Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hemocyanin

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (1/4788)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/4788)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (3/4788)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Abnormal responses to rubella infection. (4/4788)

Two cases of rubella are described which caused initial problems in laboratory diagnosis due to abnormal features in the immune response. One patient presented with thrombocytopenic purpura and associated circulating immune complexes. The other patient, who was in early pregnancy, had an unusually prolonged rash and a delayed humoral immune response. The possible reasons for the difficulties in serological confirmation are discussed.  (+info)

Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C). (5/4788)

The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments.  (+info)

Association and dissociation kinetics of bobwhite quail lysozyme with monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5. (6/4788)

The anti-hen egg lysozyme monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 and its complexes with various species-variant and mutant lysozymes have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. The affinity of HyHEL-5 for bobwhite quail lysozyme (BWQL) is over 1000-fold lower than its affinity for the original antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL). This difference is believed to arise almost entirely from the replacement in BWQL of the structural and energetic epitope residue Arg68 by lysine. In this study, the association and dissociation kinetics of BWQL with HyHEL-5 were investigated under a variety of conditions and compared with previous results for HEL. HyHEL-5-BWQL association follows a bimolecular mechanism and the dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex is a first-order process. Changes in ionic strength (from 27 to 500 mM) and pH (from 6.0 to 10.0) produced about a 2-fold change in the association and dissociation rates. The effect of viscosity modifiers on the association reaction was also studied. The large difference in the HEL and BWQL affinities for HyHEL-5 is essentially due to differences in the dissociation rate constant.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (7/4788)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

Induction of autoimmunity by multivalent immunodominant and subdominant T cell determinants of La (SS-B). (8/4788)

We investigated the consequences of altering the form and valence of defined autodeterminants on the initiation and spreading of experimentally induced La/Ro autoimmunity. Anti-La and Ro (SS-A) Ab responses were monitored following immunization of healthy mice with defined immunodominant and subdominant T cell determinants of the La (SS-B) autoantigen synthesized as either monomeric or multiple antigenic (MAP) peptides. Abs to mouse La (mLa) developed faster and were of higher titer in mice immunized with the subdominant mLa25-44 MAP compared with mice immunized with the 25-44 monomer. Rapid intermolecular spreading of the autoimmune response to 60-kDa Ro was observed in AKR/J mice immunized with mLa25-44 MAP, but not in mice immunized repeatedly with monomeric peptide. A/J mice immunized and boosted with the known tolerogenic mLa287-301 determinant delivered as monomeric peptide failed to develop Abs to either intact mLa or mLa287-301 peptide. However, immunization with the multivalent mLa287-301 peptide led to the rapid production of high titer mLa autoantibodies associated with a proliferative T cell response to the mLa287-301 peptide. The data suggested that the enhanced immunogenicity of MAPs was not due to augmented Ag presentation or T cell stimulation. However, MAP-, but not monomer peptide-, containing immune complexes were potent substrates for Ab-dependent fixation of complement. These results demonstrate that the form of Ag responsible for inducing autoimmunity can profoundly influence the nature and magnitude of the immune response. Thus, molecular mimicry of tolerogenic and nontolerogenic self determinants might trigger autoimmunity under conditions of altered valence.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - De novo immune complex deposition in kidney allografts. T2 - a series of 32 patients. AU - Lloyd, Isaac E.. AU - Ahmed, Faris. AU - Revelo, Monica P.. AU - Khalighi, Mazdak. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Immune complex deposition in kidney allografts can include both recurrent and de novo processes. Recurrent glomerulonephritis is a well-recognized phenomenon and has been shown to be a common cause of allograft failure. De novo immune complex-mediated disease remains relatively poorly characterized, likely owing to the less frequent use of immunofluorescence and electron microscopy in the transplant setting. We performed a retrospective review of kidney allograft biopsies showing glomerular immune complex deposition. Cases with de novo deposits were identified and further organized into two groups depending on whether the immune complex deposition could be clinically and/or histologically classified. Thirty-two patients with de novo immune complex deposition were identified ...
Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were precipitated and assayed in the blood of 19 adult patients with liver diseases and 39 healthy adult Nigerians. The presence of hepatitis-Bs antigen (HBs-Ag) was also investigated in both the sera and CIC of bot
An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.[1] The bound antigen and antibody act as a unitary object, effectively an antigen of its own with a specific epitope. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization,[2] phagocytosis, or processing by proteases. Red blood cells carrying CR1-receptors on their surface may bind C3b-coated immune complexes and transport them to phagocytes, mostly in liver and spleen, and return to the general circulation.. Immune complexes may themselves cause illness when they are deposited in organs, for example, in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification, called type III hypersensitivity.[3] Such hypersensitivity progressing to disease states produces the immune complex diseases.. Immune complex ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
The effect of insulin administration on immune complex (IC) formation in diabetic patients was analysed in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, serial studies of IC status were performed over a mean period of 18 months in 44 diabetic patients, 37 of whom were receiving standard insulin therapy. Thirty patients changed to monocomponent (MC) insulin while seven commenced MC insulin after tablet failure. The other seven patients remained on standard insulin throughout the study. Secondly, nine patients had serial measurements of IC over a 6-8 h period following a routine morning dose of MC insulin; eight control subjects were similarly studied. The insulin content of IC in insulin treated patients was assessed in vitro by examining, (a) the selective precipitation of antibody bound insulin by 3% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (b) the insulin specificity of antisera raised against PEG precipitates of IC positive sera. The longitudinal study of circulating IC showed no significant changes apart from an isolated fall
In seven separate experiments, nude (nu/nu) mice carrying established murine sarcoma virus (MSV) tumours were reconstituted with syngeneic (+/+) immune splenic T cells. These immune protected mice...
This Childs Pose Complex - Level 1 is a nice way to integrate a lot of different movements. Firstly, we are aiming to activate and rotate the thorax and arms before moving into full spinal extension which stretches out your abdominals and anterior thorax. We then bend the knee with a pointed foot to target…
When antigens enter into the body, normally this antigen will be recognized by the antibody that has been generated before during first exposure. The antibody binds to the soluble antigen forming the antibody-antigen complexes in the circulation in order to clear up all of the pathogens. According to Levinson (n.d), the reticuloendothelial system or macrophages system and other phagocytes have the ability to remove the immune antibody-antigen complexes very effectively in a normal condition. However, in type III hypersensitivity, these systems are not capable to remove these complexes. As a result, this antigen-antibody complexes tends to deposit on the wall of the blood vessels. Some of the immune complex deposition on the blood vessel will activate the complement protein such as C1, C4, C3 and C5-9 resulting membrane attack complex, leukocytes chemotaxis, leukocytes polymorphism and phagocytosis as well as inflammation. So that, in classical pathway C1 binds to the antigen-antibody complex and ...
Covalently, cross-linked immune complexes were prepared with multivalent 2-nitro-4-azidophenyl X human serum albumin (NAP X HSA) and antibodies to NAP at five times antigen excess. After purification with gel filtration, affinity chromatography with antigen-agarose column, and addition of the hapten, 9.5% of the antibodies dissociated from the complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. After injection of these cross-linked immune complexes into mice, glomeruli stained for the complexes by immunofluorescence microscopy for only a few hours and electron-dense deposits were not detected. In contrast, when the same immune complexes with comparable lattice but without covalent cross-linking were administered to a second group of mice, the initial deposition by immunofluorescence was comparable and then increased to extensive deposits that persisted to 96 h. In this second group of mice extensive electron-dense deposits evolved. These observations supported the ...
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a resource for a while, and now I have a question to ask regarding a problem that Ive been stuck on for a few months. Ive been trying to develop an immunoprecipitation protocol for isolating pannexin-1, with the hopes of performing coimmunoprecipitation afterwards. The problem that Ive been having relates to IgG contamination when I run the precipitat...
substrate EW-80110 Kit EW-80200 Kit EW-80201 Kit EW-80202 Kit EW-80203- Kit EW-80204 Kit EW-80205 Kit EW-80206 Kit EW-80207 Kit EW-80208 Kit EW-80209 Kit EW-80215 Kit EW-90100 EW-BLP01 EW-BLP02 EW-BP01-1L EW-BSB01 EW-BSB02 EW-BSB03 EW-BSB04 EW-EP05-30 EW-FP01-5 EW-FP01-50 EW-GLP01 EW-GLP02 EW-HB01 EW-IF01-4N EW-IOR01 EW-LF01-10S EW-LF01-500 EW-LF08-10S EW-LF08-500 EW-LF16-10S EW-LF16-500 EW-LH604-200 EW-LH604-30 EW-PP03-2C EW-PP03-5E EW-PP03-6C EW-PP05-2C EW-PP05-5E EW-PP05-6C dye EW-SALL-500 EW-VG01-10S EW-VG01-300 EW-VG01-500 EW-VG08-10S EW-VG08-300 EW-VG08-500 EW-VG16-100 EW-VP01-125 EW-VP01-500 EW-VP05-125 EW-VP05-500 EW-VP10-1L Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET Antigen
The classical pathway begins with the formation of antigen-antibody complex (immune complex). When an antigen enters the body, the antibody (IgM/IgG) binds to it. This induces conformational changes in the Fc portion of the antibody which exposes a binding site for C1 protein. Hence, the antibody activates the complement system only when bound to an antigen.. C1 is a large, multimeric, protein complex composed of one molecule of C1q and two molecules each of C1r and C1s subunits. C1q binds to the antigen bound antibody (Fc portion). C1r and C1s are proteases which help to cleave C4 and C2.. The immune complex bound to C1 calls another protein C4 which is cleaved into C4a and C4b. C4a goes away whereas activated C4b attaches to the target surface near C1q. Now, C4b attracts C2 which is also cleaved into C2a and C2b. C2a binds C4b forming the C4b2a complex whereas C2b goes away. The active C4bC2a activates C3. The C4b2a complex is also known as C3 convertase as this converts C3 into an active form ...
MPGN type 2 is an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system attacks filters (glomeruli) in kidneys mistakenly. When the outside harmful substances such s lupus virus, hepatitis B virus invade into body as antigens, the antibodies in body fail to defeat them immediately for autoimmune disorder. As a result, the antigens and antibodies bind to each other and form immune complexes in blood and flow into kidneys through circulation ...
Our previous studies have shown that amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is subject to complement-mediated clearance from the peripheral circulation, and that this mechanism is deficient in Alzheimers disease. The mechanism should be enhanced by Aβ antibodies that form immune complexes (ICs) with Aβ, and therefore may be relevant to current Read & Research Alzheimers More. ...
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
Perhaps the most common cause of excessive formation of antigen-antibody complexes is having an unhealthy digestive tract.. From your mouth to your anus, your digestive tract is one long tube that is meant to extract nutrients out of your food and allow smaller and usable components of these nutrients to slip through into your bloodstream so that they can fuel and nourish your cells. While your digestive tract is designed for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients, it is also designed to protect your blood and inner cells against undesirable substances that can become antigens that lead to antigen-antibody complex formation in your blood.. If you abuse your digestive tract long enough with poor dietary and lifestyle choices, it can begin to lose its ability to prevent harmful substances from entering your blood. The lining of your digestive tract can begin to lose its integrity, and the population of microorganisms that line your digestive tract can shift from being predominately ...
The main findings in this work are that only a small subset of each of IR and PDGFβ‐R is tyrosine‐phosphorylated upon growth factor stimulation, that this subset can associate with the αvβ3 integrin, and that PDGF activity is enhanced in cells that are plated on an αvβ3 ligand.. In addition to the 190 kDa protein and IRS‐1 described previously in association with αvβ3 (Bartfeld et al., 1993; Vuori and Ruoslahti, 1994), we detected several other tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins in αvβ3 immunocomplexes from cells stimulated with insulin or PDGF‐BB. In insulin‐stimulated cells, one of these proteins was shown to be the β‐subunit of IR. We had not found IRβ associated with αvβ3 in our earlier study, because the anti‐pY antibodies used in that work react poorly with IRβ.. The 190 kDa phosphoprotein that we observed associated with αvβ3 in PDGF‐stimulated cells was identified as PDGFβ‐R. Several lines of evidence, including immunoprecipitation of the protein with ...
Estimation of circulating immune complex in tuberculosis patients has shown better insight to the infection. Isolating circulating immune complex helps quantifying both antigen and antibody in the serum. Its a simple procedure to improve the sensitivity and specificity in serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. This protocol may be modified to detect antigen/antibody in other infectious diseases.
EBV is a member of the gamma-herpesvirus family. It is an enveloped virus of about 150-180 nm diameter with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double-stranded DNA viral genome of about 172 000 base pairs. The nucleocapsid is composed of a major 160 kDa nonglycosylated polypeptide and a minor 125 kDa glycoprotein, both of which form part of the viral capsid antigen (VCA) complex. The virus lipoprotein envelope contains at least three virally-encoded glycoproteins, designated the membrane antigen (MA) complex. Two antigenically-related MA glycoproteins, gp340 and gp220, potentiate binding of the virus to a specific cell surface receptor molecule during the infection of target cells. The third MA glycoprotein, gp85, is involved in the fusion of bound virus with the host cell membrane. Following fusion, viral DNA is released into the cell and is transcribed and replicated in the nucleus, where it persists as multiple episomal copies.. The 140 kDa C3d complement receptor molecule (CD21) is the ...
3.1 Theory. We have been looking at how new complex systems can emerge from non-linear field interactions, where feedback loops replace simple linear cause-and-effect chains. We have looked at the increasingly complex levels of life, intelligence and choicefulness. The question I want to explore in this chapter is: how does this happen in the case of our emergent conscious self? What are the "nuts and bolts" of the interactions leading to my ability to be myself?. Notice how this is immediately a different question from the more familiar ones of how conscious self affects the environment, or vice versa. Both of these assume a primary separation of self from environment, so that the interactions each way can be charted. But using the "three boundaries" language from Chapter Two, we can see how this oversimplifies the situation. "Self" and "environment" do not belong to the same level of interaction. Environment engages with organism at the physical contact boundary; self engages with other at the ...
Biggs Solo (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) Taxonomy is a systematic way of describing how a learner s performance develops from simple to complex levels in their learning. There are 5 stages, namely Pre-structural, Uni-structural, Multi-structural which are in a quantitative phrase and Relational and Extended Abstract which are in a qualitative phrase. ...
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Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to
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The Biomat product is a 96 well coated microplate with recombinant Protein A and a protein to block non-specific binding sites and to maintain stable activity.. Protein A specifically binds the Fc region of immunoglobulins of many mammalian species ( see table 1 ), with an orientation that allows the F(ab)2 binding sites to be freely available for efficient binding to epitope. When coated onto microplates, the Protein A can securely capture IgG applied directly or as antigen/antibody complexes.. Example of applications:. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural studies of virus-antibody complexes by electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography. AU - Chiu, Wah. AU - Smith, Thomas. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The combined use of electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography has recently provided unprecedented and unique structural information of virus-antibody complexes. Different kinds of viral proteins have been located and identified on the capsid surface, certain residues of the viral proteins involved in antibody interactions have been identified; the elbow angle of bound antibody has been measured; and the mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization has been elucidated. Within the next few years, this combined methodology should help investigators resolve the structures of large macromolecular assemblies to even higher resolutions.. AB - The combined use of electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography has recently provided unprecedented and unique structural information of virus-antibody complexes. ...
Yersinia specific immune complexes were demonstrated in the synovial fluid of three patients out of 12 with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. They were not detectable in the synovial fluid of any of the 16 control patients, including nine with reactive arthritis triggered by factors other than yersiniae. Platelet reactive IgG was detectable in the synovial fluid of eight out of the 12 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis and in three of the 16 control patients, all three having rheumatoid arthritis. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a platelet 125I labelled staphylococcal protein A test were used to measure yersinia specific immune complexes and platelet reactive IgG respectively. The results obtained show for the first time the occurrence of bacterial antigens, derived from the causative strain, in the synovial fluid in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. ...
Neutrophils express receptors for numerous phlogistons which, when occupied, trigger distinct signal-transduction pathways. Previous studies have shown that stimulation of neutrophils with chemoattractants induces shedding of the adhesive molecule L-selectin and increased expression of the beta 2-integrin CD11b/CD18. We determined the effect of ligation of classic, G-protein-linked chemoattractant receptors [C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8), formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (FMLP) and substance P], receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma receptors) and receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) on expression of adhesive molecules by neutrophils and the stimulus-transduction mechanisms thought to mediate these changes. We were surprised to observe that occupancy of Fc gamma receptors by immunocomplexes (BSA-anti-BSA) stimulated increased expression by neutrophils of CD11b/CD18 at concentrations which did not affect L-selectin expression (EC50 9 micrograms/ml versus 350 ...
Any antigen that elicits a humoral immune response may give rise to circulating immune complexes if the antigen remains present in abundant quantities once antibody is generated. Immune complexes are efficiently cleared in most circumstances by the reticuloendothelial system and are rarely pathogenic. Their pathogenic potential is realized when circulating immune complexes are deposited in the subendothelium, where they set in motion the complement cascade and activate myelomonocytic cells. The propensity for immune complexes to deposit is a function of the relative amounts of antigen and antibody and of the intrinsic features of the complex (ie, composition, size, and solubility). The solubility of immune complexes is not a fixed property, because it is profoundly influenced by the relative concentrations of antigen and antibody, which generally change as an immune response evolves. For physicochemical reasons, soluble immune complexes formed at slight antigen excess are not effectively cleared ...
Tumor spheroids are becoming an important tool for the investigation of malignancy stem cell (CSC) function in tumors; therefore low-cost and high-throughput methods for drug testing of tumor spheroids are needed. screening of a panel of anti-proliferative medicines to assess inhibitory effects on the Citalopram Hydrobromide growth Mouse monoclonal to CD16.COC16 reacts with human CD16, a 50-65 kDa Fcg receptor IIIa (FcgRIII), expressed on NK cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. It is a human NK cell associated antigen. CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell activation. The CD16 blocks the binding of soluble immune complexes to granulocytes. of malignancy stem cells in 3-D ethnicities. Keywords: neurospheres tumor spheroids cancers stem cell glioblastoma acridine orange microscopy Solid tumors develop within a three-dimensional (3-D) spatial conformation which isnt mimicked by two-dimensional (2-D) ...
By depletion of C3 from rabbits undergoing acute experimental immune complex disease with an anticomplementary factor in cobra venom, it has been possible to demonstrate that deposition of the complexes in arteries and glomeruli does not require the complement components reacting after C2.. Immunological reactions, in which platelets release their vasoactive amines, have been examined in rabbits undergoing immune complex disease. A correlation was obtained between the presence of a complement-independent reaction which required blood leukocytes, antigen and platelets, the deposition of immune complexes, and the induction of glomerulonephritis.. C3 depletion did, however, have a marked alleviating effect on the severity of the arterial lesions. Neutrophil accumulation and the subsequent necrotizing arteritis were prevented. In contrast, the character and severity of the glomerulonephritis was not altered by depletion of later-acting complement components.. ...
Increased Ig, RF, and CIC levels in BAFF-Tg mice. (A) Reduced SDS-PAGE of sera from five control littermates and nine BAFF-Tg mice showing that BAFF increases I
Receptors for IgG provide the best characterized and most detailed examples of the coordinate and opposing roles displayed by activating and inhibitory receptors (22, 23). Studies on these receptors have defined several general paradigms for the class of inhibitory receptors as a whole and pointed to the physiological relevance of these pathways in the immune response. IgG immune complexes were recognized as potent inhibitory ligands more than 30 years ago with the observation that B cell activation could be attenuated by immune complexes (24). A molecular basis for this activity was suggested with the cloning of two genes for murine low-affinity IgG Fc receptors, now referred to as FcγRIIB and FcγRIII (25). The extracellular domains were found to be 95% identical in their primary amino acid sequence and to mediate low-affinity binding to IgG immune complexes with similar specificity. However, these nearly identical domains were coupled to distinctly different intracytoplasmic domains, which ...
Home » Serum sickness. serum sickness A hypersensitivity response (type III) to the injection of large amounts of antigen, as might happen when large amounts of antiserum are given in a passive immunisation. The effects are caused by the presence of soluble immune complexes in the tissues. ...
Immunohistochemistry is used to confirm the presence of or to identify certain structures or substances in tissue sections which cannot be identified with conventional staining methods. Such structures include: cells, enzymes, hormones, macromolecules like nucleic acids and polysaccharides. The basis of immunohistochemical staining techniques is the antigen-antibody reaction. This method makes it possible to differentiate, for example, various cells in a tissue section according to their different metabolic products or surfaces. Either the metabolic product or a certain surface component serves as the antigen. In the first step, the antigen reacts with a specific antibody. The resulting antigen-antibody complex is invisible. Therefore, in a further step a second antibody bound to an adjuvant is added and binds to the initial antibody (so-called sandwich procedure). The bound adjuvant makes the antigen-antibody complex visible under the microscope and identifies the sought structure. Adjuvants ...
Immune complexes (ICs) are formed to clear undesired material from the circulation in normal course and are elevated during disease pathologies. Elevated levels of ICs opsonized by complement activation by-products are present during viral infections such as H1N1, HIV, Hepatitis C, autoimmunity, and malignancies as well as during acute humoral rejection. The IC formation and their defective clearance trigger inflammatory response. ICs trigger complement activation and generate inflammatory mediators such as C3a and C5a anaphylotoxins. Complement opsonized ICs deposit at vascular sites, trigger proinflammatory response by releasing cytokines via Fc-receptor and/or complement receptor engagement. Antibodies present in the ICs by bind to activating or inhibitory Fc receptors (FcRs), which trigger effector function and regulate cellular responses. Myeloid cells express both activating and inhibitory FcRs. Complement opsonized ICs interact and regulate B-cell responses. ICs activate macrophages and produce
Principal Investigator:TOMITA Ken-ichi, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research, Section:Joint Research
The immune complexes are cleared out of body by liver. Therefore, the patients with IgA Nephropathy should protect their liver very well. Therefore, the patients should limit or even not eat food that contains caffeine such as soda, cocoa, chocolate, tea and so on. In addition, the patients should not drink excessive alcohol, which can do harm to their livers and also can aggravate the disease progression ...
Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are important tools in the management of tumor disease, and the discovery of antibodies with both specific cancer cell targeting and capacity to enter the cells by internalization are critical to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Method: Antibody cancer cell targeting and internalization properties of fluoroscein-conjugated mAb made against Lewis Y (BR96) were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by means of flow cytometry (FCM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively, on cells from a rat tumor cell line (BN7005-H1D2). Results: The study demonstrated a specific binding of BR96 to LewisY (LeY) located in the cell membrane and as BR96/LeY immunocomplexes (BR96/LeY) internalized into the cytoplasm. BR96/LeY was internalized into about 15% of the cells, usually distributed throughout the cytoplasm, but also located close to the nuclei. Cytotoxic effects by BR96 were indicated, and CLSM visualized subpopulations containing cells with ...
Influence of serum complement and rheumatoid factor on detection of immune complexes by the C1q and monoclonal rheumatoid factor solid-phase assay ...
Background: The role of innate immunity in healing and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) has been studied in great detail. Recently, we demonstrated that Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) facilitate wound healing post-MI. We therefore pursued a strategy to activate Treg cells in a therapeutic fashion by employing a treatment modality with clinical potential, i.e. by administration of interleukin (IL)-2/ anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2 mAB) complexes.. Methods and results: Mice were subjected to experimental MI and treated with IL-2/ IL-2 mAB complexes beginning on day 1 after infarction. IL-2 and anti-IL-2 mAB (clone JES5-1) were mixed at a molar ratio of 1:2 and each mouse was treated on three consecutive days receiving a dose of 6 μg IL-2/ IL-2 mAB complexes per injection corresponding to approximately 5000 IU IL-2 per day. Mice were monitored for up to 7 days. IL-2/ IL-2 mAB complex treatment attenuated left-ventricular remodeling by trend and preserved cardiac ...
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Aune, T M. and Pierce, C W., "Preparation of soluble immune response suppressor and macrophage- -derived suppressor factor." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4024 ...
The FARR assay identifies high avidity dsDNA antibodies in suspected glomerulonephritis in SLE. The assay high sensitivity detects low antibody levels, which can damage kidneys through complement activation by dsDNA immune complexes bound to the GBM ...
The assembly and activation of the early components of complement, after their interaction with antibody-antigen complexes, are described in terms of the structures of the different proteins taking part. C1q, a molecule of unique half collagen-half globular structure, binds to the second constant domain of the antibody molecules through its six globular heads. A tetrameric complex of C1r2-C1s2 binds to the collagenous tails and leads to formation of the serine-type proteases C1¯r and C1¯s. C1¯s activates C4, which forms a covalent bond between its α chain and the Fab section of the antibody. C2 is also activated by C1¯s and associates with the bound C4¯ molecule to form C42¯, a labile protease that activates C3, but which loses activity as the C2¯ peptide chains dissociate from C4¯. C2, by analogy with factor B, the equivalent component of the alternative pathway of activation, appears to be a novel type of serine protease with a similar catalytic site but different activation ...
The subject invention provides a means for the immunological detection of an entire class of microorganisms in clinical samples. The detection is accomplished by reaction of the clinical sample iwth a class-specific immunological reagent. This reagent is an antiserum either monoclonal or polyclonal in nature, and the detection is based upon reaction of the antiserum with an antigenic determinant which is shared among all members of the detectable class of microorganisms. The presence of the resulting immunological reaction product (e.g. the antigen-antibody complex) may be detected by well-known immunological detection-systems.
The current status of docking procedures for predicting protein-protein interactions starting from their three-dimensional (3D) structure is reassessed by evaluating blind predictions, performed during 2003-2004 as part of Rounds 3-5 of the community-wide experiment on Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI). Ten newly determined structures of protein-protein complexes were used as targets for these rounds. They comprised 2 enzyme-inhibitor complexes, 2 antigen-antibody complexes, 2 complexes involved in cellular signaling, 2 homo-oligomers, and a complex between 2 components of the bacterial cellulosome. For most targets, the predictors were given the experimental structures of 1 unbound and 1 bound component, with the latter in a random orientation. For some, the structure of the free component was derived from that of a related protein, requiring the use of homology modeling. In some of the targets, significant differences in conformation were displayed between the bound and ...
A chronic skin issue like eczema can often be treated with dietary interventions.2 Often your immune system mistakenly identifies a food as being foreign, tagging it with an antibody and forming an antibody-antigen complex. When these form in abundance, they deposit in your joints, and your skin - leading to eczema.2 Conditions like eczema require modulating your immune system to only identify and tag true intruders and not foods that we eat on a daily basis.2. ...
Synovial fluid and peripheral blood immune complexes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis induce apoptosis in cytokine-activated chondrocytes ...
Ongoing since 1999, the lab has worked to develop infrared probes of protein dynamics, specifically the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond. Weve used C-D bonds to characterize stability, folding, and function of a variety of proteins, and compared their use to other common IR probes of proteins. A second biophysical project focuses on protein evolution, specifically evolution of antibodies and the role of somatic mutations in altering antibody structure and dynamics. Weve characterized antibodies raised against several chromophoric antigens, which have allowed us to measure the rigidity of the antibody-antigen complex using nonlinear optical spectroscopy.. ...
Either a direct or an indirect assay principle can be chosen, and one can select from a large number of detection and labeling formats. Under certain conditions, one has to adapt a specific staining technique according to the needs of the tissue and the molecules under study. The principles of immunohistological staining can be also applied for the detection of target molecules other than antigens supposed that selective probes are available. With the experience of immunocytochemistry, a number of non-immunological affinity detection principles have become developped. For example, molecular affinity bindings of lectins and nucleic acids (in situ hybridization, FISH etc.) evolved from immunohistological detection principles. The detection formats include enzymatic and nonenzymatic labels, avidin-biotin principles, antibody-protein A bindings and other types of ligand bindings ...
A state of unresponsiveness to a specific antigen (immune stimulus) or group of antigens to which a person is normally responsive. Immune tolerance can result from a number of causes, including: {{}}Prior contact with the same antigen in fetal…
CD16/CD32, 0.1 mg. The lymphocyte Fc-gamma Receptors recognize the Fc portion of IgG, presented either as immune complexes or as free antibody.
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Looking for immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction? Find out information about immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. 1. opposition to change, esp political change, or a desire to return to a former condition or system 2. a response indicating a persons feelings or... Explanation of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction
This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Plasmodium falciparum infection is characterized by deadly complications such as severe malaria-associated anaemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM).The exact mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of these severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria are not fully understood yet they are associated with a lot of morbidity and mortalitv. Studies have shown a link between severe P. falciparum malaria and levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) but the exact role of these CICs in the pathogenesis of severe P. falciparum malaria is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences in antibody classes and subclasses in serum immune complexes (lCs) between children with the severe forms of P. falciparum malaria and those with uncomplicated malaria as well as identifying the predominant P. falciparum antigens that contribute to IC formation in these clinical groups. A total of 75 children with SMA and 32 children with CM were enrolled from hospitals in western ...
Serum sickness-like reactions (SSLRs) refer to adverse reactions that have symptoms similar to those of serum sickness (type III immune complex hypersensitivity) but in which immune complexes are not found. Agents that have been implicated in serum sickness-like reactions include cefaclor, amoxicillin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, carbamazepine, propranolol, thiouracil, and allopurinol. Metabolites of these drugs might bind with tissue proteins inappropriately, eliciting an acute inflammatory response that typically develops 7-14 days after initiation of the offending agent. Acute hepatitis B will sometimes be complicated with this syndrome, often resolving as soon as the jaundice subsides. Serum sickness-like reaction is named for its clinical similarity to serum sickness, in which immune complexes are deposited in the skin, joints, and other organs. True serum sickness, a type III hypersensitivity reaction, results in fever, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solid phase enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay for the detection of immune complexes based on their recognition by conglutinin. T2 - conglutinin binding test. A comparative study with 125I labelled C1q binding and Raji cell RIA tests. AU - Casali, P.. AU - Bossus, A.. AU - Carpentier, N. A.. AU - Lambert, P. H.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - Bovine conglutinin was used in a solid-phase assay for the detection of immune complexes. In a first step, the tested serum sample is incubated in polypropylene tubes coated with conglutinin to allow C3-coated immune complexes to bind to solid-phase conglutinin. In a second step, the conglutinin-bound complexes are detected using an enzyme-conjugated or radiolabelled antiimmunoglobulin antibody. The conglutinin-binding (KgB) test does not suffer from the interference of DNA, heparin or endotoxins. Its limit of sensitivity for aggregated IgG is 3 μg/ml undiluted human serum. Immune complexes prepared in vitro using tetanus toxoid, ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease which may affect multiple organ systems. Interferon alpha (IFNα) and autoantibodies that form immune complexes with nuclear antigens (ANA) are hallmarks believed to drive the disease into a vicious circle of inflammation, tissue damage, autoantigen exposure and autoantibody production.. In SLE, the disease course is characterized by episodes of exacerbations alternating with remissions. In order to best treat the patient it is important to closely monitor symptoms and signs of disease activity. Because of the disease heterogeneity, no single biomarker has yet been found to reflect SLE disease activity in general, although antidouble stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies sometimes indicate activity, primarily with renal involvement, and constitutes an item of the SLE disease activity score SLEDAI-2K. However, the method of anti-dsDNA measurement is not standardized and therefore varies between different laboratories. In many ...
Abstract Circulating Schistosoma mansoni soluble antigens (CSA), circulating anti-S. mansoni antibodies (CAb), and immune complexes (CIC) were studied in three groups of African patients living in the same area. The first two groups were composed of 26 S. mansoni-infected mothers and their 26 uninfected newborn children. The third group included 13 men and 10 non-pregnant women who were also infected with S. mansoni. CSA were quantified by using a solid phase sandwich radioimmunoassay, which was shown to be sensitive, reproducible, and S. mansoni-specific. CAb were studied by indirect hemagglutination. CIC evaluations were performed by using the Clq binding test. A high correlation was shown between the CSA levels in sera from infected mothers and from the umbilical cord of their newborn children, indicating that CSA are probably transferred through the placenta. CSA levels in mothers were significantly higher than in the third group, in which no difference was found between men and women. On the other
Microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) promotes MT assembly in vitro and is localized along MTs in vivo. These results and the fact that MAP4 is the major MAP in nonneuronal cells suggest that MAP4s normal functions may include the stabilization of MTs in situ. To understand MAP4 function in vivo, we produced a blocking antibody (Ab) to prevent MAP4 binding to MTs. The COOH-terminal MT binding domain of MAP4 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione transferase fusion protein and was injected into rabbits to produce an antiserum that was then affinity purified and shown to be monospecific for MAP4. This Ab blocked , 95% of MAP4 binding to MTs in an in vitro assay. Microinjection of the affinity purified Ab into human fibroblasts and monkey epithelial cells abolished MAP4 binding to MTs as assayed with a rat polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal projection domain of MAP4. The removal of MAP4 from MTs was accompanied by its sequestration into visible MAP4-Ab immunocomplexes. ...
Previous studies in this laboratory have allowed the formulation of a model for the molecular arrangement of C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 on the surface of cells undergoing immune cytolysis with an assigned cumulative m.w. of 995,000. To verify directly the existence of a C5-C9 complex, serum samples containing radiolabeled terminal components were activated at 37°C with EA, antigen-antibody complexes, CVF, inulin or zymosan. Subsequent sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all treatments cited led to the formation, in varying degrees, of rapidly sedimenting material which incorporated C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, but not C3. The reaction was inhibited by 0.01 M EDTA and 0°C. The complex had a sedimentation coefficient of 22.4S, a diffusion coefficient of 1.98 × 10-7 cm2 sec-1 and thus a calculated m.w. of 1.04 × 106.. ...
Methods for the detection, monitoring and treatment of malignancies in which the HER-2/neu oncogene is associated are disclosed. Detection of specific T cell activation (e.g., by measuring the proliferation of T cells) in response to in vitro exposure to the HER-2/neu protein, or detection of immunocomplexes formed between the HER-2/neu protein and antibodies in body fluid, allows the diagnosis of the presence of a malignancy in which the HER-2/neu oncogene is associated. The present invention also discloses methods and compositions, including peptides, for treating such malignancies.
When studies on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that were made many decades ago and could be considered historical in nature are analyzed in the context of recent observations, important insights on RA and on the function of rheumatoid factor (RF) become apparent. RF in the role of antibody to immune complexes (ICs) appears to be involved in activation of the complement system and in the production of chemotactic and inflammatory mediators, creating a condition that can be sustained and reinitiated. In the synovial cavity, a state of nonresolving inflammation is produced with the formation of citrullinated protein antigen-antibody complexes or other forms of ICs. This is followed by a second wave of IC production in the form of RF acting as antibody reactive with the initial ICs. Both of these processes are associated with complement consumption and production of inflammatory mediators. We present a model of an initiation phase of RA that might represent an example of repetitive formation of ICs and
Erb, P; Meier, B; and Feldman, M, "Is genetically related macrophage factor (grf) a soluble immune response (ir) gene product?" (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 127 ...
This article is from Experimental & Molecular Medicine, volume 44.AbstractAptamers are synthetic, relatively short (e.g., 20-80 bases) RNA or ssDNA...
Signals generated through Igα/Igβ-containing receptor complexes are necessary and in some cases sufficient to direct B cells to execute a highly regulated series of ordered events that exhibit a very complex level of interdependence. However, in most cases, it is not well understood how the receptor-mediated signal is initiated and translated into specific B cell fates. Receptor oligomerization induced after Ag binding is thought to be a required step for generating signals leading to responses such as negative selection and activation (17, 39). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that both the BCR and the pre-BCR on developing B cells are capable of generating signals independently of ligand (Ag) binding (24, 31, 32, 35, 51, 52). Despite several reports that implicate ligand-independent BCR signaling in B cell development, neither its regulation nor its linkage to specific events in B cell biology have been carefully studied. Moreover, it remains a matter of speculation whether or ...
Im glad youve had a chance to read over the Skills School manual, I hope you have enjoyed it. Actually, there is a shared focus on both technique and tactics from U-6 to U-19 that is the essence of the games-based approach. That approach is best learned through reading the material on the website for Teaching Games for Understanding: http://www.tgfu.org/. Now, of course the tactics for U-6 are very simple - which goal to shoot at and at which one to block shots. Tactics for that age group also includes where is the field and beginning to understand the concept of boundary lines. The teaching of tactics and how to use ball skills to pull off your tactical ideas gradually progresses to quite complex levels by the U-19 age group. We want coaches to teach ball skills in game context as well as some rehearsal of the body mechanics of ball skills as a separate component of training. The teaching of balls skills when done in game-like activities gives the kids notions on how those skills can be ...
Implants and robotics can now mimic senses. The feeling of touch is remarkable. It allows us to sense danger as well as communicate with other human beings on a more complex level, distinguishing us from many other creatures. Yet, most of us take this ability for granted as we have always had it since we were born.. For some individuals though, this is not always the case, such as Nathan Copeland, a 28-year-old American man, who lost this ability at the age of 18 when a car crash damaged his neck and spinal cord. For 10 years he could not feel anything and could only dream of a possibility of having his sense of touch restored. Through the use of micro-electrodes scientists were able to make a breakthrough and return the feeling of touch to him.. How was touch restored in a paralysed person?. Scientists first identified the parts of the brain associated with touch in the hands, namely the primary somatosensory cortex (touch sensing areas) located in the parietal lobe of the brain. Two electrodes ...
Studying abroad helps individuals develop cross-cultural skills; provides alumni with an advantage in the job market upon graduation; and, cultivates life-long learning.. Recent studies by the University of Florida, Singapore Management University, and the European Institute for Business Administration have shown that students who study abroad are more flexible and creative and are able to think at a more complex level. Surveys conducted by the University of California Merced, International Education of Students, and Inside Higher Education show that study-abroad alumni achieve higher GPAs, graduate at higher rates, receive more job offers, and make higher starting salaries compared to students who do not study abroad. ...
The nitrocellulose strips contain five recombinant HCV proteins form the Capsid, NS3-1, NS3-2, NS4, and NS5 regions of the HCV genome. The HCV proteins are expressed as GST fusion proteins, so a GST control band is included to indicate reactivity to native GST. The blots also contain an IgG control band and an anti-IgG band. Individual nitrocellulose strips are incubated with diluted serum or plasma specimens and controls. Specific antibodies to HCV, if present in the specimen, will bind to the HCV proteins on the strips. The strips are washed to remove unbound materials and then incubated with affinity purified anti-human IgG conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. The conjugate antibody will bind to any antigen-antibody complexes formed on the blots. Unbound conjugate is removed by washing. A BCIP/NBT substrate is added to visualise reactive protein bands on the blots. ...
This report describes a new, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of immune complexes, endotoxins, and other complement activating materials in patients sera utilizing the ability of these substances to react with isolated C1q. The procedure is based on the inhibition of radiolabeled C1q binding to sensitized sheep erythrocytes by C1q-reactive substances in pathological sera. The C1q deviation test may be performed on 50 mu1 of serum, using 1 mug of radiolabeled C1q per sample. The procedure may be completed in 1.5-2 h, it is capable of detecting 5 mug of aggregated human IgG per ml of serum, and its coefficient of variation is 4.2%. Application of the test to the study of 193 sera from 43 patients with Dengue hemorrhagic fever showed a positive correlation between degree of C1q deviation and severity of disease. ...
Complement activation testing for DNA/RNA, biologics safety. The National Jewish Health Laboratories offer pre-clinical, clinical safety/tox and biomarker efficacy testing services under CAP/CLIA/ISO15189 and GLP guidelines. The Complement Laboratory offers the most comprehensive test menu in the industry. Customized study design and data analysis based on the experience from 100+ studies filed with regulatory agencies, assessing complement activation and immune complex formation for biologics, vaccines and oligonucleotide based therapeutics.. ...
The liver plays a key role in most metabolic processes, especially detoxification. The liver is a filter designed to remove toxic matter such as dead cells, microorganisms, chemicals, drugs and particulate debris from the bloodstream. The liver filter is called the sinusoidal system, and contains specialized cells known as Kupffer cells that are part of the white blood cell immune function. They make up 10% of liver weight, and function to ingest and break down toxic matter. Filtration of toxins is absolutely critical as the blood from the intestines contains high levels of bacterial waste, (endotoxins from the bowels), antigen-antibody complexes, and various toxic pollutants. When working properly, the liver clears 99% of the bacterial toxins during the first pass. However, when the liver is damaged, such as in alcoholics, the passage of toxins increases by over a factor of 10. This is similar if your intestines are too permeable, a condition known as "leaky gut". Allergies (especially to ...
TRANSIA PLATE Salmonella Gold is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella in food, feed and environmental samples. The test utilizes highly specific proprietary antibodies to create an antigen antibody complex which, if present, creates a color change reaction upon addition of the substrate which is read with a microplate reader. Standardized Protocol - Results in 24 hours : ...
Save 58% Lindberg - L-Glutamine 500 mg 300 Capsules L-Glutamine 500 mg Free Form Immune and Digestive Support* Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. It has been extensively studied for its importance in the immune and digestive systems, and is easily depleted under conditions of stress.* Our high quality L-glutamine ingredient is made by fermentation in the USA without animal-sourced material. It is tested by USP methods.
Save 24% Lindberg - L-Glutamine 500 mg 300 Capsules L-Glutamine 500 mg Free Form Immune and Digestive Support* Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, but it can be depleted under conditions of stress. It has been extensively studied for its importance in the immune and digestive systems.* Our high quality L-glutamine ingredient is made by fermentation in the USA without animal-sourced material. It is tested by USP methods.
I ask because Ive used protocols for ds sequencing with go ,sucess until recently. Lately, I had alot trouble with my ds templates. I ,remember reading that Sequenase 2.0 prefers ss templates. Is it worth it to ,switch? Antone have good protocols? Thanks in advance. , ,Picard cooperj at nhlbi.nih.gov (John Cooper) asks: ,Does any one know if single stranded sequencing is really superior to ds ,sequencing? I think that you get the best consistency with single-strand templates. DS templates exhibit more variability. Its probably to have highly purified DNA. Although CsCl-prepped DNA is obviously the best, for preparing multiple templates, we DNA prepared with the normal alkaline-lysis miniprep procedure and PEG precipitate (as described, for example, in the Molecular Cloning manual). This purified DNA is then denatured according to the latest guidelines in USBs Sequenase manuals which suggest alkaline denaturation _at 37oC_. ,Antone have good protocols? Ive used the following alternative, ...
When the same kind of allergen enters the bloodstream again, it triggers the mast cell-IgE antibody complex to release chemicals called mediators from the mast cells. These mediators attack the allergen, but in the process they may damage surrounding tissue. More than 15 mediators with different functions have been identified. The histamines, released in hay fever, are an example of these chemicals. They initiate a local inflammatory response resulting in sneezing and watery, puffy, itchy eyes. The exact symptoms of an allergic reaction depend on the effects of the mediators and in which part of the body the allergen-mast cell-IgE complex exists. Three major types of allergenic substances are inhalants, foods, and skin-contact substances ...
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
One important observation about HCP immunoassays is that they occasionally give dilution-dependent results. Dilution dependence arises because the HCPs in the sample (perhaps one or a few HCPs) do not dilute in parallel with those in the standard (a mixture of 1000s of proteins). Limiting amounts of reagents can come in the form of coat, conjugate antibodies, or even Streptavidin-HRP that are associated with "antigen excess" and non-linear dilution behavior. It is advised to check all reagents to minimize impacts of reagent limitation sample dilution linearity. From a product purity perspective, however, sample dilution non-linearity is not an "assay artifact" but rather could be an important indication that a large amount of a particular HCP has co-purified with product. Phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2) was found to co-purify with multiple CHO-derived Mab products. It may be that this is a "common" impurity in Mabs produced across the biotech industry since it was found to have co-purified with ...
In (e), quiescent cells were left untreated or treated for 30 min with 10 nM R1881, in the absence or presence of the DYRK 1B inhibitor AZ191, which was added (1 μM) 15 min before hormonal stimulation. Control cells in right panel were treated with the inhibitor alone. In left panels, lysate proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-DYRK 1B antibody. Immune complexes were analyzed for DYRK 1B activity using MBP as a substrate. DYRK 1B levels in immune complexes were detected by immunoblot with anti-DYRK 1B antibody. In right panels, lysate proteins were analyzed by western blot, using antibodies against the indicated proteins.. ...
I tend to see the Herpes virus is a constellation or a cluster of viruses, all of the same HERV family. I think if you have a high load of EBV immune complexes, you are also likely to have a ...
Skin lesions of erythema multiforme show time-dependent changes from early papular erythema to the late target lesion which consists of a peripheral elevated erythematous area and a central depressed area. We investigated the pathomechanism of erythema multiforme, by examining the papular erythema and target lesion separately. In the early papular erythema, a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and nuclear debris were seen intermingled with mononuclear cells around the slightly swollen blood vessels, on which immunoglobulin and complement components were deposited. Circulating immune complex levels were occasionally elevated. Sera from the patients generated high levels of reactive oxygen species and nitroblue tetrazolium test revealed positive reaction on the infiltrating cells around the blood vessels. These findings suggest that the papular erythema develops via incomplete type III allergic reaction, followed by damage through reactive oxygen species. In the target lesion, the activity of
Mechanisms for the elimination of potentially lytic complement-fixing variable surface glycoprotein antibody complexes in Trypanosoma ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can form immune complexes which may result in various types of glomerulonephritis like Membranous glomeruplonephritis, MPGN, PAN and IgA Nephropathy. Commonly, it is treated by western medications like steroids and i
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-chemokine autoantibody. T2 - Chemokine immune complexes activate endothelial cells via IgG receptors. AU - Krupa, Agnieszka. AU - Fudala, Rafal. AU - Stankowska, Dorota. AU - Loyd, Tameka. AU - Allen, Timothy C.. AU - Matthay, Michael A.. AU - Gryczynski, Zygmunt. AU - Gryczynski, Ignacy. AU - Mettikolla, Yalla V.. AU - Kurdowska, Anna K.. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - Our previous studies revealed that the presence in lung fluids of anti-IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes is an important prognostic indicator for the development and outcome of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-IL-8:IL-8 complexes purified from lung edema fluids trigger chemotaxis of neutrophils, induce activation of these cells, and regulate their apoptosis, all via IgG receptor, FcγRIIa. Importantly, increased levels of FcγRIIa are present inlungs of patients with ARDS, where FcγRIIa is partially associated with anti-IL-8:IL-8 complexes. In the current ...
Aiming to determine if antigen-antibody complex formation - antigen blocking - interfered with detection of the heartworm antigen in cats using commercial assays, the study evaluated serum samples from six domestic cats confirmed to be infected with a low number of heartworms. Four different commercially available assays were used before and after heat treatment of sera. The study found that the heartworm antigen was detected in zero to only one of six cats (0 to 16.7 percent), without heat treating the sera, using the assays according to manufacturers directions. However, after heat treatment of the samples prior to testing, as many as five of six cats (83.3 percent) had detectable antigen - a "dramatic increase," the studys authors noted. Thus, new data suggests that adequate antigen is present in samples from cats infected with heartworm to allow diagnosis, but formation of antigen-antibody complexes may prevent its detection on commercial assays ...
C3-bearing immune complexes and C3 activation products were detected by using two monoclonal antibodies, one specific for a neoantigenic determinant on C3c and the other for C3d. To quantitate immune complexes, the anti-C3c or anti-C3d antibodies were fixed to microtiter plates and reacted with test plasma. The binding of C3-bearing immune complexes in this plasma was then measured with radioisotope- or enzyme-labeled anti-human IgG. To test for C3 breakdown products, solid-phase monoclonal antibody to the C3d neoantigen was reacted with EDTA-plasma samples, and fixed iC3b or C3d was measured with a polyclonal anti-C3 antibody. Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogrens syndrome, and paracoccidioidomycosis were found to contain immune complexes bearing C3b/iC3b or C3d. In most conditions, there were more C3d-containing immune complexes than C3b/iC3b. Although CR1 (C3b receptors) rapidly converted immune complex-bound iC3b to ...
Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγR) which bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC). Crosslinking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) initiates specific mechanisms which result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both MHC class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous
Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. ...
The Babraham Institute undertakes world-class life sciences research to generate new knowledge of biological mechanisms underpinning ageing, development and the maintenance of health. Our research focuses on cellular signalling, gene regulation and the impact of epigenetic regulation at different stages of life. By determining how the body reacts to dietary and environmental stimuli and manages microbial and viral interactions, we aim to improve wellbeing and support healthier ageing. The Institute is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation, through an Institute Core Capability Grant and also receives funding from other UK research councils, charitable foundations, the EU and medical charities ...
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the prevalence of IgG antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a cohort of Brazilian children and young adults with IDDM.RESEARCH DESIGN END METHODS - Sera from 81 subjects with ,1 year of IDDM (group 1), 111 subjects with ,1 year of IDDM (group 2), and 207 normoglycemic subjects were tested using an immunofluorimetric assay. A receiver-operating-characteristic curve was used to establish the threshold of anti-BSA antibody titers defining the positivity of the assay.RESULTS - the distribution of the fluorimetric index (FI) of anti-BSA antibodies did not have a gaussian profile. Rank sum of FI was significantly higher inpatients than in control subjects (P , 0.0001). Average logFI values of both IDDM groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P , 0.005 for both groups). There was a trend toward higher FI levels in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.06). A FI cutoff of 0.7 optimized the ratio of true-positive to false-positive of the assay, with the ...
Adults are more likely to manifest symptoms of neuroberreliosis than are children. These symptoms can include peripheral nerve parasthesias, a Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and Bannwarths syndrome (lymphocytic meningoradiculitis).(2) A study by Hansen et al. showed that patients with neuroborreliosis demonstrate a blood brain barrier disturbance with 62 % showing an elevated albumin ratio and 60 % revealing an increased IgG index, indicative of intrathecal IgG synthesis. In addition, 51 % of patients exhibited oligoclonal IgG bands and these bands were more likely to be present with a longer time since onset of neurologic symptoms. (3) Immune complexes can be recognized by their distinctive staining pattern on zone electrophoresis. B cells in the CNS may give rise to a clonal proliferation of immunoglobulins within the CSF which will appear as a distinct, restricted band in the gamma region of the zone electrophoresis gel. Immune complexes occur when the antibody binds an antigen which results ...
Cells from a human lymphoblastoid cell line (Raji), with B-cell characteristics, and having receptors for human IgG Fc, C3b, and C3d, were used in an immunofluorescence test as in vitro detectors of immune complexes in animal and human sera. By this test, as little as 200-300 ng aggregated human gamma globulin or immune complexes per ml serum could be detected. The receptors for IgG Fc on the Raji cells were shown to be inefficient in detecting aggregated human gamma globulin and binding of aggregates to these receptors was inhibited by physiologic concentrations of 7S human IgG. Enhancement of aggregated human gamma globulin binding and binding of immune complexes formed in vitro to Raji cells was observed when the receptors for complement on these cells were used. By using the receptors for complement on Raji cells, circulating immune complexes were detected in rabbits with acute serum sickness, in mice with acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, and in humans with immune complex ...
Persistent viral infections can interfere with FcγR-mediated antibody effector functions by excessive immune complex (IC) formation, resulting in resistance to therapeutic FcγR-dependent antibodies. We and others have previously demonstrated that mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are resistant to a wide range of depleting antibodies due to excessive IC formation. Here, we dissect the mechanisms by which two depleting antibodies overcome the obstacle of endogenous ICs and achieve efficient target cell depletion in persistently infected mice. Efficient antibody-mediated depletion during persistent LCMV infection required increased levels of antibody bound to target cells or use of afucosylated antibodies with increased affinity for FcγRs. Antibodies targeting the highly expressed CD90 antigen or overexpressed human CD20 efficiently depleted their target cells in naïve and persistently infected mice, whereas antibodies directed against less abundant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transformation by polyoma virus is drastically reduced by substitution of phenylalanine for tyrosine at residue 315 of middle sized tumor antigen. AU - Carmichael, G.. AU - Schaffhausen, B. S.. AU - Mandel, G.. AU - Liang, T. J.. AU - Benjamin, T. L.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - We used an oligonucleotide to introduce an A → T transversion at nucleotide position 1178 in polyoma virus DNA. The single effect of this mutation is to substitute phenylalanine for tyrosine at residue 315 of the middle-sized tumor (mT) protein (antigen). This site was previously identified as major phosphate acceptor in the protein kinase reaction of immunocomplexes containing mT antigen. Reconstituted polyoma virus with the transversion, Py-1178-T, produces an altered mT protein that shows about 20% of the activity of wild-type mT antigen in the immunocomplex kinase assay. This residual activity appears to be directed primarily at another tyrosine at position 322 in the mT protein. The ...
METHODS AND RESULTS Fifty-five patients were treated with urokinase-preactivated prourokinase (n = 35) or tissue-type plasminogen activator (n = 20) for acute myocardial infarction and underwent coronary angiography at 90 minutes and at 24-36 hours into thrombolysis, and fibrinogen (Ratnoff-Menzie), D-dimer (ELISA) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels (ELISA) were measured. Primary patency was achieved in 39 patients (70.9%), 13 of whom (33.3%) suffered early reocclusion. Nonsignificant decreases in fibrinogen levels were observed while D-dimer levels increased +3,008 +/- 4,047 micrograms/l (p less than 0.01), differences not being significant in respect to the thrombolytic agents or to the clinical course. In contrast, while thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels decreased -4.4 +/- 13.0 micrograms/l in patients with persistent patency, they increased +7.5 +/- 13.6 micrograms/l in case of nonsuccessful thrombolysis (p less than 0.02) and +11.9 +/- 23.8 micrograms/l in case of early ...
The application of quantum dots in capillary electrophoresis immunoassay was studied for the first time. Quantum dots were conjugated with antibody and subsequently tested by electrophoretic separation of free antibody and antibody-antigen complex. Antibody was fluorescently labeled by quantum dots via conjugation procedures and its electrophoretic characteristics were effectively modified due to the attachment of quantum dots. The determination of human IgM by direct CE based immunoassay could be easily achieved by simply changing the pH value of separation buffer. Polymer additive influenced the separation too but the effect was not as significant as buffer pH adjustment. Satisfactory separation of complex from free antibody could be achieved with 20 mM sodium tetraborate as separation buffer, at pH 9.8. The immunoassay application of quantum dots in CE offers considerable advantages and can be readily applied to other large bio-molecules. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and they accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. The mononuclear phagocyte system and the monocyte macrophage system refer to two different entities, often mistakenly understood as one. "Reticuloendothelial system" is an older term for the mononuclear phagocyte system, but it is used less commonly now, as it is understood that most endothelial cells are not macrophages. The mononuclear phagocyte system is also a somewhat dated concept trying to combine a broad range of cells, and should be used with caution. The spleen is the largest unit of the mononuclear phagocyte system. The monocyte is formed in the ...
These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ... Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ...
Antibodies of the adaptive immune system can bind antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex. When C1q binds antigen-antibody ... Activation of the C1 complex intitiates the classical complement pathway of the complement system. The antibodies IgM and all ... C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. C1q comprises 6 A, 6 B and 6 C chains. ... C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the C1 complex (C1qr2s2), the first component of the serum complement system ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... The immune complex serves as an activator that triggers a response from the C5b - C9 complements, which form a membrane attack ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... Immune complexes (black) are deposited in a thickened basement membrane creating a "spike and dome" appearance on electron ...
The presence of complement and antigen-antibody complexes is evident throughout the connective and epithelial tissue. It is in ... Plaque is composed of a complex community of many different species of bacteria. However, specific bacterial species are ... Genco RJ, Mashimo PA, Krygier G, Ellison SA (May 1974). "Antibody-mediated effects on the periodontium". J. Periodontol. 45 (5 ...
Antibody action contributes to premunition. However, premunition is probably much more complex than simple antibody and antigen ... However, Plasmodium can change its surface antigens, so the development of an antibody repertoire that can recognize multiple ... In the case of malaria, the sporozoite and merozoite stages of Plasmodium elicit the antibody response which leads to ... For malaria, premunition is maintained by repeated antigen exposure from infective bites. Thus, if an individual departs from ...
June 1998). "A mutational analysis of binding interactions in an antigen-antibody protein-protein complex". Biochemistry. 37 ( ... Members of the IgSF include cell surface antigen receptors, co-receptors and co-stimulatory molecules of the immune system, ... also known as antibodies); they all possess a domain known as an immunoglobulin domain or fold. ... molecules involved in antigen presentation to lymphocytes, cell adhesion molecules, certain cytokine receptors and ...
The antigen-antibody complex can also activate complement through the classical complement pathway. Phagocytic cells do not ... The Fab region of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc region of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the ... Antibodies can also activate complement via the classical pathway, resulting in deposition of C3b and C4b onto the antigen ... C1q, a member of the C1 complex, is able to interact with the Fc region of antibodies. Pentraxins, collectins, and ficolins are ...
Enzyme linked immunoassays use enzyme-complexed-antibodies to detect antigens. Binding of the antibody is often inferred from ... They are widely used in biochemistry to test for the presence of enzymes, specific compounds, antibodies, hormones and many ...
Radioactivity emitted by bound antibody-antigen complexes can be easily detected using conventional methods. RIAs were some of ... the analyte may be an antibody rather than an antigen. In addition to the binding of an antibody to its antigen, the other key ... In immunology the particular macromolecule bound by an antibody is referred to as an antigen and the area on an antigen to ... In some cases, an immunoassay may use an antigen to detect for the presence of antibodies, which recognize that antigen, in a ...
Immunoturbidimetry uses the classical antigen-antibody reaction. The antigen-antibody complexes are particles which can be ...
... occurs when there is accumulation of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) that have not been ... When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages ... Play media Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed ... Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can ...
... they will bind to the antigen in step 3 to form antigen-antibody complexes. The complement proteins will react with these ... The complement system is a system of serum proteins that react with antigen-antibody complexes. If this reaction occurs on a ... While detection of antibodies is the more common test format, it is equally possible to test for the presence of antigen. In ... However, if no antibodies against the antigen of interest are present, the complement will not be depleted and it will react ...
... as well as antigen/antibody, enzyme/inhibitor, and enzyme/substrate complexes. It is also diverse in terms of the partners' ... antigen-antibody and homomultimeric complexes. The latest version of protein-protein docking benchmark consists of 230 ... Protein-protein complexes are the most commonly attempted targets of such modelling, followed by protein-nucleic acid complexes ... 81 protein-protein complexes with known experimental affinities are included; these complexes span over 11 orders of magnitude ...
... is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. ... C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex (C3bBb3b complex). C3b's ability to perform ... The C1 complement complex binds to these antibodies resulting in its activation via cross proteolysis. This activated C1 ... Additionally, C3b molecules can attach to the Fc regions of antigen-bound antibodies leading to phagocytosis or movement to the ...
These bound antibody/antigen complexes are then added to an antigen-coated well. The plate is washed, so unbound antibodies are ... After the antigen is immobilized, the detection antibody is added, forming a complex with the antigen. The detection antibody ... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... A specific antibody is added, and binds to antigen (hence the 'sandwich': the antigen is stuck between two antibodies). This ...
The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... Carroll MC, Campbell RD, Bentley DR, Porter RR (1984). "A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III ... This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this ... a highly conserved gene in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex". Dna. 8 (10): 745-51. doi:10.1089/dna. ...
The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... Yang Z, Mendoza AR, Welch TR, Zipf WB, Yu CY (Apr 1999). "Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex ... This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this ... Laich A, Sim RB (Jan 2001). "Complement C4bC2 complex formation: an investigation by surface plasmon resonance". Biochimica et ...
... enzymes are used to produce a detectable signal from an antibody-antigen complex. At the first step, any antigen present will ... Then, detecting antibodies added to bind to the antigen. The enzyme-linked secondary antibody follows the detecting antibodies ... These tests rely on the specific detection of either the antibody or antigen, and are commonly performed by labeling the ... antibody/antigen of interest through various means such as fluorescent or enzymatic labels. However, washing, mixing, and ...
These antigen-antibody complexes are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to bacterial antigens (especially ... Immune complexes are thought to cause blood vessel damage, attracting neutrophils into the skin and synovium in BADAS. ... These antibodies possibly stimulate migration of neutrophils into the affected joints and skin. The effect of antibacterial ... Immune complex-mediated vessel damage and increased neutrophil migration". Arch. Intern. Med. 144 (4): 738-40. doi:10.1001/ ...
Presence of antibodies cause precipitation of antibody-antigen complexes that can be collected by centrifugation into pellets. ... which quantifies an antigen by use of corresponding antibodies. The corresponding antigen is radiolabeled and mixed with the ... A radiobinding assay is a method of detecting and quantifying antibodies targeted towards a specific antigen. As such, it can ... The amount of antibody is proportional to the radioactivity of the pellet, as determined by gamma counting. It is used to ...
with Uta Eistert and Richard Wahl: Inhibitory and Disruptive Effects of Some Antirheumatics on Antigen-Antibody Complexes. (PDF ... with F. Lohss: Spurennachweis von Albumin durch Analyse von Antigen-Antikörperpraezipitaten., Clinica chimica acta; ... Trichloressigsäure-Aceton-Extraktion von Albuminen aus Seren und Antigen-Antikorper-Präzipitaten. In: Zeitschrift für ...
The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. Following ... The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. The globular ... and C9 form the membrane attack complex or the C5b-9 complex which forms pores on the target cell membranes to lysing. Because ... leading to the assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC). The membrane attack complex creates a pore on the target cell's ...
... "antigen along with an antigen-antibody complex". Coprecipitation is an important issue in chemical analysis, where it is often ...
Paccaud JP, Steiger G, Schifferli JA (1989). "Reduced immune adherence of antigen/antibody complexes formed in the presence of ...
Magnetic immunodiagnostic method for the demonstration of antibody/antigen complexes especially of blood groups Archived 2012- ... Rh disease is caused by the mother producing antibodies (including IgG antibodies) against the Rhesus D antigen on her baby's ... the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are targeted toward the ... These antibodies also jeopardize the health of the uterus by altering the blood flow to the uterus. Antinuclear antibodies ...
Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ... Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed antigen (peptide) is complexed to ... Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies[edit]. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ...
In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies ... Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
The Arthus reaction involves the in situ formation of antigen/antibody complexes after the intradermal injection of an antigen ... Type III hypersensitivity reactions are immune complex-mediated, and involve the deposition of antigen/antibody complexes ... Immune complexes form in the setting of high local concentration of vaccine antigens and high circulating antibody ... This reaction is usually encountered in experimental settings following the injection of antigens. The Arthus reaction was ...
This interaction is exclusively relies on TAAs and CD3Ɛ while completely independent of peptide/MHC complex and the antigen ... Cancer-testis antigens. Neo-antigens. Virus associated antigens. Strategies for activation of T.... Co-stimulatory molecules: ... When applied in bispecific antibody, cancer-testis antigens are not accessible to monoclonal antibodies because they are ... Cancer-testis antigens. Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are promising candidates in cancer immunotherapy. Most of CT antigens are ...
If the structure of the antibody/antigen complex is available or modeling the structure of the antibody/antigen is possible, ... We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen- ... Phage Display Antibody Library Screening Subsequent library screening will fish out the antibody mutants that have high ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ...
Complex between Peptostreptococcus Magnus Protein L and a Human Antibody Reveals Structural Convergence in the Interaction ...
64-3-7 H CHAINANTI-MHC-I MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, 64-3-7 L CHAINH-2 CLASS I HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGEN, L-D ALPHA CHAIN1,2- ... 3V52: Structure Of A Monoclonal Antibody Complexed With Its Mhc-I Antigen. ... "MMDB and VAST+: tracking structural similarities between macromolecular complexes.Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan; 42(Database ... H-2 Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, L-D Alpha Chain(Gene symbol: H2-D1) ...
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a ... Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP. Started by 2fast2evo, Jul 26 2014 07:16 PM ... Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: Immunoprecipitation, elution, antibody, antigen, western blot. Protocols and ... Are the antibodies validated for IP? If not can you test them using tagged plasmid ... i.e. IP with your antibodies see if you ...
What is Antigen-antibody complex? Meaning of Antigen-antibody complex as a legal term. What does Antigen-antibody complex mean ... Definition of Antigen-antibody complex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Antigen-antibody complex legal definition of Antigen-antibody complex https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigen- ... complex. (redirected from Antigen-antibody complex). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. complex. ...
The antigen (blue) is at top, with the antibody (red & yellow) below. ... Molecular computer graphic showing protein chains in an antibody-antigen complex. ... Molecular computer graphic showing protein chains in an antibody-antigen complex. The antigen (blue) is at top, with the ... The antibody consists of two chains of proteins, shown as ribbons. The yellow ribbon is the heavy protein chain, which ...
Stimulating Action of Soluble Antigen-Antibody Complexes on Normal Guinea-Pig Smooth Muscle ... Stimulating Action of Soluble Antigen-Antibody Complexes on Normal Guinea-Pig Smooth Muscle ... Stimulating Action of Soluble Antigen-Antibody Complexes on Normal Guinea-Pig Smooth Muscle ... Stimulating Action of Soluble Antigen-Antibody Complexes on Normal Guinea-Pig Smooth Muscle ...
Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AN ANTI-CARBOHYDRATE ANTIBODY DIRECTED AGAINST VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1 IN COMPLEX WITH ANTIGEN. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., DOI: 10.1021/ml100164p. Ions and some metal complexes are ... ANTIBODY S-20-4, FAB FRAGMENT, LIGHT CHAIN L 210 Mus musculus ... ANTIBODY S-20-4, FAB FRAGMENT, HEAVY CHAIN H 216 Mus musculus ...
... mansoni antibodies (CAb), and immune complexes (CIC) were studied in three groups of African patients living in the same area. ... Abstract Circulating Schistosoma mansoni soluble antigens (CSA), circulating anti-S. ... Evaluation of Circulating Antigens by a Sandwich Radioimmunoassay, and of Antibodies and Immune Complexes, in Schistosoma ... Circulating Schistosoma mansoni soluble antigens (CSA), circulating anti-S. mansoni antibodies (CAb), and immune complexes (CIC ...
... many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to ... many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to ... the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is ... the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is ...
The affinity maturation was based on the crystal structure of antigen-antibody complex and that was achieved by mutating two ... specific humanized antibody called HzKR127. Further humanization was achieved by a methodology known as specificity-determining ... The affinity maturation was based on the crystal structure of antigen-antibody complex and that was achieved by mutating two ... Humanization and Affinity Maturation of Neutralizing Anti-hepatitis B Virus PreS1 Antibody Based on Antigen-antibody Complex ...
... is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. In this ... we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and ... Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions ... Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, ...
Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen. Georgios ... Immunization with immune complexes modulates the fine specificity of antibody responses to a flavivirus antigen. J Virol 89: ... Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen ... Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen ...
4) Crystallization trials of the antigen (FP), the antibody (Ab-Fab) and the complex of AbFab with FP. by using several ... Publications] Ken-ichi Tomita: X-ray structural studies of antigen-antibody complex toward malaria vaccine development. ... X-ray Structural Studies of Antigen-Antibody Complex Toward Malaria Vaccine Development.. Research Project ... Crystallization of antibody fragments and their complexes with antigen. Journal of Crystal Growth,. 90. 213-221 (1988). *. ...
Treatment Antigen-antibody complex. Symptoms and causes Antigen-antibody complex Prophylaxis Antigen-antibody complex ... Antigen-antibody complex: The complex formed by the binding of an antibody and an antigen. Antigen-antibody complexes are ... Antigen-antibody complex - definition of Antigen-antibody .... complex /com·plex/ (kom´pleks) 1. a combination of various ... For More Information «Antigen-antibody complex». *. Antigen-antibody complex definition - Medical Dictionary .... Featured ...
Recombinant Protein and Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Shop Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein ELISA Kit, ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G6f Antibody. G6f: a ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5b Recombinant. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5b Antibody. LY6G5B: 2 ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5c Recombinant. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5c Antibody. LY6G5C: ...
... Levels of specific antigen (gp43), specific antibodies, and antigen-antibody complexes in saliva and ... antigen-antibody complex can also refer to... antigenantibody complex ... Antisperm antibodies detection by flow cytometry is affected by aggregation of antigen-antibody complexes on the surface of ... Immune Complexes from Serum of Patients with Lyme Disease Contain Borrelia burgdorferi Antigen and Antigen-Specific Antibodies ...
35] P.C. Zhang, C. Bai, P.K. Ho, Y. Dai and Y.S. Wu: "Observing interactions between the IgG antigen and anti-IgG antibody with ... and size of complement system C1 components assembled on a SiO2 surface after classical activation by antigen-antibody complex ... 37] U. Dammer, M. Hegner, D. Anselmetti, P. Wagner, D. Dreier, W. Huber and H.J. Güntherodt: "Specific antigen/antibody ... After incubation of gp51 coated substrate in anti-gp51 antibody containing solution, Ag-Ab complexes were detected on the ...
De novo HLA antibody was associated with increased proteinuria after transplantation (relative risk, 3.12). HLA antibody and ... and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A (MICA) antibodies and proteinuria with graft survival 5 years ... HLA and MICA antibodies were detected by the Luminex method. Patients with proteinuria (,150 mg/d) underwent intermittent 24- ... De novo HLA antibody is independent risk factor for posttransplant proteinuria, and proteinuria affects the association of de ...
Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally- ... serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally-infected with cyathostomins. ... Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental ... Animals, Antibodies, Helminth, Antigens, Helminth, Biomarkers, Horse Diseases, Horses, Immunoglobulin E, Larva, Nematode ...
These various antigens are useful in medical diagnosis and kits, in particular by being placed in contact with serum of the ... It also concerns purified forms of the antigens which can be obtained from this virus, in particular from the gp 36 and gp 130- ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ...
Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with ... Crystal structure of an anti-carbohydrate antibody directed against Vibrio cholerae O1 in complex with antigen: molecular basis ... Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with ...
Structural mimicry of O-antigen by a peptide revealed in a complex with an antibody raised against Shigella flexneri serotype ... In a previous crystallographic study, we described F22-4 in complex with two synthetic fragments of the O-antigen, the serotype ... The F22-4-antigen interaction is significantly more hydrophobic with the peptide than with oligosaccharides; nonetheless, all ... Moreover, docking the NMR structure into the antigen-binding site shows that steric hindrance would occur, revealing poor ...
About , Immune Complexes , product of antibody binding to antigen.. Designer antibody therapy and antibody design for best ... Immune Complexes - Close Encounter of Antigen and Antibody *Autoimmunity & Immune Complexes *Autoimmunity ... Immune Complexes - Close Encounter of Antigen and Antibody *Autoimmunity & Immune Complexes *Autoimmunity ... speed of complex formation between antibody and antigen), variety of information (results from lab tests detecting immune ...
  • For example, are there antibody substitutions capable of improving binding without a loss of breadth, or antigen substitutions that lead to antigenic escape? (frontiersin.org)
  • We apply the technique to three broad-spectrum antibodies to influenza A hemagglutinin and examine both previously characterized and novel variant strains observed in the human population that may give rise to antigenic escape. (frontiersin.org)
  • Factors governing antigenic and immunogenic mimicry, however, are complex and poorly understood. (pasteur.fr)
  • Although the peptide and decasaccharide use very similar regions of the antigen-binding site, indicating good antigenic mimicry, immunogenic mimicry by the peptide was not observed. (pasteur.fr)
  • Benefits and risks are associated with using all immunobiologics (i.e., an antigenic substance or antibody-containing preparation). (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, an unhealthy diet-too high in fat, cholesterol, and animal protein-can compromise the capacities of the lymphoid tissue to destroy invading antigens that make it through the intestinal wall. (bookpubco.com)
  • Kidney-resident macrophages detect and scavenge circulating immune complexes "pumped" into the interstitium via trans-endothelial transport and trigger a FcγRIV-dependent inflammatory response and the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. (bireme.br)
  • In addition, FcγRIV and TLR pathways synergistically "super-activate" kidney macrophages when immune complexes contain a nucleic acid. (bireme.br)
  • These data identify a physiological function of tissue-resident kidney macrophages and a basic mechanism by which they initiate the inflammatory response to small immune complexes in the kidney. (bireme.br)
  • Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. (rcsb.org)
  • We find that in some cases the impact of a substitution is local, while in others it causes a reorientation of the antibody with wide-ranging impact on residue-residue interactions: this explains, in part, why the change in chemical properties of a residue can be, on its own, a poor predictor of overall change in binding energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The identification and characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to highly mutable pathogens such as HIV ( 1 ) and influenza ( 2 , 3 ) has important consequences both for treatment and for vaccine development, but the structural understanding of antibody/antigen interactions is far from complete. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prediction of site-specific interactions in antibody-antigen complexes: the proABC method and server. (plu.mx)
  • This has allowed approaching the molecular basis of antigen-antibody interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • to be his investigations into antigen-antibody interactions, which he carried out primarily at Rockefeller Institute (now called Rockefeller University) in New York City (1922-43). (britannica.com)
  • In particular, this invention relates to methods of preventing or treating antibody-mediated diseases such as IgE-mediated disease (allergies) and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). (justia.com)
  • 15 Type III Immediate Hypersensitivity: Antigen-Antibody Complex Mediated Attack on Host Tissues Localized: Arthritis, Nephritis Systemic: Serum Sickness Complement-Mediated: Complement Activation - General Response to AgAb Deposition Complement Deficiency - Failure to Clear Autoimmune AgAb Complexes e.g. (slideplayer.com)
  • 17 Antigen-generation and Persistence in Type III Immediate Hypersensitivity Persistent Infection Leprosy Malaria Viral hepatitis Dengue hemorrhagic fever Staphylococcal Endocarditis Streptococcal glomerulonephritis Mononucleosis Autoimmunity Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythrematosis Persistent Exogenous Acquisition (Inhalation of Ag) Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (e.g. (slideplayer.com)
  • The antigens may be part of the basement membrane, or deposited from elsewhere by the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present work presents a generic, simple and easy to use sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quasi-quantitative measurement of circulating immune complexes (CICs) formed by anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) in complex with human IgG in mouse plasma. (usda.gov)
  • Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies , complement proteins , and certain antimicrobial peptides . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994). Humoral immunity is most efficient against antigens dissolved in body fluids, that is extracellular pathogens, primarily bacteria whereas cell-mediated immunity is most effective against intracellular pathogens such as viruses (Tortora & Grabowski, 1996). (bartleby.com)
  • Detection of anti-MICA antibodies in patients awaiting kidney transplantation, during the post-transplant course, and in eluates from rejected kidney allografts by Luminex flow cytometry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel label-free photocathodic immunosensor was constructed by introducing a direct Z-scheme I-BiOCl/CdS cathodic material as highly effective photocatalyst for the selective detection of carcino embryonic antigen (CEA). (usda.gov)
  • The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (google.ca)
  • Both the rapid antigen detection test and throat culture were positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. (medscape.com)
  • To illuminate the complex role of neutrophils in infection, inflammation, and immunity, this special issue has gathered original and review articles that will help us expand our knowledge on neutrophil biology. (hindawi.com)
  • The complexes accumulate in the tissues and the blood vessels, leading to a tumor-like (granulomatous) inflammation of the blood vessels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Antigen-antibody complexes form only after the nuclear contents of a cell are released into the bloodstream during the normal course of cell death or as a result of inflammation. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, the large fluctuation of the variable chain lengths, especially in CDR3 of heavy chains (CDRH3), hardly complicates the comparison and analysis of antibody sequences and the identification of the antigen binding residues. (frontiersin.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to assess the impact of amino acid substitutions on antibody binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • ACVs have now re- vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). (cdc.gov)
  • Although ACV formulations differ in the number of sion of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined component pertussis antigens, the vaccine used in Austra- at the sequence level. (cdc.gov)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) stem is a promising target for universal influenza vaccine as stem-specific antibodies have the potential to be broadly cross-reactive towards different HA subtypes. (nature.com)
  • The conserved stem domain contains a greater proportion of vulnerable sites targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) than the variable head domain 6 . (nature.com)
  • In this manuscript, we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and then predict the binding of two antibodies to the stalk region of influenza hemagglutinin, an important pharmaceutical target. (rero.ch)
  • The highly specific antibody-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor microenvironment might overcome this problem. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One promising avenue to overcome these obstacles is the highly specific antibody-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, targets, which are selectively expressed around tumor vessels and/or in the tumor stroma, are easily accessible to systemically administered antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Currently, one of the most selective oncofetal antigens associated with neoangiogenesis and tumor growth is the extradomain B (ED-B) of fibronectin ( 6 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MGN is caused by immune complex formation in the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACPA are also implicated in immune complexes (IC)-associated joint pathology, but until now, there has been no method to investigate the role of individual ACPA in RA IC formation and IC-associated pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • The CD40 antigen is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface of B cells. (justia.com)
  • Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H). (edu.au)
  • B. Walivaara, A. Askendal, I. Lundstrom and P. Tengvall: "Imaging of the early events of classical complement activation using antibodies and atomic force microscopy", J. Coll. (edu.pl)
  • J.W Goers, V.N. Schumaker, M.M. Glovsky, J. Rebek and H.J. Muller-Eberhard: "Complement activation by a univalent hapten-antibody complex", J. Biol. (edu.pl)
  • This activation was found to be antigen-independent and not MHC restricted. (justia.com)
  • B-cell activation in this culture system is efficient--limiting dilution experiments have shown that the majority of human B cells can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. (justia.com)
  • C1Inh also inhibits and controls certain non-antibody-induced as well as spontaneous C1 activation. (reactome.org)
  • 18 Initial: Antigen-Antibody Complex Activation of Complement 1. (slideplayer.com)
  • It also refers to the effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the C1 complex initiates the classical complement pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • 21 Features of Rheumatoid Arthritis Auto-IgM-antibody attack (Rheumatoid Factor ) on the Fc region of IgG antibodies. (slideplayer.com)
  • Unlike type I cryoglobulinemia, the cryoglobulins in type II and type III contain rheumatoid factor, which is an autoantibody (i.e. an antibody that attacks the body own tissue). (rarediseases.org)