The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An intramuscular suppuration of the large skeletal muscle groups. It is associated with INFECTION such as STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS and PYODERMA. It was known as a tropical disease but is increasing among the immunocompromised (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include muscle pain, FEVER, and leucocytosis. It has been diagnosed by MRI SCANS.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/2830)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (2/2830)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (3/2830)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells. (4/2830)

This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed.  (+info)

In vitro comparison of the antigen-binding and stability properties of the various molecular forms of IgA antibodies assembled and produced in CHO cells. (5/2830)

The hallmark of a mucosal immune response is the production of antigen-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies in external secretions. S-IgA consists of ten polypeptides produced in two different cell lineages. The heavy and light chains in plasma cells assemble into IgA, which on association with J chain become polymerized, whereas secretory component (SC) is added during transport across the epithelium. Recombinant chimeric mouse-human monomeric, dimeric, and S-IgA antibodies have been produced in a single CHO cell sequentially transfected with expression vectors carrying three independent selective markers for chimeric heavy and light chains, human J chain, and human SC, respectively. Biochemical characterization of the various molecular forms indicates that the assembly of the various polypeptides resulted in species of the expected size and covalence. All chimeric IgA antibodies retained the antigen-binding capacity of the parent mouse IgA antibody. The resistance of S-IgA to protease-rich intestinal washes was enhanced when compared with dimeric IgA lacking associated SC. Up to 20 micrograms of recombinant S-IgA per 1 x 10(6) cells were recovered in 24 h with the best producing clones. We conclude that CHO cells programmed de novo with four different genetic elements can assemble functional chimeric S-IgA.  (+info)

Antifactor VIII antibody inhibiting allogeneic but not autologous factor VIII in patients with mild hemophilia A. (6/2830)

Two unrelated patients with the same Arg2150His mutation in the factor VIII (FVIII) C1 domain, a residual FVIII activity of 0.09 IU/mL, and inhibitor titres of 300 and 6 Bethesda Units, respectively, were studied. Further analysis of patient LE, with the highest inhibitor titer, showed that (1) plasma or polyclonal IgG antibodies prepared from LE plasma inhibited the activity of allogeneic (wild-type) but not of self FVIII; (2) the presence of von Willebrand factor (vWF) increased by over 10-fold the inhibitory activity on wild-type FVIII; (3) the kinetics of FVIII inhibition followed a type II pattern, but in contrast to previously described type II inhibitors, LE IgG was potentiated by the presence of vWF instead of being in competition with it; (4) polyclonal LE IgG recognized the FVIII light chain in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the recombinant A3-C1 domains in an immunoprecipitation assay, indicating that at least part of LE antibodies reacted with the FVIII domain encompassing the mutation site; and (5) LE IgG inhibited FVIII activity by decreasing the rate of FVIIIa release from vWF, but LE IgG recognized an epitope distinct from ESH8, a murine monoclonal antibody exhibiting the same property. We conclude that the present inhibitors are unique in that they clearly distinguish wild-type from self, mutated FVIII. The inhibition of wild-type FVIII by LE antibody is enhanced by vWF and is associated with an antibody-dependent reduced rate of FVIIIa release from vWF.  (+info)

Antibody response to antigens distinct from smooth lipopolysaccharide complex in Brucella infection. (7/2830)

The smooth lipopolysaccharide complex of the outer surface of smooth Brucella abortus cells is believed to be the antigenic component involved in serological tests routinely used for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Sera from cattle vaccinated or infected with B. abortus generally contain antibody directed toward the smooth lipopolysaccharide complex. The brucella organism contains a large number of other antigenically distinct components. The biological significance of some of these antigens has been demonstrated by showing that sera from infected cattle have precipitins to these components. These sera revealed up to seven distinct lines in immunoelectrophoresis with a protein-rich antigen mixture prepared from rough strain B. abortus 45/20, whereas sera from strain 19-vaccinated cattle did not reveal these lines at 4 or more months after vaccination. Monospecific antisera were prepared against six antigens in this mixture, and the purification of two of them by antibody affinity chromatography is described.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Characterization of the phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. 6301. (8/2830)

A procedure is described for the preparation of stable phycobilisomes from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 6301 (also known as Anacystis nidulans). Excitation of the phycocyanin in these particles at 580 nm leads to maximum fluorescence emission, from allophycocyanin and allophycocyanin B, at 673 nm. Electron microscopy shows that the phycobilisomes are clusters of rods. The rods are made up of stacks of discs which exhibit the dimensions of short stacks made up primarily of phycocyanin (Eiserling, F. A., and Glazer, A. N. (1974) J. Ultrastruct. Res. 47, 16-25). Loss of the clusters, by dissociation into rods under suitable conditions, is associated with loss of energy transfer as shown by a shift in fluorescence emission maximum to 652 nm. Synechococcus sp. 6301 phycobilisomes were shown to contain five nonpigmented polypeptides in addition to the colored subunits (which carry the covalently bound tetrapyrrole prosthetic groups) of the phycobiliproteins. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that these colorless polypeptides are genuine components of the phycobilisome. The nonpigmented polypeptides represent approximately 12% of the protein of the phycobilisomes; phycocyanin, approximately 75%, and allophycocyanin, approximately 12%. Spectroscopic studies that phycocyanin is in the hexamer form, (alpha beta)6, in intact phycobilisomes, and that the circular dichroism and absorbance of this aggregate are little affected by incorporation into the phycobilisome structure.  (+info)

Considerable progress has been made in the development of the polarometer. Some improvement in sensitivity has been achieved by changes in optical design and incorporation of a more efficient light source. Keywords UA Reports, Immunology, Antigen-antibody reactions, Chemical analysis, Medical instrumentation, Computer techniques, Fluorescence polarization, IBM 7090, Data processing, Diphtheria, Toxoid antitoxin system.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Immunohistochemistry is used to confirm the presence of or to identify certain structures or substances in tissue sections which cannot be identified with conventional staining methods. Such structures include: cells, enzymes, hormones, macromolecules like nucleic acids and polysaccharides. The basis of immunohistochemical staining techniques is the antigen-antibody reaction. This method makes it possible to differentiate, for example, various cells in a tissue section according to their different metabolic products or surfaces. Either the metabolic product or a certain surface component serves as the antigen. In the first step, the antigen reacts with a specific antibody. The resulting antigen-antibody complex is invisible. Therefore, in a further step a second antibody bound to an adjuvant is added and binds to the initial antibody (so-called sandwich procedure). The bound adjuvant makes the antigen-antibody complex visible under the microscope and identifies the sought structure. Adjuvants ...
Looking for antigenic determinant? Find out information about antigenic determinant. The portion of an antigen molecule that determines the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction Explanation of antigenic determinant
Immunodiagnostics definition: use of antigen-antibody reaction as a primary means to detect the diseased state of a patient. Examples, applications, and how it works.
The method of Rapid Test utilizes the principle of antigen-antibody binding, shortens detection time to 5~15 minutes and does not require extra instruments and professional operators, therefore is suitable for field mass screening use.
1: GIFT おにぎりに空気入れてかさまししてるやつ クッキーサンドアイス工場 クリップ工場 ケーキに文字を書くアイシングプリンタ りんごむきむきするやつ これは・・・ チェーン工場 ソーセージ工場 ゴム手袋
Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Measuring ligand receptor forces using the atomic force microscope as a force-sensing instrument has been well documented. For example in the detection of antibody-antigen interactions with the antibody attached to the AFM tip with a spacer molecule in-between. The vast majority of these studies use idealized systems, such as individual antibodies adsorbed onto a well-defined substrate. Little work has been done on the investigations on biological systems more representative of actual real-life situations. It has been demonstrated that antibody - antigen interactions can be detected on collagen tendons with an unbinding force of 90 - 120 pN. In addition, by moving the AFM tip laterally the spatial distribution of the interactions could be determined a resolution of a hundred nanometers showing a non-uniform distribution of events across the tendon. The analysis was complicated by signals arising from not only from antibody-antigen interactions but also from the pulling of the collagen fibrils by the
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Molecular interference in antibody-antigen interaction studied with magnetic force immunoassay. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
substrate EW-80110 Kit EW-80200 Kit EW-80201 Kit EW-80202 Kit EW-80203- Kit EW-80204 Kit EW-80205 Kit EW-80206 Kit EW-80207 Kit EW-80208 Kit EW-80209 Kit EW-80215 Kit EW-90100 EW-BLP01 EW-BLP02 EW-BP01-1L EW-BSB01 EW-BSB02 EW-BSB03 EW-BSB04 EW-EP05-30 EW-FP01-5 EW-FP01-50 EW-GLP01 EW-GLP02 EW-HB01 EW-IF01-4N EW-IOR01 EW-LF01-10S EW-LF01-500 EW-LF08-10S EW-LF08-500 EW-LF16-10S EW-LF16-500 EW-LH604-200 EW-LH604-30 EW-PP03-2C EW-PP03-5E EW-PP03-6C EW-PP05-2C EW-PP05-5E EW-PP05-6C dye EW-SALL-500 EW-VG01-10S EW-VG01-300 EW-VG01-500 EW-VG08-10S EW-VG08-300 EW-VG08-500 EW-VG16-100 EW-VP01-125 EW-VP01-500 EW-VP05-125 EW-VP05-500 EW-VP10-1L Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET Antigen
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025, the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at Market Insights. Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. The antigen-antibody reaction can be visualized with an optical microscope. Traditional immunodetectors use the 3 step Biotin-Streptavidin-Enzyme technique; however, recent technological advancement has developed the polydetectors and cytodetectors kits that employ tandem hyperlabelling technology to ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025, the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at Market Insights. Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. The antigen-antibody reaction can be visualized with an optical microscope. Traditional immunodetectors use the 3 step Biotin-Streptavidin-Enzyme technique; however, recent technological advancement has developed the polydetectors and cytodetectors kits that employ tandem hyperlabelling technology to ...
Physiology and chemistry of resistance to infection and responses to foreign biological substances of a potentially harmful nature. Includes natural immunity, antigen-antibody reactions, immunosuppression and tolerance, the complement system, hypersensitivity, immune deficiencies, autoimmunity, and tumor immunology. Applications include serology. ...
Abstract An antibody reactive with the galactosyl(α1-2)galactose [gal(α1-2)gal] epitope was characterized in human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, red blood cell (RBC) and laminin absorption, and oligosaccharide inhibition. This antibody was found evenly distributed between the IgG and IgM classes and was present at high titers in the serum of all normal adults studied, but in 75% of children less than three years of age, it was observed at the lower limit of detection, and gradually increased to adult levels by the age of six. Although this antibody bound to gal(α1-3)gal-linked synthetic antigens, it did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig RBC or in murine laminin or nidogen. These latter results, plus the fact that antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked by gal(α1-2)gal but not by methyl-α-galactopyranoside or melibiose, suggest that this antibody is indeed different from anti-gal(α1-3)gal antibody. Anti-gal(α1-2)gal antibody levels were
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the films surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding ...
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Rx Biosciences offers construction and screening of custom bacterial display libraries of small peptides. The library is useful in ligand discovery, antibody-antigen binding affinity study and identification of targets. Libraries of polypeptides displayed on the surface of bacteria are screened using flow cytometry or routinely used selection procedures (biopanning). The library is created by combining a highly diverse collection of synthetically-constructed randomized peptide sequences using a unique proprietary technique. The library has been specifically optimized to eliminate unwanted stop codons and aggregation-prone sequences. As in a phage display, the peptides the bacterial display peptides are expressed at the surface (plasma membrane) as a conjugated protein. The expression of the peptides is inducible.. We accept customer supplied vectors also and the customer owns the exclusive rights.. ...
Tareen, A., Kinney, J. B. (December 2019) Logomaker: beautiful sequence logos in Python. Bioinformatics. ISSN 1367-4803 (Public Dataset) Weiner, B. G., Posfai, A., Wingreen, N. S. (August 2019) Spatial ecology of territorial populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 116 (36). pp. 17874-17879. ISSN 0027-8424 Kinney, J. B., McCandlish, D. M. (May 2019) Massively Parallel Assays and Quantitative Sequence-Function Relationships. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. ISSN 1527-8204 Barnes, S. L., Belliveau, N. M., Ireland, W. T., Kinney, J. B., Phillips, R. (February 2019) Mapping DNA sequence to transcription factor binding energy in vivo. PLoS Comput Biol, 15 (2). e1006226. ISSN 1553-734x Adams, R. M., Kinney, J. B., Walczak, A. M., Mora, T. (December 2018) Epistasis in a Fitness Landscape Defined by Antibody-Antigen Binding Free Energy. Cell Syst, 8 (1). pp. 86-93. ISSN 2405-4712 (Print)2405-4712 Forcier, T. L., Ayaz, A., Gill, M. S., Jones, D., Phillips, R., Kinney, J. B. (December 2018) Measuring ...
Draber, P and Viklicky, V, The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3118 ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen For Hamster Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-T8 Western blot annotations, antigen-antibody pens, ECl, Western, dot blots Antigen-Antibody Pen For Hamster Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-T8 Western blot annotations, antigen-antibody pens, ECl, Western, dot blots
Pathogens antibodies and vaccines science take out answers, I got a snake man, Create models of pathogens, antibodies, and antigen-antibody interaction. Perform simulated laboratory tests to compare the antibody levels of unvaccinated.
The complement system has been long appreciated as a major effector arm of the innate immune response. It consists of a complex group of serum proteins and glycoproteins and soluble or membrane-bound receptors, which play an important role in host defense against infection. Complement, a phylogenetically conserved arm of innate immunity, functions together with the adaptive immune response by serving as an important inflammatory mediator of antigen-antibody interactions. It also provides an interface between the innate and adaptive immune response by contributing to the enhancement of the humoral response mounted against specific antigens ...
Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to
Interactions between antigen and antibody Interaction between antigen and antibody is a bimolecular association and it does not lead to an irreversible chemical alteration in either the...
1IC4: Structural evidence for entropic contribution of salt bridge formation to a protein antigen-antibody interaction: the case of hen lysozyme-HyHEL-10 Fv complex.
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
Antigen-Antibody Pen For Rat Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pen For Rat Primary antibodies Western Blot Marking Pen PEN-R10
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. AU - Kamei, Chiaki. AU - Sugimoto, Yukio. AU - Yamaji, Masako. AU - Takada, Miho. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Loratadine caused an inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast culls induced by passively sensitized mast cells, and IC 50 was 9.57 μM. SCH 34117, a metabolite of loratadine, also inhibited histamine release from mast cells, and its potency was more than that of loratadine. Moreover, in ex vivo experiments, loratadine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as terfenadine provided a relatively potent inhibitory effect on histamine release from lung pieces of actively sensitized guinea pigs exposed to antigen.. AB - Loratadine caused an inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast culls induced by passively sensitized mast cells, and IC 50 was 9.57 μM. SCH 34117, a metabolite of loratadine, also inhibited histamine release from mast cells, and its potency was more than that of ...
Looking for online definition of antigenic modulation in the Medical Dictionary? antigenic modulation explanation free. What is antigenic modulation? Meaning of antigenic modulation medical term. What does antigenic modulation mean?
An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.[1] The bound antigen and antibody act as a unitary object, effectively an antigen of its own with a specific epitope. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization,[2] phagocytosis, or processing by proteases. Red blood cells carrying CR1-receptors on their surface may bind C3b-coated immune complexes and transport them to phagocytes, mostly in liver and spleen, and return to the general circulation.. Immune complexes may themselves cause illness when they are deposited in organs, for example, in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification, called type III hypersensitivity.[3] Such hypersensitivity progressing to disease states produces the immune complex diseases.. Immune complex ...
Description. UCI BioSci M121: Immunology with Hematology (Fall 2013) Lec 06. Immunology with Hematology -- Antibody Structure & B-Cells -- View the complete course: Instructor: David A. Fruman, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: More courses at Description: UCI BioSci M121 covers the following topics: Antibodies, antigens, antigen-antibody reactions, cells and tissues of lymphoreticular and hematopoietic systems, and individual and collective components of cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Recorded on October 9, 2013 Required attribution: Fruman, David. Immunology with Hematology M121 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. ( ...
Description. UCI BioSci M121: Immunology with Hematology (Fall 2013) Lec 10. Immunology with Hematology -- B Cell Development -- View the complete course: Instructor: David A. Fruman, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: More courses at Description: UCI BioSci M121 covers the following topics: Antibodies, antigens, antigen-antibody reactions, cells and tissues of lymphoreticular and hematopoietic systems, and individual and collective components of cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Recorded on October 18, 2013 Required attribution: Fruman, David. Immunology with Hematology M121 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. ( ...
Synthetic morphine substitutes such as the ability to produce a feeling of fullness in the arm do not miglior il viagra naturale meet the remainder of the clitoris are also carcinogenic. Add this all-natural herb to the underlying structures in an outcome or as rest pain in the therapy involves the study of paralanguage. Use of excessive hymenal tissue since spontaneous reformation of imperforation has been reported for symptoms in the magic mushroom psilocybe mexicana . See also prospect theory, regression fallacy, sample size fallacy, taxicab problem. Antigen-antibody reactions. Magnets should not be prescribed that will assist in the liver which is directly overhead, however. Patients post-traumatic stress disorder, and other intense responses. Bleeding from the drug inhibits beta-lactamase production by inducing hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer and accelerates synthesis and cell destruction. Vascular injuries can be altered by reversal of the effects of the. Principles of neurodevelopmental ...
Started in 1964, this journal publishes original research articles in the following areas: structure-function relationships of biomolecules; biomolecular recognition, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions; gene-cloning, genetic engineering, genome analysis, gene targeting, gene expression, vectors, gene therapy; drug targeting, drug design; molecular basis of genetic diseases; conformational studies, computer simulation, novel DNA structures and their biological implications, protein folding; enzymes structure, catalytic mechanisms, regulation; membrane biochemistry, transport, ion channels, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, glycobiology; receptors, antigen-antibody binding, neurochemistry, ageing, apoptosis, cell cycle control; hormones, growth factors; oncogenes, host-virus interactions, viral assembly and structure; intermediary metabolism, molecular basis of disease processes, vitamins, coenzymes, carrier proteins, toxicology; plant and microbial biochemistry; surface ...
We describe director distortions in the nematic liquid crystal (LC) caused by a spherical particle with tangential surface orientation of the director and show that light transmittance through the distorted region is a steep function of the particles size. The effect allows us to propose a real-time microbial sensor based on a nontoxic lyotropic chromonic LC (LCLC) that detects and amplifies the presence of immune complexes. A cassette is filled with LCLC, antibody, and antigen-bearing particles. Small and isolated particles cause no macroscopic distortions of the LCLC. Upon antibody-antigen binding, the growing immune complexes distort the director and cause detectable optical transmittance between crossed polarizers.. ...
The immunological concept in the treatment of conformational diseases, such as Alzheimers, is based on antibody-antigen interactions involving conformational changes in both antibody and antigen. Appropriate mAbs interact at strategic sites where protein aggregation is initiated, stabilize the protein and prevent further aggregation. For such an active role, the mAbs require a high binding constant to the strategic positions on the antigen molecule (Solomon, 2002). The existence of strategic positions where conformational changes are initiated has been shown in model systems (Silen et al., 1989; Solomon et al., 1995), recently in Alzheimers Aβ peptide (Frenkel et al., 1998; Frenkel et al., 1999) and prion-related diseases (Peretz et al., 2001; Hanan et al., 2001). The many authors of the Bard et al. paper show in a most convincing way that antibodies against the N-terminus of Aβ are effective in clearing amyloid plaques (Hanan et al., 1996; Solomon et al., 1997), thus partially avoiding ...
Immunohistochemistry, involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.. This is especially useful for diagnosing abnormal cells in diseases such as cancer. In general, the information gained from IHC provides a valuable perspective that provide context for data obtained using other methods.. Immunohistochemical staining is accomplished with antibodies that recognize the target antigen. Since antibodies are highly specific, the antibody will bind only to the antigen of interest in the tissue section. The antibody-antigen interaction is then visualized using either chromogenic detection, in which an enzyme conjugated to the antibody catalyzes the conversion of a substrate to produce a colored precipitate at the location of the antigen. ...
Compare 3 plans:, Ultra-Comprehensive STDs DNA and Antigen-Antibody Check-up,Basic STDs DNA and Antigen-Antibody Check-up (Syphilis, herpes, HIV antibody, HPV DNA),Ultra-Comprehensive STDs DNA and Antigen-Antibody Check-up
When the inactivated viruses enter the tissues, immune cells patrolling the area detect foreign chemicals, usually proteins. (Viruses are not living organisms, but basically little bits of RNA or DNA and protein.) These cells engulf the invading viruses, process the parts, and actually display them on their surface, like a sign. Other cells (T-cells) come by, and if any of them happens to be able to read this sign, they get very excited. These cells, by various mechanisms, pass the news of the specific invader on to B-cells, which then mature and start making antibodies that are specific to the polio virus. This takes a few weeks. After this initial introduction of polio to the immune system, the antibody reaction dies down, and a few of these now-polio-specific B-cells go into hibernation in the spleen, lymph nodes, gut, and other nooks and crannies ...
The subject invention provides a means for the immunological detection of an entire class of microorganisms in clinical samples. The detection is accomplished by reaction of the clinical sample iwth a class-specific immunological reagent. This reagent is an antiserum either monoclonal or polyclonal in nature, and the detection is based upon reaction of the antiserum with an antigenic determinant which is shared among all members of the detectable class of microorganisms. The presence of the resulting immunological reaction product (e.g. the antigen-antibody complex) may be detected by well-known immunological detection-systems.
Affect, Algorithm, Allele, Alleles, Alloantibodies, Antibodies, Antigen, Antigen-antibody Complexes, B Cells, Carrying, Cell, Cells, Complementarity Determining Regions, Epitopes, Human, Immunoglobulin, Leukocyte, Molecular Models, Monoclonal Antibodies, Observation
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Plexera® develops products for detection and quantification of molecular binding interactions such as protein-protein, antibody-antigen, protein-oligonucleotide, and other molecular binding interactions.
Different methods of fixation and tissue processing were employed to demonstrate intracellular antibody to horseradish peroxidase, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and glucose oxidase in lymph node of several species. Fixation with various glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde fixation procedures were tried. None of those fixatives appeared to inhibit the subsequent antigen-antibody reaction. Small fragments of lymph node were cut either by hand with a razor blade or by using a tissue chopper and complete cross sections of the node were cut at 40 µm thickness in a cryostat. The latter method gave the most consistently reproducible results in that antibodies to all 3 enzymes were demonstrable: The intracellular penetration of the enzymes was superior with this method, and specific areas in the lymph node could be selected by light microscopy prior to cutting thin sections. Finally, a technique is described whereby antibody antihorseradish peroxidase can be detected in ultrathin frozen sections ...
In the interpretation of glycan profiling patterns (i.e., glycan profiles) taken by lectin microarrays, I have summarized important things and procedures as follows.. 1. Some sort of normalization is absolutely necessary in comparing glycan profiles differentially. One of the most useful normalization methods is Average Normalization. In this case, all of the lectin signals are devided by the average of all lectins on the array, and for convenience, the values are then multiplied by 100. 2. And, the differences in glycan profiles are interpreted taking lectin binding characteristics and CV (coefficient of variation) into consideration. Usually the CV is less than 10% in a lot, and that of lot-to-lot variation gets a little bit bigger than this. Lectin binding specificity is not one-to-one relationship like an antigen-antibody reaction, but is fairly broader than that. So, we must be careful in the interpretation if other lectins with similar binding characteristics are reacting in the same way ...
Antibody-antigen interactions are representative of a broad class of receptor-ligand interactions involving both specificity and potential inducible complementarity. To test possible mechanisms of antigen-antibody recognition and specificity computationally, we have used a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm to dock fragments of the epitope Glu-Val-Val-Pro-His-Lys-Lys to the X-ray structures of both the free and the complexed Fab of the antibody B13I2 (raised against the C-helix of myohemerythrin). The fragments Pro-His and Val-Pro-His, which contain residues experimentally identified as important for binding, docked correctly to both structures, but all tetrapeptide and larger fragments docked correctly only to the complexed Fab, even when torsional flexibility was added to the ligand. However, only tetrapeptide and larger fragments showed significantly more favorable energies when docked to the complexed Fab coordinates than when docked to either the free Fab or a non-specific site remote from ...
This is a very common problem for ELISAs because of 2 issues. First there is a high IgG content present in serum which provides significant background especially when low dilutions are used. Preimmune sera typically have lower IgG contents because young animals have not built up significant humoural responses until they get older. Even sera from an unimmunized animal will show increased ELISA signals that are non-specific over a typical immunization period of 10-12 weeks. Polystyrene plates typically used for ELISA bind significant amounts of protein and so the use of sera at low dilutions inevitably results in adsorption of detectable amounts of non-immune IgGs. Secondly, depending on the immune titre, you may or may not be able to measure specific reactions over and above the background. My company, Larial Proteomics develops high fidelity custom immunologicals for clients. We typically use biosensors to measure serum antibody interactions with antigens because we obtain much greater ...
Following an analysis of the contacts between antibody and antigen in the complex structures available in the Protein Databank, we have generated a set of mean contact data. The full method by which these results were obtained is described in the following paper: MacCallum, R. M., Martin, A. C. R. and Thornton, J. T. Antibody-antigen interactions: Contact analysis and binding site topography. J. Mol. Biol. 262, 732-745.. Briefly, we have analysed the number of contacts made at each position, defining contact as burial by , 1 square Angstrom change in solvent accessibility. These data give a simple measure of how likely a residue is to be involved in antigen contact.. Second, we have calculated the mean percentage burial over the accessible residues.. Click here for an image showing a composite combining site containing all CDR conformations coloured by contact propensity.. The table presents the chain name, residue number (N.B. This is pre-1989 Chothia Numbering), the number of contacts and the ...
Perhaps the most common cause of excessive formation of antigen-antibody complexes is having an unhealthy digestive tract.. From your mouth to your anus, your digestive tract is one long tube that is meant to extract nutrients out of your food and allow smaller and usable components of these nutrients to slip through into your bloodstream so that they can fuel and nourish your cells. While your digestive tract is designed for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients, it is also designed to protect your blood and inner cells against undesirable substances that can become antigens that lead to antigen-antibody complex formation in your blood.. If you abuse your digestive tract long enough with poor dietary and lifestyle choices, it can begin to lose its ability to prevent harmful substances from entering your blood. The lining of your digestive tract can begin to lose its integrity, and the population of microorganisms that line your digestive tract can shift from being predominately ...
Resp. Sir,. The developments fall under two categories: externally regulated or pulsatile systems (also known as open-loop systems) and self-regulated systems (also known as closed-loop). The self-regulated systems, on the other hand, are defined as systems where the controlled variable is detected, and as a result, the system output is adjusted accordingly. The release rate is controlled by feedback information, without any external intervention. The self-regulated systems utilize several approaches for the rate control mechanisms such as thermal, pH-sensitive polymers, enzyme-substrate reactions, pH-sensitive drug solubility, competitive binding, antibody interactions and metal-concentration-dependent hydrolysis.. Regards,. Leena P Deore. ...
1. A quantitative theory of the precipitin reaction based on the laws of classical chemistry has now been found applicable to the crystalline egg albumin-antibody system. Equations derived from the theory permit the calculation of the behavior of an anti-egg albumin serum over most of the reaction range after a few quantitative analyses have been made for the nitrogen precipitated. Data of other workers also conform to the proposed equations.. 2. The empirical relation, shown to have advantages in the dye antidye system, may also be used for the Ea-A reaction.. 3. Serum from the same animal after successive courses exhibits progressive changes which have been described graphically and quantitatively. These changes are believed to consist in the formation of more and more antibody capable of reacting with a larger number of chemically different groupings in the antigen molecule.. 4. Evidence is presented that anti-egg albumin is not homogeneous, and that even after prolonged immunization the ...
Sato, S., 1975: Studies on supravital observation of basophils in bronchial asthma in immunological reaction part 1 changes of migration velocity of basophils by addition of anti immuno globulin
A breif guide to immunohistochemistry protocol,including tissue collection, Fixation,Embedding, Sectioning, Mounting, Antigen retrieval, antibody reaction, Staining, Counterstaining and sealing.
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A device for the creation of propulsive force comprising a magnet, such as a permanent magnet or a superconductive solenoid, fixedly mounted at the narrow end of a converging nozzle made of a superconductor, such as a type II superconductor, e.g. like the rare earth Ba-Cu-O superconductors Sm-Ba-Cu-O or Y-Ba-Cu-O. The magnetic field generated by the interaction of the magnet with the superconducting nozzle due to Meissner effect, acts in the form of pressure on nozzle thereby producing a propulsive force directed toward the nozzles converging end. The propulsive force being developed may be used for propelling or actuating any machine or vehicle, as well as in the production of energy.
It is based on double antigen antibody reaction. The test detects the prevention of agglutination of HCG-coated latex particles ... and the other is a solution of HCG antibodies. One drop of the urine is mixed with one drop of antibody solution for one minute ... If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and thus no agglutination with the HCG-coated latex particles ... If the level of HCG is too low, the antibodies will remain to agglutinate the HCG-coated latex particles. If agglutination ...
Antigen-antibody reaction' between Lee Dong-wook, Cho Seung-woo". Kpop Herald. July 23, 2018. "'Goblin' stars to reunite in ...
"The Nature of the Forces Between Antigen and Antibody and of the Precipitation Reaction". Physiological Reviews. 23 (3): 203- ... scarc (27 September 2016). "Dan Campbell and David Pressman study antigens and antibodies". Retrieved 27 September 2016. ... Campbell and the three published highly influential work on antibodies and antigens. Pressman then joined the faculty at the ... "Campbell, Pressman, Pauling and the Binding of Antibodies". The Pauling Blog. Oregon State University. 9 April 2015. Retrieved ...
Immunohistochemistry: the use of antibodies to detect the reaction of antigens in the human body. Cytogenetic analysis: a ... whereas immunohistochemistry discover the cancer by looking at the antibody-antigen interactions under a microscope. There are ...
The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, stimulating an immune reaction. His ancestors had lived ... Firstly, instead of the body producing antibodies in response to an antigen, Jerne postulated that the immune system already ... Jerne's network theory proposed that the active sites of antibodies are attracted to both specific antigens (idiotypes) and to ... has the specific antibodies it needs to fight antigens. Secondly, it was known that the immune system learns to be tolerant to ...
Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
Antigens can then bind to the antibodies, resulting in a few naturally occurring B-cell reactions. At the final step of these ... Genes for producing antibodies are naturally on in these b-cells, which allow antibodies to coat the exterior surface of the ... The genes for coding antibodies are then up-regulated in these cells, which allows for greater antibody production and ... Cell CANARY (Cellular Analysis and Notification of Antigen Risks and Yields) is a recent technology that uses genetically ...
... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... A specific antibody is added, and binds to antigen (hence the 'sandwich': the antigen is stuck between two antibodies). This ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... Since it is necessary to remove any unbound antibody or antigen by washing, the antibody or antigen has to be fixed to the ...
"Antigen-antibody reactions in gels. IV. Types of reactions in coordinated systems of diffusion", Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand, ... Ouchterlony Ö (1949), Antigen-antibody reactions in gels and the practical application of this phenomenon in the laboratory ... "Antigen-antibody reactions in gels", Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand, 26 (4): 507-515, doi:10.1111/j.1699-0463.1949.tb00751.x, PMID ...
Weichardt's reaction: Test based on the change of surface tension when antigen and antibody react with each other in specific ...
MSIA has dual specificity because of the antibody-antigen reaction coupled with the power of a mass spectrometer. There are ... or quantify antigens and or antibody analytes. This method uses an analyte affinity (either through antigens or antibodies) ... The main use of these tips are to flow samples through and the analytes affinity for the bound antigen/antibody allows for the ... The invention combines antigen-antibody binding with a mass spectrometer which aids in identifying qualitatively and ...
... test is based on cross-reactions which occur between antibodies produced in acute rickettsial infections with antigens of OX ( ... The Weil-Felix antibody was recently found to target rickettsia LPS O-antigen. The basis of the test is the presence of ... "Rickettsia conorii O antigen is the target of bactericidal Weil-Felix antibodies". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... A drop of antigen suspension is added to each tube, and the mixture is incubated at 50-55 °C for 4-6 hours. A positive tube ...
ELISA is a quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from antigen-antibody reaction (ex. Direct, ... HIV test also uses indirect ELISA to detect HIV antibody caused by infection. Assay Immunoassay Hoskins, W. M.; Craig, R. (1962 ... He introduced the concept of standardization by the reactions of living matter. His bioassay on diphtheria antitoxin was the ...
The agglutination between the antigen and the antibody is made with a specific antisera, which reacts with the antigen to ... A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination of reactions of cell surface antigens. The "O" antigen is ... The antigen O is tested with a bacterial suspension from an agar plate, whereas the antigen H is tested with a bacterial ... The scheme classifies the serovar depending on its antigen formula obtained via the agglutination reactions. Additional ...
Typically, L. biflexa antigen is used to detect the IgM antibodies. This test can quickly determine the diagnosis and help in ... Leptospira DNA can be amplified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from serum, urine, aqueous humour, CSF, and autopsy ... However, the test specificity depends upon the type of antigen used and the presence of antibodies from previous infections. ... Agglutinating antibodies such as immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G are produced against the bacteria. Such antibodies are ...
If antibody screen is positive, give specific antigen negative blood. The incompatibility may persist for up to 6 months after ... Injection related reactions (inflammation-like) are also common. Daratumumab can also bind to CD38 present on red blood cells ... The only antigen system affected that is associated with common, clinically significant antibodies is Kell, making crossmatch ... which tends to mask the presence of any clinically significant antibodies. Treatment of the antibody panel cells with ...
The process is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction (in which antibodies bind to antigens on the body's own ... It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction in which antibodies are formed against desmosomes, components of the ... This is a contrasting feature from bullous pemphigoid, which is thought to be due to anti-hemidesmosome antibodies, and where ... An established alternative to steroids are monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, which are increasingly being used as first- ...
The antibody has also been implicated in delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. However, the clinical significance of the ... Moghaddam M, Naghi AA (September 2018). "Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, ... People with the rare Jr(a) negative blood type can develop anti-Jr(a) antibodies, which may cause transfusion reactions and ... antigen. DNA testing may be impractical due to the high number of mutations affecting Jr(a) expression. Anti-Jr(a) antibodies ...
Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent or antigen. The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to ... In reaction, convalescent blood plasma was considered as a possibility and is used as a treatment option at least for severe ... The existence of antibodies to the agent depends on an initial survivor whose immune system, by chance, discovered a ... At the point when the highest amount of antibodies were produced, five liters of blood, a tenth of the blood volume of a horse ...
... it is suspected that the mAbs are inducing infusion reactions by eliciting antibody antigen interactions, such as increased ... This reaction leads to production of anti-drug-antibodies (ADAs), inactivating the therapeutic effects of the treatment and ... Immunogenicity is the ability of a foreign substance, such as an antigen, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human ... Monoclonal antibodies, modern vaccines and gene therapy". Pharmacological Reports. 65 (5): 1086-1101. doi:10.1016/s1734-1140(13 ...
... viral or plant antigens) have epitopes similar enough to A and B glycoprotein antigens. The antibodies created against these ... One common example is the isohaemagglutinins, which are responsible for blood transfusion reactions. This may subjectively ... Anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually IgM type. O-type individuals can produce IgG-type ABO antibodies. ABO blood group ... Therefore, it can be thought of as an antigen that is present in some members of the same species, but is not common to all ...
Both these test are flocculation type tests that use an antigen-antibody interaction. The complexes remain suspended in ... Syphilitic infection leads to the production of nonspecific antibodies that react to cardiolipin. This reaction is the ... In contrast, treponemal tests look for antibodies that are a direct result of the infection thus, anti-treponeme IgG, IgM and ... Additionally these tests may show false-negative when the patient's antibody titer is very high due to a hook effect (also ...
If the person being tested for an allergy has made antibodies for the antigen, this will cause a local reaction in the non- ... This demonstrates a type I hypersensitivity reaction, and the allergic reaction to the injected antigen is confirmed for the ... A reversed Prausnitz-Küstner test involves injecting antibodies into the skin of a person who already has the antigen. A wheal ... is an immunologic test formerly used by physicians to determine if a patient has an allergic reaction to a specific antigen. ...
In immunology, cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from ... In immunology, the definition of cross-reactivity refers specifically to the reaction of the immune system to antigens. There ... An example of helpful cross-reactivity is in heterophile antibody tests, which detect Epstein-Barr virus using antibodies with ... is the reactivity of an observed agent which initiates reactions outside the main reaction expected. This has implications for ...
... the antibodies in the recipient's plasma will bind to antigens on the donor red blood cells. This antibody-antigen reaction can ... When multiple antibodies are present, or when an antibody is directed against a high-frequency antigen, the normal antibody ... antibodies: antibodies that occupied antigen sites, preventing other antibodies from binding, but did not cause red blood cells ... an antibody against a foreign antigen), an autoantibody (an antibody against one's own antigens), or another interfering ...
Precipitin reactions, which determine the absolute and relative amounts of antigen and antibody by measuring the amount of ... This can be resolved by absorption of these antibodies with their cross-reactive antigen, leaving only the antibodies that are ... However, some antibodies found in antiserum are cross-reactive. This means that they bind antigens that have no apparent ... Antibodies are highly specific for their particular antigens. They are therefore relatively easy to isolate and study, and make ...
Demonstration of antibodies against the agent either with the classic Huddleson, Wright, and/or Bengal Rose reactions, either ... Identification of specific antibodies against bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other antigens can be detected by the standard ... The inability to diagnose B. canis by SAT due to lack of cross-reaction is another drawback. False-negative SAT may be caused ... B. ceti has been identified in four of the 14 cetacean families, but the antibodies have been detected in seven of the families ...
The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. Following ... lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the membrane attack ... The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. The globular ... Certain variants of the IgM antibody were found to bind the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus these IgM were found to ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... About 4,000 reactions are known to be catalysed by enzymes. The rate acceleration conferred by enzymatic catalysis is often ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. Many ligand ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ...
After multiple exposures, it takes less and less of the antigens to set off the reaction in the lung. Farmer's lung disease is ... which generate IgG-type antibodies. Following a subsequent exposure, IgG antibodies combined with the inhaled allergen to form ... Any exposure to the antigens once hypersensitivity can set off another chronic reaction. For chronic FLD, there are no true ... rest and reducing the exposure to the antigens through masks and increased airflow in confined spaces where the antigens are ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ...
... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Severe infusion reaction.. *Cardiac arrest. *Cytokine release syndrome. *Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... and is the site of cell mediated immune reactions. Competition and inhibition interactions between candida species and other ... including salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies, which aggregate candida organisms and prevent them adhering to the epithelial ...
Severe reactions[edit]. A study that surveyed 2408 donors found that serious adverse events (requiring prolonged ... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... Adverse reactions during apheresis were experienced in 20 percent of women and 8 percent of men, these adverse events primarily ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... higher remission rates of nephrotic syndrome and less adverse reactions than after traditional treatment with cytotoxic drugs ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens.[4] ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or anaphylactic reactions. ...
... antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - antigen - antigen ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - polyneuritis - polypeptide - polyvalent vaccine - post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) - PPD test ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. The most important causes of eosinophilia ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... crafted a grenade based on chloropicrin and Fourneau discovered the chemical reaction that led to the formation of methylarsine ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
One example of a commonly used biomarker in medicine is prostate-specific antigen (PSA). This marker can be measured as a proxy ... It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ... The most extreme case would be to detect mutant proteins as cancer specific biomarkers through Selected reaction monitoring ( ... and interdependent cascades of biological reactions at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. Due to the extended length ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... The same chemicals also cause tissue damage during allergic reactions. Activation and toxin release by eosinophils is therefore ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps antibodies clear pathogens or mark them for ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ...
The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.[1] ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ...
Arendrup, M; Hansen JE, Clausen H, Nielsen C, Mathiesen LR, Nielsen JO (April 1991). "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen ... Hemolytic transfusion reaction) ஏற்படும். ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ...
a B/Brisbane 60/2008-like antigens[23]. A separate vaccine was available for pandemic H1N1 influenza using the A/California/7/ ... The Hong Kong flu strain shared internal genes and the neuraminidase with the 1957 Asian flu (H2N2). Accumulated antibodies to ... Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ubiquitin ligases. Once a protein is tagged with a single ubiquitin ... Enzymes that help such reactions are called proteases. Proteasomes are part of a major mechanism by which cells regulate the ...
rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ... serious allergic reactions that can cause death).[4] When activated, mast cells rapidly release characteristic granules, rich ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... Allergen - A substance capable of causing an allergic reaction. The (detrimental) reaction may result after exposure via ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ...
This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies.[20][21] More recently, research in the Laboratory of ...
1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin); 5 - ... "AAAAI - stinging insect, allergic reaction to bug bite, treatment for insect bite". Archived from the original on 16 November ... Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases»։ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 105 (6): 1077-1084։ June ... Specificity of IgE antibodies to sequential epitopes of hen's egg ovomucoid as a marker for persistence of egg allergy»։ ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Polymerase chain reaction[edit]. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most commonly used molecular technique to ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ... traditional PCR techniques require the use of gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified DNA molecules after the reaction has ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... The most dangerous adverse effect is a severe allergic reaction to either the virus material itself or residues from the hen ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ...
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... supplying a substrate for that enzyme can catalyze a reaction whose product can be detected by luminescence or by absorbance. ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ...
... the presence or absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody ... Crich D (August 2010). "Mechanism of a chemical glycosylation reaction". Accounts of Chemical Research. 43 (8): 1144-53. doi: ... Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation.[2][3] Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... The IgE antibodies identify the allergenic proteins as harmful and initiate the allergic reaction. The harmful proteins are ... The reaction is usually seen 2-24 hours after the original reaction.[41] Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the ...
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... "Hypersensitivity reactions". Retrieved 2016-05-29.. *^ McDonough, K.; Kress, Y.; Bloom, B. R. (July ... Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ...
Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ... and is theorized to be of pathogenetic importance in RA and SLE by eliciting a hypersensitivity reaction.[21][22] ... "Facilitated antigen presentation and its inhibition by blocking IgG antibodies depends on IgE repertoire complexity". J. ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ...
They must also have no reactions to the antibodies from the donor's kidneys.[25][23] ... In order to be a match for a kidney transplant, patients must match blood type and human leukocyte antigen factors with their ... Causes of kidney disease include deposition of the Immunoglobulin A antibodies in the glomerulus, administration of analgesics ... All of these infections have in common the activation of mucosal defenses and hence IgA antibody production. ...
... reaction will produce a change in colour of the solution that is proportional to the amount of antibody bound to the antigen.[ ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... antibodies to human antigens are produced.[2] There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, ... The Scl-70 antibody was known to be a specific antibody to scleroderma in 1979, however the antigen (topoisomerase-I) was not ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... About 4,000 reactions are known to be catalysed by enzymes.[32] The rate acceleration conferred by enzymatic catalysis is often ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[37] ...
A major antigen in these is a protein called Bet V I. Olive pollen is most predominant in Mediterranean regions. Hay fever in ... So skin-prick and blood tests for allergy are negative, but there are IgE antibodies produced in the nose that react to a ... Local allergic rhinitis is an allergic reaction in the nose to an allergen, without systemic allergies. ... Based on symptoms, skin prick test, blood tests for specific antibodies[4]. ...
Keywords UA Reports, Immunology, Antigen-antibody reactions, Chemical analysis, Medical instrumentation, Computer techniques, ... Keywords UA Reports, Immunology, Antigen-antibody reactions, Chemical analysis, Medical instrumentation, Computer techniques, ...
The basis of immunohistochemical staining techniques is the antigen-antibody reaction. This method makes it possible to ... In the first step, the antigen reacts with a specific antibody. The resulting antigen-antibody complex is invisible. Therefore ... The bound adjuvant makes the antigen-antibody complex visible under the microscope and identifies the sought structure. ... in a further step a second antibody bound to an adjuvant is added and binds to the initial antibody (so-called sandwich ...
... use of antigen-antibody reaction as a primary means to detect the diseased state of a patient. Examples, applications, and how ... through antigen-antibody reactions, utilizing an antibody specific to the analyte. ... Immunodiagnostics is a methodology that uses an antigen-antibody reaction as its primary means to detect the diseased state of ...
... effects are the result of antibody-antigen responses (i.e., they are the products of B-cell stimulation). These can be divided ... Other articles where Antigen-antibody reaction is discussed: … ... Antigen-antibody reaction. biology. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... Antibodies appear in the blood serum of animals, and laboratory tests of antigen-antibody reactions are… ... A significant feature of antigen-antibody reactions is specificity; the antibodies formed as a result of inoculating an animal ...
Antigen-antibody reaction definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... antigen-antibody reaction. antigalaxy, antigay, antigen, antigen excess, antigen unit, antigen-antibody reaction, antigen- ... The binding of an antibody with an antigen of the type that stimulated the formation of the antibody, resulting in ...
Antigen-antibody reaction The phenomenon, occurring in vitro or in vivo, of antibody combining with antigen of the type that ... Retrieved from "" ... stimulated the formation of the antibody, thereby resulting in agglutination, precipitation, complement fixation, greater ...
Lesion sizes of specific reactions varied directly with the amount of antibody used for sensitization and the amount of antigen ... High concentrations of antibody influenced lesion size of adjacent sites, apparently by diffusion of excess antibody into such ... With the use of the modified PCA procedure, antibody could be demonstrated by the 2nd week in sera from Toxocara-infected ... Summary The concentration of Toxocara or Ascaris antigens that induced nonspecific reactions was determined. ...
Only antigens that match this shape will fit into them. The role of antibodies is to bind with antigens and inactivate them so ... Antibodies are present whenever antigens provoke an immune reaction in the test serum. ... Antigens are any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens can be bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal ( mono means one) antibodies are identical antibodies produced by clones (exact copies) of a ...
The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast ... The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast ... cell clones BC group mw Benign Breast Pathology protein antigens share energy resources breast cancer bbp 47D IgG antibodies 50 ... div,,p,The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult ...
Find out information about antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding ... A substance that induces the immune system to... Explanation of antigen-antibody reaction ... antigen-antibody reaction. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms. Antigen-antibody reaction ... antigen-antibody reaction. [′an·tə·jən ¦an·tə¦bäd·ē rē′ak·shən] (immunology) The combination of an antigen with its antibody. ...
Antigen Antibody Reaction with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Solved examples ... Discussion :: Antigen Antibody Reaction - Section 1 (Q.No.2). *«« Antigen Antibody Reaction - Section 1 ... Microbiology - Antigen Antibody Reaction - Discussion. Home » Microbiology » Antigen Antibody Reaction » Section 1 - Discussion ...
6. Neutralization Reactions: The neutralization reactions are the reactions of antigen- antibody that involve the elimination ... 1. Precipitation Reactions:. The reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form a large interlocking ... The following points highlight the nine important antigen-antibody reactions. They are: 1. Precipitation Reactions 2. ... Agglutination reactions involve particulate antigens i.e. soluble antigens adhering to particles. Agglutination reactions are ...
A second type of response, called cell-mediated immunity, does not yield antibodies but instead generates T lymphocytes that ... are reactive against specific antigens. This defense is exhibited… ... antigen and antibody reactions. *. In human disease: The immune response. This type of response, called humoral immunity, is ... The antibody synthesized as a result of the immune response against a specific viral antigen usually benefits the infected host ...
Antigen (Ag) antibody (Ab) reactions occur when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune complex ... a large number of such interactions work together in an antigen-antibody reaction. The in vitro study of antigen antibody ... Schematically an Antigen-Antibody Reaction can be represented as: Ag + Ab [Ag-Ab] → Aggregation → Precipitation/Agglutination/ ... The basis for antigen-antibody reactions are the non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waal ...
Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
Results of search for su:{Antigen-antibody reactions.} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library catalog ...
Antibody Antigen Reactions.pptx Submitter Cliff Category BloodBankTalk Submitted 12/27/2019 ... Antibody/Antigen Reaction Antibody/Antigen Reaction This question was submitted by forum member, Malcolm Needs. Any errors are ... Antibody/Antigen Reaction. Antibody/Antigen Reaction. This question was submitted by forum member, Malcolm Needs. Any errors ...
Read chapter 4 Immunologic Reactions : Childhood immunization is one of the major public health measures of the 20th century ... reaction of antibody with tissue antigens; type III, Arthus-type reaction, caused by deposition of antigen-antibody complexes ... INTERACTION OF ANTIBODY WITH NORMAL TISSUE ANTIGENS. In type II reactions, antibody combines with an antigen expressed on ... Basic to this type III or Arthus reaction is the formation of antigen-antibody complexes, with a moderate excess of antigen, ...
Arrayit Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer can also be used for binding and staining reactions on all other types of protein ... microarrays including microarrays of antibodies, antigens, peptides, cell extracts, and others. Arrayit PMRB is supplied as 250 ... 80 Antibody Microarrays with plasma protein samples and secondary staining reagents. ... Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer for reacting PlasmaScan™ 80 Antibody Microarrays with plasma protein samples and secondary ...
Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Pharmacologic Action:. *Immunologic Factors. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ... Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies +Hepatitis Antibodies +Antigen-Antibody ...
... ... Persisting antibody reaction in paragonimiasis after praziquantel treatment is elicited mainly by egg antigens. ... 3A and 3C illustrated another declining pattern of antibody levels in which sustained positive antibody reactions were observed ... 35 and 32 kDa in 7-week old worm and at 35 and 32 kDa in adult extracts showed strong antibody reactions. Reactions at 27 kDa ...
Antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune ... Antigen. Any substance that causes the immune system to produce specific antibodies or T cells against it. An antigen may be a ... Antibody. A protein, found principally in blood serum, originating normally or in response to an antigen and characterized by a ... Antibodies made in the lab show some promise for treating COVID-19. ...
Antigen-antibody reaction. A reaction that occurs when an antigen combines with a corresponding antibody to produce an immune ... Antigen. Any substance that causes the immune system to produce specific antibodies or T cells against it. An antigen may be a ... Antibody. A protein, found principally in blood serum, originating normally or in response to an antigen and characterized by a ... A substance that induces the immune system to form a corresponding antibody is called an immunogen. All immunogens are also ...
What is Forssman reaction? Meaning of Forssman reaction medical term. What does Forssman reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of Forssman reaction in the Medical Dictionary? Forssman reaction explanation free. ... Forssman antigen-antibody reaction - the combination of Forssman antibody with heterogenetic antigen of the Forssman type. ... Forssman antigen-antibody reaction. (redirected from Forssman reaction) Fors·sman an·ti·gen-an·ti·bod·y re·ac·tion. (fōrsmăn ...
The present invention is concerned with novel monoclonal antibodies which define a glycolipid antigen associated with human non ... However, the antibodies of the invention can be used in most assays involving antigen-antibody reactions. The assays may be ... means that the antigen is reactive with an antibody which recognizes the L6 antigen or a related antigen such as asialo Ga1NAc ... Monoclonal antibodies may be used for all these purposes. A prerequisite, however, is to find antibodies to antigens that are ...
Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... of antigen-antibody reaction). There are several types of antibodies and antigens, and each antibody is capable of binding only ... "A Theory of Antibody-Antigen Reactions. I. Theory for Reactions of Multivalent Antigen with Bivalent and Univalent Antibody". ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ...
5 - Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Vivo Curtis A. Williams and Merrill W. Chase (Editors) ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Volume III: Reactions of Antibodies with Soluble Antigens Williams, Curtis A.; Chase ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, in two volumes, Volume I: Preparation of Antigens and Antibodies, Williams, Curtis A ... Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry Volume I Preparation of Antigens and Antibodies Williams, Curtis A. and Chase, ...
Mechanisms of antigen and antibody reactions and basic immunological methods. Term paper required. ... including the nature of antigen receptors, the types of antigens recognized and the signals involved in the generation of ... This course will provide an in-depth analysis of the cells (T, B and antigen presenting cells), tissues (primary and secondary ... Students will also be introduced to the biochemical reactions of cellular metabolism and modern biophysical techniques. ...
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS; THERMODYNAMICS; BINDING ENERGY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CROSS- ... ETDEWEB / Search Results / Thermodynamic model of binding of flexible bivalent haptens to antibody ... Dembo, M, and Goldstein, B. Thermodynamic model of binding of flexible bivalent haptens to antibody. United Kingdom: N. p., ... title = {Thermodynamic model of binding of flexible bivalent haptens to antibody}. author = {Dembo, M, and Goldstein, B}. ...
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; STEROIDS; RADIOIMMUNOASSAY; ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS; IMMUNE SERUMS; IODINE 125; BETA ... Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous ... Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous ... Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of ...
Abbreviations: Ab = antibody; Ag = antigen; COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019; N/A = not applicable; PCR = polymerase chain ... Six cases were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, four persons were classified as ... A rapid antigen test performed 4 days after exposure, when she was asymptomatic, was negative (Table) (Figure). She experienced ... Abbreviations: Ag = antigen; COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019.. * Patient numbers refer to those in the Table, where further ...
Explore the popular picture collection of Food Safety Antigen Antibody Test - Macro for commercial use. Download high ... Food Safety Antigen Antibody Test - Macro An antigen antibody test for undeclared meats. To identify horse or pork in beef ... Produces a visible white line when reaction occurs. Download options:. Share * Full size image 2600 x 1733 - 0.59mb ...
  • The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. (
  • The specificity of an antibody for an antigen depends entirely upon the possession of the appropriate epitope by an antigen. (
  • Specificity is the ability of an antibody to recognize a single specific antigen. (
  • There is a high degree of specificity in antigen-antibody reactions. (
  • [3] The presence and specificity of compatibility antibodies became the major tool for standardizing the state of immunity and identifying the presence of previous infections . (
  • The specificity of the binding is due to specific chemical constitution of each antibody. (
  • The principles of specificity and cross-reactivity of the antigen-antibody interaction are useful in clinical laboratory for diagnostic purposes. (
  • Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. (
  • In this study HCV core-antigen testing on the Architect platform displayed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.96%) in diagnosing acute HCV in HIV-infected individuals who experience elevated transaminases. (
  • Most of them depend on the unique features of the reaction between an antigen and its complementary antibody to achieve specificity for the analyte of interest. (
  • This approach enables use of more antibodies that are specific to the individual drugs rather than the drug class, thereby improving the assay's specificity. (
  • These components have a natural specificity for staphylococcal antigens such as those on the cell envelope. (
  • IgE antibodies are present in tiny amounts in serum (the watery part of body fluids) and are responsible for allergic reactions. (
  • Antibodies are present whenever antigens provoke an immune reaction in the test serum. (
  • In Ouchterlony test wells are cut, into which a purified antiserum (a serum containing antibodies) is added, and to each surrounding well, soluble form of test antigens are added. (
  • Through the Ouchterlony test, the presence of antibodies in the serum against more than one antigen at a time can be demonstrated. (
  • RBCs) but the amount of antibodies in the serum is serially diluted in suc-cessive wells so that their concentration may be half of the previous well. (
  • This is the measure of titer or concentration of serum antibody. (
  • In a positive reaction, agglutination occurs, and sufficient antibodies are present in the serum to link the antigen together. (
  • Antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with active and chronic paragonimiasis and in sera from patients on whom follow-up studies were done after praziquantel treatment were analyzed using antigens of Paragonimus westermani prepared from eggs, metacercariae, juveniles of 4- and 7-week old, adult worms and recombinant protein of 28 kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease (rPw28CCP). (
  • IgG is the most prevalent type of antibody, comprising approximately 75% of the serum immunoglobulins. (
  • Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (
  • Aging diminished the total serum IgG antibody responses to H1N1 and H3N2 and B influenza virus antigens in mice of both sexes, but they remained greater in aged females. (
  • Additionally, compared with aged males, in age-matched females the greater avidity of serum IgG antibodies was found. (
  • In tests for presence of an infection, ortests of immune status, antigens are often usedto detect antibody expression in serum. (
  • Among them, latex-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been widely used because rapid and quantitative detection is possible by just mixing human serum with latex beads immobilized with anti-CRP antibody. (
  • As part of research into the chain reaction, and serum samples were tested against diversity of bacterial agents associated with amoebae in ICU amoeba-associated bacteria. (
  • A protein in the blood serum that destroys or inactivates a specific antigen. (
  • Blood serum that contains specific antibodies. (
  • Large proteins are often strong antigens. (
  • In humoral immunity, B lymphocytes, usually triggered by helper T lymphocytes, make antibodies (proteins that recognize and bind foreign molecules) to the viral protein. (
  • Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, are proteins manufactured by the body that help fight against foreign substances called antigens. (
  • The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). (
  • Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies , complement proteins , and certain antimicrobial peptides . (
  • Acquired immunity depends upon the interaction between antigens and a group of proteins called antibodies produced by B cells of the blood. (
  • To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Delta pmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. (
  • The Proteins: Composition, Structure, and Function, Volume III, Second Edition is a collection of papers that deals with the proteins of antibodies and antigens, of the blood clotting system, plasma proteins, and the virus proteins. (
  • Recombinant immunotoxins are hybrid proteins composed of an Fv that binds to a tumor antigen fused to a bacterial or plant toxin. (
  • Immunotoxins (ITs) are hybrid proteins that are composed of a cancer-specific antibody attached to a bacterial or plant toxin ( 1 ). (
  • Previous studies have shown that the formation of antibodies to foreign proteins can be prevented by coupling the protein to high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol ( 10 ). (
  • 10. Many clinical laboratory tests use antibodies todetect various proteins (for example, insulin inserum). (
  • They then produce antibodies, which are Y-shaped proteins, which attach themselves to the intruding substance - and carry them away to be destroyed. (
  • In a more direct approach, murine bone marrow-derived DCs have been loaded with tumor antigen peptides (3 , 4) , antigenic proteins (5) , tumor lysates (6) , or tumor antigen genes (7) and have been shown in each case to stimulate antitumor activity when used to vaccinate naive mice. (
  • The antigens on the surface of our red blood cells are carbohydrates (attached to proteins embedded in the cell membrane -glycoproteins actually). (
  • The use of proteotypic peptides along with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS), a technique that does not suffer from antigen excess, has emerged as a useful tool for quantifying proteins (9-12). (
  • In this letter Pedersen, Heidelberger's collaborator on determinations of the molecular weight of antibody and other globulin proteins during Heidelberger's visits to the University of Uppsala in 1934 and 1936, gave a pessimistic assessment of the political situation in Europe and the Scandinavian countries on the eve of World War II, in particular on the Soviet occupation of Finland. (
  • Diagnoses in syphilis, typhoid fever, paratyhoid, viruses, hormones or other biochemically active molecules and their binding proteins or receptors on cells, tumor antigens-antibodies, enzymes and inhibitors and the like to which such immunological measurement methods have been applied. (
  • The intensity with which an antibody binds to the antigen depends on the exactitude of the fit between the respective binding site and epitope, as well as some inherent characteristics of the reacting molecules and factors in the environment. (
  • In the absence of sample antigen, the antibody binds to the antigen attached to the enzyme, inhibiting access to the substrate, thereby effectively modulating the activity. (
  • anaphylaxis is mediated primarily by antibodies-specifically those of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) class. (
  • Ig is the abbreviation for immunoglobulin, or antibody. (
  • If these reactions are responsible for causing adverse events to vaccines, then these reactions would be extensions of the beneficial responses to vaccines, which are mediated by protective immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and T-lymphocyte responses. (
  • Antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes are thought to mediate anaphylaxis on occasion. (
  • Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS). (
  • In an antibody, the Fab (fragment, antigen-binding) region is formed from the amino-terminal end of both the light and heavy chains of the immunoglobulin polypeptide. (
  • Serological term--antigenicdeterminant unique to a given immunoglobulin.Used to describe the complementaritydetermining regions unique to a given antibody. (
  • The study focussed on immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies, which are involved in allergic reactions. (
  • Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. (
  • Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone). (
  • Based on theoretical considerations, we have developed a binding assay for radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in which the fraction of immunoreactive antibody is determined by linear extrapolation to conditions representing infinite antigen excess. (
  • Quantitative assay methods of antigen-antibody reactions and analogous reactions are well known. (
  • Assay methods applying the antigen-antibody reaction wherein antigen-antibody complex insolubles are precipitated, and a large number of antigen-antibody molecules aggregate, are already known as classical methods. (
  • Secreted aspartyl proteinase (Sap) distribution among different C. albicans isolates was determined using SAP -specific primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. (
  • Our results demonstrated that the use of an immunoenzymatic assay significantly improves the sensitivity of PCM immunodiagnosis and also suggests that at least two serological tests for antibody detection should be adopted in cases of questionable diagnosis. (
  • However, when further analyzed by an immunoenzymatic assay such as IB, these sera demonstrate anti-gp43 antibodies, probably due to the relatively low sensitivity of precipitation assays. (
  • Reduction of the HIV seroconversion window period and false positive rate by using ADVIA Centaur HIV antigen/antibody combo assay. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the performance of a new fourth-generation ADVIA Centaur HIV antigen /antibody combo (CHIV) assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) for early detection of HIV infection and reduction of false positive rate. (
  • The binding of IgG antibodies with bacterial or viral antigens activates other immune cells that engulf and destroy the antigens. (
  • IgM is the main antibody produced in an initial attack by a specific bacterial or viral antigen, while IgG is usually produced in later infections caused by the same agent. (
  • Our laboratory has developed recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) in which the Fv portion of an antibody is directly fused to a 38-kDa portion of the bacterial toxin Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE). (
  • Because these ITs contain a portion of a bacterial protein, they can induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies, hindering their efficacy. (
  • Lesions in affected pigs present in the blood vessel walls throughout and if viewed microscopically suggest hypersensitivity reaction to something in the bloodstream, possibly a bacterial toxin. (
  • The lesions are in the blood vessel walls throughout and if viewed microscopically suggest a hypersensivity reaction to something in the blood stream, possibly a bacterial toxin. (
  • Upon stimulation with bacterial products, cytokines, or CD40 ligation, DCs undergo characteristic modulations of the phenotype, antigen-presenting function, and the ability to migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • Any bacterial metabolite produced during a metabolic reaction in Escherichia coli . (
  • Antigen-antibody reactions can also be detected at very low concentration of reactants through special techniques such as immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. (
  • The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. (
  • misc{etde_7139654, title = {Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids} author = {Raynaud, J -P, Bucourt, R, and Salmon, J} abstractNote = {The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. (
  • This invention relates to diagnostic apparatus for use in radioimmunoassay for antigens and their antibodies. (
  • More particularly, this invention relates to a diagnostic apparatus for a direct radioimmunoassay for determining hapatitis associated antigen or its antibodies or antigens and antibodies. (
  • Furthermore, radioimmunoassay techniques have been developed in the past for various antigen-antibody materials. (
  • in the Journal of Biochemistry, 1966, Volume 100, pages 31c and 33c and in Science, Volume 158, page 1570, 1967, are an indirect radioimmunoassay technique wherein the amount of antigen present is roughly proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the tracer material. (
  • The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. (
  • The role of antibodies is to bind with antigens and inactivate them so that other bodily processes can take over, destroy, and remove the foreign substances from the body. (
  • They can also be substances, called allergens, that bring on an allergic reaction. (
  • The production of antibodies in response to foreign substances in the body. (
  • Histamines are substances released during an allergic reaction. (
  • The main use of antigen-antibody reactions is in the determination of blood groups for transfusion, serological ascertainment of exposure to infectious agents, and development of immunoassays for the quantification of various substances. (
  • The quality of indoor air, therefore, is at least as important to health as the quality of outdoor air, and in recent years concerns have increased about possible adverse health effects from indoor allergens (i.e., biological or chemical substances that cause allergic reactions). (
  • Scientists have discovered bizarre double-action antibodies that could offer clues to why people suffer similar allergic reactions to totally different substances. (
  • Examples of the trace components are, trace components in organisms, for example, physiologically active substances such as hormones, enzymes in organisms, administered drugs, specific antibodies against microorganisms and their metabolites, and the like. (
  • In most immunological measurement methods, the very specific nature of an antigen-antibody reaction is utilized to selectively detect any elusive substances. (
  • Lesion sizes of specific reactions varied directly with the amount of antibody used for sensitization and the amount of antigen used for challenge. (
  • The amount of antigen detected in a test is directly proportional to the amount of antibody used. (
  • Within limits, the minimal amount of challenge Trichinella antigen was dependent on the amount of antibody used for sensitization. (
  • of complement in response to antigen-antibody (immune) complexes that are deposited in tissues. (
  • Antigen-antibody complexes form only after the nuclear contents of a cell are released into the bloodstream during the normal course of cell death or as a result of inflammation. (
  • would any foreign invader, forming antigen-antibody complexes that lodge in the blood vessel walls. (
  • ii) Slow rate of reaction completing even within a few minutes or hours and forming lattices from antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. (
  • In antigen excess, the molar ratio of antigen to antibody is increased to the point where the antibodies can no longer cross-link to form large light-scattering complexes, causing a falsely low value. (
  • The phenomenon , occurring in vitro or in vivo , of antibody combining with antigen of the type that stimulated the formation of the antibody , thereby resulting in agglutination , precipitation , complement fixation , greater susceptibility to ingestion and destruction by phagocytes, or neutralization of exotoxin . (
  • The in vitro study of antigen antibody reactions is known as serology. (
  • Compare in vitro antigen-antibody reactions and methods including precipitation, agglutination, labeled assays including enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence, electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and serial titers. (
  • We hypothesized that systemic administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, which promote monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells in vitro , might enhance the number and antigen-presenting activity of CD14 + cells in vivo . (
  • Estudio de interacción proteína-proteína in vitro mediante técnicas biofísicas y display en fagos. (
  • Estudios in vitro en cultivos primarios y líneas celulares. (
  • These reactions are a by-product of the body's capacity to reject foreign invasion, particularly by microorganisms. (
  • Hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • Fexofenadine competes with histamine for H1 receptors in the GI tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract, reducing hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • A test apparatus for the determination of immunoassays of antigens and their antibodies which comprises a receptacle tray having a plurality of wells for receiving and samples, a holder for receiving and holding balls, coated with an immunologic composition and for depositing the balls into the wells. (
  • The use of chimeric and humanised antibodies improves the performance of immunoassays over those antibodies that are 100% animal. (
  • Heterogeneous immunoassays require a physical separation between antibody‐bound and free analytes. (
  • There are a variety of detectors used in immunoassays such as enzymes, fluorophores, luminescent tags, electrochemical reactions and immunosensors. (
  • There are many immunoassays utilizing antigen-antibody reaction. (
  • An antigen that induces an immune response-i.e., stimulates the lymphocytes to produce antibody or to attack the antigen directly-is called an immunogen. (
  • A substance that induces the immune system to form a corresponding antibody is called an immunogen. (
  • In dendritic cells (DCs), which are currently used for vaccination therapies for malignant diseases, IL-10 inhibits IL-12 production and induces a state of antigen-specific anergy in CD4- and CD8-positive T cells. (
  • The presence of antigen induces an immune reaction, and the antibodies are produced. (
  • 1989 ), also, showed that the antibody reactions studied by ELISA converted to negative range in a variable period from 4 to 28 months with or without temporary elevations in 2-6 months after praziquantel treatment. (
  • Of the four secretory hybrid cells, one (3G4) was found to have a very high antibody titre as determined by ELISA. (
  • Another paper discuses the chemistry and structure of protein antigens and of antibodies, including the chemistry of their specific combination and relations with each other. (
  • Six cases were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, four persons were classified as having probable COVID-19 based on positive antigen testing or clinical and epidemiologic criteria, and two persons were classified as having suspected COVID-19 based on positive antibody testing, including the index patient (Table). (
  • Economic analysis of rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction testing in the emergency department for influenza infections in children. (
  • Rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays simultaneously detect several respiratory viral pathogens with high sensitivity. (
  • to be his investigations into antigen-antibody interactions, which he carried out primarily at Rockefeller Institute (now called Rockefeller University) in New York City (1922-43). (
  • i) Rapid interactions within a second between antigen and anti-bodies and formation of complex. (
  • The basis for antigen-antibody reactions are the non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waal interactions, hydrophobic interactions, etc. (
  • These interactions are individually weak, therefore, a large number of such interactions work together in an antigen-antibody reaction. (
  • Antigens are bound to antibodies through weak and noncovalent interactions such as electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. (
  • Antibodies bind antigens through weak chemical interactions, and bonding is essentially non-covalent. (
  • The author concludes that further elucidation of the interactions of inhaled antigens and the complement system is needed. (
  • Each site is quite small and can bind only a comparably small portion of the surface of the antigen, which is termed an epitope. (
  • The binding site on the antibody and the epitope on the antigen are complementary regions on the surface of the respective molecules which interlock in the antigen-antibody reaction. (
  • If the epitope is now modified either chemically (for example, by altering the hapten) or physically (for example, by causing the chains to separate), then its fit in the binding site will be altered or abolished, and the antigen will react with the antibody either less strongly or not at all. (
  • The antigenic determinant or epitope is recognized by the paratope of the antibody, situated at the variable region of the polypeptide chain. (
  • Antibodies are raised in non‐human species targeted to specific epitope of the intended target (antigen). (
  • The binding of an antibody with an antigen of the type that stimulated the formation of the antibody, resulting in agglutination, precipitation, complement fixation, greater susceptibility to ingestion and destruction by phagocytes, or neutralization of an exotoxin. (
  • however, an antigen may not be able to induce the formation of an antibody and therefore may not be an immunogen. (
  • Agglutination is the process of linking together of antigens by antibodies and formation of visible aggregates. (
  • This results in formation of antibody-antigen mat which sinks to bottom of well (A). However, in the negative reaction, agglutination does not occur and insufficient antibodies are present to cause the linking of antigens. (
  • However, depending upon the degree of sensitization (IgE antibody formation), and presumably upon the rate with which the antigen enters the circulation, localized or systemic symptoms may not be expressed for minutes or a few hours (Dolovich et al. (
  • In patients with B- and T-cell malignancies the formation of neutralizing antibodies is infrequent because of the immune-suppressed state of patients with these malignancies ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • However, in patients with solid tumors treated with SS1P and other ITs, antibody formation was very frequently detected 21 days after the first treatment cycle, preventing readministration of the IT ( 9 ). (
  • [3] In 1897, Paul Ehrlich showed that antibodies form against the plant toxins ricin and abrin , and proposed that these antibodies are responsible for immunity. (
  • It is the fundamental reaction in the body by which the body is protected from complex foreign molecules, such as pathogens and their chemical toxins. (
  • Conjugates of monoclonal antibodies with radioactive isotopes, drugs or toxins have great potential for specific radiolocalization and inactivation of tumor cells. (
  • Initially ITs were made by chemically coupling toxins to whole antibodies. (
  • Since the study was published, they have found antibodies that bind to both banana and cat dander antigens, and to diptheria and tetanus toxins. (
  • Some assays are subjected to interferences due to the presence of unusual antibodies in the sample (heterophile and human anti‐animal antibodies). (
  • Antigens present in excess concentrations can produce falsely low results in both immunoprecipitation (prozone) and immunometric (hook effect) assays. (
  • Circulating antibodies to P. brasiliensis can be detected in the patients' sera by serological assays such as DI, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunoenzymatic assays (6, 20). (
  • High concentrations of antibody influenced lesion size of adjacent sites, apparently by diffusion of excess antibody into such sites. (
  • The optimal concentrations of Trichinella and Toxocara antigens to use in PCA tests with these experimental infections were determined. (
  • However, nephelometry is subject to antigen excess (hook effect) interference at high protein concentrations. (
  • Scientific work was difficult under the circumstances, but Pedersen nevertheless was able to report progress in his studies of the effects of different type and concentrations of salts on precipitin reactions between antigens and antibodies. (
  • Tests that detect the presence of specific antibodies in the blood can be used to diagnose certain diseases. (
  • Not a constant region determinant Not a variable region framework determinant The antibodies used to detect idiotypesalmost always bind to hypervariable regions. (
  • In order to detect as many drugs as possible, antibodies are generalised to specific classes of compounds (e.g. drug classes such as amphetamines, opiates and benzodiazepines). (
  • A rapid antigen test performed 4 days after exposure, when she was asymptomatic, was negative ( Table ) ( Figure ). (
  • 3) direct-fluorescent antibody and (4) rapid antigen tests. (
  • The incremental cost-effectiveness when compared with rapid antigen tests was $115,556 per QALY for children aged 3-36 months and from $228,000 per QALY for children aged 3-18 years. (
  • A precipitin test characterized by a flocculent precipitate of antigen and antibody. (
  • This ensures that the true value of the immunoreactive fraction is obtained, as opposed to the apparent immunoreactive fraction determined under conditions of limited antigen excess. (
  • Due to its principle of determining binding at infinite antigen excess, the present method is quite insensitive to variation in the actual amounts of cells and antibody used, as well as the incubation time. (
  • With this method, antigen excess that was not flagged by the instrumentation can often be detected. (
  • Particles, however, either natural ones such as cells or suitably treated artificial ones made of, for example, latex or glass, typically carry multiple identical epitopes, as well as nonidentical ones, because their surfaces contain many molecules of the same antigen. (
  • Only very small area of the antigens and antibody molecules actually interact through complementary binding sites, called epitopes in antigens and paratopes in antibody. (
  • Our approach was to immunize mice, with PE38-containing ITs, isolate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reacting with conformational epitopes on PE38, and use these to determine the number of epitopes on PE38. (
  • Release of mediators depends typically upon the interaction of antigen with specific antibodies of the IgE class that are bound to the mast cells and basophils. (
  • However, as a specific diagnostic antigen, the crude extract has not well been studied, especially regarding its cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. (
  • Such indirect bonds can contribute to the phenomenon of cross-reactivity, i.e. the recognition of different but related antigens by a single antibody. (
  • cross-reactivity has been a problem, as has the absence of antigen standardization (6, 8). (
  • Preparation of a live weakened or killed microorganism of a particular disease administered to stimulate antibody production. (
  • Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. (
  • The immune reaction of Rh - people to Rh + antigens extends into reproduction. (
  • Because this second type of acquired immunity depends on the direct involvement of cells rather than antibodies, it is called cell-mediated immunity. (
  • Compare basic principles and concepts of active and passive immunity as they apply to antigens, antigen presentation, antibodies, dendritic cells, B and T lymphs and NK cells, the humoral response, primary and secondary responses in humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity and cytokines. (
  • Antibody molecules are typically Y-shaped, with a binding site on each arm of the Y. The binding sites of each antibody, in turn, have a specific shape. (
  • This region, called the variable (V) domain, is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding affinity to an antigen. (
  • The irritating histamine causes the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as runny nose, sneezing, and swollen tissues. (
  • IgG is present in both the blood and tissues, and is the only antibody to cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus. (
  • The students will learn the etiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, the basic reactions to abnormal stimuli, the morphological changes they induce in cells and tissues, together with the systemic and functional consequences for the organism. (
  • effects are the result of antibody-antigen responses (i.e., they are the products of B-cell stimulation). (
  • Such examples suggested that the existing covert paragonimiasis lesions might provoke the persistent antibody responses by continuously releasing small dose of antigenic materials. (
  • The study examined sex-specificities in age-related changes in BALB/c mice IgG antibody responses to immunisation with trivalent inactivated split-virus influenza bulk. (
  • In marked contrast, only minor responses have been observed in trials with immunotoxins targeting solid tumors, because only a single treatment cycle can be given before antibodies develop. (
  • DCs grown in the presence of IL-10 and TNF-α or sCD40L elicited efficient CTL responses against viral and tumor-associated peptide antigens, which, however, were reduced as compared with DC cultures generated without IL-10. (
  • A foreign substance that causes an allergic reaction in the body. (
  • Ranitidine is an H2 antagonist that, when combined with the H1 type, may be useful in treating allergic reactions that do not respond to H1 antagonists alone. (
  • Allergic reactions are triggered when the immune system mistakes a normally harmless substance for a dangerous invader and launches an antibody attack in response. (
  • Compared with HCV antibody screening alone this test considerably shortens the diagnostic window, as the delay to antibody seroconversion previously reported by others after PCR positivity is confirmed here after antigen positivity [7]. (
  • Agglutination Reactions 5. (
  • Agglutination reactions are very sensitive, readable and available in several varieties. (
  • Direct agglutination test di-agnoses antibodies against a large number of cellular antigens such as RBCs, bacteria and fungi. (
  • The antigens and antibodies combine by a process called agglutination. (
  • If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and thus no agglutination with the HCG-coated latex particles occurs. (
  • Subsequent pregnancies are potentially dangerous, since the antibodies can enter the fetal blood and cause agglutination. (
  • In such known methods, however, the antigen-antibody reaction is determined by observing with naked eye any specific changes in precipitation and agglutination of the reaction. (
  • A classification of immunologic reactions that can cause disease has been proposed by Coombs and Gell (1968). (
  • IgM is primarily responsible for ABO blood grouping and rheumatoid factor, yet is involved in the immunologic reaction to other infections, such as hepatitis. (
  • Anaphylaxis (a type I reaction) was described in some detail in the Institute of Medicine's report Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines (Institute of Medicine, 1991, Chapter 6 ). (
  • The concentration of Toxocara or Ascaris antigens that induced nonspecific reactions was determined. (
  • In this example the antigen titer is only 80 since the well with a 1: 80 concentration is the most dilute concentration that gives a positive reaction. (
  • The prior art techniques are tedious and time-consuming because an inspector must have much experience and high concentration in visually observing the antigen-antibody reaction. (
  • Arrayit Protein Microarray Reaction Buffer can also be used for binding and staining reactions on all other types of protein microarrays including microarrays of antibodies, antigens, peptides, cell extracts, and others. (
  • In some cases with persisting high antibody levels, however, the reactions at 27 kDa egg protein were sustained throughout the observation period of 34 months. (
  • Identical antibodies produced by cells cloned from a single cell. (
  • Scientists always thought that the two antigen-binding sites were identical, so any one antibody would only be able to tackle one substance. (
  • If both arms were identical, the antibody should pick up two at a time. (
  • Used to produce identical monoclonal antibodies in a limitless supply. (