Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Antifreeze Proteins: Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Antifreeze Proteins, Type III: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are globular, 6.5 kDa in size and contain compact beta-sheet structures.Antifreeze Proteins, Type I: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are 3-5 kDa in size and contain a single alanine-rich amphipathic alpha-helix.Antifreeze Proteins, Type II: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that have a cystine-rich globular structure of approximately 14 kD.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Health Planning Technical Assistance: The provision of expert assistance in developing health planning programs, plans as technical materials, etc., as requested by Health Systems Agencies or other health planning organizations.Antifreeze Proteins, Type IV: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that contain four amphipathic alpha-helices folded into an antiparallel helix bundle.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Manubrium: The upper or most anterior segment of the STERNUM which articulates with the CLAVICLE and first two pairs of RIBS.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Tolmetin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Ketorolac Tromethamine: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of type III antifreeze protein structure and function. (1/194)

Some cold water marine fishes avoid cellular damage because of freezing by expressing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to ice and inhibit its growth; one such protein is the globular type III AFP from eel pout. Despite several studies, the mechanism of ice binding remains unclear because of the difficulty in modeling the AFP-ice interaction. To further explore the mechanism, we have determined the x-ray crystallographic structure of 10 type III AFP mutants and combined that information with 7 previously determined structures to mainly analyze specific AFP-ice interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Quantitative assessment of binding was performed using a neural network with properties of the structure as input and predicted antifreeze activity as output. Using the cross-validation method, a correlation coefficient of 0.60 was obtained between measured and predicted activity, indicating successful learning and good predictive power. A large loss in the predictive power of the neural network occurred after properties related to the hydrophobic surface were left out, suggesting that van der Waal's interactions make a significant contribution to ice binding. By combining the analysis of the neural network with antifreeze activity and x-ray crystallographic structures of the mutants, we extend the existing ice-binding model to a two-step process: 1) probing of the surface for the correct ice-binding plane by hydrogen-bonding side chains and 2) attractive van der Waal's interactions between the other residues of the ice-binding surface and the ice, which increases the strength of the protein-ice interaction.  (+info)

A leucine-rich repeat protein of carrot that exhibits antifreeze activity. (2/194)

A gene encoding an antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) using sequence information derived from the purified protein. The carrot AFP is highly similar to the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) family of apoplastic plant leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. Expression of the AFP gene is rapidly induced by low temperatures. Furthermore, expression of the AFP gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants leads to an accumulation of antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that a new type of plant antifreeze protein has recently evolved from PGIPs.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a novel antifreeze protein from carrot (Daucus carota). (3/194)

A modified assay for inhibition of ice recrystallization which allows unequivocal identification of activity in plant extracts is described. Using this assay a novel, cold-induced, 36 kDa antifreeze protein has been isolated from the tap root of cold-acclimated carrot (Daucus carota) plants. This protein inhibits the recrystallization of ice and exhibits thermal-hysteresis activity. The polypeptide behaves as monomer in solution and is N-glycosylated. The corresponding gene is unique in the carrot genome and induced by cold. The antifreeze protein appears to be localized within the apoplast.  (+info)

Studies of a putative ice-binding motif in winter flounder skin-type anti-freeze polypeptide. (4/194)

Winter flounder contains two distinct anti-freeze protein isoforms, which are the liver-type extracellular anti-freeze proteins and the skin-type intracellular anti-freeze protein. The skin-type anti-freeze proteins exhibit lower anti-freeze activities than the liver-type isoforms and this might be due to their lacking complete ice-binding motifs. One of the skin-type anti-freeze proteins, skin-type anti-freeze protein-3, does contain putative overlapping ice-binding motifs with the sequences '-K-DT-' and '-DT-K-'. Synthetic anti-freezes containing 0-3 repeats of the '-DT-K-' motif were tested for stability and activity. Loss of the single '-DT-K-' of skin-type anti-freeze protein-3 increases the anti-freeze activity and increasing the number of motifs to two or three lowers the activity. The decrease in activity with an increasing frequency of the motif correlates with a decrease in the helical content of these peptides at 0 degrees C.  (+info)

Artificial antifreeze polypeptides: alpha-helical peptides with KAAK motifs have antifreeze and ice crystal morphology modifying properties. (5/194)

Antifreeze polypeptides from fish are generally thought to inhibit ice crystal growth by specific adsorption onto ice surfaces and preventing addition of water molecules to the ice lattice. Recent studies have suggested that this adsorption results from hydrogen bonding through the side chains of polar amino acids as well as hydrophobic interactions between the non-polar domains on the ice-binding side of antifreeze polypeptides and the clathrate-like surfaces of ice. In order to better understand the activity of one of the antifreeze polypeptide families, namely the alpha-helical type I antifreeze polypeptides, four alpha-helical peptides having sequences not directly analogous to those of known antifreeze polypeptides and containing only positively charged and non-polar side chains were synthesized. Two peptides with regularly spaced lysine residues, GAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAGGY-NH2 and GAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAGGY-NH2, showed antifreeze activity, albeit weaker than seen in natural antifreeze polypeptides, by the criteria of freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) and ice crystal modification to a hexagonal trapezohedron. Peptides with irregular spacing of Lys residues were completely inactive. Up to now, lysine residues have not been generally associated with antifreeze activity, though they have been implicated in some antifreeze polypeptides. This work also shows that lysine residues in themselves, when properly positioned on an alpha-helical polyalanine scaffold, have all the requisite properties needed for such an activity.  (+info)

Secretory expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the winter flounder skin-type antifreeze polypeptides. (6/194)

Winter flounder contains both liver-type, extracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wflAFPs) and less active skin-type, intracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wfsAFPs). The lower activity of wfsAFPs might be due to their lack of complete ice-binding motifs '-K-DT-'. In order to test the functional role of this putative ice-binding motif, mutations were introduced into the N-terminal or C-terminal regions of wfsAFP-2, which lack any presumptive ice-binding motifs. The wild-type and mutant wfsAFP-2 were secreted in Escherichia coli culture media as mature antifreeze proteins and purified to homogeneity. Surprisingly, the antifreeze activity decreased with the introduction of ice-binding motifs. However, there was a corresponding decrease in alpha-helical content as well as thermal stability and this would suggest a compromise in retaining helical structure with the presence of ice-binding motifs. These studies have brought new definitions of the roles of ice-binding motif residues in type I antifreeze proteins.  (+info)

Ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze. (7/194)

We employed computational techniques, including molecular docking, energy minimization, and molecular dynamics simulation, to investigate the ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze protein (AFP). The putative ice-binding site was previously identified by mutagenesis, structural analysis, and flatness evaluation. Using a high-resolution x-ray structure of fish type III AFP as a model, we calculated the ice-binding interaction energy of 11 surface patches chosen to cover the entire surface of the protein. These various surface patches exhibit small but significantly different ice-binding interaction energies. For both the prism ice plane and an "ice" plane in which water O atoms are randomly positioned, our calculations show that a surface patch containing 14 residues (L19, V20, T18, S42, V41, Q9, P12, A16, M21, T15, Q44, I13, N14, K61) has the most favorable interaction energy and corresponds to the previously identified ice-binding site of type III AFP. Although in general agreement with the earlier studies, our results also suggest that the ice-binding site may be larger than the previously identified "core" cluster that includes mostly hydrophilic residues. The enlargement mainly results from the inclusion of peripheral hydrophobic residues and K61.  (+info)

Type I 'antifreeze' proteins. Structure-activity studies and mechanisms of ice growth inhibition. (8/194)

The type I 'antifreeze' proteins, found in the body fluids of fish inhabiting polar oceans, are alanine-rich alpha-helical proteins that are able to inhibit the growth of ice. Within this class there are two distinct subclasses of proteins: those related to the winter flounder sequence HPLC6 and which contain 11-residue repeat units commencing with threonine; and those from the sculpins that are unique in the N-terminal region that contains established helix breakers and lacks the 11-residue repeat structure present in the rest of the protein. Although 14 type I proteins have been isolated, almost all research has focused on HPLC6, the 37-residue protein from the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. This protein modifies both the rate and shape (or 'habit') of ice crystal growth, displays hysteresis and accumulates specifically at the {2 0 2; 1} ice plane. Until very recently, all models to explain the mechanism for this specific interaction have relied on the interaction of the four threonine hydroxyls, which are spaced equally apart on one face of the helix, with the ice lattice. In contrast, proteins belonging to the sculpin family accumulate specifically at the {2 1; 1; 0} plane. The molecular origin of this difference in specificity between the flounder and sculpin proteins is not understood. This review will summarize the structure-activity and molecular modelling and dynamics studies on HPLC6, with an emphasis on recent studies in which the threonine residues have been mutated. These studies have identified important hydrophobic contributions to the ice growth inhibition mechanism. Some 50 mutants of HPLC6 have been reported and the data is consistent with the following requirements for ice growth inhibition: (a) a minimum length of approx. 25 residues; (b) an alanine-rich sequence in order to induce a highly helical conformation; (c) a hydrophobic face; (d) a number of charged/polar residues which are involved in solubility and/or interaction with the ice surface. The emerging picture, that requires further dynamics studies including accurate modelling of the ice/water interface, suggests that a hydrophobic interaction between the surface of the protein and ice is the key to explaining accumulation at specific ice planes, and thus the molecular level mechanism for ice growth inhibition.  (+info)

  • These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application. (amolf.nl)
  • The study showed that fclBP attaches to both basal and prism faces of ice crystals although it is capable of lowering the freezing point by less than 1 degree C or so, defying the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we show that an insect antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle, Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1), the most potent protein yet found for freezing inhibition, can inhibit methane hydrates as effectively as the synthetic polymeric inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). (dtu.dk)
  • These results significantly contribute to our understanding of the AFP mechanism and will be helpful in applying these proteins in different fields. (rsc.org)
  • My lab utilizes a combination of polymer chemistry, protein engineering, and bioconjugation techniques to address human health needs. (utah.edu)
  • Many studies on ice-binding proteins have centered on biochemical perspectives, but these proteins have only recently been researched from the viewpoint of crystal growth physics," says Professor Gen Sazaki of the research team at Hokkaido University. (eurekalert.org)
  • Preparation of cultures such as these provide a means of examining the mechanisms involved in skin type I AFP production, regulation and also how these proteins function in gill epithelia. (mun.ca)
  • Greater understanding of ice-biding proteins could lead to their application in the preservation of food and living organs as well as in cryosurgery," says Dr. Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • My current research projects include studying the structure-function relationships of ice-binding proteins, and the use of antifreeze proteins for cell, tissue and organ preservation. (peterldavies.com)
  • Based on the evidence, scientists have proposed that non-protein-coding intronic DNA helps to regulate alternative splicing in brain cells, and that non-protein-coding repetitive DNA plays a role in placental development. (uncommondescent.com)
  • PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. (rcsb.org)
  • We saw this very peculiar profile where in each of these tissues the proteins that are highly expressed are from a small set of genes," Cheng said. (impactlab.com)
  • Each tissue makes all kinds of transcripts - the genetic messages that are made into proteins - but we found that a small group of genes dominates the transcriptional process. (impactlab.com)
  • The genes that were discovered codify a protein in a substance that prevents them from freezing. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • In Dr. Davies' Lab, I specialize in using X-ray crystallography and complementary small-angle X-ray scattering to study structure-functional relationship in a variety of proteins. (peterldavies.com)
  • All this information allowed us to realize that the idea of ​​making a protein-based antifreeze product for crops was something new for the agricultural sector and that it would be quite useful. (igem.org)
  • This information will be useful when developing and applying our protein-based antifreeze product to a particular crop. (igem.org)
  • My current research involves identifying and characterizing antifreeze proteins from different Collembola (springtails) all over the world. (peterldavies.com)
Questioning conventional understanding of antifreeze proteins | EurekAlert! Science News
Questioning conventional understanding of antifreeze proteins | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
Research | Cal State LA
Research | Cal State LA (calstatela.edu)
Experimental correlation between thermal hysteresis activity and the distance between antifreeze proteins on an ice surface -...
Experimental correlation between thermal hysteresis activity and the distance between antifreeze proteins on an ice surface -... (pubs.rsc.org)
Dance of water molecules turns fire-colored beetles into antifreeze artists
Dance of water molecules turns fire-colored beetles into antifreeze artists (labspaces.net)
Jessica Kramer  - Bioscience - The University of Utah
Jessica Kramer - Bioscience - The University of Utah (bioscience.utah.edu)
Unexpected antifreeze properties found in a simple compound | RobAid
Unexpected antifreeze properties found in a simple compound | RobAid (robaid.com)
Beyond the ice-binding: antifreeze proteins control nucleoside crystal growth
Beyond the ice-binding: antifreeze proteins control nucleoside crystal growth (growkudos.com)
Home - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education
Home - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education (accessscience.com)
Cloning and expression of afpA, a gene encoding an antifreeze protein from the arctic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium...
Cloning and expression of afpA, a gene encoding an antifreeze protein from the arctic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium... (squ.pure.elsevier.com)
Search Results
Search Results (springer.com)
Search Results
Search Results (springer.com)
Advanced bioinformatics for genome and metagenome analyses and discovery of novel biocatalists from extremophiles: implications...
Advanced bioinformatics for genome and metagenome analyses and discovery of novel biocatalists from extremophiles: implications... (cordis.europa.eu)
Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions | PNAS
Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions | PNAS (pnas.org)
Antifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarkets
Antifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarkets (marketsandmarkets.com)
Antifreeze protein evolution - creation.com
Antifreeze protein evolution - creation.com (creation.com)
Neo-Darwinism: The Current Paradigm. by Brig Klyce
Neo-Darwinism: The Current Paradigm. by Brig Klyce (panspermia.org)
How Do Animals Stay Warm in Winter? Here Are 20 Of The Weirdest Ways
How Do Animals Stay Warm in Winter? Here Are 20 Of The Weirdest Ways (bestlifeonline.com)
Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming |...
Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming |... (pnas.org)
Synthesis and recycling of antifreeze glycoproteins in polar fishes | Antarctic Science | Cambridge Core
Synthesis and recycling of antifreeze glycoproteins in polar fishes | Antarctic Science | Cambridge Core (cambridge.org)
You Won't Like This News About Bedbugs, Ticks and the 'Bomb Cyclone' - The New York Times
You Won't Like This News About Bedbugs, Ticks and the 'Bomb Cyclone' - The New York Times (nytimes.com)
Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development | 10.1016/S0959-437X(98)80042-7 |...
Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development | 10.1016/S0959-437X(98)80042-7 |... (deepdyve.com)
Category:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons
Category:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)
Analytical Laboratory
Analytical Laboratory (warwick.ac.uk)
Frontiers | ATP Content and Cell Viability as Indicators for Cryostress Across the Diversity of Life | Physiology
Frontiers | ATP Content and Cell Viability as Indicators for Cryostress Across the Diversity of Life | Physiology (frontiersin.org)
Nature's antifreeze inspires revolutionary bacteria cryopreservation technique
Nature's antifreeze inspires revolutionary bacteria cryopreservation technique (warwick.ac.uk)
Current Protein & Peptide Science, Volume 18 - Number 3
Current Protein & Peptide Science, Volume 18 - Number 3 (benthamscience.com)
Sika Canada to Construct New Mortars and Concrete Admixtures Plant in British-Columbia
Sika Canada to Construct New Mortars and Concrete Admixtures Plant in British-Columbia (azobuild.com)
Photocatalytic Oxidation Filter Releases Human Carcinogen as By-Product
Photocatalytic Oxidation Filter Releases Human Carcinogen as By-Product (azobuild.com)
IGEM Team Wins Gold | News | WPI
IGEM Team Wins Gold | News | WPI (wpi.edu)
Effects of Antifreeze Protein Fragments on the Properties of Model Membranes | Springer for Research & Development
Effects of Antifreeze Protein Fragments on the Properties of Model Membranes | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
Mud and the Flood - Media Center - creation.com
Mud and the Flood - Media Center - creation.com (creation.com)
Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology - 1st Edition
Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology - 1st Edition (elsevier.com)
DNA sequence coding for an antifreeze protein precursor from winter flounder  - CaltechAUTHORS
DNA sequence coding for an antifreeze protein precursor from winter flounder - CaltechAUTHORS (authors.library.caltech.edu)
Antifreeze Protein in Ticks Could Lead to New Antibiotics for Humans
Antifreeze Protein in Ticks Could Lead to New Antibiotics for Humans (scitechdaily.com)
Arthrex - Orthobiologics
Arthrex - Orthobiologics (arthrex.com)