The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (1/4788)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/4788)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (3/4788)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Abnormal responses to rubella infection. (4/4788)

Two cases of rubella are described which caused initial problems in laboratory diagnosis due to abnormal features in the immune response. One patient presented with thrombocytopenic purpura and associated circulating immune complexes. The other patient, who was in early pregnancy, had an unusually prolonged rash and a delayed humoral immune response. The possible reasons for the difficulties in serological confirmation are discussed.  (+info)

Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C). (5/4788)

The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments.  (+info)

Association and dissociation kinetics of bobwhite quail lysozyme with monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5. (6/4788)

The anti-hen egg lysozyme monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 and its complexes with various species-variant and mutant lysozymes have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. The affinity of HyHEL-5 for bobwhite quail lysozyme (BWQL) is over 1000-fold lower than its affinity for the original antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL). This difference is believed to arise almost entirely from the replacement in BWQL of the structural and energetic epitope residue Arg68 by lysine. In this study, the association and dissociation kinetics of BWQL with HyHEL-5 were investigated under a variety of conditions and compared with previous results for HEL. HyHEL-5-BWQL association follows a bimolecular mechanism and the dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex is a first-order process. Changes in ionic strength (from 27 to 500 mM) and pH (from 6.0 to 10.0) produced about a 2-fold change in the association and dissociation rates. The effect of viscosity modifiers on the association reaction was also studied. The large difference in the HEL and BWQL affinities for HyHEL-5 is essentially due to differences in the dissociation rate constant.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (7/4788)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

Induction of autoimmunity by multivalent immunodominant and subdominant T cell determinants of La (SS-B). (8/4788)

We investigated the consequences of altering the form and valence of defined autodeterminants on the initiation and spreading of experimentally induced La/Ro autoimmunity. Anti-La and Ro (SS-A) Ab responses were monitored following immunization of healthy mice with defined immunodominant and subdominant T cell determinants of the La (SS-B) autoantigen synthesized as either monomeric or multiple antigenic (MAP) peptides. Abs to mouse La (mLa) developed faster and were of higher titer in mice immunized with the subdominant mLa25-44 MAP compared with mice immunized with the 25-44 monomer. Rapid intermolecular spreading of the autoimmune response to 60-kDa Ro was observed in AKR/J mice immunized with mLa25-44 MAP, but not in mice immunized repeatedly with monomeric peptide. A/J mice immunized and boosted with the known tolerogenic mLa287-301 determinant delivered as monomeric peptide failed to develop Abs to either intact mLa or mLa287-301 peptide. However, immunization with the multivalent mLa287-301 peptide led to the rapid production of high titer mLa autoantibodies associated with a proliferative T cell response to the mLa287-301 peptide. The data suggested that the enhanced immunogenicity of MAPs was not due to augmented Ag presentation or T cell stimulation. However, MAP-, but not monomer peptide-, containing immune complexes were potent substrates for Ab-dependent fixation of complement. These results demonstrate that the form of Ag responsible for inducing autoimmunity can profoundly influence the nature and magnitude of the immune response. Thus, molecular mimicry of tolerogenic and nontolerogenic self determinants might trigger autoimmunity under conditions of altered valence.  (+info)

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

Almeida, J.; Cinader, B.; Howatson, A. (1 September 1963). "The structure of antigen-antibody complexes. A study by electron ... 1997). Technology Transfer in Britain: The Case of Monoclonal Antibodies; Self and Non-Self: A History of Autoimmunity; ... Andrewes told Tyrrell that there was a young Swedish surgeon who was able to grow complex viruses. The Swede was Bertil Hoorn ...
... and the next was immunological procedure in which she reacted viruses with antibodies (antigen-antibody complexes). Employing ... Almeida, J.; Cinader, B.; Howatson, A. (1 September 1963). "The structure of antigen-antibody complexes. A study by electron ... Serological tests (antigen-antibody reactions) further indicated that the virus was not related (not reactive) to antibodies ( ... The complex aetiology". Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pathologie und Bakteriologie. 16 (3): 298-301. doi:10.1159/000160249. ...
This occurs when C1q binds to antigen-antibody complexes. The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with ... The C1 complex (complement component 1, C1) is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component ... The C1 complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr2s2. Activation of the C1 ... The classical pathway C3-convertase (C4bC2b complex) is created, which promotes cleavage of C3. Janeway, CA Jr; Travers P; ...
This would result in the antibody-antigen complex not precipitating; leading to invalid results. In addition, some anti-SS-B ... "Relationships among Antibodies against Extractable Nuclear Antigens, Antinuclear Antibodies, and Autoimmune Diseases in a ... On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. ENAs originally referred to proteins found in a saline ... The method of identifying these specimens is why they are also referred to as antibodies to saline-extracted antigens. Anti-ENA ...
Antibodies of the adaptive immune system can bind antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex. When C1q binds antigen-antibody ... Activation of the C1 complex initiates the classical complement pathway of the complement system. The antibodies IgM and all ... C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. C1q comprises 6 A, 6 B and 6 C chains. ... The complement component 1q (or simply C1q) is a protein complex involved in the complement system, which is part of the innate ...
In the course of subsequent meals, antigen-antibody complexes are formed; these complexes attach to the surface of blood cells ... The antigen is still of unknown structure but it stimulates the formation of IgG antibodies in the blood serum. ... An antigen in the mushroom triggers the immune system to attack red blood cells. Serious and commonly fatal complications ... Genetic testing suggests that Paxillus involutus may be a species complex rather than a single species. A common mushroom of ...
Almeida, June; Cinader, Bernhard; Howatson, Allan (1 September 1963). "The Structure of Antigen-Antibody Complexes: A Study by ... In the same year, she published her research in which she "negatively stained aggregates of antigen...and antibody" with the ... Timeline of women in science COVID-19 coronavirus disease In the chapter entitled "Imaging viruses and tagging their antigens" ... to better visualise viruses by using antibodies to aggregate them. In the 1960s, she and Waterson were using negative staining ...
"Crystal structure of human prostate-specific antigen in a sandwich antibody complex". Journal of Molecular Biology. 414 (4): ... Li TS, Beling CG (October 1974). "The effect of antibodies to two human seminal plasma-specific antigens on human sperm". ... Mikolajczyk SD, Marks LS, Partin AW, Rittenhouse HG (2002). "Free prostate-specific antigen in serum is becoming more complex ... Christensson A, Lilja H (February 1994). "Complex formation between protein C inhibitor and prostate-specific antigen in vitro ...
Firstly, the antigen and antibody rapidly form antigen-antibody complexes within few seconds and this is followed by a slower ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... of antigen-antibody reaction). There are several types of antibodies and antigens, and each antibody is capable of binding only ...
An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex or antigen-bound antibody, is a molecule formed from the ... binding of multiple antigens to antibodies. The bound antigen and antibody act as a unitary object, effectively an antigen of ... The ratio of antigen to antibody determines size and shape of immune complex. This, in turn, determines the effect of the ... After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement ...
Antibody action contributes to premunition. However, premunition is probably much more complex than simple antibody and antigen ... However, Plasmodium can change its surface antigens, so the development of an antibody repertoire that can recognize multiple ... In the case of malaria, the sporozoite and merozoite stages of Plasmodium elicit the antibody response which leads to ... For malaria, premunition is maintained by repeated antigen exposure from infective bites. Thus, if an individual departs from ...
"Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Antibody Complexes in a Patient with Colonic Carcinoma and Nephrotic Syndrome". New England Journal of ... "Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Antibody Complexes in a Patient with Colonic Carcinoma and Nephrotic Syndrome". New England Journal of ... Costanza ME, Das S, Nathanson L, Rule A, Schwartz RS (1974). "Carcinoembryonic antigen.Report of a screening study". Cancer. 33 ... Costanza's early research was on the carcinoembryonic antigen as a screening tool for cancer. Her subsequent research compared ...
"A mutational analysis of binding interactions in an antigen-antibody protein-protein complex". Biochemistry. 37 (22): 7981-91. ... Members of the IgSF include cell surface antigen receptors, co-receptors and co-stimulatory molecules of the immune system, ... also known as antibodies); they all possess a domain known as an immunoglobulin domain or fold. ... molecules involved in antigen presentation to lymphocytes, cell adhesion molecules, certain cytokine receptors and ...
Enzyme linked immunoassays use enzyme-complexed-antibodies to detect antigens. Binding of the antibody is often inferred from ... They are widely used in biochemistry to test for the presence of enzymes, specific compounds, antibodies, hormones and many ...
Radioactivity emitted by bound antibody-antigen complexes can be easily detected using conventional methods. RIAs were some of ... the analyte may be an antibody rather than an antigen. In addition to the binding of an antibody to its antigen, the other key ... In immunology the particular macromolecule bound by an antibody is referred to as an antigen and the area on an antigen to ... In some cases, an immunoassay may use an antigen to detect for the presence of antibodies, which recognize that antigen, in a ...
He has made seminal contributions to structural studies of antibodies and antibody-antigen complexes. Recent[when?] work on ... subscription required) Colman, P. M. (1994). "Effects of amino acid sequence changes on antibody-antigen interactions". ... "Three-dimensional structure of a complex of antibody with influenza virus neuraminidase". Nature. 326 (6111): 358-63. doi: ... Varghese, J. N.; Laver, W. G.; Colman, P. M. (1983). "Structure of the influenza virus glycoprotein antigen neuraminidase at ...
When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages ... which involves the binding of antigens to antibodies to form mobile immune complexes. The second step is immune complex ... occurs when there is accumulation of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) that have not been adequately cleared by ... Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can ...
... they will bind to the antigen in step 3 to form antigen-antibody complexes. The complement proteins will react with these ... The complement system is a system of serum proteins that react with antigen-antibody complexes. If this reaction occurs on a ... While detection of antibodies is the most common test format, it is equally possible to test for the presence of antigen. In ... However, if no antibodies against the antigen of interest are present, the complement will not be depleted and it will react ...
... as well as antigen/antibody, enzyme/inhibitor, and enzyme/substrate complexes. It is also diverse in terms of the partners' ... antigen-antibody and homomultimeric complexes. The latest version of protein-protein docking benchmark consists of 230 ... Protein-protein complexes are the most commonly attempted targets of such modelling, followed by protein-nucleic acid complexes ... 81 protein-protein complexes with known experimental affinities are included; these complexes span over 11 orders of magnitude ...
... antigen-antibody complex) that activates the complement system are involved. The antibodies that form immune complexes deposits ... Immune complexes can be visualized by staining with fluorescent antibodies directed against immunoglobulins or complement, ... Immune-complexes are combinations of DNA, anti-dsDNA ubiquitin, and other proteins in DPGN that are associated with lupus ... When extensive, immune complexes create an overall thickening of the capillary wall, resembling rigid "wire loops" on routine ...
... is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. ... C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex (C3bBb3b complex). C3b's ability to perform ... The C1 complement complex binds to these antibodies resulting in its activation via cross proteolysis. This activated C1 ... Additionally, C3b molecules can attach to the Fc regions of antigen-bound antibodies leading to phagocytosis or movement to the ...
By 1913, Behring had created Antitoxin-Toxin (antibody-antigen) complexes to produce the diphtheria AT vaccine. In the 1920s, ... By 1894, the production of antibodies had been optimised with help from Paul Ehrlich, and the treatment started to show success ... Their method involved injecting the respective toxins into animals and then purifying antibodies from their blood. Behring ... Kaufmann, Stefan H. E. (8 March 2017). "Remembering Emil von Behring: from Tetanus Treatment to Antibody Cooperation with ...
The presence of complement and antigen-antibody complexes is evident throughout the connective and epithelial tissue. It is in ... Plaque is composed of a complex community of many different species of bacteria. However, specific bacterial species are ... Genco RJ, Mashimo PA, Krygier G, Ellison SA (May 1974). "Antibody-mediated effects on the periodontium". J. Periodontol. 45 (5 ...
These bound antibody/antigen complexes are then added to an antigen-coated well. The plate is washed, so unbound antibodies are ... After the antigen is immobilized, the detection antibody is added, forming a complex with the antigen. The detection antibody ... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... A specific antibody is added, and binds to antigen (hence the 'sandwich': the antigen is stuck between two antibodies). This ...
Immunoturbidimetry uses the classical antigen-antibody reaction. The antigen-antibody complexes aggregate to form particles ... Antigen excess and matrix effects are limitations encountered Immunoturbidimetry is an important tool in the broad diagnostic ... in lab Turbidimetry offers little advantage than nephelometry in measurement of sensitivity in low level antigen a antibody ...
The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... Carroll MC, Campbell RD, Bentley DR, Porter RR (1984). "A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III ... This gene localizes to the RCCX locus within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. ... a highly conserved gene in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex". DNA. 8 (10): 745-51. doi:10.1089/dna. ...
The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... Yang Z, Mendoza AR, Welch TR, Zipf WB, Yu CY (Apr 1999). "Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex ... This gene localizes to the RCCX locus within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. ... Laich A, Sim RB (Jan 2001). "Complement C4bC2 complex formation: an investigation by surface plasmon resonance". Biochimica et ...
... enzymes are used to produce a detectable signal from an antibody-antigen complex. At the first step, any antigen present will ... Then, detecting antibodies added to bind to the antigen. The enzyme-linked secondary antibody follows the detecting antibodies ... These tests rely on the specific detection of either the antibody or antigen, and are commonly performed by labeling the ... antibody/antigen of interest through various means such as fluorescent or enzymatic labels. However, washing, mixing, and ...
These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... These antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere with the chemical interaction between ... Antibodies are synthesized and secreted by plasma cells that are derived from the B cells of the immune system. An antibody is ...
Anderson, N. Leigh (15 January 1980). "Dissection of complex antigen mixtures using monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional ... He developed the first commercial monoclonal antibody, which was an antibody specific for immunoglobulin D (IgD). The hybridoma ... and supervisor César Milstein to develop monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface antigens. ... Pearson brought monoclonal antibody technology to Africa. His research initiated in Kenya continued for more than forty years ...
The N protein is highly immunogenic and antibodies to N are found in patients recovered from SARS and Covid-19. The coronavirus ... Li, Dandan; Li, Jinming (20 April 2021). "Immunologic Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection from the Antigen Perspective". Journal ... a component of the replicase-transcriptase complex. Although N appears to facilitate efficient replication of genomic RNA, it ... and Convalescent Antibodies". JACS Au. 1 (8): 1147-1157. doi:10.1021/jacsau.1c00139. ISSN 2691-3704. PMC 8231660. PMID 34462738 ...
"Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against uvomorulin". Proc. Natl. Acad ... These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as ... On the other hand, when Wnt is present, GSK-3B is displaced from the previously mentioned complex, causing β-catenin to not be ... They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ...
Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ... B cells play a significant role in the transport of antigens to FDCs. They capture immune complexes in CR1/2-dependent way ... whereas B cells bound to FDCs through the antigen complex, survive due to apoptosis blockage caused by interaction with FDCs. ... To become selected as a future memory cell, GC B cells must bind the antigen presented on FDCs, otherwise they enter apoptosis ...
Although immunofluorescent antibody assays are considered some of the best serology tests available, most antibodies that fight ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... This triggers a cascade of signal transduction events resulting in the recruitment of Arp2/3 complex. CDC42, protein tyrosine ... Noriea, Nicholas; Clark, Tina; Hackstadt, Ted (2015). "Targeted Knockout of the Rickettsia rickettsii OmpA Surface Antigen Does ...
... probably secondary to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes.: 199-200 [self-published source] Concerning GBS, virtually ...
Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... This approach depended on the use of antibodies to cell surface glycoproteins or "markers" that might identify specialized ... Ly phenotypes predict both function and specificity for major histocompatibility complex products. Immunogenetics 1983;17:147. ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ...
... antigens, antibodies, enzymes, peptides) and assembled on solid carriers (e.g. metals, semiconductors, graphene, polymers) and ... and nanoparticles as patterning elements and basic building blocks for the production of sometimes very complex supramolecular ...
Goodpasture antibodies recognize recombinant proteins representing the autoantigen and one of its alternative forms". Eur. J. ... Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, Jeng CJ, Asuncion FJ, Kennedy MB (2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the ( ... "Characterization and expression of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the Goodpasture antigen gene region. ... "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)-actinin ...
... antibodies to Borrelia antigens indicate disease, but lower titers can be misleading, because the IgM antibodies may remain ... B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a species complex made up of 20 accepted and three proposed genospecies. Eight species are known ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics. As antibody levels are ...
The antigens are labeled with secondary antibodies, which are conjugated with phycoerythrin to label IgG or IgM-coated RBCs and ... Transition metal complexes are widely known to play important roles in erythropoiesis; as such, inorganic supplementation is ... Cobalamin is an important complex used in the manufacture of red blood cells and thus was of interest for potential use in ... Particularly of note is the cobalt complex, cobalamin (Vitamin B12) commonly used as a dietary supplement. ...
"The murine monoclonal antibody, 14A2.H1, identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi: ... Berditchevski F (2002). "Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143-51 ... Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... Serru V, Le Naour F, Billard M, Azorsa DO, Lanza F, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes ( ...
"Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... December 1993). "Major histocompatibility complex susceptibility genes for dermatitis herpetiformis compared with those for ... and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis". Tissue Antigens. 12 (5): 381-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978. ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association with ...
However, IL-3 has also been shown to be produced in IgG+ B cells and may be involved in earlier antibody isotype switching. IL- ... IL-3/Receptor complex induces JAK2/STAT5 cell signalization pathway. It can stimulate transcription factor c‑myc (activation of ... IL-3 is produced by T cells only after stimulation with antigens or other specific impulses. However, it was observed that IL-3 ... It also has many more specific effects like the regeneration of platelets and potentially aids in early antibody isotype ...
This second antibody specifically binds with the bound antigens, thereby causing each bound antigen to be sandwiched between ... Figure 1d) On the other hand, if the patient's sample does not include any targeted antigens, the sandwiched binding complexes ... For instance, if more antigens are bound to the surface antibodies, more eosin-conjugated antibodies will also bind to the ... If the sample contains the target antigens, they bind to the immobilized antibodies. (Figure 1a) Second, eosin-conjugated ...
... including analysis of antibody-antigen interactions, in particular those between diphtheria toxin and antitoxin. Using ... the molecular complexes that carry out protein synthesis. She was the first woman to become a full professor at Cornell ... Her research on antibodies contributed to Rodney Porter's determination of immunoglobulin structure, for which he received the ... it could be removed by protease treatment and the antitoxin could still bind two antigen molecules, so the binding sites must ...
Michael Heidelberger (1888-1991), showed that antibodies are proteins George Heist (1886-1920) Leonard Herzenberg (1931-2013) ... discovered Carcinoembryonic antigen Jules T. Freund (1890-1960) Sankar Ghosh John Grange (1943-2016) Waldemar Haffkine (1860- ... "for discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune ... isolation and partial characterization of A and B blood antigens Jian Zhou (1957-1999), with co-inventor Ian Frazer has ...
MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy and cancer vaccines. ... C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 form the membrane attack complex (MAC). This is another large superfamily of CLRs that includes the ...
Due to lower accuracy and higher chance of false positives, a positive rapid or antibody test is not counted into the official ... "Sempat Dirawat Karena COVID-19, Leader Shojo Complex Meninggal Dunia". (in Indonesian). 16 September 2020. ... or an antigen test if they are entering by land or sea. Due to the sudden regulation, 133,000 would-be visitors asked for plane ... member of Shojo Complex Dadang Hawari, psychiatrist Dadang Wigiarto, regent of Situbondo Dani Anwar, member of Regional ...
... is an example of a virus-like particle vaccine, consisting of a molecular complex which closely resembles a virus, but is ... as measured by 21 neutralizing antibody (NAb) and cell mediated immunity (IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot) responses, 22 in Adults aged ... reducing the amount of antigen required per dose, thereby facilitating mass production of vaccine doses. In December 2021, ... "Plant-based vaccines and antibodies to combat COVID-19: current status and prospects". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 16 ...
... of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen ... Nevertheless, they are therapies with high complexity that require a complex logistic approach for implementation; a very high ...
Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ... Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies. Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation ... load antigenic peptides onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the cell, in turn presenting the peptide to ... Murphy Cell-mediated immunity: How T cells recognize and respond to foreign antigens (Articles with short description, Short ...
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... complement membrane attack complex - complement receptor - complex - computational biology - computational chemistry - ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ...
... techniques involve the selective identification of antigen proteins by exploiting these antigen-antibody relationships to ... which target the ER complexes to the plasma membrane. Activation of the ER complex causes increased kinase activity in ... Various target antibodies may be used in the IHC assessment of the ER. Typically, the antibody used for this experiment is the ... Anti-estrogen receptor antibodies were among the first of biomarkers which introduced a semi-quantitative assessment of the ER ...
... for surface antigen or antibody) Arteriogram (angiogram) showing the arteries that are dilated (aneurysms) or constricted by ... indicating an immune complex-mediated cause in that subset. Infection with the hepatitis C virus and HIV are occasionally ... of people with PAN have chronic hepatitis B and deposits containing HBsAg-HBsAb complexes in affected blood vessels, ... Perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) - not associated with "classic" polyarteritis nodosa, but ...
Humoral immunity declines, caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ... Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells diminishes with age. The age- ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". ... Hakim FT, Gress RE (September 2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in the elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3 ...
The body responds to these toxins by making antibodies to those specific toxins. However, those antibodies do not completely ... The rapid antigen detection test is a very specific test but not very sensitive. This means that if the result is positive ( ... In 1906, the Austrian pediatrician Clemens von Pirquet postulated that disease-causing immune complexes were responsible for ... In these cases, the antibodies which the person's immune system developed to attack the group A streptococci are also able to ...
... a process that involves looking directly at antibody-antigen complexes. The classification of this one Norwalk virus strain ...
Indeed, a vaccine that provides accessible antigens in the absence of these other proteins may allow us to control the response ... The measles virus can deplete previously acquired immune memory by killing cells that make antibodies, and thus weakens the ... The United States has a very complex history with compulsory vaccination, particularly in enforcing compulsory vaccinations ... A study published in 2013 found no correlation between autism and the antigen number in the vaccines the children were ...
Strips with single band indicate specific antibodies that are suitable for RPMA use. Antibody performance should be also ... A problem that is encountered with tissue microarrays is antigen retrieval and the inherent subjectivity of ... For signal amplification, slides are incubated with streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex followed by biotinyl-tyramide/ ... In addition, finding the appropriate antibody could require extensive screening of many antibodies by western blotting prior to ...
More complex structures are expected. The actual nature of FSL micelles has not been determined. However, based on normal ... FSL have been used to create human red cell kodecytes that have been used to detect and identify blood group allo-antibodies as ... In contrast, the FSL Kode construct bound to a microplate presents the antigen away from the surface in an orientation with a ... Nadarajan, V.S.; Laing, A. A.; Saad, S. M.; Usin, M (2011). "Prevalence and specificity of red-blood-cell antibodies in a ...
Results of search for su:{Antigen-antibody complex.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Structure and function of antibodies / edited by L.E. Glynn and M.W. Steward. by Glynn, Leonard Eleazar , Steward, Michael W. ... The role of immune complexes in disease : report of a WHO scientific group [meeting held in Geneva from 22 to 28 September 1976 ... by WHO Scientific Group on the Role of Immune Complexes in Disease , World Health Organization. ...
Viral antibodies. QW 575. QW 608. Antigen-antibody complex. Immune complex diseases. QW 570; WD 308. ... Immune complex disease. Immunologic deficiency syndromes (General or not elsewhere classified). QW 608;QW 740. ...
... but was regulated by the amount of specific IgG-immune complexes forming depots of persisting antigen. These findings support ... Antigens normally induce an immunoglobulin (Ig)G response which stays at an elevated level for several weeks or months, ... Regulation of IgG antibody titers by the amount persisting of immune-complexed antigen. ... Animals, Antigen-Antibody Complex, B-Lymphocytes, Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic, Immunoglobulin G, Immunologic Memory ...
Epitope Mapping by Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes. Methods in Molecular Biology 2009; 524:87-101. [Abstract Dhungana ... Epitope Mapping by Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes. Methods in Molecular Biology 2009; 524:87-101.] ... Epitope Mapping by Differential Chemical Modification of Antigens. Methods in Molecular Biology 2009; 524:119-34. [Abstract ... Epitope Mapping by Differential Chemical Modification of Antigens. Methods in Molecular Biology 2009; 524:119-34.] ...
... formation of antigen-antibody complexes. Optimal record keeping, maintaining patient histories, and adhering to recommended ... Monoclonal antibody. An antibody product prepared from a single lymphocyte clone, which contains only antibody against a single ... others have antigens that are complex or incompletely defined (e.g., Bordetella pertussis antigens or live-attenuated viruses ... can persist after the antibody-containing product is a function of the amount of antigen-specific antibody contained in the ...
Antigen-antibody complex Arc Repressor Dimer *METHODS TO STUDY PPI Methods Experimental In Vitro In Vivo Computational ... they are permanent complexes.  Eg. Hetero-trimeric G protein (Gα, Gβγ and GDP)  Transient complexes  When a protein ... b. Lifetime of PPI  Permanent complexes  When an association between proteins is highly stable and need help from molecular ... d. Stability of Interacting Complexes  Obligate partners  If proteins cannot exist in free form and only stable in multimeric ...
Here, we quantify AFAD for ~2,000 non-redundant antibody-protein-antigen complexes in the Protein Data Bank. AFADs showed a g … ... the distance between the body of an antibody and a protein antigen - is an important parameter governing antibody recognition. ... 1. Analysis of Antibody-Framework-to-Antigen Distance (AFAD) for all antibody complexes in the PDB reveals outliers with ... 1. Analysis of Antibody-Framework-to-Antigen Distance (AFAD) for all antibody complexes in the PDB reveals… ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex (‎3)‎. Immune Complex Diseases (‎3)‎. ... View MoreDate Issued1977 (‎3)‎ ... WHO Scientific Group on the Role of Immune Complexes in Disease; World Health Organization (‎1977)‎ ... WHO Scientific Group on the Role of Immune Complexes in Disease; World Health Organization (‎1977)‎ ... WHO Scientific Group on the Role of Immune Complexes in Disease; World Health Organization (‎1977)‎ ...
Resulting antigen:antibody complexes bound to the capture antibody on the solid phase. Separation in a magnetic field and ... Goat anti-mouse antibody is used to immobilize the mouse anti-hTSH antibody.) The serum hTSH binds to the immobilized ... A sample was added to a reaction vessel with anti-thyroxine antibody, thyroxine-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, and ... and paramagnetic particles coated with immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-hTSH antibody. ( ...
MeSH Terms: 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/metabolism; Animals; Antigen-Antibody Complex; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/ ... A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against P-450b (2-66-3) recognized P-450's b, b2, and e on Western blots but did not react ... in liver microsomes from untreated male rats were separately quantitated by Western blotting with a polyclonal antibody raised ...
Categories: Antigen-Antibody Complex Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Antigen-antibody complexes in inflammatory bowel disease.. Danis VA; Harries AD; Heatley RV. Scand J Gastroenterol; 1984 Jul; ... 9. [Identification of antigens in circulating immune complexes of schistosomiasis japonica].. Zeng X; Wang Y; Yi X; Wang S. ... Circulating immune complexes (CIC), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CIC containing CEA as markers for colorectal cancer. ... Significance of breast carcinoma-associated antigens as a monitor of tumor burden: characterization by monoclonal antibodies. ...
Such reactions are thought to result from the formation of antigen-antibody complexes. Good recordkeeping, maintaining careful ... Decreased antibody measles antibody response after measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in infants with colds. JAMA 1991;265:2095-6. * ... Killed antigen Immune globulin None , Immune globulin and Should generally not be administered , Immune globulin Live antigen ... Many antigens evoke suboptimal immunologic responses. Efforts to enhance immunogenicity include mixing antigens with a variety ...
... their doctors will likely test for two antibodies that are often associated with the condition. ... If the antibody of interest is present, it will bind to the bait. Thereafter, the entire antibody-antigen complex attaches to ... 16 percent had antibodies against an antigen associated with autoimmune gastritis, and four percent had antibodies linked to an ... "Antibodies must see the natural three-dimensional shape of an antigen to recognize it," said Burbelo. "With todays tests, the ...
Viral infections may cause direct invasion (rubella) or production of antigen/antibody complexes. Such immunologic mechanisms ... Reactive, or postexposure, arthritis is observed more commonly in patients with human lymphocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) ... histocompatibility antigens. Although various infections can cause reactive arthritis, gastrointestinal processes are by far ...
... and the urine albumin-antigen complexes with the solid-phase antibody. This complex then reacts with fluorescein-labeled ... The fluorescence of the stable solid-phase antibody complex is determined with a fluorometer; the fluorescence is directly ... Antibody to human albumin is covalently attached to derivatized polyacrylamide beads. The solid-phase antibody is reacted with ... 1984; 25:576-578). The fluorescent immunoassay is a non-competitive, double-antibody method for the determination of human ...
One immunoglobulin was presented in the histiocytes, suggesting the antecedent presence of antigen-antibody complexes. No ... In this event, antigen adsorbed to the cells reacts with antibody in the presence of complement, causing cellular destruction. ... The walls of the bronchioles appeared rich in antigen, staining well with the fluorescein-labeled globulins isolated from ...
... antigen-antibody complexes, and cytokines. Further understanding of these pathways in the development and regulation of the ... The antigen-T cell receptor complex is primary, but equally, the presence or absence of other signals, called co-stimulation, ... antigens in the context of a genetic background susceptible to autoimmunity. Antigen is processed and presented to the T cell, ... The interaction of antigen with the T cell in the context of co-stimulatory signals results in activation of various signal ...
These autoantibodies and complexes assault the bodys own healthy cells and tissues [2,3,4,5]. Antigen-antibody complexes can ... antibodies to ones self), causing immune complexes (antigens combined with antibodies) [3,16]. ... Immune complex: an antibody and antigen together.. Immunosuppressant: a medication, such as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, ... Antigen: a substance that stimulates antibody formation; in lupus, this can be a foreign substance or a product of the ...
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading ... The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading ... Antigen-Antibody Complexes Immune Complex Immune Complexes Pharm Action. Immunologic Factors. Registry Number. 0. NLM ... Antigen-Antibody Complex Preferred Term Term UI T002791. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1970). ...
Reported adverse reactions resulting from the formation of antibodies to ORTHOCLONE OKT3 have included antigen-antibody (immune ... The frequency and severity of this symptom complex is usually greatest with the first dose. With each successive dose of ... ORTHOCLONE OKT3 (muromonab-CD3) Sterile Solution is a murine monoclonal antibody to the CD3 antigen of human T cells which ... The mean time of appearance of IgG antibodies was 20 ± 2 days (mean ± SD). Early IgG antibodies appeared towards the end of the ...
The antigen-antibody complex flows to the test region where it is immobilized by a second anti-PAMG-1 antibody. This event ... Unbound antigen-antibody complexes continue to flow along the test strip and are immobilized by a second antibody. This leads ... The presence of PAMG-1 antigen is then detected by inserting a lateral flow test strip into the vial. The sample flows from an ... The test employs monoclonal antibodies sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 ng/ml of PAMG-1. For the analysis, a sample of ...
... by basic pathway through antigen-antibody complexes; these include the varied merchandise derived from activation or and ... Now other glycan antigens are barriers to maneuver ahead with xenotransplantation, and the N-glycolyl neuraminic acid, Neu5Gc ( ... Complex odontomas include structures derived from individual tooth parts enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp. Subtympanitic ( ... Heterophile antibodies cytosis within the peripheral blood resembling that of leukaemia arent demonstrable in children ...
... such as antibody-antigen complexes and protein-ligand complexes. Molecular docking is widely incorporated in the virtual ... For example, knowing how antibody-antigen binding affinity is affected by the shape of the antibody, the charge and hydration ... such as an antibody-antigen complex, when they bind to each other. It is important metric for assessing the stability and ... It has the training data of 3772 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBbind 2016 refined set and the test data of 285 complexes ...
As a result, subepithelial deposits composed of antigen-antibody complexes are formed, along with exogenous nonpodocyte ... APN is induced by injection of polyclonal sheep antibodies directed to podocyte antigens, which results in an immune-complex GN ... Antibodies. The following antibodies were used for the study: rat anti-ADAM10 (IF human and naive mice, 1:100; immunogold ... At the age of 10 weeks, one dose of the antibody (225 µl) was injected intravenously into mice. Preimmune antibody preparation ...
... contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV- ... Identification of a Mycobacterium bovis BCG 45/47-kilodalton antigen complex, an immunodominant target for antibody response ... The specific hypothesis tested here is that antigens in pneumococcal vaccines induce antibodies protective against SARS-CoV-2 ... Among the key factors seem to be the concentration of the antigen, how dissimilar it is from its host, where the antigen is ...
  • Inter alia the appellant was asked to submit evidence in support of their statement that any three CDRs were sufficient to determine the binding specificity of an antibody, and that the CDR3 of the light and/or heavy variable chain of the claimed monoclonal antibody/fragment could be modified without distorting it's binding properties. (
  • We obtained for the first time a non-activating human IgG1κ anti-PR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) named 4C3. (
  • This complex then reacts with fluorescein-labeled antibody. (
  • In this event, antigen adsorbed to the cells reacts with antibody in the presence of complement, causing cellular destruction. (
  • The X54-5/7.1 antibody reacts with mouse strains carrying CD64a and b alleles but not CD64d. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to Zaire Ebola virus GP, NP and VP40 - colloid gold conjugate reacts with the Zaire Ebola virus in the specimen. (
  • A sample was added to a reaction vessel with anti-thyroxine antibody, thyroxine-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, and paramagnetic particles coated with goat anti-mouse capture antibody and a stripping agent to dissociate all T4 from serum-binding proteins. (
  • f) Antitoxin: A solution of antibodies (e.g., diphtheria antitoxin and botulinum antitoxin) derived from the serum of animals immunized with specific antigens. (
  • Some of these antibodies are present in the patients' serum several years before the onset of clinical disease. (
  • A number of diseases are due to the systemic effects of immune complexes (antibodies linked to antigens) that arise in the appropriate response to an infection or in serum sickness, and these especially affect the kidneys, skin, and joints. (
  • The walls of the bronchioles appeared rich in antigen, staining well with the fluorescein-labeled globulins isolated from patients with the disease. (
  • Lymphocytes once triggered by immune complexes induced monocytes to synthesize the procoagulant product. (
  • Indeed, all that appeared necessary to induce monocytes to produce procoagulant activity was an encounter with lymphocytes that had previously been in contact with soluble immune complexes. (
  • PROTEIN - PROTEIN INTERACTIONS  Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts between two or more proteins to perform complex biological functions. (
  • Hetero-trimeric G protein (Gα, Gβγ and GDP)  Transient complexes  When a protein interacts briefly and in a reversible manner with other proteins in only certain biochemical cascade, they form transient complexes. (
  • A sample is added to a reaction vessel with goat anti-hTSH-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, buffered protein solution, and paramagnetic particles coated with immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-hTSH antibody. (
  • Hence, new technologies that are capable of capturing whole protein complexes, yet providing atomic-level details for their structure and function, hold the potential to unravel the complexity of these interactions. (
  • nMS begins with the isolation of protein complexes from their cellular environment and is followed by exchanging the analyte to an MS-compatible medium, while preserving the protein in its folded, native state. (
  • Protein complexes are then ionised and transferred into the gas phase via soft ionisation methods such as electrospray ionisation. (
  • Once inside the mass spectrometer, individual protein-ligand complexes can be isolated and dissociated to provide ligand identification or to quantify the stabilisation that ligands provide upon binding to the proteins. (
  • As pharmaceutical scientists take on increasingly complex and more challenging novel targets - often involving more than one protein in a complex - the ability of nMS to inform on the binding, the conformational changes and strength of the binding, can be a powerful tool to advance drug discovery efforts. (
  • These autoantibodies (anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs), rheumatoid factors (RF), anticollagen type II antibodies, antiglucose-6 phosphate isomerase antibodies, anticarbamylated protein antibodies, and antiacetylated protein antibodies) have different characteristics, diagnostic/prognostic value, and pathological significance in RA patients. (
  • In RA, an increased number of autoantibodies directed against these self-antigens such as rheumatoid factors (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) are commonly prevalent. (
  • Validated antibody for detection of endoplasmic reticulum protein calnexin by fluorescent western blot. (
  • Immuno-AFM: Molecular recognition of protein-antibody complexes by direct AFM imaging. (
  • Antibodies are complex substances formed to neutralize or destroy these antigens in the blood. (
  • Vaccine-Induced Antibodies that Neutralize Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Viruses. (
  • The antibody tends to neutralize viruses or to bind to antigens, encouraging destruction of bacteria by white blood cells. (
  • It plays a role in antigen capture, phagocytosis of IgG/antigen complexes, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (
  • T-cell immunity is cellular and involves the activation of phagocytes and B-cell immunity uses antibodies to fight infection. (
  • In the present study we define cellular participants and their roles in the procoagulant response to soluble immune complexes. (
  • He has a particular emphasis on the use of immune complexes, a combination of soluble antigens and antibodies that can better interact with and activate cells of the immune system that soluble antigen alone, as vaccine immunogens. (
  • It has previously been described that soluble antigen:antibody complexes in antigen excess can induce an increase in the procoagulant activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • Benefits and risks are associated with using all immunobiologics (i.e., an antigenic substance or antibody-containing preparation). (
  • Immunobiologic: Immunobiologics include antigenic substances, such as vaccines and toxoids, or antibody-containing preparations, such as globulins and antitoxins, from human or animal donors. (
  • These findings support the notion that the efficiency of vaccines in inducing long-lasting protective IgG is regulated predominantly by the amount of persisting (and presumably follicular dendritic cell-associated) antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. (
  • Self-assembling influenza nanoparticle vaccines elicit broadly neutralizing H1N1 antibodies. (
  • The sample flows from an absorbent pad to a nitrocellulose membrane, passing through a reactive area containing monoclonal anti-PAMG-1 antibodies conjugated to a gold particle. (
  • T1", "T2" and "T3") and form a visible line as the antibody-antigen-antibody gold particle complex with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Flow cytometry reveals that H5N1 vaccination elicits cross-reactive stem-directed antibodies from multiple Ig heavy-chain lineages. (
  • For lyophilized antibodies, we recommend reconstituting the antibody with glycerol and antimicrobial preservative like sodium azide for the longest shelf life (note that sodium azide is not compatible with HRP-conjugates). (
  • Antigens normally induce an immunoglobulin (Ig)G response which stays at an elevated level for several weeks or months, constituting an important part of the immunological memory. (
  • As a consequence, nMS is finding applications in increasingly diverse research areas such as high-throughput drug screening, the study of amyloid formation and inhibition, the characterisation of antibody-drug conjugates and the elucidation of the interactions of membrane proteins with lipids and therapeutics. (
  • The guaranteed shelf life from date of receipt for antibodies and conjugates is listed on the product information sheet. (
  • Antibodies and other conjugates often are functional for significantly longer than the guaranteed shelf life. (
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a severe autoimmune vasculitis associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) mainly targeting proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophilic serine proteinase. (
  • In vasculitis nomenclature, it is part of the group of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV): GPA is associated with cytoplasmic ANCA (cANCA), detected by immunofluorescence (IF) on fixed neutrophils ( 1 ). (
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis) may be caused when antibodies that have attached to antigens in the blood (immune complexes), attach to the blood vessel walls. (
  • PPI  Permanent complexes  When an association between proteins is highly stable and need help from molecular switches to break them, they are permanent complexes. (
  • Interacting Complexes  Obligate partners  If proteins cannot exist in free form and only stable in multimeric association, they form obligate oligomers. (
  • Here, we show that antibodies against α-synuclein specifically target and aid in clearance of extracellular α-synuclein proteins by microglia, thereby preventing their actions on neighboring cells. (
  • Michael Heidelberger (1888-1991) is known as one of the founders of quantitative immunochemistry, and in the course of his career studied, among others, bacterial polysaccharides (particularly pneumococcal), as well as the immunochemistry of proteins, antibodies, and antigens. (
  • The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. (
  • Elucidation of the pathway may clarify the role of this lymphocyte-instructed monocyte response in the Shwartzman phenomenon and other thrombohemorrhagic events associated with immune cell function and the formation of immune complexes. (
  • The antigen (foreign microorganism or other substance) provokes the formation of an antibody specific to that antigen. (
  • Of pernicious anemia sufferers, 70% have these antibodies. (
  • 5% of subjects were anemia, diarrhea, hemarthrosis, hepatitis B surface antibody positive, nausea, and vomiting. (
  • The fluorescent immunoassay is a non-competitive, double-antibody method for the determination of human albumin in urine. (
  • The solid-phase antibody is reacted with a urine specimen, and the urine albumin-antigen complexes with the solid-phase antibody. (
  • e) Specific immune globulin: Special preparations obtained from blood plasma from donor pools preselected for a high antibody content against a specific antigen (e.g., hepatitis B immune globulin, varicella-zoster immune globulin, rabies immune globulin, tetanus immune globulin, vaccinia immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus immune globulin). (
  • Complex odontomas include structures derived from individual tooth parts enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp. (
  • During these fellowships, he determined the structures of influenza antigen:antibody complexes by X-ray crystallography and used this information to develop a flow cytometry method for single-cell cloning of broadly neutralizing antibodies. (
  • His work also investigates mechanistically how these immune complexes traffic and engage with immune cells in lymphoid tissues. (
  • Both the activating and inhibitory Fc γ Rs and the activation of different complement cascades contribute to the downstream effector functions in the antibody-mediated disease pathology. (
  • The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. (
  • These immune complex immunogens have been shown to enhance the elicitation of cytotoxic T cell responses and redirect the antibody response away from non-protective epitopes. (
  • Active immunization is the production of antibody or other immune responses through the administration of a vaccine or toxoid. (
  • Stereotaxic administration of antibody into the brains of α-synuclein tg mice prevented neuron-to-astroglia transmission of α-synuclein and led to increased localization of α-synuclein and the antibody in microglia. (
  • Elicitation of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies in animals with previous influenza exposure. (
  • It is primarily used for replacement therapy in primary antibody-deficiency disorders, for the treatment of Kawasaki disease, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, hypogammaglobulinemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some cases of HIV infection. (
  • Antibody activity normally fights infection but can be damaging in allergies and a group of diseases that are called autoimmune diseases. (
  • Passive immunization means the provision of temporary immunity by the administration of preformed antibodies. (
  • Furthermore, passive immunization with α-synuclein antibody reduced neuronal and glial accumulation of α-synuclein and ameliorated neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits associated with α-synuclein overexpression. (
  • Passive immunity, the transfer of antibody-rich substances from an immune subject to a non-immune subject who is susceptible to disease, is important in infancy, where maternal antibodies protect the child until its own immune responses have matured. (
  • The unattached fluorescent antibody is then removed by washing during centrifugation. (
  • It has been proposed that this response may explain the presence of fibrin in immune complex-mediated tissue lesions. (
  • The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES . (
  • The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. (
  • The procoagulant response was rapid, reaching a maximum within 6 h after exposure to antigen:antibody complexes. (
  • This study investigated factors influencing the level of neutralizing IgG titers against a virus and shows that within the range tested it was independent of the number of initially available and potentially responding T helper and B cells, but was regulated by the amount of specific IgG-immune complexes forming depots of persisting antigen. (
  • Thyroxine in the sample competed with the thyroxine-alkaline phosphatase conjugate for binding sites on a limited amount of specific anti-thyroxine antibody. (
  • Utilising this additional dimension of separation, it is possible to differentiate highly complex mixtures composed of species of equivalent mass, known as isobaric species, based on different conformations. (
  • Immune complex-induced human monocyte procoagulant activity. (
  • Make no mistake about it: your skin is a complex organ, one that consists of three layers that are optimally organized to protect you against disease and injury. (
  • Here we evaluate the involvement of ADAM10 in the process of antibody-induced podocyte injury. (
  • c) Immune globulin (IG): A sterile solution containing antibodies from human blood. (
  • Antibody to human albumin is covalently attached to derivatized polyacrylamide beads. (
  • Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin. (
  • The TME is commonly considered to be a complex ecosystem with immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting functions ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Antigen-antibody complex. (
  • One immunoglobulin was presented in the histiocytes, suggesting the antecedent presence of antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • The presence of PAMG-1 antigen is then detected by inserting a lateral flow test strip into the vial. (
  • Goat anti-mouse antibody is used to immobilize the mouse anti-hTSH antibody. (
  • Resulting antigen:antibody complexes bound to the capture antibody on the solid phase. (