Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Abbreviations: Works consisting of lists of shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity. Acronyms are included here.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HemocyaninClone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/2830)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (2/2830)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (3/2830)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells. (4/2830)

This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed.  (+info)

In vitro comparison of the antigen-binding and stability properties of the various molecular forms of IgA antibodies assembled and produced in CHO cells. (5/2830)

The hallmark of a mucosal immune response is the production of antigen-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies in external secretions. S-IgA consists of ten polypeptides produced in two different cell lineages. The heavy and light chains in plasma cells assemble into IgA, which on association with J chain become polymerized, whereas secretory component (SC) is added during transport across the epithelium. Recombinant chimeric mouse-human monomeric, dimeric, and S-IgA antibodies have been produced in a single CHO cell sequentially transfected with expression vectors carrying three independent selective markers for chimeric heavy and light chains, human J chain, and human SC, respectively. Biochemical characterization of the various molecular forms indicates that the assembly of the various polypeptides resulted in species of the expected size and covalence. All chimeric IgA antibodies retained the antigen-binding capacity of the parent mouse IgA antibody. The resistance of S-IgA to protease-rich intestinal washes was enhanced when compared with dimeric IgA lacking associated SC. Up to 20 micrograms of recombinant S-IgA per 1 x 10(6) cells were recovered in 24 h with the best producing clones. We conclude that CHO cells programmed de novo with four different genetic elements can assemble functional chimeric S-IgA.  (+info)

Antifactor VIII antibody inhibiting allogeneic but not autologous factor VIII in patients with mild hemophilia A. (6/2830)

Two unrelated patients with the same Arg2150His mutation in the factor VIII (FVIII) C1 domain, a residual FVIII activity of 0.09 IU/mL, and inhibitor titres of 300 and 6 Bethesda Units, respectively, were studied. Further analysis of patient LE, with the highest inhibitor titer, showed that (1) plasma or polyclonal IgG antibodies prepared from LE plasma inhibited the activity of allogeneic (wild-type) but not of self FVIII; (2) the presence of von Willebrand factor (vWF) increased by over 10-fold the inhibitory activity on wild-type FVIII; (3) the kinetics of FVIII inhibition followed a type II pattern, but in contrast to previously described type II inhibitors, LE IgG was potentiated by the presence of vWF instead of being in competition with it; (4) polyclonal LE IgG recognized the FVIII light chain in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the recombinant A3-C1 domains in an immunoprecipitation assay, indicating that at least part of LE antibodies reacted with the FVIII domain encompassing the mutation site; and (5) LE IgG inhibited FVIII activity by decreasing the rate of FVIIIa release from vWF, but LE IgG recognized an epitope distinct from ESH8, a murine monoclonal antibody exhibiting the same property. We conclude that the present inhibitors are unique in that they clearly distinguish wild-type from self, mutated FVIII. The inhibition of wild-type FVIII by LE antibody is enhanced by vWF and is associated with an antibody-dependent reduced rate of FVIIIa release from vWF.  (+info)

Antibody response to antigens distinct from smooth lipopolysaccharide complex in Brucella infection. (7/2830)

The smooth lipopolysaccharide complex of the outer surface of smooth Brucella abortus cells is believed to be the antigenic component involved in serological tests routinely used for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Sera from cattle vaccinated or infected with B. abortus generally contain antibody directed toward the smooth lipopolysaccharide complex. The brucella organism contains a large number of other antigenically distinct components. The biological significance of some of these antigens has been demonstrated by showing that sera from infected cattle have precipitins to these components. These sera revealed up to seven distinct lines in immunoelectrophoresis with a protein-rich antigen mixture prepared from rough strain B. abortus 45/20, whereas sera from strain 19-vaccinated cattle did not reveal these lines at 4 or more months after vaccination. Monospecific antisera were prepared against six antigens in this mixture, and the purification of two of them by antibody affinity chromatography is described.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Characterization of the phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. 6301. (8/2830)

A procedure is described for the preparation of stable phycobilisomes from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 6301 (also known as Anacystis nidulans). Excitation of the phycocyanin in these particles at 580 nm leads to maximum fluorescence emission, from allophycocyanin and allophycocyanin B, at 673 nm. Electron microscopy shows that the phycobilisomes are clusters of rods. The rods are made up of stacks of discs which exhibit the dimensions of short stacks made up primarily of phycocyanin (Eiserling, F. A., and Glazer, A. N. (1974) J. Ultrastruct. Res. 47, 16-25). Loss of the clusters, by dissociation into rods under suitable conditions, is associated with loss of energy transfer as shown by a shift in fluorescence emission maximum to 652 nm. Synechococcus sp. 6301 phycobilisomes were shown to contain five nonpigmented polypeptides in addition to the colored subunits (which carry the covalently bound tetrapyrrole prosthetic groups) of the phycobiliproteins. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that these colorless polypeptides are genuine components of the phycobilisome. The nonpigmented polypeptides represent approximately 12% of the protein of the phycobilisomes; phycocyanin, approximately 75%, and allophycocyanin, approximately 12%. Spectroscopic studies that phycocyanin is in the hexamer form, (alpha beta)6, in intact phycobilisomes, and that the circular dichroism and absorbance of this aggregate are little affected by incorporation into the phycobilisome structure.  (+info)

*CD154

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD40LG genome location and CD40LG ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... This inflammatory reaction in endothelial cells promotes recruitment of leukocytes to lesions and may potentially promote ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

... adverse reactions from these antibodies may occur because of long-lasting response to antigens. Passive monoclonal antibody ... Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens presented on ... Antigen 5T4 Immunotherapy Immunoconjugate Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies List of monoclonal antibodies, including ...

*Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion

Ouchterlony, Örjan (1949). "Antigen-antibody reactions in gels". Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. 26 (4): 507- ... Initially at low antigen concentration, all of the antibody is contained in the precipitate. This is called the antibody-excess ... Where the two diffusion fronts meet, if any of the antibodies recognize any of the antigens, they will bind to the antigens and ... thus large aggregates or gel-like lattices of antigen and antibody are formed. Experimentally, an increasing amount of antigen ...

*Antigen-antibody interaction

... , or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... of antigen-antibody reaction). There are several types of antibodies and antigens, and each antibody is capable of binding only ... "A Theory of Antibody-Antigen Reactions. I. Theory for Reactions of Multivalent Antigen with Bivalent and Univalent Antibody". ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ...

*Turbidimetry

Immunoturbidimetry uses the classical antigen-antibody reaction. The antigen-antibody complexes are particles which can be ...

*Gravindex

It is based on double antigen antibody reaction. The test detects the prevention of agglutination of HCG-coated latex particles ... and the other is a solution of HCG antibodies. One drop of the urine is mixed with one drop of antibody solution for one minute ... If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and thus no agglutination with the HCG-coated latex particles ... If the level of HCG is too low, the antibodies will remain to agglutinate the HCG-coated latex particles. If agglutination ...

*Hélio Gelli Pereira

The team also developed new methods for the study of rickettsial antigen-antibody reactions. Interference from politicians at ...

*Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as Immuno-PCR. A rapid dot- ... Chye, S. -M.; Lin, S. R.; Chen, Y. L.; Chung, L. Y.; Yen, C. M. (2004). "Immuno-PCR for Detection of Antigen to Angiostrongylus ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ... motion Toxic by-products such as nitrogenous waste Antigens released by dead and living parasites Although the clinical disease ...

*Bioassay

quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from antigen-antibody reaction (ex. Direct, indirect, ... HIV test also uses indirect ELISA to detect HIV antibody caused by infection. Assay Immunoassay Hoskins, W. M.; Craig, R. (1962 ... He introduced the concept of standardization by the reactions of living matter. His bioassay on diphtheria antitoxin was the ...

*Absolute molar mass

These measurements are most often used to measure timed events like antibody-antigen reactions or protein assembly. Batch mode ...

*Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

... which involve immune mechanisms consisting of antigen-antibody reactions. These reactions may result from unrelated antigen- ... The latter type of antigen-antibody reaction may be termed "autoimmune", and hemolytic anemias so produced are autoimmune ... antibody complexes that fix to an innocent-bystander erythrocyte, or from related antigen-antibody combinations in which the ... The antibodies are usually directed against high-incidence antigens, therefore they also commonly act on allogenic RBCs (RBCs ...

*Örjan Ouchterlony

"Antigen-antibody reactions in gels", Acta path microbiol scand, 26: 507-515 Ouchterlony Ö (1953), "Antigen-antibody reactions ... Ouchterlony Ö (1949), Antigen-antibody reactions in gels and the practical application of this phenomenon in the laboratory ... Types of reactions in coordinated systems of diffusion", Acta path microbiol scand, 32: 231-240 "Ouchterlony Test". Enotes.com ...

*Coombs test

... is used to detect in-vitro antibody-antigen reactions. It is used to detect very low concentrations of antibodies present in a ... Both IgM and IgG antibodies bind strongly with their antigens. IgG antibodies are most reactive at 37 °C. IgM antibodies are ... Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be fixed onto antigens on the surface of red blood ... If the serum contains antibodies to antigens on the RBC surface, the antibodies will bind onto the surface of the RBCs. The ...

*Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

It is during this condition that the parasites induce an immune response (antigen-antibody reaction) and evade destruction in ... The first human RBC antigen was reported in 1986. Howard's team found that the antigens from Gambian children, who were ... The antigen was large and appeared to be different in size in different strains of P. falciparum obtained from night monkey ( ... Both antigens bind to cultured skin cancer (melanoma) cells. But the researchers failed to confirm whether or not the protein ...

*Assay

Immunoassay when the response is an antigen antibody binding type reaction. Depending on the nature of the signal amplification ... antibody against blood group antigens). Quantitative assays, i.e. assays that give accurate and exact numeric quantitative ... These may simply be in the form of a narrow band-pass optical filer, or a blocking reagent in a binding reaction that prevents ... A wide range of cellular secretions (say, a specific antibody or cytokine) can be detected using the ELISA technique. The ...

*Immune system

... who proposed the side-chain theory to explain the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction; his contributions to the ... A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... secrete millions of copies of the antibody that recognizes this antigen. These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph, ... antigens during a process called antigen presentation. Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are ...

*Cell biology

... specificity of the antibody-antigen reaction can be achieved. Once this complex is formed, it is identified via either a "tag" ... immunostaining requires the reaction of an antibody directed against the protein of interest within the tissue or cell. Through ... With an enzymatic tag, such as horse radish peroxidase, a chemical reaction is carried out that results in a dark color in the ... Therefore, in order for these molecules to participate in reactions, within the cell, they need to be able to cross this ...

*Biochip

... in competitive assays an enzyme-labelled antigen is used. On antibody-antigen binding a chemiluminescence reaction produces ... In protein Biochip Array Technology, the biochip replaces the ELISA plate or cuvette as the reaction platform. The biochip is ... First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. ... Biochip Array Technology is a novel application of a familiar methodology, using sandwich, competitive and antibody-capture ...

*John Forssman

... heterophile antibody) and "Forssman reaction", also referred to as a "Forssman antigen-antibody reaction". Über die Ursachen, ... He is known for discovery of the "Forssman antigen", defined as a glycolipid heterophile antigen found on tissue cells of many ... His name is also associated with the following two terms: "Forssman antibody" ( ...

*Immunohaematology

Immunohematology, more commonly known as blood banking is a branch of hematology which studies antigen-antibody reactions and ... Their day-to-day duties include blood typing, cross-matching and antibody identification.[citation needed] Todd, C. Interview. ...

*Charlotte Friend

... on antigen-antibody reactions During her time at Yale she frequently traveled to New York to consult with Elvin Kabat and ...

*Morris Goodman

Upon finishing a dissertation on the antigen-antibody precipitin reaction, he went to Caltech for post-doctoral work, supported ...

*ELISA

... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... A specific antibody is added, and binds to antigen (hence the 'sandwich': the antigen is stuck between two antibodies). This ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... Since it is necessary to remove any unbound antibody or antigen by washing, the antibody or antigen has to be fixed to the ...

*Nephelometry (medicine)

End point nephelometry tests are run by allowing the antibody/antigen reaction to run through to completion (until all of the ... Nephelometry can be used to detect either antigen or antibody, but it is usually run with antibody as the reagent and the ... Antibody and the antigen are mixed in concentrations such that only small aggregates are formed that do not quickly settle to ... present reagent antibodies and the present patient sample antigens that can aggregate have done so and no more complexes can ...

*David Pressman (scientist)

"The Nature of the Forces Between Antigen and Antibody and of the Precipitation Reaction". Physiological Reviews. 23 (3): 203- ... scarc (27 September 2016). "Dan Campbell and David Pressman study antigens and antibodies". Retrieved 27 September 2016. ... Campbell and the three published highly influential work on antibodies and antigens. Pressman then joined the faculty at the ... "Campbell, Pressman, Pauling and the Binding of Antibodies". The Pauling Blog. Oregon State University. 9 April 2015. Retrieved ...

*Norovirus

The ABH antigen produced is thought to act as receptors for human norovirus. Homozygous carriers of any nonsense mutation in ... Tests such as ELISA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially, but lack specificity ... Specific diagnosis of norovirus is routinely made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays or quantitative PCR assays, which ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ...

*Henry Roy Dean

"The influence of optimal proportions of antigen and antibody in the serum precipitation reaction". The Journal of Pathology and ... Dean, HR (1910). "An Examination of the Blood Serum of Idiots by the Wassermann Reaction". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... Dean, H. R.; Webb, R. A. (1928). "The determination of the rate of antibody (precipitin) production in rabbit's blood by the ... Dean, HR (1916). "The Horace Dobell Lecture ON THE MECHANISM OF THE SERUM REACTION: Delivered before the Royal College of ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Immunohistochemistry is used to confirm the presence of or to identify certain structures or substances in tissue sections which cannot be identified with conventional staining methods. Such structures include: cells, enzymes, hormones, macromolecules like nucleic acids and polysaccharides. The basis of immunohistochemical staining techniques is the antigen-antibody reaction. This method makes it possible to differentiate, for example, various cells in a tissue section according to their different metabolic products or surfaces. Either the metabolic product or a certain surface component serves as the antigen. In the first step, the antigen reacts with a specific antibody. The resulting antigen-antibody complex is invisible. Therefore, in a further step a second antibody bound to an adjuvant is added and binds to the initial antibody (so-called sandwich procedure). The bound adjuvant makes the antigen-antibody complex visible under the microscope and identifies the sought structure. Adjuvants ...
Looking for antigenic determinant? Find out information about antigenic determinant. The portion of an antigen molecule that determines the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction Explanation of antigenic determinant
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The complement system has been long appreciated as a major effector arm of the innate immune response. It consists of a complex group of serum proteins and glycoproteins and soluble or membrane-bound receptors, which play an important role in host defense against infection. Complement, a phylogenetically conserved arm of innate immunity, functions together with the adaptive immune response by serving as an important inflammatory mediator of antigen-antibody interactions. It also provides an interface between the innate and adaptive immune response by contributing to the enhancement of the humoral response mounted against specific antigens ...
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Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Each of several antigen-antibody systems studied has been found to affect the coagulation mechanism in the rabbit, causing a marked shortening of the coagulation time in vitro of samples of whole blood maintained in siliconized glassware. Addition of specific antigen to the blood of actively immunized animals or addition of antigen-antibody mixtures to the blood of normal animals produced the effect. The coagulation time of plasma was not affected, indicating that the phenomenon may be mediated by an effect on platelets. This effect of antigen-antibody interaction may be involved in the production of tissue damage in vivo.. ...
Measuring ligand receptor forces using the atomic force microscope as a force-sensing instrument has been well documented. For example in the detection of antibody-antigen interactions with the antibody attached to the AFM tip with a spacer molecule in-between. The vast majority of these studies use idealized systems, such as individual antibodies adsorbed onto a well-defined substrate. Little work has been done on the investigations on biological systems more representative of actual real-life situations. It has been demonstrated that antibody - antigen interactions can be detected on collagen tendons with an unbinding force of 90 - 120 pN. In addition, by moving the AFM tip laterally the spatial distribution of the interactions could be determined a resolution of a hundred nanometers showing a non-uniform distribution of events across the tendon. The analysis was complicated by signals arising from not only from antibody-antigen interactions but also from the pulling of the collagen fibrils by the
substrate EW-80110 Kit EW-80200 Kit EW-80201 Kit EW-80202 Kit EW-80203- Kit EW-80204 Kit EW-80205 Kit EW-80206 Kit EW-80207 Kit EW-80208 Kit EW-80209 Kit EW-80215 Kit EW-90100 EW-BLP01 EW-BLP02 EW-BP01-1L EW-BSB01 EW-BSB02 EW-BSB03 EW-BSB04 EW-EP05-30 EW-FP01-5 EW-FP01-50 EW-GLP01 EW-GLP02 EW-HB01 EW-IF01-4N EW-IOR01 EW-LF01-10S EW-LF01-500 EW-LF08-10S EW-LF08-500 EW-LF16-10S EW-LF16-500 EW-LH604-200 EW-LH604-30 EW-PP03-2C EW-PP03-5E EW-PP03-6C EW-PP05-2C EW-PP05-5E EW-PP05-6C dye EW-SALL-500 EW-VG01-10S EW-VG01-300 EW-VG01-500 EW-VG08-10S EW-VG08-300 EW-VG08-500 EW-VG16-100 EW-VP01-125 EW-VP01-500 EW-VP05-125 EW-VP05-500 EW-VP10-1L Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET Antigen
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/immunohistochemistry-market. Market Insights. Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. The antigen-antibody reaction can be visualized with an optical microscope. Traditional immunodetectors use the 3 step Biotin-Streptavidin-Enzyme technique; however, recent technological advancement has developed the polydetectors and cytodetectors kits that employ tandem hyperlabelling technology to ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/immunohistochemistry-market. Market Insights. Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. The antigen-antibody reaction can be visualized with an optical microscope. Traditional immunodetectors use the 3 step Biotin-Streptavidin-Enzyme technique; however, recent technological advancement has developed the polydetectors and cytodetectors kits that employ tandem hyperlabelling technology to ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/immunohistochemistry-market. Market Insights. Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. The antigen-antibody reaction can be visualized with an optical microscope. Traditional immunodetectors use the 3 step Biotin-Streptavidin-Enzyme technique; however, recent technological advancement has developed the polydetectors and cytodetectors kits that employ tandem hyperlabelling technology to ...
Physiology and chemistry of resistance to infection and responses to foreign biological substances of a potentially harmful nature. Includes natural immunity, antigen-antibody reactions, immunosuppression and tolerance, the complement system, hypersensitivity, immune deficiencies, autoimmunity, and tumor immunology. Applications include serology. ...
The "delayed hypersensitive" reactivity induced by antigen-antibody complexes has been studied from the standpoints of the role of such complexes in establishing this state, and the relationship of this state to classical delayed hypersensitivity.. It has been shown that the reactivity established by antigen-antibody complexes appears early after injection, disappears within a few days, and is characterized by several properties which make it appear similar to true delayed hypersensitivity, including its appearance, its relative persistence for 48 hours, and its occurrence in the absence of antibodies. By the same tokens, it may be distinguished from hypersensitive reactions of the immediate type. It is referred to here as reactivity of the Jones-Mote type.. Antigen alone stimulates exactly the same kind of early reactive state, but with larger doses of antigen this is later replaced by other immunologic responses including circulating antibodies and Arthus reactivity. If sufficiently small ...
Abstract An antibody reactive with the galactosyl(α1-2)galactose [gal(α1-2)gal] epitope was characterized in human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, red blood cell (RBC) and laminin absorption, and oligosaccharide inhibition. This antibody was found evenly distributed between the IgG and IgM classes and was present at high titers in the serum of all normal adults studied, but in 75% of children less than three years of age, it was observed at the lower limit of detection, and gradually increased to adult levels by the age of six. Although this antibody bound to gal(α1-3)gal-linked synthetic antigens, it did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig RBC or in murine laminin or nidogen. These latter results, plus the fact that antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked by gal(α1-2)gal but not by methyl-α-galactopyranoside or melibiose, suggest that this antibody is indeed different from anti-gal(α1-3)gal antibody. Anti-gal(α1-2)gal antibody levels were
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the films surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding ...
Rx Biosciences offers construction and screening of custom bacterial display libraries of small peptides. The library is useful in ligand discovery, antibody-antigen binding affinity study and identification of targets. Libraries of polypeptides displayed on the surface of bacteria are screened using flow cytometry or routinely used selection procedures (biopanning). The library is created by combining a highly diverse collection of synthetically-constructed randomized peptide sequences using a unique proprietary technique. The library has been specifically optimized to eliminate unwanted stop codons and aggregation-prone sequences. As in a phage display, the peptides the bacterial display peptides are expressed at the surface (plasma membrane) as a conjugated protein. The expression of the peptides is inducible.. We accept customer supplied vectors also and the customer owns the exclusive rights.. ...
Draber, P and Viklicky, V, "The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3118 ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen For Hamster Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-T8 Western blot annotations, antigen-antibody pens, ECl, Western, dot blots Antigen-Antibody Pen For Hamster Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-T8 Western blot annotations, antigen-antibody pens, ECl, Western, dot blots
Pathogens antibodies and vaccines science take out answers, I got a snake man, Create models of pathogens, antibodies, and antigen-antibody interaction. Perform simulated laboratory tests to compare the antibody levels of unvaccinated.
The complement system has been long appreciated as a major effector arm of the innate immune response. It consists of a complex group of serum proteins and glycoproteins and soluble or membrane-bound receptors, which play an important role in host defense against infection. Complement, a phylogenetically conserved arm of innate immunity, functions together with the adaptive immune response by serving as an important inflammatory mediator of antigen-antibody interactions. It also provides an interface between the innate and adaptive immune response by contributing to the enhancement of the humoral response mounted against specific antigens ...
Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to
Interactions between antigen and antibody Interaction between antigen and antibody is a bimolecular association and it does not lead to an irreversible chemical alteration in either the...
1IC4: Structural evidence for entropic contribution of salt bridge formation to a protein antigen-antibody interaction: the case of hen lysozyme-HyHEL-10 Fv complex.
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
Antigen-Antibody Pen For Rat Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pen For Rat Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-R10
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. AU - Kamei, Chiaki. AU - Sugimoto, Yukio. AU - Yamaji, Masako. AU - Takada, Miho. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Loratadine caused an inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast culls induced by passively sensitized mast cells, and IC 50 was 9.57 μM. SCH 34117, a metabolite of loratadine, also inhibited histamine release from mast cells, and its potency was more than that of loratadine. Moreover, in ex vivo experiments, loratadine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as terfenadine provided a relatively potent inhibitory effect on histamine release from lung pieces of actively sensitized guinea pigs exposed to antigen.. AB - Loratadine caused an inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast culls induced by passively sensitized mast cells, and IC 50 was 9.57 μM. SCH 34117, a metabolite of loratadine, also inhibited histamine release from mast cells, and its potency was more than that of ...
Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean?
An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.[1] The bound antigen and antibody act as a unitary object, effectively an antigen of its own with a specific epitope. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization,[2] phagocytosis, or processing by proteases. Red blood cells carrying CR1-receptors on their surface may bind C3b-coated immune complexes and transport them to phagocytes, mostly in liver and spleen, and return to the general circulation.. Immune complexes may themselves cause illness when they are deposited in organs, for example, in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification, called type III hypersensitivity.[3] Such hypersensitivity progressing to disease states produces the immune complex diseases.. Immune complex ...
Home » Immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoelectrophoresis (Science: technique) a two-step procedure which first involves the electrophoretic separation of proteins, followed by the linear diffusion of antibodies into the electrophoretic gel from a trough which extends through the length of the gel adjacent to the electrophoretic path. The antigen-antibody reactions produce precipitin arcs at positions where equivalence occurs. Although quantitation is subjective, an experienced eye candetermine not only the presence of the antigen but, through visual comparison to normal control sera, may discriminate relative increases or decreases of antigen by gauging the length and density of the precipitin arcs at positions established for specific antigens using known standards. ...
Description. UCI BioSci M121: Immunology with Hematology (Fall 2013) Lec 06. Immunology with Hematology -- Antibody Structure & B-Cells -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/biosci_m121_immunology_with_hematology.html Instructor: David A. Fruman, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: UCI BioSci M121 covers the following topics: Antibodies, antigens, antigen-antibody reactions, cells and tissues of lymphoreticular and hematopoietic systems, and individual and collective components of cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Recorded on October 9, 2013 Required attribution: Fruman, David. Immunology with Hematology M121 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/biosci_m121_immunology_with_hematology.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 ...
Description. UCI BioSci M121: Immunology with Hematology (Fall 2013) Lec 10. Immunology with Hematology -- B Cell Development -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/biosci_m121_immunology_with_hematology.html Instructor: David A. Fruman, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: UCI BioSci M121 covers the following topics: Antibodies, antigens, antigen-antibody reactions, cells and tissues of lymphoreticular and hematopoietic systems, and individual and collective components of cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Recorded on October 18, 2013 Required attribution: Fruman, David. Immunology with Hematology M121 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/biosci_m121_immunology_with_hematology.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 ...
Definition : Immunoassay analyzers that attach chemiluminescent substances (e.g., isoluminol, acridinium esters), which emit light at a particular wavelength during a chemical reaction, as a label to either an antigen or an antibody and then measure the concentration of the ligand (the substance being analyzed) in the specimen under analysis, using the result of the antigen-antibody reaction. These analyzers usually include an autosampler, a reagent dispenser, and a luminometer to detect and quantify photoelectrons. Chemiluminescent analyzers have better sensitivity than photometric or fluorimetric analyzers.. Related Terms : "Luminometers". Entry Terms : "Luminescent Immunoassay Analyzers" , "Luminescent Analyzers" , "Analyzers, Immunoassay, Chemiluminescence" , "Fluorescence Immunoassay Analyzers" , "Enzyme Immunoassay Analyzers" , "CLIAs" , "Immunoassay Analyzers, Laboratory, Chemiluminescence". UMDC code : 17916 ...
Started in 1964, this journal publishes original research articles in the following areas: structure-function relationships of biomolecules; biomolecular recognition, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions; gene-cloning, genetic engineering, genome analysis, gene targeting, gene expression, vectors, gene therapy; drug targeting, drug design; molecular basis of genetic diseases; conformational studies, computer simulation, novel DNA structures and their biological implications, protein folding; enzymes structure, catalytic mechanisms, regulation; membrane biochemistry, transport, ion channels, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, glycobiology; receptors, antigen-antibody binding, neurochemistry, ageing, apoptosis, cell cycle control; hormones, growth factors; oncogenes, host-virus interactions, viral assembly and structure; intermediary metabolism, molecular basis of disease processes, vitamins, coenzymes, carrier proteins, toxicology; plant and microbial biochemistry; surface ...
... ,Advantages of using the Antigen-Antibody Pens-Using a proprietary and patented technology, ADI has designed and developed specialized fountain pens, called Antigen-Antibody pens-TM, that will allow researchers to deliver or write/mark the blotting membranes in any form or shape or size. A specially,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
If N* is small, as will undoubtedly be the case for IgM, fluctuations from its mean may have to be considered. To express the first of these effects more formally. let N (r ± 8/2) be the number p of antibodies bound per RBC at r N (r ± 8/2) = N* + P ± 8/2. 11 53 Therefore 8 varies inversely as the gradient at rp. With time fixed, one generally expects smaller gradients at larger distances. Consequently, there will be greater uncertainty in the radii of large plaques. Stochastic effects on the number of antibodies bound at a fixed distance may be discussed approximately by assuming that complement is added at a time when the concentration of diffusing antibodies is near its steady state value. Consider the diffusion of antibodies from a circular well of radius a. into a twodimensional gel containing haptenated RBCs with which the antibodies interact specifically and reversibly. Let rand t measure. respectively. the distance from the center of the well and the length of time which elapsed since ...
Molecular recognition via noncovalent interactions plays a key role in many biological processes such as antigen-antibody interactions, protein folding, the bonding and catalytic transformation of substrates by enzymes, etc. Amongst these noncovalent interactions, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions, and metal-to-ligand bonding are the most prominent. Exploring noncovalent interactions in host-guest systems that range from small hydrocarbon systems to more complex systems is the main motivation of this thesis. The present study involves the design, synthesis and characterization of clip-shaped molecules as host structures, and an examination of their binding properties with a variety of guests using NMR spectroscopy.. Several clips with a hydrocarbon or glycoluril backbone were synthesized. The binding of cations to small, hydrocarbon-based clips suggests that binding is enhanced by the rigidity and cooperativity between the two sidewalls of the clip. Binding is also ...
When the inactivated viruses enter the tissues, immune cells patrolling the area detect foreign chemicals, usually proteins. (Viruses are not living organisms, but basically little bits of RNA or DNA and protein.) These cells engulf the invading viruses, process the parts, and actually display them on their surface, like a sign. Other cells (T-cells) come by, and if any of them happens to be able to read this sign, they get very excited. These cells, by various mechanisms, pass the news of the specific invader on to B-cells, which then mature and start making antibodies that are specific to the polio virus. This takes a few weeks. After this initial introduction of polio to the immune system, the antibody reaction dies down, and a few of these now-polio-specific B-cells go into hibernation in the spleen, lymph nodes, gut, and other nooks and crannies ...
The subject invention provides a means for the immunological detection of an entire class of microorganisms in clinical samples. The detection is accomplished by reaction of the clinical sample iwth a class-specific immunological reagent. This reagent is an antiserum either monoclonal or polyclonal in nature, and the detection is based upon reaction of the antiserum with an antigenic determinant which is shared among all members of the detectable class of microorganisms. The presence of the resulting immunological reaction product (e.g. the antigen-antibody complex) may be detected by well-known immunological detection-systems.
Affect, Algorithm, Allele, Alleles, Alloantibodies, Antibodies, Antigen, Antigen-antibody Complexes, B Cells, Carrying, Cell, Cells, Complementarity Determining Regions, Epitopes, Human, Immunoglobulin, Leukocyte, Molecular Models, Monoclonal Antibodies, Observation
Plexera® develops products for detection and quantification of molecular binding interactions such as protein-protein, antibody-antigen, protein-oligonucleotide, and other molecular binding interactions.
Different methods of fixation and tissue processing were employed to demonstrate intracellular antibody to horseradish peroxidase, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and glucose oxidase in lymph node of several species. Fixation with various glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde fixation procedures were tried. None of those fixatives appeared to inhibit the subsequent antigen-antibody reaction. Small fragments of lymph node were cut either by hand with a razor blade or by using a tissue chopper and complete cross sections of the node were cut at 40 µm thickness in a cryostat. The latter method gave the most consistently reproducible results in that antibodies to all 3 enzymes were demonstrable: The intracellular penetration of the enzymes was superior with this method, and specific areas in the lymph node could be selected by light microscopy prior to cutting thin sections. Finally, a technique is described whereby antibody antihorseradish peroxidase can be detected in ultrathin frozen sections ...
In the interpretation of glycan profiling patterns (i.e., glycan profiles) taken by lectin microarrays, I have summarized important things and procedures as follows.. 1. Some sort of normalization is absolutely necessary in comparing glycan profiles differentially. One of the most useful normalization methods is "Average Normalization". In this case, all of the lectin signals are devided by the average of all lectins on the array, and for convenience, the values are then multiplied by 100. 2. And, the differences in glycan profiles are interpreted taking lectin binding characteristics and CV (coefficient of variation) into consideration. Usually the CV is less than 10% in a lot, and that of lot-to-lot variation gets a little bit bigger than this. Lectin binding specificity is not one-to-one relationship like an antigen-antibody reaction, but is fairly broader than that. So, we must be careful in the interpretation if other lectins with similar binding characteristics are reacting in the same way ...
Lernziele: Immunologie in der Labormedizin KV2 im Überblick Lernziele: Immunologie in der Labormedizin Was sind Immunassays? Was versteckt sich hinter den Abkürzungen? Assay Beispiele um immunologische Prinzipien zu vertiefen Aussagekraft von Labordaten Vertrauensgrenzen Knowledge of the concentration of various antigens or antibodies in a patients blood or other tissues can be very useful in diagnosis and/or in determining the clinical status of a patient. Tests of antigen-antibody interactions fall into two categories, indirect and direct measurements. Precipitation reactions are dependent on the presence of multivalent antibodies and antigens. They are inherently relatively insensitive since there must be enough reactants present to form a viable precipitate. Precipitation reactions include: agglutination, single double diffusion in agar, rocket electrophoresis, and immunoelectrophoresis. Complement fixation is more sensitive than precipitation reactions but is seldom
This is a very common problem for ELISAs because of 2 issues. First there is a high IgG content present in serum which provides significant background especially when low dilutions are used. Preimmune sera typically have lower IgG contents because young animals have not built up significant humoural responses until they get older. Even sera from an unimmunized animal will show increased ELISA signals that are non-specific over a typical immunization period of 10-12 weeks. Polystyrene plates typically used for ELISA bind significant amounts of protein and so the use of sera at low dilutions inevitably results in adsorption of detectable amounts of non-immune IgGs. Secondly, depending on the immune titre, you may or may not be able to measure specific reactions over and above the background. My company, Larial Proteomics develops high fidelity custom immunologicals for clients. We typically use biosensors to measure serum antibody interactions with antigens because we obtain much greater ...
Following an analysis of the contacts between antibody and antigen in the complex structures available in the Protein Databank, we have generated a set of mean contact data. The full method by which these results were obtained is described in the following paper: MacCallum, R. M., Martin, A. C. R. and Thornton, J. T. Antibody-antigen interactions: Contact analysis and binding site topography. J. Mol. Biol. 262, 732-745.. Briefly, we have analysed the number of contacts made at each position, defining contact as burial by , 1 square Angstrom change in solvent accessibility. These data give a simple measure of how likely a residue is to be involved in antigen contact.. Second, we have calculated the mean percentage burial over the accessible residues.. Click here for an image showing a composite combining site containing all CDR conformations coloured by contact propensity.. The table presents the chain name, residue number (N.B. This is pre-1989 Chothia Numbering), the number of contacts and the ...
Resp. Sir,. The developments fall under two categories: externally regulated or pulsatile systems (also known as open-loop systems) and self-regulated systems (also known as closed-loop). The self-regulated systems, on the other hand, are defined as systems where the controlled variable is detected, and as a result, the system output is adjusted accordingly. The release rate is controlled by feedback information, without any external intervention. The self-regulated systems utilize several approaches for the rate control mechanisms such as thermal, pH-sensitive polymers, enzyme-substrate reactions, pH-sensitive drug solubility, competitive binding, antibody interactions and metal-concentration-dependent hydrolysis.. Regards,. Leena P Deore. ...
A breif guide to immunohistochemistry protocol,including tissue collection, Fixation,Embedding, Sectioning, Mounting, Antigen retrieval, antibody reaction, Staining, Counterstaining and sealing.
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A device for the creation of propulsive force comprising a magnet, such as a permanent magnet or a superconductive solenoid, fixedly mounted at the narrow end of a converging nozzle made of a superconductor, such as a type II superconductor, e.g. like the rare earth Ba-Cu-O superconductors Sm-Ba-Cu-O or Y-Ba-Cu-O. The magnetic field generated by the interaction of the magnet with the superconducting nozzle due to Meissner effect, acts in the form of pressure on nozzle thereby producing a propulsive force directed toward the nozzles converging end. The propulsive force being developed may be used for propelling or actuating any machine or vehicle, as well as in the production of energy.
The sheep cell agglutination test or heterophile antibody reaction, as it is also called, is a laboratory procedure of considerable value in clinical medicine. In this country one frequently speaks alternately of the Paul-Bunnell test; and in Europe it is often referred to as the Hanganutziu-Deicher reaction. In 1911 Forssman1 recognized the nonspecificity of certain antigen-antibody reactions. The terms "heterogenetic," "heterophilic," or "heterophile" are applied to those antibodies that react with an antigen (sheep erythrocytes) which seemingly had nothing to do with their development. One type of heterophile antibody is known as the Forssman antibody, but there are other varieties ...
The aim of immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry is to reveal specific antigens in cells and tissue samples. Those techniques are based on an antigen-antibody reaction and visualization of its product in microscopic examination. The precursor of this new diagnostic procedure was an immunofluorescent reaction in frozen tissue samples performed by Albert Coons in 1940. Then the immunohistochemical techniques were perfected to increase sensitivity and specificity. Currently it is hard to imagine a modern pathological examination without immunohistochemistry. At the end of XXth century it was believed that 75% of cases is possible to be diagnosed due to immunohistochemical stains. Microscopic examination of endocrine glands tissue samples is extremely difficult because of coexistence of the presence of neoplasms and endocrine dysfunction. It is necessary to establish the type of hormones in the cells of the endocrine system lesions to make a proper diagnosis. Thanks to the use of antibodies against
Rh incompatibility 15% of the worlds population is Rh-negative. Rh incompatibility is a risk when an Rh negative woman carry a fetus which is Rh positive. Rh incompatibility results from an antigen-antibody reaction (alloimmunization).
A report is given of 34 cases of Ulcus rodens of the eye (Mooren), which were examined and treaded during a period of five years in Togo, West Africa. The cases were divided into two groups according to the development of the disease. In fourteen cases the progress of the disease was arrested by local treatment (described individually for each eye), and by simultaneous treatment of the Helminthosis (Ascaris lumbricoides and Ankylostoma duodenale), from which the patients were also suffering. It seems likely that Ulcus rodens is caused by an antigen-antibody reaction to Helminth toxins ...
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The 2.8 A resolution three-dimensional structure of a complex between an antigen (lysozyme) and the Fab fragment from a monoclonal antibody against lysozyme has been determined and refined by x-ray crystallographic techniques. No conformational changes can be observed in the tertiary structure of lysozyme compared with that determined in native crystalline forms. The quaternary structure of Fab is that of an extended conformation. The antibody combining site is a rather flat surface with protuberances and depressions formed by its amino acid side chains. The antigen-antibody interface is tightly packed, with 16 lysozyme and 17 antibody residues making close contacts. The antigen contacting residues belong to two stretches of the lysozyme polypeptide chain: residues 18 to 27 and 116 to 129. All the complementarity-determining regions and two residues outside hypervariable positions of the antibody make contact with the antigen. Most of these contacts (10 residues out of 17) are made by the heavy ...
ch. 1. History of immunology -- ch. 2. Molecules, cells, and tissues of the immune response -- ch. 3. Antigens and immunogens -- ch. 4. Major histocompatibility complex -- ch. 5. Antigen processing and presentation -- ch. 6. B lymphocyte development and immunoglobulin genes -- ch. 7. Immunoglobulin synthesis, properties, structure, and function -- ch. 8. Antigen-antibody interactions -- ch. 9. The thymus and T lymphocytes -- ch. 10. Cytokines and chemokines -- ch. 11. The complement system -- ch. 12. Types I, II, III, and IV hypersensitivity ch. 13. Immunoregulation and immunologic tolerance -- ch. 14. Autoimmunity -- ch. 15. Mucosal immunity -- ch. 16. Immunohematology -- ch. 17. Immunological diseases and immunopathology -- ch. 18. Immunophenotyping of hematopoietic malignancies -- ch. 19. Immunodeficiencies : congenital and acquired -- ch. 20. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) -- ch. 21. Immunomodulators -- ch. 22. Transplantation immunology -- ch. 23. Tumor immunology -- ch. 24. ...
Larson, D.R., J.A. Gosse, D. Holowka, B. Baird and W.W. Webb: Temporally Resolved Interactions Between Antigen-stimulated IgE Receptors and Lyn Kinase on Living Cells. J. Cell Sci. 171(3): 527-536, 2005. (DOI). Joralemon, M.J., N.L. Smith, D. Holowka, B. Baird and K.L. Wooley: Antigen-decorated Shell Crosslinked Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibody Interactions. Bioconjugate Chem. 16(5): 1246-1256, 2005. (DOI). Holowka, D., J.A. Gosse, A.T. Hammond, X. Han, P. Sengupta, N.L. Smith, A. Wagenknecht-Wiesner, M. Wu, R.M. Young and B. Baird: Lipid Segregation and IgE Receptor Signaling: A Decade of Progress. Biophys. Biochim. Acta. 1746(3): 252-259, 2005. (DOI). Gosse, J.A., A. Wagenknecht-Wiesner, D. Holowka and B. Baird: Transmembrane Sequences are Determinants of Immunoreceptor Signaling. J. Immunol. 175: 2123-2131, 2005.. Senaratne, W., C. Harnett, P. Sengupta, B. Baird, H.G. Craighead and C.K. Ober: Molecular Templates for Bio-specific Recognition by Low-Energy Electron Beam ...
The larch arabinogalactan is Employed in another Lonza ingredient, ResistAid™, which not too long ago demonstrated a good immune reaction by raising the antibody reaction to your 23-valent pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine. The review even further showed that ResistAid had an immunomodulatory effect, which means that it enhanced the right reaction into the antigen without indiscriminately maximizing other arms with the immune technique that might not be expected to reply. ResistAid can be a potent mixture of LAG and bioactive flavonoids. ...
References for Abcams Anti-Interferon gamma antibody [F-3] (ab7372). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Soren, L, "Immunological reactivity of lymphocytes in multiparous females after strain specific matings." (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 281 ...
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Betamethasone: Betamethasone is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. This leads to changes in genetic expression once this complex binds to the GRE. The antiinflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding. Betamethasone binds to plasma transcortin, and it becomes active when it is not bound to transcortin ...
In the worst case, the antibodies to an ESA which some cats develop may cause the cat not only to neutralise his or her own erythropoietin but also to develop a condition called pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which also kills off existing red blood cells. In such a case, the cat develops a sudden loss of response to the ESA, the PCV level falls suddenly, and the reticulocyte count will be extremely low. The cat will often be very lethargic and short of breath. Many vets believe that the antibody reaction to ESAs is identical to PRCA. They therefore fear that the chance of this happening is as high as 70%, and consider that any cat who suddenly becomes more anaemic despite being on an ESA must be developing PRCA.. I see it more as a question of degree. Whereas some cats develop the antibody reaction mildly (so the ESA keeps on working for them, see above), those cats who develop PRCA are exhibiting a reaction at the opposite end of the spectrum, which also affects their existing red blood cells. ...
Immune system. Computer graphics representation of a whole Immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule (Y- shaped) bound to an antigen (hen egg white lysozyme, in red). IgG is one of a group of related proteins that act as antibodies in the blood. IgG is composed of a vertical fragment (denoted Fc, blue) and two fragments that form oblique branches (denoted Fab, green & yellow). Antigen-antibody interaction occurs at the tips of these Fab branches. Antibodies are synthesised in lymphoid tissue in response to the presence of a particular antigen & transported via the blood circulation. The body makes a huge range of antibodies, each with a varying structure. The 3-D structures of Fab-Lysozyme and Fc and Fab fragments have been experimentally determined. This image is a simulation based on such data. - Stock Image P270/0023
The indirect method involves an unlabeled primary antibody (first layer) which reacts with tissue antigen, and a labeled secondary antibody (second layer) which reacts with the primary antibody. (The secondary antibody must be against the IgG of the animal species in which the primary antibody has been raised.) This method is more sensitive due to signal amplification through several secondary antibody reactions with different antigenic sites on the primary antibody. The second layer antibody can be labeled with a fluorescent dye or an enzyme. In a common procedure, a biotinylated secondary antibody is coupled with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase. This is reacted with 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) to produce a brown staining wherever primary and secondary antibodies are attached in a process known as DAB staining. The reaction can be enhanced using nickel, producing a deep purple/gray staining. The indirect method, aside from its greater sensitivity, also has the advantage that only a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nanophotonics of biomaterials and inorganic nanostructures. AU - Petrik, P.. AU - Agocs, E.. AU - Kalas, B.. AU - Fodor, B.. AU - Lohner, T.. AU - Nador, J.. AU - Saftics, A.. AU - Kurunczi, S.. AU - Novotny, T.. AU - Perez-Feró, E.. AU - Nagy, R.. AU - Hamori, A.. AU - Horváth, R.. AU - Hózer, Z.. AU - Fried, M.. PY - 2017/2/22. Y1 - 2017/2/22. N2 - Optical methods have been used for the sensitive characterization of surfaces and thin films for more than a century. The first ellipsometric measurement was conducted on metal surfaces by Paul Drude in 1889. The word ellipsometer was first used by Rothen in a study of antigen-antibody interactions on polished metal surfaces in 1945. The bible of ellipsometry has been published in the second half of the 70s. The publications in the topic of ellipsometry started to increase rapidly by the end of the 80s, together with concepts like surface plasmon resonance, later new topics like photonic crystals emerged. These techniques ...
Anal Biochem 143(1):103-112 Laue TM, Austin JB, Rau DA (2006) A light intensity measurement system for the analytical ultracentrifuge. Progr Colloid Polym Sci 131:1-8 Mächtle W (1999) High-resolution, submicron particle size distribution analysis using gravitational-sweep sedimentation. Biophys J 76:1080-1091 Yphantis DA, Laue TM, Anderson IA (1984) Rapid precision interferometry for the analytical ultracentrifuge. II. A laser controller based on a rate-multiplying circuit. Anal Biochem 143(1):95-102 Chapter 4 Fluorescence Detection System Tao G. Demeule and colleagues therefore set out to employ AU-FDS to further explore these antibody-antigen interactions. Omalizumab was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, mixed in PBS buffer with IgE in equimolar concentrations, and then added to human serum. The hydrodynamic properties of the mixture in serum (Fig. 8b) compared to the PBS control (Fig. 8a) were determined by sedimentation velocity studies. 7 S species) observed in the more complex background of ...
Perhaps the most common cause of excessive formation of antigen-antibody complexes is having an unhealthy digestive tract.. From your mouth to your anus, your digestive tract is one long tube that is meant to extract nutrients out of your food and allow these nutrients to slip through into your bloodstream so that they can nourish your cells. While your digestive tract is designed for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients, it is also designed to protect your blood and inner cells against undesirable substances that can become antigens that lead to antigen-antibody complex formation in your blood.. If you abuse your digestive tract long enough with poor dietary and lifestyle choices, it can begin to lose its ability to prevent harmful substances from entering your blood. The lining of your digestive tract can begin to break down, and the population of microorganisms that line your digestive tract can shift from being predominately health-promoting and protective bacteria to largely ...
We have developed an inexpensive portable microarray reader that can be applied to standard microscope slide-based arrays and other array formats printed on chemically modified surfaces. Measuring only 19 cm in length, the imaging device is portable and may be applicable to both triage and clinical settings. For multiplexing and adaptability purposes, it can be modified to work with multiple excitation/emission wavelengths. Our device is shown to be comparable to a commercial laser scanner when detecting both streptavidin-biotin and antibody interactions. This paper presents the development and characterization of a handheld microarray imager and directly compares it with a commercial scanner.
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a resource for a while, and now I have a question to ask regarding a problem that Ive been stuck on for a few months. Ive been trying to develop an immunoprecipitation protocol for isolating pannexin-1, with the hopes of performing coimmunoprecipitation afterwards. The problem that Ive been having relates to IgG contamination when I run the precipitat...
Unexpected observation of concentration-dependent dissociation rates for antibody-antigen complexes and other macromolecular complexes in competition ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Antigenic Modulation;Immunosuppression;Mice;Antigenic Modulation;Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized;Antibodies, Monoclonal;T-Lymphocytes;Microscopy, ...
But even if HIV was found to cause these previously known conditions, a problem remains. The HIV-antibody tests do not diagnose actual HIV-infection. Instead, they look for non-specific antibody reactions in your blood to proteins in the HIV-test. The test manufacturers claim that the proteins stand in for HIV, but in reality, none of the test proteins have been proven to be specific to HIV. These tests are, in fact, so nonspecific that they cross-react with nearly 70 other documented conditions, including the flu, previous vaccinations, blood transfusions, arthritis, alcoholic hepatitis, drug use, yeast infections and even pregnancy, as well as conditions endemic in Africa: tuberculosis, parasitic infection, leprosy and malaria. Because no HIV test can actually find HIV, not a single HIV-test has been approved by the FDA for diagnosing HIV-infection ...
But even if HIV was found to cause these previously known conditions, a problem remains. The HIV-antibody tests do not diagnose actual HIV-infection. Instead, they look for non-specific antibody reactions in your blood to proteins in the HIV-test. The test manufacturers claim that the proteins stand in for HIV, but in reality, none of the test proteins have been proven to be specific to HIV. These tests are, in fact, so nonspecific that they cross-react with nearly 70 other documented conditions, including the flu, previous vaccinations, blood transfusions, arthritis, alcoholic hepatitis, drug use, yeast infections and even pregnancy, as well as conditions endemic in Africa: tuberculosis, parasitic infection, leprosy and malaria. Because no HIV test can actually find HIV, not a single HIV-test has been approved by the FDA for diagnosing HIV-infection ...
References for Abcams Anti-Interferon beta antibody (ab85803). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
By defimtion, nnmunocytochemistry IS a biomolecular technique that mvolves the use of a specific antibody-antigen reaction to identify cellular constituents in situThe techmque requires that the...
Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyse, in a blood or body fluid sample, using an immunological reaction ...
In Western Medicine an allergy shot and other forms of pharmaceutical medications are the preferred treatments of choice. Some patients find that these methods work with varying degrees of efficacy. Though, most of the pharmaceutical medications have negative effects on the internal organs, as well as have harmful side effects. Acupuncture is a holistic therapy which can be safely incorporated into standard care without adverse side effects or contraindications. Acupuncture can aid in reducing dependence on allergy medications.. Acupuncture treats the root cause of seasonal and perennial allergies by correcting the underlying immune system imbalance. Acupuncture provides relief from symptoms by aiding the bodys capacity to regulate antigen-antibody reactions. ...
Mathematical modeling and computer simulations have become an integral part of modern biological research. The strength of theoretical approaches is in the simplification of complex biological systems. We here consider the general problem of receptor-ligand binding in the context of antibody-antigen binding. On the one hand, we establish a quantitative mapping between macroscopic binding rates of an ordinary differential equation model and their microscopic equivalents as obtained from simulating the spatio-temporal binding kinetics by agent-based models. On the other hand, we investigate the impact of various receptor properties - such as their dimensionality of motion, morphology and binding valency - on the receptor-ligand binding kinetics. To this end, we implemented an algorithm that simulates antigen binding by B cell derived receptors with a Y-shaped morphology that can move in different dimensionalities, i.e. either as membrane-anchored receptors or as soluble receptors. The mapping of the
When antigens enter into the body, normally this antigen will be recognized by the antibody that has been generated before during first exposure. The antibody binds to the soluble antigen forming the antibody-antigen complexes in the circulation in order to clear up all of the pathogens. According to Levinson (n.d), the reticuloendothelial system or macrophages system and other phagocytes have the ability to remove the immune antibody-antigen complexes very effectively in a normal condition. However, in type III hypersensitivity, these systems are not capable to remove these complexes. As a result, this antigen-antibody complexes tends to deposit on the wall of the blood vessels. Some of the immune complex deposition on the blood vessel will activate the complement protein such as C1, C4, C3 and C5-9 resulting membrane attack complex, leukocytes chemotaxis, leukocytes polymorphism and phagocytosis as well as inflammation. So that, in classical pathway C1 binds to the antigen-antibody complex and ...
When molecules on the surface of cell are crosslinked, they are moved to one end of the cell to form a "cap". This phenomenon, the process of which is called cap formation, was discovered in 1971 on lymphocytes and is a property of amoebae and all locomotory animal cells except sperm. The crosslinking is most easily achieved using a polyvalent antibody to a surface antigen on the cell. Cap formation can be visualised by attaching a fluorophore, such as fluorescein, to the antibody. The antibody is bound to the cell. If the antibody is non-crosslinking (such as a Fab antibody fragment), the bound antibody is uniformly distributed. This can be done at 0 °C, room temperature, or 37 °C. If the antibody is crosslinking and bound to the cells at 0 °C, the distribution of antibodies has a patchy appearance. These "patches" are two-dimensional precipitates of antigen-antibody complex and are quite analogous to the three-dimensional precipitates that form in solution. If cells with patches are warmed ...
Molecular recognition via noncovalent interactions plays a key role in many biological processes such as antigen-antibody interactions, protein folding, the bonding and catalytic transformation of substrates by enzymes, etc. Amongst these noncovalent interactions, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions, and metal-to-ligand bonding are the most prominent. Exploring noncovalent interactions in host-guest systems that range from small hydrocarbon systems to more complex systems is the main motivation of this thesis. The present study involves the design, synthesis and characterization of clip-shaped molecules as host structures, and an examination of their binding properties with a variety of guests using NMR spectroscopy.. Several clips with a hydrocarbon or glycoluril backbone were synthesized. The binding of cations to small, hydrocarbon-based clips suggests that binding is enhanced by the rigidity and cooperativity between the two sidewalls of the clip. Binding is also ...
Antibodies play an increasingly important role in both basic research and the pharmaceutical industry. Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions is important to understand how they function and, in the long run, to design new molecules with desired properties. Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. In this manuscript, we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and then predict the binding of two antibodies to the stalk region of influenza hemagglutinin, an important pharmaceutical target. The purpose is two-fold: on a general note, we want to illustrate the advantages and pitfalls of computational docking with a practical example, using different approaches and
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According to the manufacturer, besides anti-D, WinRho SDF TM contains trace amounts of anti-C, -E, -A and -B.9 However, Rushin et al.13 found addition...
General The IgG fraction is prepared by chromatographic separation of the IgGs of standard antisera. This procedure removes most of the non-specific proteins
Conforms to EN 166 1.F EN 170. Polycarbonate close fitting, anti-scratch , anti-mist lens. Sports style wraparound design affords maximum field of vision and comfort. Supplied with a free neck cord.
To detect cancer at the earliest manifestation and correctly predict the course of the disease is very crucial in tailoring therapy leading to better patient management. Blood serves as an ideal compartment for clinical interrogation since it is not only readily obtainable but also perfuses through all tissues, which hypothetically represents a sampling of the state of the entire body. Thus, this thesis focuses on exploration of blood-based analysis using novel phenomena and functions that arise when materials can be engineered in the micro/nano-meter level for biomolecular sensing and cellular detection and characterization.; Label-free and multiplex biomolecular detection platforms using a 2D microcantilever array or nanowire/nanotube-based field effect transistor (FET) array have been demonstrated. Utilizing the induction of surface stress due to reaction on one surface of a microcantilever beam, consistent microcantilever array responses to antibody-antigen binding were achieved over a wide ...
To detect cancer at the earliest manifestation and correctly predict the course of the disease is very crucial in tailoring therapy leading to better patient management. Blood serves as an ideal compartment for clinical interrogation since it is not only readily obtainable but also perfuses through all tissues, which hypothetically represents a sampling of the state of the entire body. Thus, this thesis focuses on exploration of blood-based analysis using novel phenomena and functions that arise when materials can be engineered in the micro/nano-meter level for biomolecular sensing and cellular detection and characterization.; Label-free and multiplex biomolecular detection platforms using a 2D microcantilever array or nanowire/nanotube-based field effect transistor (FET) array have been demonstrated. Utilizing the induction of surface stress due to reaction on one surface of a microcantilever beam, consistent microcantilever array responses to antibody-antigen binding were achieved over a wide ...
View Notes - segment_44 from MMG 451 at Michigan State University. Precipitin Reactions • Insoluble lattice of Ab and Ag. • Ab must be bivalent or polyvalent: • Fab fragments will not work. •
The involvement of immunological reactivity to ranitidine base R-b and ranitidine hydrochloride R-HCl in the development of occupationally related symptomatology was analyzed in 40 subjects employed in a pharmaceutical plant producing ranitidine and in 33 nonexposed controls, using a specific dose-response lymphocyte proliferative test...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The physiology of anti-idiotypic interactions. T2 - From clonal to paratopic selection. AU - Greally, John M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - On theoretical and experimental grounds, it has been proposed that the idiotypes of immunoglobulins and of T cell receptors are composed of multiple paratopes, as opposed to a single paratope and several idiotopes. This necessitates a revision of some of the basic principles of anti-idiotypic reactions. It is also possible to infer the presence of the same or similar paratopes on different idiotypes. A paratope cannot therefore be regarded as restricted to or unique on an idiotype. For these reasons, the perception of immunological specificity in terms of clonal units is misleading. This review proposes instead that the physiological unit of immunological specificity and regulation is the paratope. This essential alteration in the perception of the immune system is referred to as paratopic selection. The approach is assessed in terms of ...
Interferon alpha小鼠单克隆抗体[ST29](ab20200)可与人样本反应并经Neut, sELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The issue of rejection is running rampant. So many people are settling for ignorance and nonsense just to try to outrun that feeling. But what is this thing that they fight against? Rejection = to discard as useless or unsatisfactory, to refuse to recognize, medical definition: to have an immunological reaction against (a transplanted organ or grafted…
Rabbit serum山羊多克隆抗体(ab50262)可与兔样本反应并经Ie实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Natural antibodies, which arise without known immune exposure, have been described that specifically recognize cells dying from apoptosis but their role in innate immunity remains poorly understood. Herein, we show that the immune response to neo-antigenic determinants on apoptotic thymocytes is dominated by antibodies to oxidation-associated antigens, phosphorylcholine (PC), a head group that becomes exposed during programmed-cell death, and malondialdehyde (MDA), a reactive aldehyde degradation product of polyunsaturated lipids produced following exposure to reactive-oxidation species. While natural antibodies to apoptotic cells in naïve adult mice were dominated by PC and MDA specificities, the amounts of these antibodies were substantially boosted by treatment of mice with apoptotic cells. Moreover, the relative amounts of PC and MDA antibodies was affected by VH gene inheritance. Antibody interactions with apoptotic-cells also mediated the recruitment of C1q, which alone can promote apoptotic-cell
The importance of getting blood typing right cannot be stressed enough, especially when a patient will be transfused with blood from a donor. This course explains the basic genetics and principles of the ABO blood group system, as well as the tube methods for forward and reverse ABO grouping. Learners will benefit most from this course if they already possess a basic understanding of genetic principles, immune response, the production and structure of antibodies, and antigen-antibody reactions.. Intended Audience: This program is designed as an educational and training tool for laboratory personnel, including Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS), Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLT) and Technologists (MT), and Medical Laboratory Science students who wish to review basic principles of the ABO blood group system.. Learning Objectives. ...

HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansHETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

In 1911 Forssman1 recognized the nonspecificity of certain antigen-antibody reactions. The terms "heterogenetic," "heterophilic ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION CAUSED BY BACTERIAL INFECTION(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION CAUSED BY BACTERIAL INFECTION*) ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS*) ROBERT E ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS*). Ann ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/673018/heterophile-antibody-reaction-infectious-mononucleosis

TRION Pharma Release: Trifunctional Antibody Catumaxomab Triggers Vaccination Effect Against Cancer | BioSpaceTRION Pharma Release: Trifunctional Antibody Catumaxomab Triggers Vaccination Effect Against Cancer | BioSpace

Trifunctional Antibody Catumaxomab Triggers Vaccination Effect Against Cancer - read this article along with other careers ... Triomab ®: Trifunctional antibodies. Triomab® antibodies bind to cancer-associated surface antigens and recruit both T cells as ... comparable to the booster reaction known from repeated vaccination. In the gastric cancer study, cellular immune response was ... the antibody response was not restricted to catumaxomabs target antigen EpCAM, but also included further cancer antigens ...
more infohttps://www.biospace.com/article/releases/trion-pharma-release-trifunctional-antibody-catumaxomab-triggers-vaccination-effect-against-cancer-/

Antigen-antibody reaction | biology | Britannica.comAntigen-antibody reaction | biology | Britannica.com

... effects are the result of antibody-antigen responses (i.e., they are the products of B-cell stimulation). These can be divided ... Other articles where Antigen-antibody reaction is discussed: … ... Antigen-antibody reaction. biology. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... Antibodies appear in the blood serum of animals, and laboratory tests of antigen-antibody reactions are… ... A significant feature of antigen-antibody reactions is specificity; the antibodies formed as a result of inoculating an animal ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/antigen-antibody-reaction

Antigen-antibody reaction - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online DictionaryAntigen-antibody reaction - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary

Antigen-antibody reaction The phenomenon, occurring in vitro or in vivo, of antibody combining with antigen of the type that ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Antigen-antibody_reaction&oldid=52023" ... stimulated the formation of the antibody, thereby resulting in agglutination, precipitation, complement fixation, greater ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Antigen-antibody_reaction

Forssman antigen-antibody reaction | definition of Forssman antigen-antibody reaction by Medical dictionaryForssman antigen-antibody reaction | definition of Forssman antigen-antibody reaction by Medical dictionary

Forssman antigen-antibody reaction explanation free. What is Forssman antigen-antibody reaction? Meaning of Forssman antigen- ... antibody reaction medical term. What does Forssman antigen-antibody reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of Forssman antigen-antibody reaction in the Medical Dictionary? ... antigen-antibody+reaction,Forssman antigen-antibody reaction,/a,. *Facebook ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Forssman+antigen-antibody+reaction

9 Important Antigen-Antibody Reactions | Microbiology9 Important Antigen-Antibody Reactions | Microbiology

6. Neutralization Reactions: The neutralization reactions are the reactions of antigen- antibody that involve the elimination ... 1. Precipitation Reactions:. The reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form a large interlocking ... The following points highlight the nine important antigen-antibody reactions. They are: 1. Precipitation Reactions 2. ... Agglutination reactions involve particulate antigens i.e. soluble antigens adhering to particles. Agglutination reactions are ...
more infohttp://www.biologydiscussion.com/immunology/9-important-antigen-antibody-reactions-microbiology/66211

Antigen Antibody Reaction - Microbiology Questions and Answers Discussion Page For Q.563Antigen Antibody Reaction - Microbiology Questions and Answers Discussion Page For Q.563

Antigen Antibody Reaction with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Solved examples ... Discussion :: Antigen Antibody Reaction - Section 1 (Q.No.2). *«« Antigen Antibody Reaction - Section 1 ... Microbiology - Antigen Antibody Reaction - Discussion. Home » Microbiology » Antigen Antibody Reaction » Section 1 - Discussion ...
more infohttps://www.indiabix.com/microbiology/antigen-antibody-reaction/discussion-563

Antigen-antibody reaction | Article about antigen-antibody reaction by The Free DictionaryAntigen-antibody reaction | Article about antigen-antibody reaction by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding ... A substance that induces the immune system to... Explanation of antigen-antibody reaction ... antigen-antibody reaction. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms. Antigen-antibody reaction ... antigen-antibody reaction. [′an·tə·jən ¦an·tə¦bäd·ē rē′ak·shən] (immunology) The combination of an antigen with its antibody. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/antigen-antibody+reaction

The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast...The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast...

The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast ... The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast ... cell clones BC group mw Benign Breast Pathology protein antigens share energy resources breast cancer bbp 47D IgG antibodies 50 ... div,,p,The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult ...
more infohttps://figshare.com/articles/_The_Network_of_Antigen_Antibody_Reactions_in_Adult_Women_with_Breast_Cancer_or_Benign_Breast_Pathology_or_without_Breast_Pathology_/1338397/1

Antigen-Antibody Reactions | Biomolecular Reactions | ImmunologyAntigen-Antibody Reactions | Biomolecular Reactions | Immunology

Antigen (Ag) antibody (Ab) reactions occur when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune complex ... a large number of such interactions work together in an antigen-antibody reaction. The in vitro study of antigen antibody ... Schematically an Antigen-Antibody Reaction can be represented as: Ag + Ab [Ag-Ab] → Aggregation → Precipitation/Agglutination/ ... The basis for antigen-antibody reactions are the non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waal ...
more infohttp://www.biologydiscussion.com/immunology/antigen-antibody-reactions/antigen-antibody-reactions-biomolecular-reactions-immunology/84832

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antigen-antibody reactions.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antigen-antibody reactions.}'

Results of search for su:{Antigen-antibody reactions.} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library catalog ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntigen-antibody%20reactions.%7D

Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction<...Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction<...

Kamei C, Sugimoto Y, Yamaji M, Takada M. Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. ... Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. Chiaki Kamei, Yukio Sugimoto, Masako Yamaji, ... Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. / Kamei, Chiaki; Sugimoto, Yukio; Yamaji, ... Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. In: Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/effect-of-loratadine-on-histamine-release-induced-by-antigen-anti

Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology / Source: 2002 v.40 no.10 / Subject: antigen-antibody reactions and Babesia bovis -...Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology / Source: 2002 v.40 no.10 / Subject: antigen-antibody reactions and Babesia bovis -...

... antigen-antibody reactions Remove constraint Subject: antigen-antibody reactions Subject Babesia bovis Remove constraint ... antigen-antibody reactions. Abstract:. ... The gene encoding Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) was used to ... assay with recombinant rhoptry-associated protein 1 antigen against Babesia bovis for the detection of specific antibodies in ... develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure specific antibodies against B. bovis. The B. bovis RAP-1 gene ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?f%5Bjournal_name%5D%5B%5D=Journal+of+clinical+microbiology&f%5Bsource%5D%5B%5D=2002+v.40+no.10&f%5Bsubject_term%5D%5B%5D=antigen-antibody+reactions&f%5Bsubject_term%5D%5B%5D=Babesia+bovis

Antibody and Antigen - humans, body, used, process, life, type, form, reaction, systemAntibody and Antigen - humans, body, used, process, life, type, form, reaction, system

Only antigens that match this shape will fit into them. The role of antibodies is to bind with antigens and inactivate them so ... Antibodies are present whenever antigens provoke an immune reaction in the test serum. ... Antigens are any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens can be bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal ( mono means one) antibodies are identical antibodies produced by clones (exact copies) of a ...
more infohttp://www.scienceclarified.com/Al-As/Antibody-and-Antigen.html

Agglutination | physiology | Britannica.comAgglutination | physiology | Britannica.com

... antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens. ... antibodies usually results in clumping-agglutination-of the red cells; therefore, ... antigen-antibody reaction. *. In blood group: The importance of antigens and antibodies. …antibodies usually results in ... clumping-agglutination-of the red cells; therefore, antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/agglutination-physiology

Humoral immunity - WikipediaHumoral immunity - Wikipedia

Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humoral_immune_response

Biological Sciences - Academics - Western Illinois UniversityBiological Sciences - Academics - Western Illinois University

3) A study of antigens and antibodies, the immune response and immunity, immunologic testing, allergy and hypersensitivity, ... Performance of test procedures based on antigenantibody reactions. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an ... and serological reactions and their drug susceptibility. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated ...
more infohttp://www.wiu.edu/academics/majors/arts_and_sciences/biology.php

Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer - Peptide Epitope Antigen Antibody PlasmaScan™ Reverse Phase Proteomic MicroarraysProtein Microarray Reaction Buffer - Peptide Epitope Antigen Antibody PlasmaScan™ Reverse Phase Proteomic Microarrays

Arrayit Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer can also be used for binding and staining reactions on all other types of protein ... microarrays including microarrays of antibodies, antigens, peptides, cell extracts, and others. Arrayit PMRB is supplied as 250 ... 80 Antibody Microarrays with plasma protein samples and secondary staining reagents. ... Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer for reacting PlasmaScan™ 80 Antibody Microarrays with plasma protein samples and secondary ...
more infohttp://shop.arrayit.com/Arrayit_protein_microarray_reaction_buffer.aspx

Humoral immunity - WikipediaHumoral immunity - Wikipedia

Antibody-antigen reactionEdit. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere with ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humoral_immunity

Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationSearch Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune ... A substance that induces the immune system to form a corresponding antibody is called an immunogen. All immunogens are also ...
more infohttps://www.accessscience.com/search?amp%3BrootID=794558&topics=Biology+%26+Biomedicine&start=50&%3Bamp%3Bstart=0&%3Bamp%3BsearchStr=Marine+ecology&%3Btopics=Paleontology&types=Video+%2F+Animation&types=Article&%3Brows=100&%3Bamp%3Btopics=Earth+Science&%3Bamp%3Btopics=Biology+%26+Biomedicine&%3Bamp%3Brows=100

Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationSearch Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune ... A generalized or localized tissue reaction occurring within minutes of an antigen-antibody reaction. Similar reactions elicited ... Agglutination reaction. A reaction in which suspended particles are aggregated or clumped. It occurs upon the admixture of ... which are antibodies that will agglutinate bacteria containing the corresponding antigens on their… ...
more infohttps://www.accessscience.com/search?amp%3BrootID=794558&topics=Science+Theory+%26+Philosophy&topics=Agriculture%2C+Forestry+%26+Soils&topics=Biology+%26+Biomedicine&topics=Earth+Science&%3BsearchStr=Marine+ecology&start=0&%3Bstart=300&%3Btopics=Paleontology&%3Btopics=Navigation&types=Article&types=Image&%3Brows=100&rows=100

Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 6 Flashcards by  | BrainscapeMedical Terminology for Health Professions Part 6 Flashcards by | Brainscape

antigen-antibody reaction a reaction that labels a potentially dangerous antigen so that it can be recognized, and destroyed, ... any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own ... a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen ... identify foreign substances and germs in the body and produce antibodies that specifically target them ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/medical-terminology-for-health-profession-2007879/packs/3254122

Med Term 6 Flashcards by Jay Gray | BrainscapeMed Term 6 Flashcards by Jay Gray | Brainscape

a reaction involving binding antigens to antibodies, labeling potentially dangerous antigens so it can be recognized and ... bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response, created by plasma cells ... direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system, produced by the T cells ... specialized white blood cells that produce antibodies coded o destroy specific antigens ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/med-term-6-32506/packs/112724

Methods Immunology Immunochemistry - AbeBooksMethods Immunology Immunochemistry - AbeBooks

5 - Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Vivo Curtis A. Williams and Merrill W. Chase (Editors) ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Volume III: Reactions of Antibodies with Soluble Antigens Williams, Curtis A.; Chase ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, in two volumes, Volume I: Preparation of Antigens and Antibodies, Williams, Curtis A ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry Volume I Preparation of Antigens and Antibodies Williams, Curtis A. and Chase, ...
more infohttps://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/methods-immunology-immunochemistry/

Antibodies - MeSH - NCBIAntibodies - MeSH - NCBI

Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Pharmacologic Action:. *Immunologic Factors. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Antibodies%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D
  • Compare the spirochete diseases including the causative organism, the antigens and antibodies used in testing for the disease, and the correlation of treatment with serological test results. (oakton.edu)
  • Differentiate the properties and significance of Streptolysin O, the significance of the antistreptolysin reaction and the principles for the tests for antistreptolysin O and other Streptococcal related antibodies. (oakton.edu)
  • Moreover, in ex vivo experiments, loratadine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as terfenadine provided a relatively potent inhibitory effect on histamine release from lung pieces of actively sensitized guinea pigs exposed to antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. (figshare.com)
  • When a foreign substance enters the body for the first time, symptoms of disease may appear while the immune system is making antibodies to fight it. (scienceclarified.com)
  • An induced state in which antigens originally regarded as foreign become regarded as self by the immune system. (accessscience.com)