The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/2830)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (2/2830)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (3/2830)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells. (4/2830)

This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed.  (+info)

In vitro comparison of the antigen-binding and stability properties of the various molecular forms of IgA antibodies assembled and produced in CHO cells. (5/2830)

The hallmark of a mucosal immune response is the production of antigen-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies in external secretions. S-IgA consists of ten polypeptides produced in two different cell lineages. The heavy and light chains in plasma cells assemble into IgA, which on association with J chain become polymerized, whereas secretory component (SC) is added during transport across the epithelium. Recombinant chimeric mouse-human monomeric, dimeric, and S-IgA antibodies have been produced in a single CHO cell sequentially transfected with expression vectors carrying three independent selective markers for chimeric heavy and light chains, human J chain, and human SC, respectively. Biochemical characterization of the various molecular forms indicates that the assembly of the various polypeptides resulted in species of the expected size and covalence. All chimeric IgA antibodies retained the antigen-binding capacity of the parent mouse IgA antibody. The resistance of S-IgA to protease-rich intestinal washes was enhanced when compared with dimeric IgA lacking associated SC. Up to 20 micrograms of recombinant S-IgA per 1 x 10(6) cells were recovered in 24 h with the best producing clones. We conclude that CHO cells programmed de novo with four different genetic elements can assemble functional chimeric S-IgA.  (+info)

Antifactor VIII antibody inhibiting allogeneic but not autologous factor VIII in patients with mild hemophilia A. (6/2830)

Two unrelated patients with the same Arg2150His mutation in the factor VIII (FVIII) C1 domain, a residual FVIII activity of 0.09 IU/mL, and inhibitor titres of 300 and 6 Bethesda Units, respectively, were studied. Further analysis of patient LE, with the highest inhibitor titer, showed that (1) plasma or polyclonal IgG antibodies prepared from LE plasma inhibited the activity of allogeneic (wild-type) but not of self FVIII; (2) the presence of von Willebrand factor (vWF) increased by over 10-fold the inhibitory activity on wild-type FVIII; (3) the kinetics of FVIII inhibition followed a type II pattern, but in contrast to previously described type II inhibitors, LE IgG was potentiated by the presence of vWF instead of being in competition with it; (4) polyclonal LE IgG recognized the FVIII light chain in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the recombinant A3-C1 domains in an immunoprecipitation assay, indicating that at least part of LE antibodies reacted with the FVIII domain encompassing the mutation site; and (5) LE IgG inhibited FVIII activity by decreasing the rate of FVIIIa release from vWF, but LE IgG recognized an epitope distinct from ESH8, a murine monoclonal antibody exhibiting the same property. We conclude that the present inhibitors are unique in that they clearly distinguish wild-type from self, mutated FVIII. The inhibition of wild-type FVIII by LE antibody is enhanced by vWF and is associated with an antibody-dependent reduced rate of FVIIIa release from vWF.  (+info)

Antibody response to antigens distinct from smooth lipopolysaccharide complex in Brucella infection. (7/2830)

The smooth lipopolysaccharide complex of the outer surface of smooth Brucella abortus cells is believed to be the antigenic component involved in serological tests routinely used for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Sera from cattle vaccinated or infected with B. abortus generally contain antibody directed toward the smooth lipopolysaccharide complex. The brucella organism contains a large number of other antigenically distinct components. The biological significance of some of these antigens has been demonstrated by showing that sera from infected cattle have precipitins to these components. These sera revealed up to seven distinct lines in immunoelectrophoresis with a protein-rich antigen mixture prepared from rough strain B. abortus 45/20, whereas sera from strain 19-vaccinated cattle did not reveal these lines at 4 or more months after vaccination. Monospecific antisera were prepared against six antigens in this mixture, and the purification of two of them by antibody affinity chromatography is described.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Characterization of the phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. 6301. (8/2830)

A procedure is described for the preparation of stable phycobilisomes from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 6301 (also known as Anacystis nidulans). Excitation of the phycocyanin in these particles at 580 nm leads to maximum fluorescence emission, from allophycocyanin and allophycocyanin B, at 673 nm. Electron microscopy shows that the phycobilisomes are clusters of rods. The rods are made up of stacks of discs which exhibit the dimensions of short stacks made up primarily of phycocyanin (Eiserling, F. A., and Glazer, A. N. (1974) J. Ultrastruct. Res. 47, 16-25). Loss of the clusters, by dissociation into rods under suitable conditions, is associated with loss of energy transfer as shown by a shift in fluorescence emission maximum to 652 nm. Synechococcus sp. 6301 phycobilisomes were shown to contain five nonpigmented polypeptides in addition to the colored subunits (which carry the covalently bound tetrapyrrole prosthetic groups) of the phycobiliproteins. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that these colorless polypeptides are genuine components of the phycobilisome. The nonpigmented polypeptides represent approximately 12% of the protein of the phycobilisomes; phycocyanin, approximately 75%, and allophycocyanin, approximately 12%. Spectroscopic studies that phycocyanin is in the hexamer form, (alpha beta)6, in intact phycobilisomes, and that the circular dichroism and absorbance of this aggregate are little affected by incorporation into the phycobilisome structure.  (+info)

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

... , or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... of antigen-antibody reaction). There are several types of antibodies and antigens, and each antibody is capable of binding only ... "A Theory of Antibody-Antigen Reactions. I. Theory for Reactions of Multivalent Antigen with Bivalent and Univalent Antibody". ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ...
Ouchterlony, Örjan (1949). "Antigen-antibody reactions in gels". APMIS. 26 (4): 507-515. doi:10.1111/j.1699-0463.1949.tb00751.x ... Initially at low antigen concentration, all of the antibody is contained in the precipitate. This is called the antibody-excess ... Where the two diffusion fronts meet, if any of the antibodies recognize any of the antigens, they will bind to the antigens and ... thus large aggregates or gel-like lattices of antigen and antibody are formed. Experimentally, an increasing amount of antigen ...
End point nephelometry tests are run by allowing the antibody/antigen reaction to run through to completion (until all of the ... Nephelometry can be used to detect either antigen or antibody, but it is usually run with antibody as the reagent and the ... Antigen-Antibody Reactions, Nephelometry". Essentials of Immunology. Medical College of Georgia. Archived from the original on ... Antibody and the antigen are mixed in concentrations such that only small aggregates are formed that do not quickly settle to ...
Immunoturbidimetry uses the classical antigen-antibody reaction. The antigen-antibody complexes aggregate to form particles ... Antigen excess and matrix effects are limitations encountered Immunoturbidimetry is an important tool in the broad diagnostic ... in lab Turbidimetry offers little advantage than nephelometry in measurement of sensitivity in low level antigen a antibody ...
Immunoassay: detect bacteria, viruses and cancers based on antigen-antibody reactions. Ion channel screening (patch clamp) ... better process control because of a faster response of the system (e.g. thermal control for exothermic chemical reactions) ...
It is based on double antigen antibody reaction. The test detects the prevention of agglutination of HCG-coated latex particles ... and the other is a solution of HCG antibodies. One drop of the urine is mixed with one drop of antibody solution for one minute ... If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and thus no agglutination with the HCG-coated latex particles ... If the level of HCG is too low, the antibodies will remain to agglutinate the HCG-coated latex particles. If agglutination ...
The team also developed new methods to study rickettsial antigen-antibody reactions. Political interference at the institute ... R. C. Valentine; Hélio Gelli Pereira (2003-02-28). "Antigens and structure of the adenovirus". Journal of Molecular Biology. 13 ...
... in competitive assays an enzyme-labelled antigen is used. On antibody-antigen binding a chemiluminescence reaction produces ... In protein Biochip Array Technology, the biochip replaces the ELISA plate or cuvette as the reaction platform. The biochip is ... First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. ... Biochip Array Technology is a novel application of a familiar methodology, using sandwich, competitive and antibody-capture ...
He studied antigen-antibody reactions and developed a "carrier" theory of antibody function. His award-winning development of ... The paper describes a simple method which in a single operation enables the definition of complex mixtures of antigens or ... Auto-antibodies and immunological theories: An analytical review". Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 4 (4): 453-466. doi ... Pierre Grabar spent several years simplifying Tiselius' methodology, modifying his method by introducing antibodies. In 1953 ...
Antigen-antibody reaction' between Lee Dong-wook, Cho Seung-woo". Kpop Herald. July 23, 2018. "New star-studded TV series to ...
Antigen-antibody reaction' between Lee Dong-wook, Cho Seung-woo". Kpop Herald. July 23, 2018. "조승우X배두나 '비밀의 숲2' 대본연습 현장 최초 공개… ...
Antigen-antibody reaction' between Lee Dong-wook, Cho Seung-woo". Kpop Herald. 23 July 2018. "'Goblin' stars to reunite in ...
Antibodies in the serum of humans and animals infected with Cryptosporidium parvum react with several antigens, one of which is ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also detects antigens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is another way to diagnose ... Detecting antigens is yet another way to diagnose the disease. This can be done with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) ... vaccine has produced an antibody response in a large group of cows and also antibody response in calves fed rCP15/60-immune ...
Antigen-antibody reaction' between Lee Dong-wook, Cho Seung-woo". Kpop Herald. July 23, 2018. "'Goblin' stars to reunite in ...
Immunoassay when the response is an antigen antibody binding type reaction. Depending on the nature of the signal amplification ... antibody against blood group antigens). Quantitative assays, i.e. assays that give accurate and exact numeric quantitative ... These may simply be in the form of a narrow band-pass optical filter, or a blocking reagent in a binding reaction that prevents ... A wide range of cellular secretions (say, a specific antibody or cytokine) can be detected using the ELISA technique. The ...
The antibody is resistant to treatment with ficin, papain, trypsin, DTT, and EDTA/glycine-acid.: 220 The Lan antigen was first ... Anti-Lan antibodies may cause transfusion reactions on subsequent exposures to Lan-positive blood, and have also been ... However, the clinical significance of the antibody is variable. The antigen was first described in 1961, and Lan was officially ... Serologic reagents and molecular assays for Lan antigen typing were not commercially available as of 2013. Anti-Lan antibodies ...
The precipitin reaction is based upon the interaction of antigen with antibody leading to the production of antigen-antibody ... As the amount of antigen added: In the zone of antibody excess, each molecule of antigen is bound extensively by antibody and ... The average size of antibody-antigen complex is small; cross-linking between antigen molecules by antibody is rare. In the zone ... At high concentrations of antigen, the average size of antibody-antigen complexes is once again small because few antibody ...
Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR. A rapid dot- ... Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ... motion Toxic byproducts such as nitrogenous waste Antigens released by dead and living parasites Although the clinical disease ...
... but is usually confirmed by an antigen and antibody test. A polymerase chain reaction-based test is also available. Although ... cultures from respiratory secretions of patients or serologically with a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers ...
... they also studied the reaction of these antibodies with the muscle protein antigens. During the early period of his career he ... "Analysis of Antibody Staining Patterns Obtained by Striated Myofibrils in Fluorescence Microscopy And Electron Microscopy". ... Antibodies to muscle proteins were first prepared by Kesztyűs and his team; ... the neurological understanding being in force at that time the nervous system doesn't impact either on production of antibodies ...
I considered that it might be easier to find the antigen than the antibody... The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with ... Coons AH: Some reactions of lymphoid tissues to stimulation by antigens. Harvey Lect 1957-59; 53: 113-129. Sercarz EE, Coons AH ... This basic laboratory paradigm was later applied to many antigens and antibodies, launching the clinical disciplines of ... Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and ...
These measurements are most often used to measure timed events like antibody-antigen reactions or protein assembly. Batch mode ...
The Yt system features two alleles, Yt(a) and Yt(b). Antibodies against the Yt system can lead to transfusion reactions such as ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a person's ... Yt at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... The antigens are found on the protein acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which helps break down acetylcholine. ...
... adverse reactions from these antibodies may occur because of long-lasting response to antigens. Passive monoclonal antibody ... Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens presented on ... Some such tumor antigens are inappropriate for the cell type or its environment. Monoclonal antibodies can target tumor cells ...
Antibodies and antigens can be detected in the blood using ELISA to identify infection. Adult worm antigens can be detected by ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based testing is accurate and rapid. They, however, are not frequency used in countries were ... Circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine can be tested with lateral flow immune-chromatographic reagent strip and point-of- ... Initially, the inflammatory reaction is readily reversible. In the latter stages of the disease, the pathology is associated ...
"The Nature of the Forces Between Antigen and Antibody and of the Precipitation Reaction". Physiological Reviews. 23 (3): 203- ... scarc (27 September 2016). "Dan Campbell and David Pressman study antigens and antibodies". Retrieved 27 September 2016. ... Campbell and the three published highly influential work on antibodies and antigens. Pressman then joined the faculty at the ... "Campbell, Pressman, Pauling and the Binding of Antibodies". The Pauling Blog. Oregon State University. 9 April 2015. Retrieved ...
"The influence of optimal proportions of antigen and antibody in the serum precipitation reaction". The Journal of Pathology and ... Dean, HR; Taylor, GL; Adair, ME (1935). "The Precipitation Reaction: Experiments with an Antiserum containing Two Antibodies". ... Dean, HR (1910). "An Examination of the Blood Serum of Idiots by the Wassermann Reaction". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... Dean, H. R.; Webb, R. A. (1928). "The determination of the rate of antibody (precipitin) production in rabbit's blood by the ...
The antigen leukocyte antibody test (ALCAT test) is one that claims to measure adverse reactions to dietary substances. It was ... A study conducted in 2014 demonstrated reactions identified as "severe" were associated with the up-regulation of CD11b on CD4+ ...
The main finding was that the hydrophobic effect was the stabilizing force in the antigen and antibody reaction. Salahuddin's ... Egg white ovalbumin and anti ovalbumin antibody system was established in his lab, and was used to study the in vitro protein- ... ionic strength and temperature on the ovalbuminanti-ovalbumin precipitin reaction". Immunology. 25 (3): 377-83. PMC 1423065. ...
... which involve immune mechanisms consisting of antigen-antibody reactions. These reactions may result from unrelated antigen- ... The latter type of antigen-antibody reaction may be termed "autoimmune", and hemolytic anemias so produced are autoimmune ... antibody complexes that fix to an innocent-bystander erythrocyte, or from related antigen-antibody combinations in which the ... The antibodies are usually directed against high-incidence antigens, therefore they also commonly act on allogenic RBCs (RBCs ...
The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ... Tests such as ELISA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially, but lack specificity ... Specific diagnosis of norovirus is routinely made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays or quantitative PCR assays, which ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ...
Erythematous skin conditions arising from antigen reactions may complicate the disease, as may myalgias, arthralgias, and ... of the resident population have an antibody reaction to H. capsulatum, probably indicating prior subclinical infection. ... Lawrence Valley is probably the best known endemic region based both on case reports and on a number of skin test reaction ... In some areas, such as Kansas City, skin testing with the histoplasmin antigen preparation shows that 80-90% ...
... and people with a history of severe reaction to another monoclonal antibody.[needs update] People have had severe infusion- ... in microsatellite instability allowing the tumor to generate numerous mutant proteins that could serve as tumor antigens, ... It is an IgG4 isotype antibody that blocks a protective mechanism of cancer cells and thereby, allows the immune system to ... The common adverse reactions have been fatigue (24%), rash (19%), itchiness (pruritus) (17%), diarrhea (12%), nausea (11%) and ...
... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... and is the site of cell mediated immune reactions. Competition and inhibition interactions between candida species and other ... including salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies, which aggregate candida organisms and prevent them adhering to the epithelial ...
... indicating the structure is conserved enough for the antibody to recognize the enzyme as an antigen. Furthermore, genomic ... which lowers the activation energy of the reaction and stabilizes the transition state. Finally, the C1 atom of UDP-glucose ... First, antibodies with high specificities for plant SPS also target the bacterial SPS, ...
... antibodies to Borrelia antigens indicate disease, but lower titers can be misleading, because the IgM antibodies may remain ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics. As antibody levels are ...
For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc., depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic ... The vaccination should not be taken by people who have had a severe allergic reaction to the influenza vaccination. ... often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called ...
This second antibody specifically binds with the bound antigens, thereby causing each bound antigen to be sandwiched between ... This eosin radical is oxidized by the reaction with oxygen, so Eosin Y can be regenerated. The regeneration of eosin makes the ... For instance, if more antigens are bound to the surface antibodies, more eosin-conjugated antibodies will also bind to the ... If the sample contains the target antigens, they bind to the immobilized antibodies. (Figure 1a) Second, eosin-conjugated ...
Due to lower accuracy and higher chance of false positives, a positive rapid or antibody test is not counted into the official ... or an antigen test if they are entering by land or sea. Due to the sudden regulation, 133,000 would-be visitors asked for plane ... some countries then decided to only unban very essential travel with travellers already conducted two polymerase chain reaction ...
There he performed a number of studies on the immunological specificity and chemical nature of antibodies and antigens and ... In one of developed by him reactions, ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde, which reacts with additional ethanol over a tantalum ... Ostromislensky investigated the possibility of synthesis of antibodies in vitro and proposed a theory of antibody synthesis, ... which is regarded as one of the first versions of the so-called matrix theory of antibody synthesis. The theory had strong ...
... polymerase chain reaction - polymerization - polymyxin - polymyxin B - polyomavirus transforming antigen - polypeptide - ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ...
... techniques involve the selective identification of antigen proteins by exploiting these antigen-antibody relationships to ... Complex biochemical reactions exhibited by the estrogen receptor are necessary for the mediation of cellular interactions in ... Various target antibodies may be used in the IHC assessment of the ER. Typically, the antibody used for this experiment is the ... Anti-estrogen receptor antibodies were among the first of biomarkers which introduced a semi-quantitative assessment of the ER ...
... test is used to screen for antibodies that could cause transfusion reactions and identify certain blood group antigens. ... When the antibodies bind to red blood cells that express the corresponding antigen, they cause red blood cells to clump ... The person's blood group antibodies can also be identified by adding plasma to cells that express the corresponding antigen and ... Several methods can be used to detect antibodies and antigens, including ELISA, agglutination, precipitation, complement- ...
Circulating auto-antibodies to BP-1 antigen (located in hemidesmosome). 50% have BP-2. Positive Nikolsky sign. IgG, C3 ... The autoimmune reaction most commonly affects the oral mucosa in the mouth, causing lesions in the gums (gingiva), known as ... When the condition is active, the basement membrane is dissolved by the antibodies produced, and areas of skin lift away at the ... Diagnostic techniques: antibodies (IgG) precipitate complement (C3) in the lamina lucida of the basement membrane. ...
... can still cause adverse reactions in people whose allergic reaction to penicillin is a Type 1 Hypersensitivity reaction. In ... The body responds to these toxins by making antibodies to those specific toxins. However, those antibodies do not completely ... The rapid antigen detection test is a very specific test but not very sensitive. This means that if the result is positive ( ... The reaction could be seen four hours after the injection, but was more noticeable after 24 hours. If no reaction was seen in ...
This caused serious reactions and deaths in individuals whose latent tuberculosis was reactivated by the tuberculin. This was a ... Indeed, a vaccine that provides accessible antigens in the absence of these other proteins may allow us to control the response ... The measles virus can deplete previously acquired immune memory by killing cells that make antibodies, and thus weakens the ... A study published in 2013 found no correlation between autism and the antigen number in the vaccines the children were ...
... test is based on cross-reactions which occur between antibodies produced in acute rickettsial infections with antigens of OX ( ... The Weil-Felix antibody was recently found to target rickettsia LPS O-antigen. The basis of the test is the presence of ... "Rickettsia conorii O antigen is the target of bactericidal Weil-Felix antibodies". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... A drop of antigen suspension is added to each tube, and the mixture is incubated at 50-55 °C for 4-6 hours. A positive tube ...
FSL have been used to create human red cell kodecytes that have been used to detect and identify blood group allo-antibodies as ... In contrast, the FSL Kode construct bound to a microplate presents the antigen away from the surface in an orientation with a ... A Perspex template is adhered to the surface to create reaction wells. The method is then a standard EIA procedure, but ... Nadarajan, V.S.; Laing, A. A.; Saad, S. M.; Usin, M (2011). "Prevalence and specificity of red-blood-cell antibodies in a ...
This has indeed been observed for interactions of P-selectin with PSGL-1 or anti-P-selectin antibody, L-selectin with PSGL-1, ... Dembo M, Torney DC, Saxman K, Hammer D (June 1988). "The reaction-limited kinetics of membrane-to-surface adhesion and ... These includes bonds between T cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pre-TCR and peptide presented by major histocompatibility ... "Mechano-regulation of Peptide-MHC Class I Conformations Determines TCR Antigen Recognition". Molecular Cell. 73 (5): 1015-27 e7 ...
In October 2000, HGS and Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) agreed to co-develop monoclonal antibodies targeted at BLyS. Under ... It interacts with three membrane receptors on B lymphocytes: BAFF-R (BAFF receptor) BCMA (B cell maturation antigen) TACI ( ... as well as hypersensitivity and infusion-site reactions, which were severe in 0.9% of patients. Regulatory agencies recommend ... Belimumab, sold under the brand name Benlysta, is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits B-cell activating factor (BAFF), ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or anaphylactic reactions. ...
After multiple exposures, it takes less and less of the antigens to set off the reaction in the lung. Farmer's lung disease ( ... which generate IgG-type antibodies. Following a subsequent exposure, IgG antibodies combined with the inhaled allergen to form ... Any exposure to the antigens once hypersensitivity has occurred can set off another chronic reaction. For chronic FLD, there ... rest and reducing the exposure to the antigens through masks and increased airflow in confined spaces where the antigens are ...
In type III hypersensitivity reaction, an abnormal immune response is mediated by the formation of antigen-antibody aggregates ... Medication-induced reactions: antibiotics Type II hypersensitivity reaction refers to an antibody-mediated immune reaction in ... Type I: IgE mediated immediate reaction Type II: Antibody-mediated reaction (IgG or IgM antibodies) Type III: Immune complex- ... The principal feature that separates type III reactions from other hypersensitivity reactions is that in type III reaction, the ...
... treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens: ... Sensitivity reactions: Urticaria, rash, pruritus and eosinophilia in white blood cell counts Other locations/body as a whole: ... Side effects in humans may include poor coordination, abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and allergic reactions. While it may ... from their site of action in the host organism and may enter systemic circulation or may be destroyed by host immune reaction ( ...
Since these antibodies are produced as a delayed antibody reaction to the above-mentioned bacteria, there is no normal value. ... it produces antibodies against the various antigens that the streptococci produce. ASO is one such antibody. A raised or rising ... These antibodies produced against the bacteria cross-react with human antigens (mainly collagen) and hence attack the cellular ... The antibody levels begin to rise after 1 to 3 weeks of strep infection, peaks in 3 to 5 weeks and falls back to insignificant ...
Polymerase chain reaction testing of the CSF does not show the presence of the parasite.[citation needed] The cause is ... Diagnosis can be made by skin biopsy (with or without PCR) or antibody testing. Onchocerciasis causes different kinds of skin ... "Onchocerciasis modulates the immune response to mycobacterial antigens". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 117 (3): 517-523 ... The Mazzotti reaction, first described in 1948, is a symptom complex seen in patients after undergoing treatment of ...
1996). "Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 55 (5): 556-9. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1996.55.556 ... Other methods include culture and polymerase chain reaction, but these are not routinely available and the results do not ... 2003). "Short report: variation in the 56-kD type-specific antigen gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from patients in ... Serological methods are most reliable when a four-fold rise in antibody titre is found. If the patient is from a nonendemic ...
Greenwalt, T.J. (2005). "Antibodies, antigens, and anticoagulants: a historical review of a lifetime in transfusion medicine- ... He also developed a filter to remove white blood cells from donor blood to mitigate transfusion reactions (a process known as ...
D-L antibodies, typically IgG, are characterized by targeting against red blood cells' on-surface antigens called "P". The ... "Type-specific cold auto-antibodies as a cause of acquired hemolytic anemia and hemolytic transfusion reactions: biologic test ... Cold sensitive antibodies (CSA) are antibodies sensitive to cold temperature. Some cold sensitive antibodies are pathological ... Cold agglutinins are antibodies, typically immunoglobulin M (IgM), that are acquainted with and then binding the antigens on ...
This may facilitate the persistence of M. haemofelis within the host by disguising or eliminating antigens that might elicit an ... In suspected cases polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests have become common and commercially available. There is not yet ... meaning IgG antibodies have become bound to red blood cells, marking them for destruction. For the most part, the anemia seen ... In suspected cases, M. haemofelis can be identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis for species-specific 16S rRNA ...
The Nature of the Forces Between Antigen and Antibody and of the Precipitation Reaction. Contributor(s):. Oregon State ... Antigen-Antibody Complex. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. Copyright:. This item may be under copyright protection; ...
Results of search for su:{Antigen-antibody reactions.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Structure and function of antibodies / edited by L.E. Glynn and M.W. Steward. by Glynn, Leonard Eleazar , Steward, Michael W. ... Mechanisms of inflammation induced by immune reactions : immunopathology, Vth international symposium held at Punta Ala (Italy ... CIOMS Conference on the Biochemistry of the Acute Allergic Reactions (1967 : Punta Ala, Italy). ...
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Abbreviations: Ab = antibody; Ag = antigen; COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019; N/A = not applicable; PCR = polymerase chain ... Six cases were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, four persons were classified as ... A rapid antigen test performed 4 days after exposure, when she was asymptomatic, was negative (Table) (Figure). She experienced ... Abbreviations: Ag = antigen; COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019.. * Patient numbers refer to those in the Table, where further ...
This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. Unbound sample is ... Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody (HEPBD_G) Data File: HEPBD_G.xpt First Published: September ... Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B surface antigen. Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS. ... Hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc). English Text: Hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc). Target: Both males and females 6 ...
... and in antibody seroprevalence overtime for the less-immunogenic antigens. Over the 3 years, antibody levels to all antigens ... Antibody prevalence in adults was high at all time points (, 70%) for apical membrane antigen 1, erythrocyte-binding antigen ... Prevalence and levels of antibodies to all antigens except CSP and SE increased with age. Increases in antibody prevalence and ... Antibody levels to multiple P. falciparum antigens decrease in the absence of consistent transmission. Multiplex assays that ...
Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a lab test that looks for micro-organisms in lung secretions. ... Normally, there is no antigen-antibody reaction.. What Abnormal Results Mean. Abnormal results may be due to an infection such ... Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a lab test that looks for micro-organisms in lung secretions. ...
1 antigen and anti-DENV IgM/IgG antibodies among (1) DENV Detect NS1 ELISA, DENV Detect IgM capture ELISA and D … ... Coinfection and cross-reaction of dengue and COVID-19: a case series analysis. Machado MEA, Kimura E. Machado MEA, et al. Rev ... than the other tests for combined NS1 antigen and IgM antibody. Five NS1 antigen tests had good agreement (92.8-98.6%) without ... Comparison of Six Commercial Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus Non-Structural-1 Antigen and IgM/IgG Antibodies ...
An antibody response to a protein-bound biotransformation prod … ... Antigen-Antibody Reactions* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Halogenated anesthetics form liver adducts and antigens that cross-react with halothane-induced antibodies J B Clarke 1 , C ... Halogenated anesthetics form liver adducts and antigens that cross-react with halothane-induced antibodies J B Clarke et al. ...
... cryptococcal antigen testing; and urinary mumps antibody testing. Positive results included mumps antibody titer of ... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus 1 and 2; infectious mononucleosis screen; ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis: production of antibody by "tolerant" infected mice. Science. 1967;158:1193-5. DOIPubMedGoogle ... All Nobuto strips were negative for LCMV-specific antibodies by ELISA (Table). Confirmation PCR of a single virus isolate was ...
Serologic detection of antibodies to recombinant K39 antigen. * Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sensitive, rapid ... In this case, the dipstick second from the left shows a positive result and all the rest show reaction only at the control line ... Lemos EM, Carvalho SF, Corey R, Dietze R. [Evaluation of a rapid test using recombinant k39 antigen in the diagnosis of ... Kumar R, Pai K, Pathak K, Sundar S. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for recombinant K39 antigen in diagnosis and prognosis of ...
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. *antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ...
Antigen-antibody-reactions; Immunology; Respiratory-irritants ... antigens that have not been ascribed to the growing list of ... Animal models reviewed demonstrate differences in results based on the use of a soluble antigen or a particulate one that may ... The author concludes that further elucidation of the interactions of inhaled antigens and the complement system is needed. He ...
Antibodies, Viral / immunology* * Antigens, Viral / immunology* * Cell Line * Cross Reactions * Hemagglutination Inhibition ... Significant cross-reactions in the horse antisera were compared to similar data obtained from rabbit antisera. Using this ... Types 20, 30, 32, and 45 exhibit shared determinants slightly less often, with a mean of 8 heterologous reactions per type. ... averaging 12 heterologous reactions per type when summing both tests in both directions. ...
3. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) greater than or equal to 3 EU or positive extractable nuclear antigen (ENA); prior history of ... Prior remote history of phototoxicity reaction allowed. 4. Unable to comply with the requirements of the protocol. --Back to ... 1. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) less than 3 EU; Negative extractable nuclear antigen (ENA); and negative history of idiopathic ... Prior remote history of phototoxicity reaction allowed. 5. Unable to comply with the requirements of the protocol. 6. Any ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology; Antigen-Antibody Reactions; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay*; Female ... Thus, a quality-improved monoclonal antibody (Mab) against HA was elicited by its hapten-carrier conjugates. Then, as the ... determination of HA has rarely been reported due to its small size to induce the desired antibodies by its current hapten- ... Hapten B was used as linker-heterologous coating haptens to eliminate the recognition of linker antibodies. Indirect ...
Categories: Antigen-Antibody Reactions Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Passive transmission of antibodies to erythrocyte antigens (e.g., A, B, and D) may cause a positive direct or indirect ... History of anaphylactic or severe systemic reactions to human immunoglobulin. [4]. *IgA deficient patients with antibodies to ... ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reactions to BIVIGAM (reported more than equal to 5% of clinical study subjects) were ... 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Serious adverse reactions observed in clinical trial subjects receiving BIVIGAM were vomiting and ...
Antigen-Antibody Reactions [G12.425.143]. *Immunologic Capping [G12.425.143.612]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is ... bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes ... Targeting antigen to CD19 on B cells efficiently activates T cells. Int Immunol. 2005 Jul; 17(7):869-77. ... Suppression of normal and malignant kit signaling by a bispecific antibody linking kit with CD300a. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180 ...
Influenza vaccine rarely causes systemic or febrile reactions. Whole-virus, subvirion, and purified-surface-antigen ... These antibody titers are protective against illness caused by strains similar to those in the vaccine or the related variants ... Such adverse reactions rarely are severe; however, for some categories of patients, severe adverse reactions are more likely to ... These reactions probably result from hypersensitivity to some vaccine component; most reactions likely are caused by residual ...
Reaction of human monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins with tissue antigens: Implications for autoimmune diseases.Dec ... Antibody titers against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis virus (a coronaviridiae virus) were higher in chickens fed ... High levels of common cold coronavirus antibodies in convalescent plasma are associated with improved survival in COVID-19 ... Genistein-fed broiler chicks had significantly higher cutaneous basophil hypersensivity and antibody titers to Newcastle and ...
Finally, an innovative targeted therapy called antibody drug conjugates (ADC) has provided a solution to overcome this ... or HER3-targeting treatment strategies using monoclonal antibodies have been intensively examined and have demonstrated ... which enhances the initiation of immunological reactions and antigen recognition. Furthermore, patritumab deruxtecan ... Regarding anti-HER3 antibody patritumab, which is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody, our in vitro cell ...
This process increased the magnitude of the antibody-antigen reaction. The sections were washed one more time with PBS after 20 ... CK is a cytoplasmic protein; therefore, monoclonal antibody binds to the antigen, leading to its expression. We ran a positive ... Elevation of anti-cytokeratin 18 antibody and circulating cytokeratin 18: anti-cytokeratin 18 antibody immune complexes in sera ... antigen retrieval was performed using a microwave method (11). This used citrate buffer to expose the hidden antibody-binding ...
Hemagglutination: Hemagglutination tests are based on an antigen-antibody reaction. Distilled water and urine are added to a ... Antigen, antibody, antiserum: An antigen is a substance that can act on the immune system and cause the system to create ... An antibody is made by the immune system as part of a process to destroy the antigen. An antiserum is created by scientists. It ... If there is no hCG in the urine, the antibodies bind to the sheep cells, resulting in clumping (or, more technically, " ...
Furthermore, preincubation with the corresponding immunizing antigen blocked the blotting reaction. Antibodies were also tested ... anti-densin antibodies showed reduced staining. Staining intensity with anti-podocalyxin antibodies was equal in both CNF and ... was used as second antibody for anti-densin antibodies and FITC-conjugated AffiniPure goat anti-mouse Ig (Jackson Immuno ... Production of Antibodies to Nephrin and Densin. The whole intracellular sequence of rat nephrin (GenBank AF125521) was cloned ...
  • Six cases were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, four persons were classified as having probable COVID-19 based on positive antigen testing or clinical and epidemiologic criteria, and two persons were classified as having suspected COVID-19 based on positive antibody testing, including the index patient (Table). (
  • The guideline makes recommendations for healthcare professionals caring for people who have had suspected or confirmed acute covid-19 and present to any healthcare setting, irrespective of whether they were hospitalised or had a positive or negative SARS-CoV-2 test (polymerase chain reaction, antigen, or antibody). (
  • A precipitation reaction occurs as a result of the combination of antibodies in solution with soluble substances with which the antibodies react. (
  • It also involves Ig-M and Ig-G antibodies, but they react with soluble antigens. (
  • However, an immunoassay for direct (derivatization free) determination of HA has rarely been reported due to its small size to induce the desired antibodies by its current hapten-protein conjugates. (
  • Thus, a quality-improved monoclonal antibody (Mab) against HA was elicited by its hapten-carrier conjugates. (
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a promising therapy for cancer. (
  • A team of researchers from the Laboratory of Molecular Design and Synthesis together with colleagues from the Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics and the Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry of the IBCh RAS, as well as the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, developed several approaches to the synthesis of conjugates of antibodies to the tumor-associated antigen PRAME with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and MMAE. (
  • As a result, the possibility of creating antibody-drug conjugates targeting the PRAME antigen was shown for the first time. (
  • This immunological method is used to detect abnormalities in specific serum proteins and to identify specific immunoglobulins using anti-human antibody reagents. (
  • In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. (
  • Each serum was examined by micromethod of complement binding reactions using antigen Chlamydophila ( Chlamydia ) psittaci . (
  • Upon discovering that globulins (serum proteins) bound radioactive insulin in the blood of insulin-treated diabetics, they concluded that insulin injections immunized patients so that they develop insulin-binding antibodies, which keeps the insulin molecules in the bloodstream. (
  • To study possible cross-reactions with other infectious illnesses, different serologic tests were applied to the positive serum samples by using ELISA. (
  • 7 ). Two serum samples showed clear IgM antibody bands to 41- and 23-kDa proteins. (
  • In this article, Heidelberger and Kendall gave further evidence that antigens and antibodies were multivalent, meaning that there was more than one reactive group in each that allowed antigens and antibodies to form two (in the case of antibodies, as was later shown) or more (in the case of antigens) chemical bonds. (
  • An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. (
  • To systematically search for additional podocyte molecules interacting with nephrin, a key structural molecule of the interpodocyte filtration slit, precipitation of glomerular lysates was set out with anti-nephrin antibodies to identify members of the nephrin-associated protein complex. (
  • Type III hypersensitivity reaction is also known as immune-complex reaction. (
  • Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody conjugate (mouse monoclonal anti-HBc) is then allowed to react with the remaining exposed HBcAg on the well surface. (
  • This involves the simultaneous reaction of HBsAg in the sample with mouse monoclonal anti-HBs antibody coated onto the wells and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled mouse monoclonal anti-HBs antibody in the conjugate. (
  • In this study we describe the viral neutralizing activity of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • To further characterize these viral neutralizing antibodies we generated a panel of anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) reagents and serologically characterized these antibodies for epitope specificity, Id specificity, and Id heterogeneity. (
  • Additional studies are needed on thermodynamic characterization of antigen-antibody reactions in conjunction with mutagenesis of engineered single-chain antibodies to understand the molecular basis for viral neutralization. (
  • The presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci insmall mammals ( Insectivora, Rodentia ) in the region of East Slovakia are presented. (
  • The author concludes that further elucidation of the interactions of inhaled antigens and the complement system is needed. (
  • A number of purine arabinosides containing chiral amino acid amides at the C6 position of the purine were synthesized using a transglycosylation reaction with recombinant E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases. (
  • If such a precipitation reaction occurs in vivo in the joints or the kidney, inflammation results because the immune complexes are filtered out in those areas, causing irritation. (
  • test, dilutions of antigen and antibody in aqueous solution are combined until a precipitation reaction occurs and visible particles accumulate. (
  • Other applications for characterization include enzyme kinetics, calorimetry, advanced optical spectroscopy and immunochemistry to elucidate reaction mechanisms and protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. (
  • Retinoic acid secreted by antigen presenting cells can induce the expression of gut homing receptors in T cells but also Ig-A secreting B cells and provoke their migration to the gut. (
  • The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. (
  • Eosinophils and basophils respond to allergic reactions and are capable of ingesting antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • The bound HRP conjugate is measured by a luminescent reaction. (
  • An innovative antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology, with a new linker-payload system, has provided a solution to overcome this resistance. (
  • This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (
  • Hemagglutination tests are based on an antigen-antibody reaction. (
  • Flocculation is one of the basic serologic reactions, along with agglutination, hemagglutination and precipitation. (
  • Significant cross-reactions in the horse antisera were compared to similar data obtained from rabbit antisera. (
  • It is a division of hematology that studies antigen-antibody reactions and analogous phenomena as they associate to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of blood disorders. (
  • History of anaphylactic or severe systemic reactions to human immunoglobulin. (
  • We used an immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM-enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Enzygnost Borreliosis, Behring, Marburg, Germany), in which each strip contained wells coated with inactivated borrelial antigen (detergent extract from strain isolate PKo [ Borrelia afzelii ]), to detect specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi . (
  • Have medications such as epinephrine available immediately to treat any acute severe hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • Some examples of type I hypersensitivity reactions include food allergy, allergic rhinitis, allergic bronchial asthma, atopic eczema, drug allergy and anaphylactic shock. (
  • 1 Type II hypersensitivity reactions are common in some types of autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune neutropenia of rheumatoid disorders . (
  • Justiz Vaillant AA, Vashisht R, Zito PM. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • Lastly, the intrastrain antibody repertoire induced following HBsAg immunization was found to be relatively restricted in heterogeneity by clonotype analysis using isoelectric focusing and affinity immunoblot analysis. (
  • If there is hCG in the urine, the antibodies will bind to it, instead, causing the sheep cells to fall out of solution and forming a reddish-brown ring at the bottom of the vial. (
  • Otherwise known as antibodies, the class of proteins responsible for recognizing antigens disables them through diverse shapes that bind with their surfaces like a key in a lock. (
  • Type II hypersensitivity is characterized by Ig-M and Ig-G antibodies that bind to cell surface antigens inducing activation of complement cascades and phagocytosis. (
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes on the basis of two surface antigens: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Three subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1, H2, and H3) and two subtypes of neuraminidase (N1 and N2) are recognized among influenza A viruses that have caused widespread human disease. (
  • IgA deficient patients with antibodies against IgA are at greater risk of developing severe hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions. (
  • Manifestations of allergic reactions include redness of the skin (contact allergy), sneezing, wheezing and edema and can ultimately lead to anaphylactic shock. (
  • Type I hypersensitivity reaction, also known as anaphylactic response, is characterized by a rapid Ig-E antibody production. (
  • The biochemical basis of these, what are being called pathways but also being called cascades, is in general and that there are enzymatic reactions. (
  • The Wassermann test is a complement-fixation antibody test for syphilis, named after the bacteriologist August von Wassermann.The antibody test was developed by Wassermann and Albert Neisser at the Robert Koch Institute for Infectious Diseases in 1906. (
  • Confirmatory testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta found the specimen IgG-reactive and negative for mumps by urinary antigen culture and PCR. (
  • Plastic molecules made to mimic the body's natural disease-fighters and injected into living animals behaved like antibodies, latching onto foreign molecules and launching an attack against them in the bloodstream. (
  • Antigens are objects foreign to an organism's bloodstream, such as viruses, a wide range of bacteria, and allergens such as house dust and plant pollen . (
  • The result is the first to demonstrate that plastic antibodies work in the bloodstream, they said. (
  • If transfusion-related acute lung injury is suspected, test the product and patient for antineutrophil antibodies. (
  • Using radioisotopes, Yalow and Berson discovered the need to detect insulin antibodies at low concentrations to measure circulating insulin. (
  • Mechanisms of inflammation induced by immune reactions : immunopathology, Vth international symposium held at Punta Ala (Italy, June 1967 / edited by Peter A. Miescher, Pierre Grabar. (
  • The breakthrough is a step toward the medical use of these custom-fabricated particles for targeted attacks on viruses and other harmful antigens, researchers said in a statement. (
  • Different populations of immune cells are engaged in an allergic reaction, including antigen presenting cells (e.g., dendritic cells), mast cells and Ig-E producing B cells and T cells. (
  • To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Kedrion Biopharma Inc. at 1-800-XXX-XXXX or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or (
  • The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. (
  • However, the adverse reactions and toxicity associated with the use of these drugs have expeditiously promoted the use of natural plant products or procedures belonging to the diverse traditional systems of medicine by patients with RA [ 8 - 14 ] and other chronic inflammatory disorders [ 15 - 23 ]. (
  • Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a lab test that looks for micro-organisms in lung secretions. (
  • The test was a growth from the work of Bordet and Gengou on complementing-fixation reaction, published in 1901, and the positive reaction is sometimes called the Bordet-Gengou-Wassermann reaction or Bordet-Wassermann reaction. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Antigen-antibody reactions. (
  • This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). (
  • Furthermore, this antiarthritic activity of HLXL is associated with changes in both the T cell and the antibody responses against Bhsp65. (
  • This finding was crucial in understanding antigen-antibody reactions, and ran counter to the assertion by many scientists of the time, including the famous physical chemist Linus Pauling, that antibodies were univalent. (
  • Scientists used a mold of sorts to produce artificial antibodies from plastic. (
  • After bleeding out the toxin, scientists were left with tiny particles shaped like the surface of the bee-venom antigen. (
  • Before this revolutionary breakthrough, scientists could only analyze reactions between antigens and antibodies and those that produced visible precipitation or other evidence, such as the clumping of red blood cells. (
  • Arsenolysis of 2-chloropurine ribosides with chiral amino acid amides at C6 was used for the enzymatic synthesis, and the reaction equilibrium shifted towards the synthesis of arabinonucleosides. (
  • The technique of obtaining diagnostic and immune reactions of interaction latex agglutination for diphtheria determination is described. (
  • A rapid antigen test performed 4 days after exposure, when she was asymptomatic, was negative ( Table ) ( Figure ). (
  • A flocculation test is characterized by a flocculent precipitate of antigen and antibody. (
  • Researchers will take photographs of the specific site and do tests to measure skin reaction to ultraviolet (UV) light. (
  • Immunoprecipitation, referred also as "IP" is the technique of precipitating an antigen out of solution using an antibody specific to that antigen. (
  • A fourth type of hypersensitivity is classified as delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) and is characterized by infiltration of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • The team performed site-specific conjugation by periodate oxidation of glycans followed by bioorthogonal reactions: oxime ligation and CuAAC. (
  • When mixed with melittin and triggered by a chemical reaction in the lab, nano-sized synthetic particles hardened around the melittin and grew into long chains. (
  • A spike in malaria incidence occurred between April 2009 and May 2010, a period within our blood collection time points and antibody testing. (
  • On the basis of application, the immunohematology market is segmented into antibody screening and blood typing. (
  • Immunohematology helps in the screening of Rh factor, blood antigens, plasma and white blood cell components in the donor blood. (
  • Type 1 hypersensitivity involves the production of Ig-E antibodies against an allergen. (
  • T-cell immunity is cellular and involves the activation of phagocytes and B-cell immunity uses antibodies to fight infection. (
  • Types 20, 30, 32, and 45 exhibit shared determinants slightly less often, with a mean of 8 heterologous reactions per type. (
  • Other types of antibodies such as Ig-A have also been described in type III hypersensitivity. (
  • The anti-human antibody reagents have been prepared against purified fractions of human globulins and are commercially available for research or biomedical purposes. (
  • This was the same patient with low levels of antibodies to leptospira . (
  • Waning of antibody levels overtime. (
  • In four cross-sectional cohorts with repeatedly sampled individuals, antibody levels to 12 Plasmodium falciparum antigens reduced overtime. (
  • Points represent the geometric mean antibody levels in three age groups from each of the four cross sections, with 95% CIs represented by vertical bars. (
  • The antichlamydial antibodies were proved at levels ranging from 1:32-1:1024. (
  • This study will examine the phototoxicity, a reaction to light that is like exaggerated sunburn, which occurs in people who take medications such as voriconazole, a medication used to fight fungus. (
  • Immunity to these antigens -- especially to the hemagglutinin -- reduces the likelihood of infection and lessens the severity of disease if infection occurs. (
  • Targeting antigen to CD19 on B cells efficiently activates T cells. (
  • Ig-alpha cytoplasmic truncation renders immature B cells more sensitive to antigen contact. (
  • The chosen antigen was melittin, the primary toxin in bee venom . (
  • In 1959, Yalow and Berson published their proof of studying the primary reaction of antigen with antibody using the radioisotopic method, which they labeled radioimmunoassay (RIA). (

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