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • DCs process antigens into small peptides consisting of 13-18 amino acids and HLA class II molecules are loaded with these peptides within endosomes and subsequently transported to the plasma membrane of DCs. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Normal presentation of endogenous antigens and cross-presentation of exogenous antigens requires that proteins are degraded to small 8-10 amino acid peptides by the proteosome. (fredhutch.org)
  • T cell lymphocytes express on their surface the T cell receptor (TCR), which allows the recognition of cellular (self) or microbial (non-self) antigens that are processed and presented as peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by antigen presenting cells (APC). (bio-protocol.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the presence of specific gp120/V3 peptides during antigen presentation can modify the activation of normal T-cells leading to altered immune function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zhang X, Zhang Y, Xu J, Wang H, Zheng X, Lou Y, Han B. Antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B lymphocytes enhances the killing effect of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on tumor stem-like cells derived from cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. (jcancer.org)
  • The present study investigated whether antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B lymphocytes can enhance the killing effect of CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on lung stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs). (jcancer.org)
  • The CTLs were generated using an accelerated co-cultured dendritic cells (DC) (acDC) assay by incubating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small-cell lung cancer patients with antigen peptides of Oct4 and Sox2 in the presence of several DC-activating agents. (jcancer.org)
  • Activated B cells were co-cultured with CTLs to present antigen peptides of Oct4 and Sox2. (jcancer.org)
  • Antigen presentation of the Oct4 and Sox2 peptides by CD154-activated B cells can enhance the killing effect of CTLs towards lung SLCCs. (jcancer.org)
  • Antigen-specific receptors on T lymphocytes recognize antigen only after it has been processed into small fragments or peptides, and presented on the cell surface bound in the peptide-binding cleft of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • The peptides presented can be generated from protein antigens via a number of pathways in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Peptides can be produced from antigens expressed within a virus-infected APC, when presentation is termed direct-priming. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternatively, peptides can be produced from proteins that are transferred from other cells to APC prior to presentation, a process known as cross-priming. (elsevier.com)
  • These antigenic peptides are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells bound to MHC class I and MHC class II proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Peptides produced by the proteasome are actively transported into the ER via a transmembrane peptide pump called TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing). (europeanmedical.info)
  • Thus, the antigen presentation pathway for HLA class II molecules differs from that of HLA class I molecules by directing the class II molecules to a location where they can bind peptides that differ from those presented by class I molecules. (europeanmedical.info)
  • However, the presentation of non-self peptides, for example peptides derived from viral or bacterial proteins, or aberrant expression of tumour antigens, can initiate activatory signals mediated by the T-cell receptor, resulting in the generation of an immune response against infected cells. (europeanmedical.info)
  • If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens generated endogenously within these cells are bound to MHC-I molecules and presented on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cross-presentation is a special case in which MHC-I molecules are able to present extracellular antigens, usually displayed only by MHC-II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens from the extracellular space and sometimes also endogenous ones, are enclosed into endocytic vesicles and presented on the cell surface by MHC-II molecules to the helper T cells expressing CD4 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only APCs such as dendritic cells, B cells or macrophages express MHC-II molecules on their surface in substantial quantity, so expression of MHC-II molecules is more cell-specific than MHC-I.[citation needed] APCs usually internalise exogenous antigens by endocytosis, but also by pinocytosis, macroautophagy, endosomal microautophagy or chaperone-mediated autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. (nature.com)
  • Antigen presentation in dendritic cells is finely regulated: antigen uptake, intracellular transport and degradation, and the traffic of MHC molecules are different in dendritic cells as compared to other antigen-presenting cells. (nih.gov)
  • Yet, endocytosis or phagocytosis of extracellular antigens by antigen uptake receptors is processed primarily by APCs via the exogenous endosomal/lysosomal pathway, which ultimately delivers peptide onto surface MHC class II but not MHC class I molecules. (jci.org)
  • An essential role for HLA-DM in antigen presentation by class II major histocompatibility molecules. (springer.com)
  • The extracellular domains of MHC class II molecules determine their processing requirements for antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this context, the physiological significance and the functional consequences of antigen presentation by B7-deficient parenchymal cells, which express MHC class II molecules as a result of inflammation, remains a matter of debate. (nih.gov)
  • and identification of class II-like molecules involved in class II antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Accumulated evidence indicates that many key molecules involved in antigen processing, such as TAP (transporter associated in antigen processing), immunoproteasome subunits, tapasin, and DO/DM molecules, are encoded in the MHC region. (springer.com)
  • They also discuss that the nature of immunopeptidomes presented by MHC class II molecules is influenced by the type of antigen-presenting cells, their maturation state, and environmental conditions such as inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules. (rupress.org)
  • In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to present three different virus-derived epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) despite expressing the correct restricting HLA-B27 molecules on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by otherwise normal B2702 molecules in this family. (rupress.org)
  • From these observations, it can be inferred that the TAP complex and other molecules involved in Ag processing and presentation by MHC class I molecules are functionally active in these trophoblast-derived cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was examined by use of a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the E19 glycoprotein from adenovirus. (sciencemag.org)
  • This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis, not the level of class I cell surface expression, and (ii) association of class I molecules with antigen is likely to occur within the endoplasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. (dovepress.com)
  • This targeted-nanoparticle facilitates presentation of the H250 peptide in major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. (sri.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules present a variety of posttranslationally modified epitopes at the cell surface, although the consequences of such presentation remain largely unclear. (rcsb.org)
  • Antigen presentation to T cells is mediated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via two classes of HLA molecules: HLA Class I, recognized by CD8 + -expressing T cells (Class I is present on nearly all nucleated cells), and HLA Class II, recognized by CD4 + -expressing T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Other previous work has identified chlamydial antigens displayed in MHC Class I molecules. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We hypothesize that enhancing self-antigen presentation is a novel immune evasion strategy by which Chlamyidae saturate MHC Class I molecules with self-antigen and therefore decrease the likelihood that chlamydial antigens are presented. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Background In donor kidneys subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplant, phagocytes coexpressing the F4/80 and CD11c molecules mediate proinflammatory responses and trigger adaptive immunity in transplantation through antigen presentation. (asnjournals.org)
  • At this site DCs present HIV-1 derived antigen on MHC class I and II molecules and trigger an HIV-1 specific T cell response. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the discovery of MHC-class-I-like CD1 antigen-presentation molecules now explains how the immune system also recognizes the abundant and diverse universe of lipid-containing antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The CD1 molecules bind and present amphipathic lipid antigens for recognition by T-cell receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells digest intracellular and extracellular proteins and display the resulting antigenic repertoire on cell surface molecules for recognition by T cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • To further examine the role of DM in class II-restricted antigen presentation, we asked if this defect would equally affect different allelic and species variants of class II molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of naturally processed antigen bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Davidson HW, Reid PA, Lanzavecchia A, Watts C. Processed antigen binds to newly synthesized MHC class II molecules in antigen-specific B lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Creative Biolabs provides SIAT® antigen presentation assay service to identify potential epitopes from biotherapeutic drugs in complex with HLA molecules by mass spectrometry. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The SIAT® antigen presentation assay can be used to measure antigen processing and presentation, which can directly identify the epitopes of a protein antigen that are bound to HLA molecules and displayed to T cells by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Antigen recognition by immune effector cells requires APCs, such as dendritic cells (DCs), to present the epitopes with human leukocyte antigen (HLA, also known as major histocompatibility complex, MHC) class II molecules on the cell surface. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Indeed, TLR signals specifically from phagosomes containing microbial pathogens favor the presentation of non-self-antigens within MHC-II molecules. (bio-protocol.org)
  • What is the antigen processing machinery used by tumor cells to process and present melanoma-associated antigens via class II molecules to CD4+ T cells? (osumicrobiology.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the agents that both induce and inhibit class II MHC expression, the function of class II MHC antigens with an emphasis on the ability of these proteins to act as signal transducing molecules, and the molecular regulation of class II MHC expression. (begellhouse.com)
  • 2005. Involvement of clathrin and AP-2 in the trafficking of MHC class II molecules to antigen-processing compartments. (asmscience.org)
  • Because T cells recognize only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen fragment, now bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (nature.com)
  • Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. (nature.com)
  • The antigen-presenting cells that initiate and maintain MHC class II-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (pnas.org)
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (pnas.org)
  • The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that drive the various phases of MHC class II-dependent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thyroiditis, are not fully identified. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because they must degrade protein antigens to perform their function. (sciencemag.org)
  • now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor exceptionally low concentrations of lysosomal proteases when these levels are compared with those of macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, facilitating their dissemination to and survival in secondary lymphoid organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4 + T cells in human melanoma. (nature.com)
  • We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. J ger). (dkfz.de)
  • Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and become competent to present antigens to T lymphocytes, thus initiating antigen-specific immune responses, or immunological tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen uptake receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) provide efficient entry for the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. (jci.org)
  • Thus, ideally, antigenic processing of tumor antigenic targets by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) should access both the MHC class I and MHC class II pathways. (jci.org)
  • Previous efforts to exploit this cross-presentation pathway enabling access of extracellular antigens to the endogenous pathway have focused on DC phagocytosis of dying cells. (jci.org)
  • ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy. (nih.gov)
  • These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. (springer.com)
  • Fling SP, Arp B, Pious D. HLA-DMA and -DMB genes are both required for MHC class II/peptide complex formation in antigen-presenting cells. (springer.com)
  • Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells. (springer.com)
  • Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance? (nih.gov)
  • In this paper we have attempted to critically review the often conflicting reports on the functional effects of antigen presentation by epithelial and endothelial cells to T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Our own findings are summarised in a model which is consistent with the suggestion of an important role for antigen presentation by parenchymal cells in the induction and the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show cross-presentation of islet-derived autoantigens by B cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • The encapsulation of recombinant proteins in biocompatible and biodegradable nano- and microparticles is emerging as a promising approach to boost their immunogenicity by passively targeting them to antigen presenting cells (APCs) [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The most powerful antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs), which bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are capable of initiating a primary immune response by activating naïve T cells [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Using videomicroscopy we observed in real time the rearrangement of MHC class II compartments as well as delivery of antigen in primary B cells. (pnas.org)
  • Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists ("phosphoantigens") and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8 + αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigen presentation assays using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) showed that PASD1 could stimulate autologous T-cell responses, suggesting that PASD1 could be a promising target for future immunotherapy clinical trials. (uniprot.org)
  • CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8 + T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8 + T-cells remain to be elucidated. (dovepress.com)
  • In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8 + T-cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Although lymphoid dendritic cells (DC) are thought to play an essential role in T cell activation, the initial physical interaction between antigen-bearing DC and antigen-specific T cells has never been directly observed in vivo under conditions where the specificity of the responding T cells for the relevant antigen could be unambiguously assessed. (rupress.org)
  • These results demonstrate that antigen-bearing DC directly interact with naive antigen-specific T cells within the T cell-rich regions of lymph nodes. (rupress.org)
  • However, because methodologies did not exist for in situ detection of the few T cells specific for any given peptide- MHC complex in unimmunized individuals, it has not been possible to definitively demonstrate interactions between naive, peptide antigen-specific T cells and antigen-bearing dendritic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We used this system here, to characterize interactions between peptide-MHC-bearing DC and naive antigen-specific CD4 + T cells during in vivo immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • To better define the immunological mechanisms underlying HLA-B*27-mediated protection in HCV infection, we analyzed the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy and naïve precursor frequency of CD8+ T cells targeting the immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope as well as its antigen processing and presentation. (doaj.org)
  • This efficient proteasomal processing that could be blocked by proteasome inhibitors was highly dependent on the hydrophobic regions flanking the epitope and led to rapid and abundant presentation of the epitope on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. (doaj.org)
  • In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). (osti.gov)
  • The researchers have devolved an assay to monitor the effect of Methyldopa on the presentation of the DQ8 antigen through the isolation of specific cells found in the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Proximal tubular (PT) epithelial cells express MHC class II (Ia) antigens in immunologically-mediated renal injury. (nih.gov)
  • Clonal lines of transformed tubular cells from both normal C3H/FeJ and autoimmune MRL-lpr mice do not constitutively express Ia antigens or mRNA for class II. (nih.gov)
  • These Ia-positive cells can process and present hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) to antigen-specific Iak-restricted T cell hybrids. (nih.gov)
  • They also bear characteristics of accessory cells such as processing and presentation of antigen and TNF-alpha gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Human CD4\(^+\) T cells process and present functional class II MHC-peptide complexes, but the endogenous peptide repertoire of these non-classical antigen presenting cells remains unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in cancer cells. (sri.com)
  • Treatment with this system facilitates activation of a secondary immune response against cancer cells, bypassing the need to identify tumor-associated antigens or educate the immune system through a primary immune response. (sri.com)
  • The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cells to eliminate infected or tumoral cells. (embo.org)
  • Furthermore, the success of cancer immunotherapy, which in the past couple of years is dramatically changing the clinical expectations of cancer patients, is deeply rooted in how antigens are presented by cancer cells to T lymphocytes. (embo.org)
  • This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (umassmed.edu)
  • Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells Display Phagocytic and Antigen-Presenting Functions to Contribute to Intraperitoneal Immunity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Beta cells transfer vesicles containing insulin to phagocytes for presentation to T cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • We observed that ethanol not only suppressed allogeneic peptide presentation to T cells by DCs but also altered presentation of exogenous ovalbumin (OVA) peptide 323-339 to an OVA-specific DO11 T-cell line as well as to OVA-sensitized primary T cells. (asm.org)
  • Further investigation revealed that CTL activity could be restored partly with additions of IL-2 and fully by coimmunization with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression plasmids, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be a critical target of ethanol's action to promote impaired CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming ( 6 , 9 , 10 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The activation of cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses requires antigen presentation by professional antigen presenting cells. (queensu.ca)
  • We also addressed the capacity of diverse LCMV antigens, generated during virus infection, to induce LCMV-specific CTL responses via cross-presentation by employing antigen donor cells (ADCs) that provide sufficient LCMV antigens after virus inactivation with no possible direct antigen presentation. (queensu.ca)
  • These β-cells also expressed mRNA for Class II and Class II antigen presentation pathway components, but lacked the macrophage marker CD68. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effects of glycation of the model food allergen ovalbumin on antigen uptake and presentation by human dendritic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • More importantly, the specific cellular pathway by which dendritic cells (DCs) endocytosed these NPs and the relationship among guanidyl with the antigen cross-presentation, cytokine secretion, and lymph node targeting still remain unclear. (rsc.org)
  • Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DCs are specialized for antigen acquisition (by direct infection or uptake from neighboring cells), transport, processing, and MHC class I-restricted presentation of antigen to CTL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This impairment of antigen processing and presentation by corticosterone was also observed in non-immune cells, suggesting that stress may affect essential cellular protein management functions in all cells, and having possible implications for neurological or other diseases that may result from aberrant protein processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PR3 surface presentation on neutrophilic granulocytes, the main effector cells, is pathogenically important. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) of exogenous antigens on MHC class I is important for the generation of immune responses to intracellular pathogens, as well as for maintenance of self tolerance. (uzh.ch)
  • Using a recombinant vaccinia virus to transiently express the EBV nuclear antigens, we studied the antigen-processing efficiency of NPC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that, in contrast to cells from another EBV-associated malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma, NPC cells display normal antigen-processing function and are efficiently recognized by HLA class I-restricted, virus-specific CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies also provide a rationale for focusing on strategies designed to activate CTLs specific for EBV antigens that are expressed in NPC cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • s to present antigen to T cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, taking advantage of customized in vitro systems and RNAseq, we demonstrate that a preparation containing various forms of oligomeric Aβ1-42 inhibits antigen presentation by altering the transcription of key immune mediators in dendritic cells. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. (jci.org)
  • Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. (elifesciences.org)
  • MHC Class I antigen presentation is the adaptive immune system's answer to this problem by displaying both host and parasitic antigens, if present, to other cells such as CD8⁺ cytotoxic T cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Early analysis of this initial data revealed a strong cell-mediated immune response, with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for both the gag and env antigens encoded by the prime and boost agents. (biomedreports.com)
  • The regulation of antigen processing and presentation to MHC class I-restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes was studied in cells infected with murine cytomegalovirus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Further studies will determine whether the expressed antigen-presentation machinery enables LGAC to function as antigen-presenting cells in disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although macrophages from a donor kidney could also guide adaptive immune responses against renal tissue by virtue of their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells, data are lacking on whether donor-derived renal macrophages can function in this manner after being subjected to transplant-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • No data are currently available regarding the effects of transplant-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury on the ability of donor-derived resident renal macrophages to act as professional antigen-presenting cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusions IL-1R8 is a key regulator of donor renal macrophage functions after ischemia-reperfusion injury, crucial to guiding the phenotype and antigen-presenting role of these cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Virus-specific antigen presentation by different subsets of cells from lung and mediastinal lymph node tissues of influenza virus-infected mice. (asm.org)
  • Immune responses at mucosal sites are thought to be initiated in the draining lymph nodes, where dendritic cells present viral antigens and induce naive T cells to proliferate and to become effectors. (asm.org)
  • Formal proof that antigen-presenting cells (APC) do indeed localize to the regional lymph nodes has been lacking for viral infections of the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • All APC populations from lungs and MLN contained virus and thus had the potential to present antigen to CD8+ T cells. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that dendritic cells and macrophages are antigen positive in mice acutely infected with an influenza A virus and that dendritic cells are probably responsible for initiating the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to influenza virus in the draining lymph nodes. (asm.org)
  • cd8 t cells are blank t cells and kill cells that present antigens. (brainscape.com)
  • Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells and the pathophysiological implications of self-lipid antigen recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of age and Rhodococcus equi infection on CD1 expression by equine antigen presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Non-conventional T cell populations also exist that express TcRs with semi-invariant α-chains: MAIT (mucosal-associated invariant T) cells recognize antigens bound to the class Ib MHC molecule MR1, and iNKT (invariant natural killer T) cells respond to lipids and glycolipid antigens bound to CD1D. (prolekare.cz)
  • In agreement with this, Tmem176b[−/−] ATDCs specifically failed to cross-present male antigens or ovalbumin to CD8+ T cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Interestingly, both FcRIIB1 and FcRIIB2 isoforms of FcRII were able to restore antibody enhanced presentation in IIA1.6 cells but only if the cytoplasmic tails were intact. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, these studies also revealed that the antigen presentation defect observed for DR in the 9.5.3 cells did not compromise I-Ad-restricted antigen presentation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Decrease in macrophage antigen catabolism caused by ammonia and chloroquine is associated with inhibition of antigen presentation to T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • West MA, Lucocq JM, Watts C. Antigen processing and class II MHC peptide-loading compartments in human B-lymphoblastoid cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells process intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks after immunization-a remarkable finding since irradiated sporozoites are incapable of replication and do not differentiate beyond early liver stages. (prolekare.cz)
  • Persisting antigen was detected in lymphoid organs and depends on the presence of CD11c+ cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Firstly, reducing the time primed CD8+ T cells were exposed to antigen in vivo severely reduced the final size of the developing memory population. (prolekare.cz)
  • Finally, persisting antigen was able to prime naïve cells, including recent thymic emigrants, to become functional effector cells capable of eliminating parasites in the liver. (prolekare.cz)
  • Following initial antigen exposure CD8+ T cells expand into effector cells before forming a numerically stable memory population, a process that has been characterized as T cells on "autopilot" [9] . (prolekare.cz)
  • In the longer term, persisting antigen during chronic viral infection is often considered detrimental to T cell immunity as over-stimulated T cells may become exhausted and lose effector function [10] , [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • HLA-F binds and stabilizes open conformers of MHC-I on the cell surface and helps load exogenous antigens for cross-presentation to activate T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • The ability of the immune system to recognize and control tumor cells and pathogens depends on the processing and presentation of antigens. (fredhutch.org)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells, express MHC class I and class II and efficiently process both extracellular and intracellular antigens to activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and CD4+ helper T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Both viruses and tumor cells have evolved immune evasion strategies that prevent MHC-I peptide presentation directly from affected cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • In response, APCs have evolved mechanisms to efficiently uptake antigens released from infected or tumor cells and cross-present these antigens to CD8+ T-cells via MHC-I. (fredhutch.org)
  • The researchers then examined if the activated B-cells could cross-present viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Indeed, exogenously added antigen activated cytotoxic T-cells to specifically lyse the B-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Presentation of antigens and activation of T-cells was blocked with brefeldin A, a drug that disrupts the Golgi compartment, confirming direct processing of longer antigens to short peptide epitopes through internalization. (fredhutch.org)
  • Interference with the surface expression of HLA-F and MHC-I OC with short hairpin RNA constructs blocked the processing and cross-presentation of exogenous viral antigens to activate T-cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • This same pathway was evident in activated cytotoxic T-cells that also express HLA-F, suggesting they can self-stimulate and cross-present antigens in inflammatory conditions. (fredhutch.org)
  • Antigen presenting cells (APC) are able to process and present to T cells antigens from different origins. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here, I detail a protocol designed to assess in vitro the capacity of APC to present antigens derived from bacteria, apoptotic and infected apoptotic cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • APC are able to process antigens and to present them to T cells, and MHC-TCR interactions are critical steps for T cell activation during both infectious and autoimmune responses. (bio-protocol.org)
  • On the other hand, self-antigens generated after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells are directed to lysosomal degradation because of the absence of TLR stimuli. (bio-protocol.org)
  • However, the segregation of self and non-self-antigens does not occur when both derive from infected apoptotic cells and are simultaneously carried by the same phagosome, which is optimally tailored by TLR signals for antigen presentation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • I developed an in vitro alternative protocol where A20 cells are directly infected by the cell invasive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes expressing a recombinant antigen, allowing to assess the capacity of BMDC to present self and non-self-antigens derived from the same infected apoptotic cargo (Campisi et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to map the specific transcriptional profile invoked by an HIV-1/V3 epitope in uninfected T cells during antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An effective vaccine must stimulate coordinated T cell responses, but the large size of the genome and the low frequency of HSV-1-specific T cells have hampered the search for the most effective T cell antigens for inclusion in a candidate vaccine. (eur.nl)
  • We used cross-presentation and CD137 activation-based FACS to enrich for polyclonal CD8+T effector T cells. (eur.nl)
  • In this era of microbial genomics, our methods - also demonstrated in principle for vaccinia virus for both CD8+and CD4+T cells - should be broadly applicable to the selection of T cell antigens for inclusion in candidate vaccines for many pathogens. (eur.nl)
  • Cross-presentation, which is crucial for the generation of immunity against virus-infected and tumor cells, requires exogenous antigens to be internalized into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) followed by translocation to the cytosol by unknown mechanisms. (ovid.com)
  • To eliminate infected or transformed cells, the immune system must be capable of specifically recognizing antigen. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • LAMP-2A is required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), which promotes Ag capture and MHC class II (MHCII) presentation in B cells and signaling in T cells. (iupui.edu)
  • To examine LAMP-2C function in human B cells and specifically its role in Ag presentation, we used ectopic gene expression. (iupui.edu)
  • Increased LAMP-2C expression in B cells did not alter MHCII expression or invariant chain processing, but did perturb cytoplasmic Ag presentation via CMA. (iupui.edu)
  • MHCII presentation of epitopes from exogenous and membrane Ags was not affected by LAMP-2C expression in B cells. (iupui.edu)
  • Autophagy links antimicrobial activity with antigen presentation in Langerhans cells. (escholarship.org)
  • Autophagy enhanced the ability of M. leprae-infected LC to present antigen to CD1a-restricted T cells. (escholarship.org)
  • These data indicate that autophagy links the ability of DC to kill and degrade an invading pathogen, ensuring cell survival from the infection while facilitating presentation of microbial antigens to resident T cells. (escholarship.org)
  • Peptide length extension skews the minor HA-1 antigen presentation toward activated dendritic cells but reduces its presentation efficiency. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Naive CD8+ T cells differentiate into effector cells only after recognition of peptide-MHC Class I complexes on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). (elsevier.com)
  • To examine this issue we will use recombinant viruses to express multiple protein antigens and will analyze antigen presentation to naive and effector CD8+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Delineation of the mechanisms governing the use of different antigen presentation pathways in vivo will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines and immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at induction of protective CD8+ T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the local presentation of MHC class I-restricted antigen expressed in photoreceptor cells (PC) and/or astrocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) purified from B10.A mice were inoculated into the anterior chamber of the eye at the time of T cell transfer to assess local antigen presentation. (arvojournals.org)
  • In GFAP-b-gal mice, antigen-specific T cells attacked the retinal astrocytes, optic nerve, and tissues of the anterior segment that expressed b-gal. (arvojournals.org)
  • The constitutive expression of class II MHC antigens is restricted primarily to B cells, dendritic cells, thymic epithelium, and macrophages, although a wide variety of other cell types can be induced to express class II antigens after exposure to cytokines. (begellhouse.com)
  • Unlike B cells, CD8-positive and CD4-positive T cells of the adaptive immune system do not recognize intact foreign proteins but instead recognize polypeptide fragments of potential antigens. (asmscience.org)
  • Here, we review the basics of antigen acquisition by antigen presenting cells, antigen proteolysis into polypeptide fragments, antigenic peptide binding to MHC proteins, and surface display of both MHC class I-peptide and MHC class II-peptide complexes. (asmscience.org)
  • Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (rupress.org)
  • Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Most strikingly, these DCs are as efficient as antigen-specific B cells in presenting tetanus toxoid (TT) to specific T cell clones. (rupress.org)
  • Defective presentation to class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vaccinia-infected cells is overcome by enhanced degradation of antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The reasons for this focus have been unclear because it has not been possible to track the sites and timing of antigen uptake or subsequent antigen presentation to effector T cells. (escholarship.org)
  • By mimicking pathogen dimensions, microparticles are more prone to be phagocyted by APCs than soluble antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that, beyond their neurotoxic effects, certain oligomeric Aβ forms can act as immunomodulatory agents on cerebral APCs and interfere with brain antigen presentation. (uzh.ch)
  • A new study by postdoctoral fellow Dr Jodie Goodridge and colleagues in the laboratory of Dr. Dan Geraghty (Clinical Research Division) have uncovered a novel mechanism of how non-professional APCs can load extracellular antigens onto MHC-I and activate an immune response. (fredhutch.org)
  • In the current study, the researchers asked if HLA-F helped load exogenous antigens to MHC-I for cross-presentation from activated lymphocytes and monocytes, both non-professional APCs that express HLA-F upon activation. (fredhutch.org)
  • Importantly, this pathway did not require the proteins TAP or tapasin as required for cross-presentation in most professional APCs. (fredhutch.org)
  • We here describe that cholesterol is essential for cross-presentation of antigens loaded via macropinocytosis into APCs. (ovid.com)
  • Libraries built with SABRs can screen thousands of epitopes for the discovery of T cell target antigens. (nature.com)
  • Although monomeric HEL efficiently engages the BCR, presentation of HEL-derived epitopes is impaired compared to oligovalent antigens. (pnas.org)
  • While the immunological and virological features of HLA-B*27-mediated protection are not fully understood, there is growing evidence that the presentation of specific immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes contributes to this phenomenon in both infections. (doaj.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms of lipid antigens processing: functional and structural studies of CD1e, definition of the repertoire of lipid-derived epitopes, characterization of lysosomal enzymatic activities involved in the generation of lipid epitopes. (ipbs.fr)
  • responses via cross-presentation, and characterized how different epitopes from LCMV are cross presented in vitro and in vivo. (queensu.ca)
  • To more quickly determine how these different modes or modulations of presentation translate into altered immune responses, higher throughput methods for identifying T cell epitopes are needed. (fluidigm.com)
  • One mAb, 10G5, induced strikingly enhanced presentation of T cell determinants located in the N-terminal region of TTCF while other antibodies inhibited presentation of these and other epitopes. (soton.ac.uk)
  • SIAT® antigen presentation assay service from Creative Biolabs is able to deliver this information about TCR epitopes through interpretation of what DCs naturally says. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The functional relevance of the TCR epitopes identified by SIAT® antigen presentation assay can be confirmed by various other services of the SIAT® platform including in silico , in vitro, ex vivo , in vivo immunogenicity assessments. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • We have shown previously that antigen presentation can be deregulated by the presence of V3 epitopes on the surface of macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) inhibits the presentation of certain epitopes from influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP), haemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) by an unknown mechanism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cytotoxicity assays showed that deletion of the VV serpin genes B13R and B22R and other genes between B13R and B24R did not increase the level of lysis, indicating that these genes are not involved in inhibition of antigen presentation of the epitopes tested. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are three compartments involved in this antigen presentation pathway: early endosomes, late endosomes or endolysosomes and lysosomes, where antigens are hydrolized by lysosome-associated enzymes (acid-dependent hydrolases, glycosidases, proteases, lipases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the cross-presentation pathway accessed by antigens acquired endocytically through Fc receptors links humoral and cellular immunity. (jci.org)
  • Schuurhuis ( 13 ) has shown that this pathway can induce antigen-specific CD8 responses in vivo, but the physiological relevance and potency of this pathway in effector immunity, including tumor immunity, have not yet been demonstrated. (jci.org)
  • A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region controlling the class I antigen presentation pathway. (springer.com)
  • Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on this development, Jurewicz and Stern ( 2018 ) review recent progress in our understanding of the MHC class II antigen processing and presentation pathway, focusing on HLA-DM and HLA-DO and their role in shaping the MHC class II immunopeptidome. (springer.com)
  • article{osti_1282176, title = {Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway}, author = {Tooker, Brian C. and Brindley, Stephen M. and Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L. and Turteltaub, Kenneth W. and Newman, Lee S.}, abstractNote = {We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). (osti.gov)
  • Mechanistically, we defined the cytosolic pathway as the dominant cross-presentation pathway used by Sp-MØ. (queensu.ca)
  • This minireview provides an overview of the components of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway and describes our recent published work on the effects of corticosterone on this process in virally infected DCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through gene ontology and pathway analyses, we identified a significant reduction in expression of immune-response-related genes, especially on the antigen presentation pathway, in high-risk ovarian cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antigenic repertoire is generated by the antigen processing and presentation pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • Tetanus toxin has been a valuable model antigen to study the MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway and is also frequently used to provide T helper determinants in vaccine formulations. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. (nature.com)
  • The delivery system consists of a stealth liposome displaying a cancer-specific targeting peptide, named H1299.3, on its exterior surface and encapsulating H250, an immunogenic human leukocyte antigen class 1 restricted peptide. (sri.com)
  • Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism to facilitate presentation. (sri.com)
  • In addition, the phosphoamino acid stabilized the HLA peptide complex in an epitope-specific manner and was observed to exhibit discrete flexibility within the antigen-binding cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Antigen processing and peptide-MHCII complexes were evaluated by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to MHCII presentation, cross-presentation of exogenous OVA peptide via MHCI by DCs remained intact. (asm.org)
  • Ethanol inhibits exogenous and allogeneic antigen presentation and affects the formation of peptide-MHCII complexes, as well as altering costimulatory molecule expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Selective expression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule L a of a peptide derived from MCMV IE protein pp89 (Reddehase, M. J., J. B. Rothbard, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Superior induction of anti-tumor CTL immunity by extended peptide vaccines involves prolonged, DC-focused antigen presentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peptide Vaccine Formulation Controls the Duration of Antigen Presentation and Magnitude of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For influenza A/NT/60/68 NP, the block is present during both early and late phases of infection, and is selective for the COOH-terminal epitope defined by peptide 366-379, having no detectable effect on the presentation of the NH2-terminal epitope 50-63. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its cognate T cell, allows the identification of neoepitopes targeted by T cell receptors with high sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Recent observations with in vitro systems ( 10 - 12 ) suggest that uptake of antigen through Fc receptors (FcγRs) may represent an alternative method for cross-presentation. (jci.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interplay between the virus and the DCs is complex and the initial receptor binding may affect antigen uptake, infection, and antigen presentation. (diva-portal.org)
  • DC, through the uptake, processing, and presentation of antigen, are responsible for activation of T cell responses to defend the host against infection, yet it is not known if they can directly kill invading bacteria. (escholarship.org)
  • Their efficiency of antigen presentation can be further enhanced by specific antibodies via FcR-mediated antigen uptake. (rupress.org)
  • Defective processing and presentation of exogenous antigens in mutants with normal HLA class II genes. (springer.com)
  • The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. (umassmed.edu)
  • Recognition by cytolytic T lymphocytes of the phosphoprotein pp89, the immunodominant viral antigen expressed in the immediate-early phase of infection, was selectively prevented during the subsequent expression of viral early genes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Here, we combine a neoantigen prediction pipeline and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) peptidomics to identify TAAs and neoantigens in 16 tumors derived from seven patients with melanoma and characterize their interactions with their tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccinia virus serpins B13R and B22R do not inhibit antigen presentation to class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The class II genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode the α/β heterodimeric glycoproteins that play a critical role in the induction of immune responses through presentation of processed antigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes. (begellhouse.com)
  • Ishido and Kajikawa ( 2018 ) summarized recent progress in the study of March family proteins, which ubiquitinate MHC class II and regulate MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • E19 blocked the presentation of vaccinia and influenza virus proteins to CTLs in a MHC class I allele-specific manner identical to its inhibition of MHC class I transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • 11 ⇓ - 13 EBV modulates cellular antiviral responses in various ways, including down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins 14 and blocking proteasomal degradation and antigen synthesis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As a result of examining the antigen presentation of Sp-MØ during differentiation, we reported that Sp-MØ down-regulated their ability to cross-present the cell-associated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein (LCMV-NP) but not the soluble OVA proteins without altering their capacity to directly present LCMV antigens after infection. (queensu.ca)
  • These findings support our hypothesis that increased IFN-γ level can promote increased expression and activity of CTSS and other proteins involved in antigen presentation, and reduce Rab3D expression, changes seen in murine models of SS and/or in SS patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • For both proteins, presentation is partially (NP) or completely (HA) restored by expression of rapidly degraded protein fragments in the vaccinia infected target cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antigen detection, which serves as the initiating event in this cascade, occurs via numerous mechanisms having varying levels of sensitivity and specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two heroes of the post-1986 era, John Trowsdale and Peter Cresswell, have written reviews detailing the seminal discoveries mentioned above leading to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)
  • We previously described that some mycobacterial glycolipid antigens must be processed, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. (ipbs.fr)
  • Mechanisms of pathogenesis have often been used to elucidate host molecular pathways such as herpesvirus and the MHC Class I and MHC Class II antigen presentation pathways. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The most statistically significant enriched categories and networks identified by IPA were associated with cell cycle, gene expression, immune response, infection mechanisms, cellular growth, proliferation and antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potential mechanisms of resistance include lack of expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), decreased capacity to present tumor antigens, and the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (springermedizin.de)
  • A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging from the use of live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, vector vaccines and protein vaccines to RNA or DNA vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • B-cell cross-presentation of insulin required proteolytic cleavage and endosomal localization and was sensitive to inhibitors of protein trafficking. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Eight antigens were solely recognised by patient sera including the recently described CT antigen, PASD1, and the cancer-related SSX2 interacting protein, SSX2IP. (uniprot.org)
  • Our study provides insights into the action of guanidyl-decorated nanoscale adjuvants and new adjuvants for vaccines containing protein antigens. (rsc.org)
  • Recently several cell lines have been identified with mutations in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked protein that lead to defects in class II-restricted antigen presentation and a defect in the formation of class II SDS-stable dimers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our underlying hypothesis is that alteration in protein expression can, and does, direct in vivo antigen presentation into direct or cross-priming pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • For NP, either a large NH2-terminal deletion or the construction of a rapidly degraded ubiquitin-NP fusion protein partially restores presentation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. (wur.nl)
  • These recombinant subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to trigger CTLs responses required to fend off life-threatening infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because several pathogens evade immune recognition by hampering this process, genes involved in antigen processing and presentation may represent common natural selection targets. (prolekare.cz)
  • Little is known about the role of class II-restricted antigen presentation in eliminating invading pathogens or tumors, and in resolution of disease, which is the current focus of my laboratory. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive immunity against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Participants are selected from registered applicants and are prioritized FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS first by scientific excellence and novelty (based on recent ongoing and just published contributions and on submitted abstract), and second to enrich the Workshop with student, female and early career scientists participation. (embo.org)
  • Here we show that targeting of antigen to Fc receptors on DCs accomplishes combined activation of Th1 CD4 and CD8 effector responses in vivo, namely delayed-type hypersensitivity and tumor immunity. (jci.org)
  • This process, essential for the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines, is called cross presentation, and DCs are the main antigen cross presenting and cross priming cell type in vivo [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • additionally antigen cross-presentation was improved both in vitro and in vivo . (rsc.org)
  • Cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved in MDSC-depleted or tumor-bearing MPO-KO mice. (jci.org)
  • These results show that the B cell isoform of FcRII (FcRIIB1) can mediate capture and presentation of some antigen/antibody complexes and might play a role in BCR-independent antigen presentation in vivo. (soton.ac.uk)
  • ln Aim 1 we will determine the effects of targeting viral antigen for expression in specific tissues on the pathways of antigen presentation used in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, by using a natural example of antigen shuttled into different antigen presentation pathways in vivo we will compare the efficiency of CD8+ T cell priming via direct or cross-priming to the amount of antigen made in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Every immunology student should read these two reviews in order to appreciate the creative experiments behind the textbook figures that focus on antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • We explored the role of antigen valency in B cell receptor (BCR) activation and rearrangement of intracellular MHC class II compartments as factors that contribute to the efficacy of antigen presentation. (pnas.org)
  • These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials. (dovepress.com)
  • All cell types express MHC class I (MHC-I) and can present processed intracellular antigens to stimulate cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell activation. (fredhutch.org)
  • 1990. Invariant chain distinguishes between the exogenous and endogenous antigen presentation pathways. (asmscience.org)
  • Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are important mediators of alloresponses, but structural insights on antibody:HLA interaction are still lacking. (nature.com)
  • Antigen binding is the primary function of antibodies and can result in protection of the host. (slideserve.com)
  • Now Offering Over 102,157 Antibodies & 44,722 Antigens! (avivasysbio.com)
  • We leveraged a collection of 14 ICI-resistant lung cancer samples to investigate whether alterations in genes encoding HLA Class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) components or interferon signaling play a role in acquired resistance to PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonistic antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. (nature.com)
  • Fundamental to this process is the recognition, processing, and presentation of antigenic agents that allows integration of the various branches of the innate and adaptive immune systems that cooperate to confer maximal protective immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (sciencemag.org)
  • This treatise is a must-read for all immunologists interested in how the field progressed glacially from studies of "histocompatibility" to the true function of MHC, providing a context for T cell recognition of foreign antigen. (springer.com)
  • Because recognition of several other antigens occurred during the early phase, a general failure in processing and presentation was excluded. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Since neither rate of synthesis, amount, stability, nor nuclear transport of pp89 was modified, the failure in recognition indicates a selective interference with pp89 antigen processing and presentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Cell mediated immune responses are initiated by the recognition of an MHC/antigen complex on the surface of an APC (antigen presenting cell) by a T cell receptor (TcR). (prolekare.cz)
  • Previous works have described a mechanism of regulation of antigen presentation based on the stimulation of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) (Blander and Medzhitov, 2004 and 2006). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Parallel CD137-based CD4+T cell research showed discrete oligospecific recognition of HSV-1 antigens. (eur.nl)
  • How do microbes (i.e., mycobacterium) modify or abrogate the antigen presentation pathways of the host to avoid immune recognition and attack? (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Genes in the MHC that may affect antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Transcription of genes involved in class I presentation is increased in KS and after infection of LECs, but MHC-I and ICAM-1 surface expression are down-regulated in KLECs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Subsequent expression of MCMV early genes prevents presentation of pp89 (del Val, M., K. Mfinch, M. J. Reddehase, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We report on the mechanism by which MCMV early genes interfere with antigen presentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To investigate this, we transfected the parent cell lines T1 and 8.1.6 and their respective antigen presentation mutants T2 and 9.5.3 with the genes encoding I-Ad and examined the derived transfectants for their ability to present antigen, the conformation of I-Ad at the cell surface, association of I-Ad with invariant chain (Ii), and the ability to form I-Ad SDS-stable dimers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mocetinostat upregulated PD - L1 and antigen presentation genes including class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family members in a panel of NSCLC cell lines in vitro. (springermedizin.de)
  • In Aim 2 we will examine differential antigen presentation as a mechanism for the reduced immunogenicity of virus genes expressed late in the virus life cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. (frontiersin.org)
  • This trait may help explain the known ability of soluble, disaggregated antigen to induce a state of B cell tolerance. (pnas.org)
  • Lipids are important antigens that induce T cell-mediated specific immune responses. (ipbs.fr)
  • Expression of the IE promoter-driven bacterial gene lacZ by recombinant MCMV subjected antigen presentation of B-galactosidase to the same control and excluded antigen specificity. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In DCs, DC-SIGN is not the only receptor involved, and redundant pathways of virus capture leading to antigen presentation likely coexist. (pasteur.fr)
  • However, a requirement for CD8 cellular cytotoxicity for the efficacy of an antitumor mAb ( 18 ) suggests that in addition to mediating ADCC, FcγR-mediated enhancement of antigen presentation may also contribute to tumor immunity. (jci.org)
  • Together these data show that the optimal development of protective CD8+ T cell immunity against malaria liver stages is dependent upon the prolonged presentation of sporozoite-derived antigen. (prolekare.cz)
  • These results define cholesterol as an essential factor for cross-presentation and suggest that specific modification of antigens to increase their affinity for cholesterol may be utilized to enhance immunity. (ovid.com)
  • The authors demonstrate in mice that such injury is sufficient to dampen donor renal macrophages' ability to present antigens, skewing them toward a proreparative phenotype. (asnjournals.org)
  • As a first step towards extending studies on this antigen into the murine system we have generated a panel of T cell clones and mAb in H-2b and H-2d mice. (soton.ac.uk)
  • These questions are currently being addressed in my laboratory by using the various antigen presentation-deficient mice as infectious disease and tumor progression models. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • To achieve this, we have used 3β-[ N -( N' , N' -dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. (dovepress.com)
  • Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8 + T-cell responses. (dovepress.com)
  • As Sp-MØ become more mature, their vesicular phagosomal system acquired high acidic characteristics, which adversely affected antigen cross-presentation due to potent and enhanced antigen degradation. (queensu.ca)
  • The lectin does not significantly protect captured virions against degradation and promotes MHC-I exogenous presentation of HIV-1 antigens. (pasteur.fr)
  • ref. 22 ) can alter the immunosuppressive milieu and aid in the initiation of antigen-specific immune responses ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the efficacy of agents that interfere with antigen presentation process can also be evaluated by SIAT® antigen presentation assay. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The functional consequences of the short contact with TNF-alpha are in increased T cell stimulatory capacity in MLR, but a 10-fold decrease in presentation of soluble TT and a 100-fold decrease in presentation of TT-immunoglobulin G complexes. (rupress.org)
  • In each case, ligand binding by the receptor can not only initiate ligand internalization but also trigger additional signaling cascades, which exert direct or indirect effects on subsequent antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Depending on the nature of the antigen, immunomodulation is required to create effective vaccines. (wur.nl)
  • How an antigen is detected depends at once on the nature of the antigen itself as well as on the particular immune cell that detects it. (frontiersin.org)
  • Macrophages (MØ) can regulate CTL responses but little is known about the role played by splenic macrophages (Sp-MØ) in antigen cross-presentation. (queensu.ca)
  • Results Cold ischemia and reversible ischemia-reperfusion injury dampened antigen presentation by renal macrophages, skewed their polarization toward the M 2 phenotype, and increased surface expression of IL-1R8, diminishing activation mediated by toll-like receptor 4. (asnjournals.org)
  • These results strongly suggested that ATDCs require TMEM176B to cross-present antigens in a tolerogenic fashion. (inserm.fr)
  • Engineered, bifunctional receptors present antigens and initiate signaling in response to binding to the cognate T cell receptor. (nature.com)
  • In the present work we investigated the use of mesoporous silicon microparticles (MSMPs) for adjuvant and antigen deliver purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • DCs are a critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor-associated antigens. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, no T cell traceable antigens are present in the apoptotic cargo that internalized LPS. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Accumulation of HLA-DM, a regulator of antigen presentation, in MHC class II compartments. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, oligovalent HEL induced more pronounced rearrangement of MHC class II-containing antigen-processing compartments. (pnas.org)
  • The observed increase in rearrangement of MHC class II-positive compartments and the disposition of antigen-bound BCRs therein correlates with improved presentation of a HEL-derived epitope. (pnas.org)
  • Altogether, lipid antigen properties make them attractive for their use in subunit vaccines against Mtb. (ipbs.fr)
  • These findings provide insights into the mode of phosphopeptide presentation by HLA as well as providing a platform for the rational design of a generation of posttranslationally modified tumor vaccines. (rcsb.org)
  • These data suggest MPO-driven lipid peroxidation in PMN-MDSC as a possible non-cell autonomous mechanism of inhibition of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and propose MPO as potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of current immunotherapies for patients with cancer. (jci.org)
  • In this special issue of Immunogenetics, we take you from Jan Klein's 1986 history chapter entitled "The Story" to the modern-day perspectives of antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)
  • John Trowsdale and Adrian Kelly (Kelly and Trowsdale 2018 ) review a history of the genetic approaches, both traditional and modern, that have been highly successful in the quest to understand antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)
  • Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rapid antigen processing and presentation of a protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T-cell epitope. (doaj.org)
  • Our data suggest that rapid antigen processing may be a key immunological feature of this protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope. (doaj.org)
  • Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. (umassmed.edu)
  • Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (umassmed.edu)
  • NB1-mediated PR3 presentation depended on PR3 N-terminal processing implicating the PR3-N-terminus as NB1-binding site. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The importance of this analysis is highlighted by evidence that physiologically relevant variation in antigen processing and presentation as well as other factors can give rise to unpredictably different T cell responses. (fluidigm.com)
  • Recent advances in processing and presentation of CD1 bound lipid antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, we provide a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and we show that evolutionary studies can provide useful information concerning the location and nature of functional variants, ultimately helping to clarify phenotypic differences between and within species. (prolekare.cz)
  • To date most basic studies on the processing of this antigen have utilized human T and B cell clones. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Sant AJ, Miller J. MHC class II antigen processing: biology of invariant chain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fig. 6: MARIA scores predict melanoma HLA-II-presented antigens and are associated with post-vaccine CD4 + T cell responses. (nature.com)
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Characterization of the repertoire of mycobacterial lipid antigens involved in T cell responses. (ipbs.fr)
  • Here we show that the complete development of protective CD8+ T cell responses requires prolonged antigen presentation. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, not all data suggests short exposures to antigen are optimal for T cell responses. (prolekare.cz)