Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are 3-5 kDa in size and contain a single alanine-rich amphipathic alpha-helix.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are globular, 6.5 kDa in size and contain compact beta-sheet structures.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that contain four amphipathic alpha-helices folded into an antiparallel helix bundle.
A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that have a cystine-rich globular structure of approximately 14 kD.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the family OCEANOSPIRILLACEAE. Members of this genus have the ability to synthesize MELANIN pigments.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
An order of fish comprising salmons, trouts, whitefish, graylings, and other families. They are both marine and freshwater fish, found in all oceans and are quite numerous in the Northern Hemisphere. (From Nelson: Fishes of the World)
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of type III antifreeze protein structure and function. (1/194)

Some cold water marine fishes avoid cellular damage because of freezing by expressing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to ice and inhibit its growth; one such protein is the globular type III AFP from eel pout. Despite several studies, the mechanism of ice binding remains unclear because of the difficulty in modeling the AFP-ice interaction. To further explore the mechanism, we have determined the x-ray crystallographic structure of 10 type III AFP mutants and combined that information with 7 previously determined structures to mainly analyze specific AFP-ice interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Quantitative assessment of binding was performed using a neural network with properties of the structure as input and predicted antifreeze activity as output. Using the cross-validation method, a correlation coefficient of 0.60 was obtained between measured and predicted activity, indicating successful learning and good predictive power. A large loss in the predictive power of the neural network occurred after properties related to the hydrophobic surface were left out, suggesting that van der Waal's interactions make a significant contribution to ice binding. By combining the analysis of the neural network with antifreeze activity and x-ray crystallographic structures of the mutants, we extend the existing ice-binding model to a two-step process: 1) probing of the surface for the correct ice-binding plane by hydrogen-bonding side chains and 2) attractive van der Waal's interactions between the other residues of the ice-binding surface and the ice, which increases the strength of the protein-ice interaction.  (+info)

A leucine-rich repeat protein of carrot that exhibits antifreeze activity. (2/194)

A gene encoding an antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) using sequence information derived from the purified protein. The carrot AFP is highly similar to the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) family of apoplastic plant leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. Expression of the AFP gene is rapidly induced by low temperatures. Furthermore, expression of the AFP gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants leads to an accumulation of antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that a new type of plant antifreeze protein has recently evolved from PGIPs.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a novel antifreeze protein from carrot (Daucus carota). (3/194)

A modified assay for inhibition of ice recrystallization which allows unequivocal identification of activity in plant extracts is described. Using this assay a novel, cold-induced, 36 kDa antifreeze protein has been isolated from the tap root of cold-acclimated carrot (Daucus carota) plants. This protein inhibits the recrystallization of ice and exhibits thermal-hysteresis activity. The polypeptide behaves as monomer in solution and is N-glycosylated. The corresponding gene is unique in the carrot genome and induced by cold. The antifreeze protein appears to be localized within the apoplast.  (+info)

Studies of a putative ice-binding motif in winter flounder skin-type anti-freeze polypeptide. (4/194)

Winter flounder contains two distinct anti-freeze protein isoforms, which are the liver-type extracellular anti-freeze proteins and the skin-type intracellular anti-freeze protein. The skin-type anti-freeze proteins exhibit lower anti-freeze activities than the liver-type isoforms and this might be due to their lacking complete ice-binding motifs. One of the skin-type anti-freeze proteins, skin-type anti-freeze protein-3, does contain putative overlapping ice-binding motifs with the sequences '-K-DT-' and '-DT-K-'. Synthetic anti-freezes containing 0-3 repeats of the '-DT-K-' motif were tested for stability and activity. Loss of the single '-DT-K-' of skin-type anti-freeze protein-3 increases the anti-freeze activity and increasing the number of motifs to two or three lowers the activity. The decrease in activity with an increasing frequency of the motif correlates with a decrease in the helical content of these peptides at 0 degrees C.  (+info)

Artificial antifreeze polypeptides: alpha-helical peptides with KAAK motifs have antifreeze and ice crystal morphology modifying properties. (5/194)

Antifreeze polypeptides from fish are generally thought to inhibit ice crystal growth by specific adsorption onto ice surfaces and preventing addition of water molecules to the ice lattice. Recent studies have suggested that this adsorption results from hydrogen bonding through the side chains of polar amino acids as well as hydrophobic interactions between the non-polar domains on the ice-binding side of antifreeze polypeptides and the clathrate-like surfaces of ice. In order to better understand the activity of one of the antifreeze polypeptide families, namely the alpha-helical type I antifreeze polypeptides, four alpha-helical peptides having sequences not directly analogous to those of known antifreeze polypeptides and containing only positively charged and non-polar side chains were synthesized. Two peptides with regularly spaced lysine residues, GAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAGGY-NH2 and GAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAGGY-NH2, showed antifreeze activity, albeit weaker than seen in natural antifreeze polypeptides, by the criteria of freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) and ice crystal modification to a hexagonal trapezohedron. Peptides with irregular spacing of Lys residues were completely inactive. Up to now, lysine residues have not been generally associated with antifreeze activity, though they have been implicated in some antifreeze polypeptides. This work also shows that lysine residues in themselves, when properly positioned on an alpha-helical polyalanine scaffold, have all the requisite properties needed for such an activity.  (+info)

Secretory expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the winter flounder skin-type antifreeze polypeptides. (6/194)

Winter flounder contains both liver-type, extracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wflAFPs) and less active skin-type, intracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wfsAFPs). The lower activity of wfsAFPs might be due to their lack of complete ice-binding motifs '-K-DT-'. In order to test the functional role of this putative ice-binding motif, mutations were introduced into the N-terminal or C-terminal regions of wfsAFP-2, which lack any presumptive ice-binding motifs. The wild-type and mutant wfsAFP-2 were secreted in Escherichia coli culture media as mature antifreeze proteins and purified to homogeneity. Surprisingly, the antifreeze activity decreased with the introduction of ice-binding motifs. However, there was a corresponding decrease in alpha-helical content as well as thermal stability and this would suggest a compromise in retaining helical structure with the presence of ice-binding motifs. These studies have brought new definitions of the roles of ice-binding motif residues in type I antifreeze proteins.  (+info)

Ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze. (7/194)

We employed computational techniques, including molecular docking, energy minimization, and molecular dynamics simulation, to investigate the ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze protein (AFP). The putative ice-binding site was previously identified by mutagenesis, structural analysis, and flatness evaluation. Using a high-resolution x-ray structure of fish type III AFP as a model, we calculated the ice-binding interaction energy of 11 surface patches chosen to cover the entire surface of the protein. These various surface patches exhibit small but significantly different ice-binding interaction energies. For both the prism ice plane and an "ice" plane in which water O atoms are randomly positioned, our calculations show that a surface patch containing 14 residues (L19, V20, T18, S42, V41, Q9, P12, A16, M21, T15, Q44, I13, N14, K61) has the most favorable interaction energy and corresponds to the previously identified ice-binding site of type III AFP. Although in general agreement with the earlier studies, our results also suggest that the ice-binding site may be larger than the previously identified "core" cluster that includes mostly hydrophilic residues. The enlargement mainly results from the inclusion of peripheral hydrophobic residues and K61.  (+info)

Type I 'antifreeze' proteins. Structure-activity studies and mechanisms of ice growth inhibition. (8/194)

The type I 'antifreeze' proteins, found in the body fluids of fish inhabiting polar oceans, are alanine-rich alpha-helical proteins that are able to inhibit the growth of ice. Within this class there are two distinct subclasses of proteins: those related to the winter flounder sequence HPLC6 and which contain 11-residue repeat units commencing with threonine; and those from the sculpins that are unique in the N-terminal region that contains established helix breakers and lacks the 11-residue repeat structure present in the rest of the protein. Although 14 type I proteins have been isolated, almost all research has focused on HPLC6, the 37-residue protein from the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. This protein modifies both the rate and shape (or 'habit') of ice crystal growth, displays hysteresis and accumulates specifically at the {2 0 2; 1} ice plane. Until very recently, all models to explain the mechanism for this specific interaction have relied on the interaction of the four threonine hydroxyls, which are spaced equally apart on one face of the helix, with the ice lattice. In contrast, proteins belonging to the sculpin family accumulate specifically at the {2 1; 1; 0} plane. The molecular origin of this difference in specificity between the flounder and sculpin proteins is not understood. This review will summarize the structure-activity and molecular modelling and dynamics studies on HPLC6, with an emphasis on recent studies in which the threonine residues have been mutated. These studies have identified important hydrophobic contributions to the ice growth inhibition mechanism. Some 50 mutants of HPLC6 have been reported and the data is consistent with the following requirements for ice growth inhibition: (a) a minimum length of approx. 25 residues; (b) an alanine-rich sequence in order to induce a highly helical conformation; (c) a hydrophobic face; (d) a number of charged/polar residues which are involved in solubility and/or interaction with the ice surface. The emerging picture, that requires further dynamics studies including accurate modelling of the ice/water interface, suggests that a hydrophobic interaction between the surface of the protein and ice is the key to explaining accumulation at specific ice planes, and thus the molecular level mechanism for ice growth inhibition.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Nucleation and Growth: Efficacy of an Antifreeze Protein from the Longhorn BeetleRhagium mordax. AU - Perfeldt, Christine Malmos. AU - Chua, Pei Cheng. AU - Daraboina, Nagu. AU - Friis, Dennis. AU - Kristiansen, Erlend. AU - Ramløv, Hans. AU - Woodley, John. AU - Kelland, Malcolm A.. AU - von Solms, Nicolas. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are characterized by their ability to protect organisms from subfreezing temperatures by preventing tiny ice crystals in solution from growing as the solution is cooled below its freezing temperature. This inhibition of ice growth is called antifreeze activity, and in particular, certain insect AFPs show very high antifreeze activity. Recent studies have shown AFPs to be promising candidates as green and environmentally benign inhibitors for gas hydrate formation. Here we show that an insect antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle, Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1), the most potent protein yet found ...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or structure of ice. We report the crystal structure of the first multi-domain AFP that has been characterized. The two ice binding domains are structurally similar. Each consists of an irregular β-helix with a triangular cross-section and a long α-helix that runs parallel on one side of the β-helix. Both domains are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. A flat plane on the same face of each domains β-helix was identified as the ice binding site. Mutating any of the smaller residues on the ice binding site to bulkier ones decreased the antifreeze activity. The bulky side chain of Leu174 in domain A sterically hinders the binding of water molecules to the protein backbone, partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) aid the survival of cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals in the organism. The binding of AFPs to ice separates the melting point from the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). Although AFPs were discovered more than 40 years ago, the mechan
Until now, few groups reported the antifreeze activity of cyclic glycopeptides;however, the tedious synthetic procedure is not amenable to study the intensive structure activity relationship. A series of N-linked cyclic glycopeptoids and glycopeptide have been prepared to evaluate antifreeze activity as a function of peptide backbone cyclization and methyl stereochemical effect on the rigid Thr position. This study has combined the cyclization protocol with solid phase peptide synthesis and obtained significant quantities of homogeneous cyclic glycopeptide and glycopeptoids. Analysis of antifreeze activity revealed that our cyclic peptide demonstrated RI activity while cyclic glycopeptoids showed no RI activity. These results suggest that the subtle changes in conformation and Thr orientation dramatically influence RI activity of N-linked glycopeptoidsnd glycopeptide have been prepared to evaluate antifreeze activity as a function of peptide backbone cyclization and methyl stereochemical effect ...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the ...
Very little is known about the mechanism of antifreeze action of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) present in Antarctic teleost fish. Recent NMR and CD studies assisted with total synthesis of synthetic AFGP variants have provided insight into the structure of short AFGP glycopeptides, though the observations did not yield information on the antifreeze mechanism of action. In this study, we use Hamiltonian replica exchange (HREX) molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structure and surrounding aqueous environments of both the natural (AFGP8) and synthetic (s-AFGP4) AFGPs. AFGPs can adopt both amphiphilic and pseudoamphiphilic conformations, the preference of which is related to the proline content of the peptide. The arrangement of carbohydrates allows the hydroxyl groups on terminal galactose units to form stable water bridges which in turn influence the hydrogen-bond network, structure, and dynamics of the surrounding solvent. Interestingly, these local effects lead to the perturbation of ...
Certain Arctic and Antarctic ectotherm species have developed strategies for survival under low temperature conditions that, among others, consist of antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP). AFGP form a class of biological antifreeze agents that exhibit the ability to inhibit ice growth in vitro and in vivo and, hence, enable life at temperatures below the freezing point. AFGP usually consist of a varying number of (Ala-Ala-Thr)(n) units (n=4-55) with the disaccharide beta-D-galactosyl-(1 -> 3)-alpha-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine glycosidically attached to every threonine side chain hydroxyl group. AFGP have been shown to adopt polyproline II helical conformation. Although this pattern is highly conserved among different species, microheterogeneity concerning the amino acid composition usually occurs; for example, alanine is occasionally replaced by proline in smaller AFGP. The influence of minor and major sequence mutations on conformation and antifreeze activity of AFGP analogues was investigated by ...
Brrrrr! Its cold outside. Lots of animals are much better adapted to the cold weather than we are. Polar bears have thick fur, seals and whales have a layer of blubber and some birds migrate.. But what if youre a fish?. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded. They can keep their body temperature higher than the icy environment around them. Fish are cold-blooded. Their body temperature is the same as their surroundings. In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, the temperature is very chilly - below 0 degrees Celsius. The salt in the oceans stops them freezing.. Why dont fish freeze?. To stop their blood freezing, some fish that live in the Arctic and Antarctic have special antifreeze proteins.. Antifreeze proteins are very clever. They slow down the formation of bonds between water molecules, which prevents the formation of ice crystals in the fishs blood.. Scientists are working out how they could use these antifreeze proteins as a non-polluting de-icer for cars and machinery. Antifreeze proteins ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) market is...
Scientists have discovered that an ice-binding protein (fcIBP) from the sea ice microalga does not fit in the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins, suggesting unknown mechanisms behind its antifreeze property. This finding could lead to a broader application of the antifreeze protein in food and medical industries.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are often called ice-binding proteins and are thought to bind to ice or ice-like crystals exclusively to control their growth. Here molecular recognition repertoire of AFPs has been greatly expanded to other hydroxyl containing, non-ice like compounds. The inhibitory and habit-modifying effects of AFPs on the stable nuclei formation and on the crystals of nucleosides have been first demonstrated.
The report on global Antifreeze market portrays comprehensive information and conducts a complete study to provide latest market updates and information about present and forecast market scenario. The changes taking place in Antifreeze are elaborated in this report to help readers in making vital business decisions. The Antifreeze industry details are provided in the form of graphs, pie-charts to help the emerging and existing market players, buyers, and suppliers in planning the business strategies. These details will fuel the development of their business and will bring huge revenues in return.. Further, this report incorporates both quantitative as well as qualitative data sets which include market framework, executive summary for the global Antifreeze market.The report also includes key players profile description, details on fiscal & accounting, business tactics and fresh developments in global Antifreeze Market.Tools for competition mapping are also inculcated in the report as an assistant ...
A diver himself, Cziko worked with other divers to place and maintain a temperature-logging device in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, one of the coldest marine environments on the planet. The device recorded ocean temperatures there for 11 years, a substantial portion of notothenioids lifespan. Not once in that time did temperatures increase enough to overcome the antifreeze proteins anti-melting effect to completely rid the fishes of their internal ice, the researchers report.. The researchers suspect that the accumulation of ice inside the fishes could have adverse physiological consequences, but none have yet been discovered.. If the fishes are destined to carry ice crystals around all their lives, Cheng said, it is conceivable that ice particles could obstruct small capillaries or trigger undesired inflammatory responses. Cziko likens the potential threat to dangers posed by asbestos in the lungs or blood clots in the brain.. Since much of the ice accumulates in the fishes spleens, we think ...
Sea water freezes at -1.9C which presents a problem for any creature that wants to live in Arctic or Antarctic seas. Some species of fish have antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that allow them to live in such environments. Such proteins bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. Consequently the freezing point of blood and body…
Self Bias Resistor writes: According to an article in New Scientist, an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of California. Apparently, this discovery could have a wide variety of applications such as frost-resistant con...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cloning and expression of afpA, a gene encoding an antifreeze protein from the arctic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
heating system antifreeze catologs and heating system antifreeze manufacturers - 4,124 heating system antifreeze Manufacturers, Exporters & suppliers from China
Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal
AFGPs have evolved convergently in unrelated fishes from both Antarctic and Arctic seas to prevent freezing in these cold ice-laden environments. Previous studies have shown that AFGPs of Antarctic notothenioids are encoded by a family of polyprotein genes, with each gene encoding a large precursor containing multiple AFGP molecules linked in tandem by cleavable small spacers (Chen et al., 1997a). High concentrations of AFGPs circulate in the serum of several northern cods either through the whole year or during winter. The size and compositional heterogeneity has been reported for several species of northern cods, but only three AFGP genes from a partial genomic library of polar cod have been characterized. Four more polar cod B. saida AFGP gene sequences, their structures, and organization in the genome are reported here. Genomic Southern analysis indicates that a large AFGP gene family exists in its genome. A high percentage of the AFGP member genes appear to be arranged in tandem and ...
Press Release issued May 15, 2017: Anti-freeze coolants are used in automobiles, HVAC systems, and heat exchangers to facilitate heat transfer process in adverse cold weather conditions. Also, they prevent overheating of the vehicle in summer. These are antifreeze agents or chemicals that are added in water in a certain proportion. This mixture is called an anti-freeze coolant. Antifreeze coolants ensure workability and performance of engines and heat exchangers. Chemicals predominantly used as anti-freeze agents include propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and glycerol. Adverse cold climatic conditions and automotive demand from relatively colder regions across the world maintain stable volumes of demand across the world. Other applications of antifreeze coolants are found in aerospace, industrial applications, and the electronics industry. Typical application in aerospace includes development of anti-icing and de-icing materials.
STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
Description:. MITASU RED LONG LIFE ANTIFREEZE/COOLANT - 40ºC - is a ready to use carboxylate-based antifreeze with a guaranteed service life of 5 years or 100,000 kilometres. This product is manufactured using an Organic Acid Technology and includes corrosion inhibitors based on organic (carbon) acids. Coolants formula is free of such inorganic substances as: amines, borates, silicates, nitrites, nitrates or combinations thereof.. Application:. MITASU RED LONG LIFE ANTIFREEZE/COOLANT - 40ºC meets the modern requirements and is specifically formulated for Japanese, European and American vehicles of the following producers: TOYOTA, LEXUS, DAIHATSU, AUDI, VW, SKODA, FORD, GM, SUBARU (some models, manufactured from 2008) and others. The product color is red.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about antifreeze at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about antifreeze easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
New Roles of Antifreeze Proteins - Antifreeze Proteins as Highly Effective Additives to Control the Crystallization of Non-Ice like Compounds Antifreeze Protein Enhancers: Identification and Mechanisms Effects of Toxic Metal Ions on Zinc Finger Proteins Collaborators Funding
Natural Regulating Factors Budworm populations are usually regulated by combinations of several natural factors such as insect parasites, vertebrate and invertebrate predators, and adverse weather conditions. However, the combined effect of natural agents does not prevent or reduce population resurgences when climatic and forest stand conditions are favorable for an increase in budworm populations. During prolonged outbreaks when stands become heavily defoliated, starvation can be an important mortality factor in regulating populations. Western spruce budworm larvae, pupae, and adults are parasitized and preyed upon by several groups of insects and other arthropods, small mammals, and birds. There are more than 40 species of insect parasites (small wasps and flies) of the western spruce budworm, of which four or five species are most common. Spiders, ants, snakeflies, true bugs, and larvae of certain beetles feed on the budworm, as do chipmunks and squirrels. Birds known to feed on the budworm ...
Used in a growing range of fields, from biology and medicine to astronomy, citizen science involves volunteers gathering data to help scientists answer research questions.. In the case of the spruce budworm outbreak, an innovative project called Budworm Tracker is giving volunteers in eastern Canada the tools to gather and report data on spruce budworm populations - data that is helping scientists monitor and better understand the insect and its spread.. In this initiative, volunteers receive a free Budworm Tracker kit containing a pheromone trap, a data collection sheet and detailed instructions. They hang their trap from a lower branch of a spruce or balsam fir tree near where they live or work.. From mid-June until the end of the summer, these citizen scientists check the trap at least once a week, collecting and counting the moths and recording their findings. Volunteers with a smartphone can report their findings directly on the Budworm Tracker website or use a downloadable app. At the end ...
Psychrophilic organisms produce AFPs in order to prevent ice growth during freezing. Some studies have demonstrated that these proteins are extremely effective in the inhibition of recrystallization of ice even at very low concentrations [49]. However, their working mechanism is not well understood. Moreover, their properties offer the opportunity to exploit AFPs for biotechnological applications, especially in food industry. In frozen food products, freezing provides a multitude of small ice crystals, but it is also important to prevent the formations of large ice crystals [50]. AFPs from Antarctic bacteria GU1.7.1, GU3.1.1 and AFP5.1 were able to reduce the damage associated to ice, probably through the reduction of the size of large ice crystals in buffer solution. This phenomenon was evidenced when zucchini and cucumbers tissues were treated with a commercial and bacterial AFPs, where small pore were (red asterisk Figs. 1, 2) formed on plant cell walls of treated tissues in comparison to the ...
Antifreeze is highly toxic to cats. Please read our blog on antifreeze poisoning and keeping your cat (and others) safe as the weather gets colder.
Antifreeze After watching murder, upon murder shows, one key thing Ive learned about antifreeze is that it has a sweet taste. While Ive never tasted it, I can say that TV has come in quite handy with the knowledge of avoiding antifreeze. The fatal substance is common in driveways in the winter. Some car owners take care of their car very carefully, which can involve antifreeze/coolant changes to prepare for harsh winter weather. A spill is common, and usually unintentional, but the small accident can be a fatal one. The sweet, intoxicating, smell and taste can be a lure for pups. The main ingredient in antifreeze is ethylene glycol. If ingested, the toxic chemical could lead to severe illnesses and even death. According to Petxtreme, The mortality rate in dogs poisoned by antifreeze ranges from 50 to 70% and is thought to be even higher in cats. That is an extremely high number! If the animal isnt treated immediately, nervous system damage or kidney damage could occur, if death doesnt come ...
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Rat and mouse poisons are toxic to children. Antifreeze. Though there are several types of anticoagulants available as rat poison, some populations. The liver metabolizes ethylene glycol into glycolate and oxalate, which cause extensive cellular damage in various tissues, especially the kidneys, but across many different organs. A greedy rat can eat enough poison to kill 20 rats before he starts to feel sick and if a dog or cat eats the rat, the poison is transferred. Most rodent poisons use anti-coagulants that kill the animals by causing uncontrollable bleeding. But usually not quickly. It may sample a small dose but then it would realise that it is not good & not take anymore. There are some types of road salt that apparently contain some antifreeze which can be toxic to dogs. Varmints learn fast by habit and ease of procuring the prey. She said shes received four birds in the past week that have died from poisoning. In the photo below, a homeowner attempted to perform do it yourself raccoon ...
Just a note to inform others about the new (at least to me) SuperTech antifreeze containers at Walmart. Now I dont believe Walmart makes its own antifreeze, or even its own containers, but take a look at what I discovered. These are 4 quart containers with markings on the side to delineate quart...
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D2982 - 07(2013) Standard Test Methods for Detecting Glycol-Base Antifreeze in Used Lubricating Oils , glycol-base antifreeze, glycol-base coolant, used lubricating oil,
Ingesting a Small Amount of Antifreeze Causes Kidney Failure in Dogs Pound for pound, antifreeze is the heavyweight of poisons seen in small-animal veterin
The AA. investigate the effects of spruce budworm on tree growth at 5 areas within Itasca State Park in northwestern Minnesota near the southwestern margin of the range of balsam. They also document the species composition and age structure along transects in sites infested by spruce budworm. The objectives were to : 1) discover when the latest spruce budworm outbreak started; 2) determine whether tree growth was similarly reduced in earlier decades; and 3) test whether radial tree growth and the start of the outbreak(s) were correlated with climate. They used the computer program OUTBREAK to determine that the current spruce budworm infestation began to reduce tree growth in the 1990s, before it was detected by park officials in 2001. The results show that outbreaks are related to climatic conditions, but they also depend on other factors such as the availability of sufficient food for the spruce budworm ...
The blood serums of Antarctic fishes freeze at -2°C, which is approximately 1°C below the melting points of their serums. This thermal hysteresis is due to the influence of serum glycoproteins. The temperatures of freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of the purified glycoproteins suggest that this thermal hysteresis results from the adsorption of the glycoprotein molecule onto the surface of ice crystals. ...
The Nutshell Putative Gay Genes Identified, Questioned A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
My research involves investigation into synthetic Antifreeze glycoproteins and extremeophile bacteria resistant to cold temperatures within the Gibson group at Warwick chemistry depatment. Further details will be posted at a later date. The image shows a selection of antifreeze proteins (from http://2011.igem.org/Team:KULeuven/Afp) highlighting the large diversity and potential for research ...
This is the second article of a series of three where we develop temperature-driven models to describe the seasonal interactions between parasitoids and their hosts which we use to explore the impact of climate on their spatiotemporal biology. Here, we model the biology of Meteorus trachynotus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with an individual-based model of its daily interactions with two host species. This model predicts the performance of the parasitoid in response to temperature affecting its seasonal development and that of the two hosts. We compare model output with an extensive set of field observations from natural host populations. The predicted activity of the first adult parasitoid generation closely matches the seasonal pattern of attack on the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) within the limitations of available data. The model predicts 1-4 full generations of M. trachynotus per year in eastern North America, with generations well synchronized with larvae of a
Nature. Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides Canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal PNAS. Together with American colleagues, the RUB-researchers showed that interactions between the antifreeze proteins and water molecules contribute significantly to protection against the cold. Previously, it was assumed that the effect was only achieved through direct contact of the protein with ice crystals. The team obtained the results through a combination of terahertz spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.. Protein-ice interaction: locally and over longer distances. The structure of the fire beetle antifreeze proteins resembles a triangular prism. The ice binding surface of the prism ...
Antifreeze protein from an Antarctic fish [ PDB file ] [ PubMed link ] Many animals that live in extremely cold climates produce proteins that act to prevent the formation of ice crystals in the bodily fluids of the organism. Antarctic fish produce a range of such proteins, as the water temperatures can drop below 0 degrees Celsius. We have determined the structure of the type I antifreeze protein (SS3) from the blood of the shorthorn sculpin at both 5 degrees and -5 degrees. The structure largely comprises a long alpha-helix that displays conserved Thr residues (red) along a single surface. These residues are important for preventing the growth of ice crystals, although the mechanism of action is not currently understood. An additional short helix exists at the N-terminus of the protein, although the conformational relationship between the two helices is not well defined. This is the first solution structure of a wild-type type I antifreeze protein ...
Adaptation to cooler climates is a necessity for the organisms which endure temperatures below freezing. The yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, overwinters in the larval stage and is therefore succeptable to freezing conditions. To reduce the risk of freezing, which can be lethal, T. molitor express thermal hysteresis protein (THP) into their haemolymph that bind to the forming surface of ice crystals and lower the freezing temperature of the organisms fluids, which allows the larvae to survive temperatures down to −13 ○C. This small, highly disulfide bonded protein is traditionally produced recombinantly for analysis. However there are cleavages in the peptide backbone in the native protein that E. coli cannot produce and potentially play a role in the function. This research outlines the purification of THP from both the T. molitor larvae and a recombinant expression system and the two samples were tested using optical recrystallometry and nanolitre osmometry. The data show the ...
Ice nucleation and growth is an important and widespread environmental process. Accordingly, nature has developed means to either promote or inhibit ice crystal formation, for example ice-nucleating proteins in bacteria or ice-binding antifreeze proteins in polar fish. Recently, it was found that birch pollen release ice-nucleating macromolecules when suspended in water. Here we show that birch pollen washing water exhibits also ice-binding properties such as ice shaping and ice recrystallization inhibition, similar to antifreeze proteins. We present spectroscopic evidence that both the ice-nucleating as well as the ice-binding molecules are polysaccharides bearing carboxylate groups. The spectra suggest that both polysaccharides consist of very similar chemical moieties, but centrifugal filtration indicates differences in molecular size: ice nucleation occurs only in the supernatant of a 100 kDa filter, while ice shaping is strongly enhanced in the filtrate. This finding may suggest that the ...
Fall is a busy time of year for everyone. Youre getting kids back to school, trying to finish those summer projects, and getting the car ready for winter. This time of year we get concerned about one of the most serious poisonings that we see in dogs and cats….ANTIFREEZE.. Antifreeze is essential to keeping your car running during the winter. Many people have an old jug of it lying around in the garage or basement. Many peoples cars may also develop a leak in the radiator over the course of the winter and there may actually be antifreeze on the driveway or garage floor.. The active ingredient in most antifreezes is called ethylene glycol. This works as antifreeze because it lowers the temperature at which water freezes. Unfortunately, ethylene glycol has a sweet flavor and is often consumed by cats and dogs (and even children).. Ethylene glycol is extremely toxic. Initially ethylene glycol causes similar symptoms to alcohol ingestion such as depression, weakness, and difficulty walking. In ...
Zoarces americanus (4ny6, 1ame, 1b7i, 1b7k, 1ekl, 1gzi, 1hg7, 1jab, 1kde, 1kdf, 1msi, 1msj, 2ame, 2jia, 2msi, 2msj, 2spg, 3ame, 3qf6, 4msi, 5cr7, 5msi, 6ame, 6msi, 7msi, 8ame, 8msi, 9ame, 9msi ...
Raman spectra of a mixture of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) 6, 7 and 8 adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface spanning the range of 50 to 4500 cm−1 were measured. It was found that the Raman signature of AFGP had been significantly altered because of its interaction with the HOPG surface; when compared with the spectra of bulk AFGP compounds, at least three new peaks were observed around 860, 940 and 1000 cm−1, and two other peaks that were not well resolved in the bulk spectra around 1050 and 1155 cm−1 were enhanced and well discriminated. The peak positions depended on the facet of HOPG presented to the proteins, and their relative intensities depended on the concentration of AFGP used in the adsorption experiment. The results indicated the possibility of multiple binding sites of AFGP on HOPG surfaces. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ...
1KDF: Refined solution structure of type III antifreeze protein: hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction.
1KDF: Refined solution structure of type III antifreeze protein: hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction.
In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. We identified an I. scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein, designated IAFGP, and demonstrated via RNAi knockdown studies the importance of IAFGP for the survival of I. scapularis ticks in a cold environment. Transfection studies also show that IAFGP increased the viability of yeast cells subjected to cold temperature. Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. These data define a molecular basis for symbiosis between a human pathogenic bacterium and its arthropod vector and delineate what we believe to be a new pathway that may be targeted to alter the life cycle of this microbe and its ...
1982 by the National Academy of Sciences. Communicated by Norman H. Horowitz, September 28, 1981. We thank Donna Stapleton and Christine Hough-McElhanney for technical assistance and Dr. Geoff Flynn for his advice and his help in performing the automated Edman degradation. We are also grateful to Dr. Joseph Beard and the National Cancer Institute for the gift of reverse transcriptase. This work was supported by grants to P.L.D. and C.-L.H. from the Medical Research Council of Canada and by the award of a Medical Research Council Scholarship to P.L.D. This is contribution 435 from the Marine Sciences Research Laboratory, Memorial University of Newfoundland. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. §1734 solely to indicate this fact ...
NEW YORK, NY - A recent study in knockoff perfumes has revealed that they can contain ingredients like antifreeze and urine!. The magazine Harpers Bazaar recently did a study on the contents of counterfeit perfumes. Many Americans buy them, either on the street or online, as they find brand names to be too costly, especially during a recession.. What they dont know is how these counterfeit manufacturers attempt to replicate the popular scents with cheap ingredients to keep the price down. Samples tested contained antifreeze, bacteria and even urine!. See the ABC News report below:. ...
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Antifreeze in the Gatorade was the preferred method by a Springfield, Mo., woman who fatally poisoned her husband and son and almost killed a daughter as well, Greene County authorities say. Diane Staudte, 51, has been charged with two counts of first-degree murder, one count of first-degree assault and one count of armed criminal action. A 22-year-old daughter, Rachel Staudte, also of Springfield, was charged Saturday with the same offenses.. Diane Staudte admitted Thursday to poisoning all three with antifreeze over a 14-month period, according to a probable cause statement. She told investigators that she killed her husband because she hated him and her son because he was worse than a pest. She said she wanted to kill her 24-year-old daughter, Sarah Staudte, because the young woman would not get a job and had student loans that had to be paid, the probable cause statement said. Her earlier story was that her husband, Mark Staudte, 61, hadnt been feeling well and suffered from seizures ...
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), a unifying name for antifreeze proteins, recrystallization inhibition proteins, and ice nucleating proteins, are found in organisms living in cold ecosystems where ice is present. Organisms from many branches of the tree of life use IBPs to embrace the consequences of freezing by several strategies such as preventing freezing or tolerating it. The program consists of plenary lectures, oral presentations, poster sessions, and an excursion.
Ticks are one of those arachnids that give most people the creeps. I know that Ive shuddered when pulling them off my dogs during the spring and summer months, and theyre the last thing I want to see crawling on my leg! But these little bloodsuckers might actually be able to help humans in a unique way. During the cold months, ticks have an antifreeze protein called IAFGP that protects their cells by preventing ice crystals from forming inside them. This unique property made researchers wonder if IAFGP could help prevent frostbite in mammals. To test this theory, they worked with genetically modified mice in the laboratory. These mice produced the tick antifreeze protein, and amazingly, when testing tolerance to cold, IAFGP helped protect the mice against frostbite! Now that IAFGP has proven to help prevent frostbite in mammalian cells, researchers are trying to figure out how to harness the power of this tick protein to help humans. Could IAFGP help improve organ transplantation by ...
0121]Make the 5 mg/ml solution in a sterile 1.5 ml-2 ml eppendorf tube. [0122]6) Make enough 4% DMSO solution (in another eppendorf tube) to plate the two positive control rows, taking into account loss of solution to the boat. [0123]7) Put your vial with the remaining UW, the tube with the DMSO, and the tube with your compound on crushed ice. Put two empty boats on ice. Also put your cells on crushed ice. Let them all cool for half an hour. [0124]8) Add the required UW solution to the boat. Add the required DMSO solution to the other boat (label them). [0125]9) Spray a few Kim Wipes with ethanol, fold them into a large square and put them in the hood. Shake out the medium that is in the plate onto the Kim Wipes. Replace the empty plate (with cells in it) on the ice to keep the cells cold. [0126]10) Add 40 μl of UW solution to the first two rows with the multi-channel pipette. [0127]11) Add 40 μl of the 5 mg/ml solution to the next two rows, to one well at a time. Use the P100 pipette and add ...
Definition of ice crystal in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ice crystal? Meaning of ice crystal as a legal term. What does ice crystal mean in law?
recrystallizations Definition, recrystallizations Best Plays of recrystallizations in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in recrystallizations, Word growth of recrystallizations, Sequences of recrystallizations
Thirty-five years ago Arthur DeVries of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign first documented antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes
Spatial transmutation and its consequences in spatially upscaling models of spruce budworm population dynamics. 1999. Fleming, R.A.; Lyons, D.B.; Candau, J.-N. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25: 388-402.. Year: 1999. Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre Catalog ID: 9706. Language: English. Availability: PDF (request by e-mail). Mark record. ...
Spruce budworm pheromone traps. An evaluation of four designs. 1985. Shepherd, R.F. Pages 221-226 in L. Safranyik, Editor. The role of the host in the population dynamics of forest insects, Proceedings: of the IUFRO Conference joint meeting of iufro working parties S2-07-05 and S2-07-06. September 4-7, 1983, Banff, Canada. Government of Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria, BC, Co-publisher USDA Forest Service. 240 p.. Année : 1985. Disponible au : Centre de foresterie du Pacifique Numéro de catalogue : 2465. La langue : Anglais. Disponibilité au SCF : Non disponible (cliquer pour plus de détails). Sélectionner. ...
In geopolitics 101, you learn how the Russians continuously tried pushing south so to get unfettered year-round access to a non-frozen ocean. Pickup any world history book and you ll see the unbelievable price that they were willing to pay for this over the centuries. Well, we re now in the 21st century and it s looking as bleak as ever for them. Had they thought of the following idea, perhaps all that would have been unnecessary.. Think of a huge U shaped trench, 100 feet wide, 100 feet deep and thousands of miles long. Now make the walls of this trench out of iron sheets, fill it with water, attach lots of buoys so it will float and set it in the Arctic Ocean. It would need to be big enough for a ship to sail though it, strong enough to withstand an iceberg impact and anchored well enough to resist the ocean currents flowing under it. Finally you would pour lots of non-toxic antifreeze (or Vodka) into it to prevent the water inside from freezing.. If there are any bored engineering students ...
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A Smyrna, Delaware woman who admitted to killing her weightlifter husband by lacing his steroid injections with antifreeze has been sentenced to 40 years in prison.
One of the key reasons why fish can survive here is that they produce a series of antifreeze (glyco)proteins. The most famous property of these proteins is their ability to lower the freezing point of water, to prevent blood from freezing. While this is interesting, we are more interested in a secondary property: ice recrystalisation inhibition. This is the ability of the proteins to stop ice crystals from growing larger.. It has been found that ice crystal growth during thawing is a major contributor to the failure of cryopreservation techniques (the storage of biological material at sub-zero temperatures). We are very interested in developing antifreeze-protein mimics to enhance cellular and ultimately organ storage ...
As a promising non-precious catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction, molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2) is known to contain active edge sites and an inert basal plane. Activating the MoS 2 basal plane could further enhance its HER activity but is not often a strategy for doing so. Herein, we report the first activation and optimization of the basal plane of monolayer 2H-MoS 2 for HER by introducing sulphur (S) vacancies and strain. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the S-vacancies are new catalytic sites in the basal plane, where gap states around the Fermi level allow hydrogen to bind directly to exposed Mo atoms. The hydrogen adsorption free energy (ΔG H) can be further manipulated by straining the surface with S-vacancies, which fine-tunes the catalytic activity. Furthermore, proper combinations of S-vacancy and strain yield the optimal ΔG H = 0 eV, which allows us to achieve the highest intrinsic HER activity among molybdenum-sulphide-based catalysts. ...
M.G., St. Paul. A: The seasonal gasoline blends are adjusted to provide good starting, not freeze protection. When gas is shipped to the stations it is supposedly dry. Water in your gas tank is often the result of condensation due to temperature changes. Ice is prevented by using fuel system antifreeze. Most gasoline antifreeze products are some kind of alcohol. Since most gasoline already contains 10 to 15 percent alcohol, additional antifreeze may not be necessary.. Q: I have a 2016 Kia Sorento. As I was pulling out of my garage the rear window on the lift gate exploded into a million pieces, scaring me half to death. There was no damage to the car other than the rear windshield wiper mechanism. Meanwhile, nobody can explain what caused this. Looks to me like Kia is installing inferior glass. Id appreciate any thoughts you might have.. J.K., Boynton Beach, Fla.. A: All automotive glass must meet Society of Automotive Engineers standards, so we can dismiss any carmakers use of substandard ...
To confirm the proposed structure of xylomannan, so that they can begin to study how it interacts with ice crystals, Ishiwata, Ito and their colleagues synthesized what they thought to be a key component of the compounds sugar-based backbone. Their structural analysis, using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and molecular modeling, confirmed that the structure matches that of the natural compound. It also hints at the way that xylomannan might stick to ice crystals: one face of xylomannan is much more polar than the other face, making one face hydrophilic and the other hydrophobic ...
Why would a protein need to bind to ice? Well, ice can be a significant problem for cells, and therefore for the organisms that are made from those cell...
NYU chemists have discovered a family of anti-freeze molecules that prevent ice formation when water temperatures drop below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Their findings may lead to new methods for improving food storage and industrial products.
Water freezing remains a perennial topic of great relevance to many important aspects of our lives; from the climate to human society and from economics to medicine, frozen water profoundly influences our living environment and life activities. There have been numerous publications on water freezing; however
According to Drexel University Biology Professor Sean ODonnell in an interview with Live Science, erythritol might not be the best insecticide choice for widespread crop application, but it could be huge if used on a smaller scale as a bait to attract insects who would consume it and die.. Some insects naturally produce erythritol in small amounts when the weather gets colder. The substance acts like a type of antifreeze that protects them from freezing to death, though too much of it acts like a poison.. The Drexel University researchers are not sure yet exactly what it is about erythritol that kills fruit flies, but it might be the substances antifreeze effect. The poison doesnt cause the flies to die immediately, but their life spans are reduced from a maximum of around 50 days to an average of just 5.8 days. Also, the fruit flies had signs of noticeable motor impairments before they died.. Next, the researchers plan to test out and conduct further studies about the sugar alcohol ...
Its extremely important that you have your dog seen by a veterinarian as quickly as possible after ingestion of anything that contains ethylene glycol. Even if you only suspect that your dog has ingested ethylene glycol, if the dog is showing all of the effects of ethylene glycol toxicity, and the substance is accessible in any way, you should take your dog to be checked. If your dog is vomiting or has diarrhea, you should collect a sample of the vomit or fecal contents to present to your veterinarian. Diagnosis may be that much faster, saving valuable time and possibly preventing full organ shutdown if supportive therapy is given quickly.. You will need to provide your veterinarian with a medical background and as much detail of the onset of symptoms as possible. Standard tests include a urinalysis and complete blood test, which will be sent for laboratory analysis immediately. Your veterinarian may also use ultrasound to look at the liver and kidneys, which are often swollen in response to ...
Lincoln poisoning: A pet cat in Lincoln has become the latest victim of a spate of poisonings in the county, and has been put down by owners.
Or email, [email protected] Who we are, and What we do-We are one of a small number of individuals in the UK, recycling used cooking oil to make Bio Diesel for our personal use, as well as Research and Development of our current range of BioDiesel machines. JWS is managing waste and recycling services for Surrey Heath and three other local authorities in Surrey. Find community recycling centres in Surrey. BC Used Oil Management Association motor oil, oil filters, oil & antifreeze containers, antifreeze Canadian Battery Association recycling of lead-acid batteries Call 2 Recycle rechargeable batteries, single use batteries and cell phones Recycling cooking oil is the best option, second would be disposing of it in the trash, but pouring it down the drain is never a good choice. Motor Oil Recycling . Other locations you can investigate for the presence of oil recycling services include private waste collectors, government waste departments (for instance, your local municipal waste ...
Read The karyotype of the great sculpin, Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Pallas, 1814) (Pisces: Cottidae), from the Russian part of the species range, Russian Journal of Marine Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Putting food back in the freezer after it thaws causes ice crystals to grow, imparting the unwelcome crunchy texture and mildew-like taste of freezer burn. Now food chemist Srinivasan Damodaran of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has derived edible antifreeze from papaya enzymes and gelatin. His concoction, which stunts ice-crystal growth, promises always-creamy ice cream and juicier T-bones, even after their third trip between icebox and table. While studying gelatin, Damodaran realized that its protein is similar to the one that keeps the lowly snow flea from freezing in Arctic temperatures. To isolate the molecule involved, he mixed the gelatin with papaya enzymes, which are excellent at freeing proteins from other cellular material, and separated all the protein chunks by size. Then he mixed each batch with ice cream. The final step was to subject the dessert to a series of temperature changes until he found the one that remained ice-crystal-free. Damodaran still wants to better ...
Wikipedia explains their formation thus:. A fallstreak hole (also known as a hole punch cloud, punch hole cloud, skypunch, cloud canal or cloud hole) is a large gap, usually circular or elliptical, that can appear in cirrocumulus or altocumulus clouds. Such holes are formed when the water temperature in the clouds is below freezing but the water, in a supercooled state, has not frozen yet due to the lack of ice nucleation. When ice crystals do form, a domino effect is set off due to the Bergeron process, causing the water droplets around the crystals to evaporate: this leaves a large, often circular, hole in the cloud.. It is believed that the introduction of large numbers of tiny ice crystals into the cloud layer sets off this domino effect of evaporation which creates the hole. The ice crystals can be formed by passing aircraft which often have a large reduction in pressure behind the wing- or propeller-tips. This cools the air very quickly, and can produce a ribbon of ice crystals trailing ...
Basically, heres how it goes(year by year): Well first we cant be sure that the winter flounder stocks are disappearing... Next, well there may be less winter flounder but lets wait and see if their is a recovery... Then, they havent returned to prior levels yet, perhaps somehting is wrong... Next, lets investigate possible reasons for their decline, but do nothing to help the population to recover... Further, well the investigations have yielded inconclusive results so more studies need to be undertaken before anything is put in stone... Finally, we dont know why the flounder are going away, however, we do not feel the best course of action is trying to repopulate, but actually to correct the problems of which we have no idea.... NICE GOING GOVERNMENT IDIOTS ...
First-year land-fast sea ice growth in both the Arctic and the Antarctic is characterised by the formation of an initial ice cover, followed by the direct freezing of seawater at the ice-water interface. Such growth usually results, through geometric selection, in congelation ice. This is, in general, the typical crystal structure observed in first-year ice growth in the Arctic. However, in certain regions of the Antarctic, platelet crystals are observed to contribute significantly to the ice growth, beyond a depth of 1 m. This thesis will investigate a number of ideas as to why the platelet crystals only appear in the ice after a significant amount of congelation growth has occurred. One of the key premises will be that platelet ice forms when smaller frazil crystals, beneath the ice, rise up and attach to the interface. They are then incorporated into the ice cover and become the platelets seen in ice cores. The Shields criterion is used to find the strength of turbulence, associated with ...
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The Warming and Irradiance Measurements (WARM) buoy is designed to collect coincident observations of temperature and light intensity. The buoy string has sensors collecting visible light measurements within the ice at 0.5 and 1.0 m from the ice surface and within the water column at 5, 10, 20 and 50 m from the ice surface. At the 5 m depth a Wetlabs Ecotriplet measures chlorophyll and dissolved organic material fluorescence. Thermistors are located at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 50 m. Two versions of the WARM buoy were deployed a 20 m version used on the shallow Chukchi Sea and a 50 m version deployed at the North Pole and Canada Basin.The buoy is deployed in early spring (March/April) by drilling a hole through the sea ice (~2 m thick) and feeding the tether through the ice. The surface float is anchored to the sea ice to prevent the buoy from slipping. In the summer the ice melts and the buoy is able to float in open water until the fall when it is frozen back into the ice. For more ...
There are many techniques that aid in maintaining a liquid state, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, which bind to ... Noncolligative proteins are secreted by the liver into the bloodstream. Other animals use colligative antifreezes, which ... There are many techniques that aid in maintaining a liquid state, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, or AFPs, which ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) J.G. Duman (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". ...
ISBN 3-85474-140-5. Ökke Atıcıa & Barbaros Nalbantoğlu (2003). "Antifreeze proteins in higher plants". Phytochemistry. 64 (7): ...
Antifreeze protein Certain plasma proteins of coldwater fish Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell ... Affect folding of certain proteins Calnexin, calreticulin Regulation of development Notch and its analogs, key proteins in ... Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. Carbohydrates are attached to some proteins to form glycoproteins. ... The sugar group(s) can assist in protein folding, improve proteins' stability and are involved in cell signalling. ...
... survive the winter by producing extracellular antifreeze proteins. These antifreeze proteins cause thermal hysteria. Thermal ... Antifreeze proteins bind to ice crystals and create curved ice fronts which are energetically unfavorable for the further ... "Ice recrystallization is strongly inhibited when antifreeze proteins bind to multiple ice planes". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): ...
... refers to an antifreeze protein (AFP) produced by the Rhagium inquisitor longhorned beetle. It is a type V antifreeze ... "Theoretical study of interaction of winter flounder antifreeze protein with ice". Protein Sci. 13 (6): 1524-37. doi:10.1110/ps. ... Whereas most insect antifreeze proteins contain cysteines at least every sixth residue, as well as varying numbers of 12- or 13 ... Duman JG (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63: 327-57. doi:10.1146 ...
Some proteins, such as the antifreeze protein of Hypogastrura harveyi consist of bundles of glycine-rich polyglycine II helices ... "X-ray Structure of Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein Determined by Racemic Crystallization of Synthetic Protein Enantiomers". ... Davies, Peter L.; Graham, Laurie A. (2005-10-21). "Glycine-Rich Antifreeze Proteins from Snow Fleas". Science. 310 (5747): 461 ... A polyproline helix is a type of protein secondary structure which occurs in proteins comprising repeating proline residues. A ...
... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Amphibians and reptiles ... Crevel, R.W.R; Fedyk, J.K; Spurgeon, M.J (July 2002). "Antifreeze proteins: characteristics, occurrence and human exposure". ... Some plants are known to protect themselves against colder temperatures using antifreeze proteins. This occurs in wheat ( ... This mechanism is due to overexpressing the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2), which elevated hypothalamic ...
Antifreeze proteins are a perfect example of convergent evolution. Different small proteins with a flat surface which is rich ... others will surely be described (but see the results based on DNA data). The antifreeze protein of fish in the arctic and ... "These include two proteins from fish, the ocean pout and the winter flounder, and three very active proteins from insects, the ... Crevel RW, Fedyk JK, Spurgeon MJ (July 2002). "Antifreeze proteins: characteristics, occurrence and human exposure". Food and ...
The fish is known to produce antifreeze proteins. However, microbiologist David Pearce of the University of Northumbria in ... The main concern is that the lake could become contaminated with the antifreeze that the Russians used to keep the bore hole ... said that the bacteria could in principle be a contaminant that uses kerosene-the antifreeze used during drilling-as an energy ...
Unlike antifreeze proteins, xylomannan is not a protein. Instead, it is a combination of a sugar (saccharide) and a fatty acid ... "New Antifreeze Molecule Isolated In Alaska Beetle - Science News - redOrbit". Damonte E, Neyts J, Pujol CA, et al. (June 1994 ... Ishiwata A, Sakurai A, Nishimiya Y, Tsuda S, Ito Y (Dec 7, 2011). "Synthetic study and structural analysis of the antifreeze ... Xylomannan is an antifreeze molecule, found in the freeze-tolerant Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides. ...
These antifreeze proteins are thought to stabilize SCPs by binding directly to the surface structures of the ice crystals ... Hanover, NH: University Press of New England ISBN 978-0874517859 Duman JG (2001) Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in ... Horwath KL and Duman JG (1982) Involvement of the Circadian System in Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect Antifreeze Proteins. ... OIKOS 93:286-293 Duman JG (2001) Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods. Annual Review of Physiology. ...
Graham, L. A; Liou, Y. C.; Walker, V. K.; Davies, P. L. (August 1997). "Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles". Nature. ... The hemolymph of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor contains several antifreeze proteins. The Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides ... but this is prevented through the production of antifreeze proteins that stop water molecules from grouping together. The low ... The yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains a family of small Cys-rich and Thr-rich thermal hysteresis proteins that ...
... production of antifreeze proteins and dehydrins increases. As temperatures rise, production of heat shock proteins increases. ... plants can produce various proteins. These protect them from the damaging effects of ice formation and falling rates of enzyme ...
Researchers at Queen's University (Canada) have sequenced and synthesised the anti-freeze-like protein that allows H. nivicola ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "New antifreeze protein may allow longer storage of transplant organs". Queen's ... Unlike proteins with similar functions in other species, the protein found in H. nivicola breaks down easily at higher ... 1 March 2007). "Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein". Biophysical Journal. 92 (5): 1717-1723. doi:10.1529/ ...
Antifreeze proteins cloned from such fish have been used to confer frost-resistance on transgenic plants.[citation needed] ... See insect winter ecology and antifreeze protein. Another invertebrate that is briefly tolerant to temperatures down to -273 °C ... Materials or systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole organisms. Temperatures may range from ... Freezing is made possible by specialized proteins and glucose, which prevent intracellular freezing and dehydration." The wood ...
Antifreeze protein Cryobiology Cryopreservation Thorsen, Stig Morten; Höglind, Mats (2010-12-15). "Modelling cold hardening and ... Duman, J (2002). "The inhibition of ice nucleators by insect antifreeze proteins is enhanced by glycerol and citrate". Journal ... Proteins also play a large role in the cryoprotective compounds that increase ability to survive the cold hardening process and ... This chemistry found within the glycerol compound and reaction between water has been used as an antifreeze in the past, and ...
... antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins) in their bodies to minimize freezing damage during cold winter periods. ... Arctic fish use antifreeze proteins, sometimes appended with sugars, as cryoprotectants. Insects most often use sugars or ... Antifreeze protein Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Cryoconservation of plant genetic resources Cryopreservation ... Ethylene glycol is commonly used as automobile antifreeze; while propylene glycol has been used to reduce ice formation in ice ...
Antifreeze protein from shorthorn sculpin: identification of the ice-binding surface. Protein Sci. 10(12): 2566-2576. Dang, M ... Like some other coldwater fish, it has antifreeze proteins, which allow it to survive at temperatures around or slightly below ... Hew, C.L.; Fletcher, G.L.; Ananthanarayanan, V.S. (1980). Antifreeze proteins from the shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus ...
... canadensis increases the antifreeze proteins in its hind-gut and primary urine at this time. Its antifreeze molecules are ... Wang, Lei; Duman, John G. (August 1, 2005). "Antifreeze proteins of the beetle Dendroides canadensis enhance one another's ... "Antifreeze proteins in the primary urine of larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis". Journal of Experimental Biology. 216: ... antifreeze protein in Arabidopsis thaliana results in a decrease in plant freezing temperature". Plant Molecular Biology. 50 (3 ...
This phenomenon arises when biological antifreeze proteins are present in a solution. Solutions that do not contain antifreeze ... It can also be used to determine the antifreeze activity or thermal hysteresis in a solution, such as fluids from polar fish, ... overwintering insects, cold-hardy plants, any fluid that contains antifreeze proteins.. ... The Clifton nanolitre osmometer is especially well suited for determining the antifreeze activity or thermal hysteresis of a ...
... producing anti-freeze proteins (AFPs) and anti-freeze glycolipids (AFGL), entering into a diapause, producing a multimolar ... The use of antifreeze proteins for frost protection in sensitive crop plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 106:60-69 ... roles of antifreeze proteins, polyols, dehydration and diapause. The Journal of Experimental Biology 208:4467-4477 Bercha, R. ... The Alpha S1 and S2 caesin precursor proteins are thought to have roles in the inhibition of formation of ice nucleators in C. ...
Hon, W. C.; Griffith, M.; Chong, P.; Yang, D. S.-C. (March 1, 1994). "Extraction and Isolation of Antifreeze Proteins from ... The leaves of winter S. cereale produce various antifreeze polypeptides (these are different from the antifreeze polypeptides ... It was discovered that the storage proteins are very diverse and possess a lot of overall genetic variation as well, which is ... In addition, the plant mixture has improved forage and is known to contain digestible fiber and protein. Information about the ...
Meister, K.; Duman, J.G.; Xu, Y.; DeVries, A.L.; Leitner, D.M.; Havenith, M. The role of sulfates on antifreeze protein ... Agbo, J.K.; Gnanasekaran, R.; Leitner, D.M. Communication Maps: Exploring Energy Transport through Proteins and Water. Isr. J. ... His interests are energy-molecule relations and his highest paper is An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins, ... An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins. 104:52. 20749-20752. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...
The notothenioids feature an Antifreeze protein in their bloodstream that prevents them from freezing. Notothenioids account ... Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in Antarctic notothenioid fish, Proceedings of the National ...
Additionally, N. neglecta synthesizes eight antifreeze proteins to combat the freezing temperatures of the environment. ... An antifreeze glycopeptide gene from the antarctic cod Notothenia coriiceps neglecta encodes a polyprotein of high peptide copy ...
... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Most sharks are "cold- ...
Antifreeze proteins in its blood prevent it freezing in the subzero water temperatures of Antarctica. Growing to a maximum ...
Conversely, some organisms have special techniques to prevent crystallization from occurring, such as antifreeze proteins. An ...
2007). "A novel, intracellular antifreeze protein in an antarctic bacterium, Flavobacterium xanthum". Cryo Letters. 28 (1): 39- ...
In the case of the Antarctic zoarcid fish type III antifreeze protein gene (AFPIII; P12102) diverged from a paralogous copy of ... 1157-1164, 2005 Deng, C.; Cheng, C.- H. C.; Ye, H.; He, X.; Chen, L. (29 November 2010). "Evolution of an antifreeze protein by ... The evolution of the antifreeze protein in the Antarctic zoarcid fish L. dearborni provides a prime example of ... It is much more rare to see major changes in protein function, such as subunit structure or substrate and ligand affinity, as a ...
This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ... Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene (afa3) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the ...
Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... "Mammoths had ′anti-freeze′ blood". BBC. 2010-05-02. Retrieved 2010-05-02.. ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. ... Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ...
"Plants: the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DIANE Publishing. ... including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[62] ... This class of compounds includes the heme proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.[115] An exotic and unusual reaction occurs with ... such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, ...
Ethylene is perceived by a family of five transmembrane protein dimers such as the ETR1 protein in Arabidopsis. The genes ... Ethylene oxide is also hydrolyzed to produce ethylene glycol, widely used as an automotive antifreeze as well as higher ... The effects of salinity have been studied on Arabidopsis plants that have mutated ERS1 and EIN4 proteins.[36] These proteins ... Central membrane proteins in plants, such as ETO2, ERS1 and EIN2, are used for ethylene signaling in many plant growth ...
Field, Simon Quellen (2008). Why There's Antifreeze in Your Toothpaste: The Chemistry of Household Ingredients. Chicago: ... It serves the important function of controlling the bacteria that cause botulism, but sodium nitrite can react with proteins, ...
Some proteins, such as the antifreeze protein of Hypogastrura harveyi consist of bundles of glycine-rich polyglycine II helices ... "X-ray Structure of Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein Determined by Racemic Crystallization of Synthetic Protein Enantiomers". ... Davies, Peter L.; Graham, Laurie A. (2005-10-21). "Glycine-Rich Antifreeze Proteins from Snow Fleas". Science. 310 (5747): 461 ... A polyproline helix is a type of protein secondary structure which occurs in proteins comprising repeating proline residues.[1] ...
Oxalic acid can also be produced by the metabolism of ethylene glycol ("antifreeze"), glyoxylic acid, or ascorbic acid (vitamin ... an excess of protein in the urine) and with large amounts of calcium oxalate in urine sediment.[39] Oxalobacter formigenes in ...
Conversely, some organisms have special techniques to prevent crystallization from occurring, such as antifreeze proteins. ...
... s protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose ... "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part , 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ... protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing. ... "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. ...
Therefore, nitrogen fixation is required for the synthesis of amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Some ... ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as ...
Proteins. Type. Description. Examples Integral proteins. or transmembrane proteins. Span the membrane and have a hydrophilic ... Acting as antifreeze, cholesterol maintains the fluidity of the membrane. Cholesterol is more abundant in cold-weather animals ... Membrane proteins consist of three main types: Integral proteins, peripheral proteins, and lipid-anchored proteins.[3] ... G proteins Peripheral proteins. Attached to integral membrane proteins, or associated with peripheral regions of the lipid ...
Ethylene glycol, a component of automobile antifreeze, is a poison that is toxic to the whole body including the optic nerve. ... Undernourished patients often suffer from many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies and have low serum protein levels. However, ...
They overwinter under the ice in estuaries, producing an antifreeze protein and glycerol.[7] In the spring, they spawn at night ...
Biological antifreezes[edit]. Antifreeze proteins refer to chemical compounds produced by certain animals, plants, and other ... Antifreeze proteins bind to small ice crystals to inhibit growth and recrystallization of ice that would otherwise be fatal.[4] ... Fletcher GL, Hew CL, Davies PL (2001). "Antifreeze proteins of teleost fishes". Annual Review of Physiology. 63: 359-90. doi: ... Other antifreezes[edit]. Propylene glycol methyl ether is used as an antifreeze in diesel engines. It is more volatile than ...
The modifications prevent natural, harmful proteins from being made via RNA interference.[97][98] They do not employ genes from ... Lundmark, C. (2006). "Searching Evolutionary Pathways: Antifreeze Genes from Antarctic Hairgrass". BioScience. 56 (6): 552. doi ... Transgenic plants are used to express proteins like the cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, herbicide resistant genes, antibodies ... Companies that produce Bt seed are introducing strains with multiple Bt proteins. Monsanto did this with Bt cotton in India, ...
... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Amphibians and reptiles ... "OMIM entry on human UnCoupling Protein 2 (UCP2)". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man.. ... This mechanism is due to overexpressing the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2), which elevated hypothalamic ...
In common with other corrosive acids and alkali, it readily decomposes proteins and lipids through amide and ester hydrolysis ... insecticides and antifreeze, as well as in various processes such as oil well acidicizing, aluminium reduction, paper sizing, ... Similar to their alkaline versions, such drain openers can dissolve fats and proteins via hydrolysis. Moreover, as concentrated ...
Killing mold with a biocide is insufficient, since chemicals and proteins causing reactions in humans remain in dead mold. The ... Antifreeze. *Automobile air conditioning. *Autonomous building. *Building insulation materials. *Central heating. *Central ...
as a solvent, it is miscible with polar solvents and is used to solubilize proteins such as albumins and casein. It is also ...
AntifreezeEdit. Main article: Antifreeze. Like ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, glycerol is a non-ionic kosmotrope that ... Circulating glycerol does not glycate proteins as do glucose or fructose, and does not lead to the formation of advanced ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and ... Glycerol was historically used as an anti-freeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol, which ...
"Plants: the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DianePublishing. p ... including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[65] Large quantities of oxygen or ... This class of compounds includes the heme proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.[128] An exotic and unusual reaction occurs with ... such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, ...
The rice protein was imported from Binzhou Futian Biology Technology Co. Ltd. in China, a company spokesman said.[2] ... a constituent of antifreeze. Some Chinese manufacturers had been using it as a less-expensive substitute for glycerol, a safe ... The FDA says it originated in wheat gluten and rice protein concentrate imported from mainland China that was added to the pet ... In April 2007, animal feed provider Wilbur-Ellis Company issued a recall of rice protein it supplies to pet food companies ...
Although meat protein can be substituted with vegetable proteins, vegetable proteins do not provide a sufficiency of the ... Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning[edit]. Cats can succumb quickly from ethylene glycol poisoning, after ingesting as ... Most felines with IBD also have several food allergies, including red meat proteins, fish oils, and gluten, which must be ... "College of Veterinary Medicine: Pet Health Topics: Antifreeze Poisoning" Archived 2015-02-10 at the Wayback Machine, Washington ...
Other examples are the lipid A synthesis enzyme LpxA and insect antifreeze proteins with a regular array of Thr sidechains on ... Tertiary Protein Structure and Folds: section 4.3.2.1. From Principles of Protein Structure, Comparative Protein Modelling, and ... Richardson JS (1981). Anatomy and Taxonomy of Protein Structures. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 34. pp. 167-339. doi:10.1016/ ... Hutchinson EG, Thornton JM (1990). "HERA--a program to draw schematic diagrams of protein secondary structures". Proteins. 8 (3 ...
... but may tolerate colder temperatures owing to the presence of antifreeze protein compounds in its blood. They group in large ...
... an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I think the point is that since the protein can be ... Antifreeze Protein Synthesised 13 Posted by timothy on Monday August 20, 2001 @07:56PM. from the new-chemical-factories dept. ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I guarantee that your average protein is larger ...
... and Cryopreservation Nature has evolved a huge range of mechanisms to allow life to ... One of the key reasons why fish can survive here is that they produce a series of antifreeze (glyco)proteins. The most famous ... Congdon, TC, Notman, R., Gibson, MI, Biomacromolecules, 2013, DOI 10.1021/bm400217j Antifreeze (Glyco)Protein Mimetic Behaviour ... We are very interested in developing antifreeze-protein mimics to enhance cellular and ultimately organ storage.. ...
Antifreeze Proteins market worldwide is projected to grow by US$12.5 Million, driven by a compounded growth of 28.6%. ... Antifreeze Proteins - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering. ... Antifreeze Proteins market worldwide is projected to grow by US$12.5 Million, driven by a compounded growth of 28.6%. Fish, one ... "Antifreeze Proteins - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering. ...
Fish Antifreeze Produced in Pancreas Antifreeze Proteins: Molecule of the Month, by David Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain animals, ... These proteins were later called antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) or antifreeze glycopeptides to distinguish them from newly ... Recent attempts have been made to relabel antifreeze proteins as ice structuring proteins to more accurately represent their ...
This finding could lead to a broader application of the antifreeze protein in food and medical industries. ... from the sea ice microalga does not fit in the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins, suggesting unknown ... Scientists have discovered that an ice-binding protein (fcIBP) ... Small protein, big impact University of Würzburg * Cancer cells ... This finding could lead to a broader application of the antifreeze protein in food and medical industries. Organisms living in ...
1993) Use of proline mutants to help solve the NMR solution structure of type III antifreeze protein. Protein Sc 2(9):1411-1428 ... Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions. Yeliz Celik, Laurie A. Graham, Yee-Foong Mok, Maya Bar, Peter L. ... Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions. Yeliz Celik, Laurie A. Graham, Yee-Foong Mok, Maya Bar, Peter L. ... Antifreeze proteins at the ice/water interface: Three calculated discriminating properties for orientation of type I proteins. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Proteins matched: Choristoneura fumiferana antifreeze (IPR007928) The following proteins are predicted to be part of this ... Antifreeze protein AFP Cf18. Choristoneura fumiferana (Spruce budworm moth). Loading... Q5I2X8 Antifreeze protein AFP Cf1. ...
Antarctic notothenioid fish avoid freezing in their perpetually icy environment because of an antifreeze... ... It is said that all proteins function by binding to other molecules. To what ligand do you suppose antifreeze proteins bind to ... Antarctic notothenioid fish avoid freezing in their perpetually icy environment because of an antifreeze protein that ... The protein binds to tiny ice crystal and prevent the growth of these crystals.. But in more technical terms. These compounds ...
... fail as evidence formolecules-to-man evolution though they may be a new protein produced by mutation and natural selection. ... Antifreeze proteinsin general, and this example in particular, ... a class of proteins called antifreeze proteins (AFPs) appear to ... more akin to beneficial debris than a new complex and specified protein. Creating an antifreeze protein naturalistically is ... Antifreeze protein evolution: turning wrenches into hammers. by Shaun Doyle. Evolutionists have often claimed that gene ...
... or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, ... a new name for antifreeze proteins Commercial Use Commercially, there appears to be infinite uses for antifreeze proteins. ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... However, insect antifreeze proteins are 10-30 times more active than any known fish protein. This is probably because insects ...
Antifreeze proteins in Antarctic fish prevent both freezing and melting. Protein-bound ice crystals resist melting even when ... By testing the antifreeze proteins in the lab, the team found that these proteins also were responsible for preventing the ... What we found is that the antifreeze proteins also stop internal ice crystals from melting. That is, they are anti-melt ... In the new study, the team investigated whether the antifreeze protein-bound ice crystals inside these fish would melt as ...
... 15.03.2019. New research shows that some antifreeze proteins can do both ... Antifreeze is lifes means of surviving in cold winters: Natural antifreeze proteins help fish, insects, plants and even ... The scientists wanted to compare the antifreeze proteins to natural proteins that can promote the growth of ice crystals. Some ... Antifreeze proteins like those in the fish are used today, among other things, to keep ice cream smooth and to keep outside ...
|div style=margin:20px;| |div class=imageleft whiteimg style=width: 200px;margin:15px;| |img alt=Radio announcer src=/images/specialprojects/6599announcer.jpg /| |p class=credit|iStockphoto|/p| |/div| |!-- |div class=imageright whiteimg style=width: 200px;margin:15px;| |img alt=Radio buttons src=/images/specialprojects/6599radio-buttons.jpg| |p class=credit align=right|stock.xchng|/p| |/div| --| |p| You can download these professionally produced |strong|60-second|/strong| audio files to play on your own radio programs, church website or even personal website. |/p| |p|The clips deal with some of the most-asked questions and topical subjects in the media today.|/p| |p| Each clip has been produced with a closing trailer/tag with two different voice formats to be suitable for your own country. One ending tag can be heard with a standard North American accent. The other ending tag had a
The antifreeze activity of Z. viviparus antifreeze proteins is concentration dependent and showed a saturation effect when the ... Two antifreeze proteins with molecular weights of approx. 6.5-7 kDa were characterised and found to share high similarity to ... At least 3 different antifreeze proteins were purified from Z. viviparus serum but more isoforms are most likely present. ... Isolation and some characterisation of antifreeze protein from the european eelpout Zoarces viviparus ...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), a class of proteins capable of arresting ice crystal growth, are known to inhibit this phenomenon ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), a class of proteins capable of arresting ice crystal growth, are known to inhibit this phenomenon ... Fish-Derived Antifreeze Proteins and Antifreeze Glycoprotein Exhibit a Different Ice-Binding Property with Increasing ... Rational design of short antifreeze peptides derived from Rhagium inquisitor antifreeze protein *Lai Fun Kong ...
... antifreeze proteins »crystals »ice crystals »marine environments »melting point »notothenioid »proteins »proteins in » ... antifreeze proteins , crystals , ice crystals , marine environments , melting point , notothenioid , proteins , proteins in , ... By testing the antifreeze proteins in the lab, the team found that these proteins also were responsible for preventing the ... DeVries discovered antifreeze proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fishes in the late 1960s, and was the first to describe how ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
IBPs, including the antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that prevent the freezing of organisms, are found in nearly all biological ... PROTEIN KINASE A, EXCHANGE PROTEIN ACTIVATED BY cAMP 1, AND PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4D ALL ASSOCIATE WITH VE-CADHERIN TO REGULATE ... Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) is an integral membrane protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily ... Biochemical Characterization of Nucleotide and Protein Interactions of Human Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)  Wang ...
ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN ISOFORM HPLC6. A, B. 38. Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Mutation(s): 0 Membrane Entity: Yes ... Ice-binding structure and mechanism of an antifreeze protein from winter flounder.. Sicheri, F., Yang, D.S.. (1995) Nature 375 ... Antifreeze proteins provide fish with protection against the freezing effect of polar environments by binding to ice surfaces ... Antifreeze proteins provide fish with protection against the freezing effect of polar environments by binding to ice surfaces ...
Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties.. Matsumura K1, Hyon SH. ... We also found that carboxylated PLLs showed antifreeze protein properties, such as ice recrystallization inhibition, which may ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in ... Antifreeze Proteins (AFPs) or Ice Structuring Proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... product/2VCNULAAF/beetle-antifreeze-protein /, ,input type=hidden class= name=confirmation value=emailConfirmationModal ... Models Biology Chemistry Biochemsitry Enzyme Biological Models Science Cell Cellular Biology Cell Biology Antifreeze Protein ...
tags: antifreeze proteins x culture x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » antifreeze proteins, culture and genetics & ...
tags: antifreeze proteins x developmental biology x evolution x The Scientist. » antifreeze proteins, developmental biology and ...
By virtue of their two AFPs, antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) (1) and antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) (9), members of the ... 2003) Freezing avoidance of Antarctic fishes: The role of a novel antifreeze potentiating protein and the antifreeze ... Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming. ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive ...
... type III antifreeze protein (AFP) can depress the freezing point of fish blood to below that of freezing seawater. This 7-kDa ... globular protein is encoded by a multigene family that produces two major isoforms, SP and QAE, which are 55% identical. ... Compound ice-binding site of an antifreeze protein revealed by mutagenesis and fluorescent tagging Biochemistry. 2010 Oct 26;49 ... By binding to the surface of ice crystals, type III antifreeze protein (AFP) can depress the freezing point of fish blood to ...
By right clicking on a region of the protein (not the guide) it will pull up a menu with 6 tools. The bottom right one is " ... You might notice that the protein has an unusually high number of glycines. The lack of side chain in glycine is critical for ... When starting this puzzle, you might want to set the entire structure to sheet and then straighten out the protein entirely. ... Developed by: UW Center for Game Science, UW Institute for Protein Design, Northeastern University, Vanderbilt University ...
Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). - Stock Image C025 ... Caption: Fish antifreeze protein. Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder ( ... fish antifreeze protein, ice structuring protein, illustration, isp, model, molecular, molecular model, molecular structure, ... molecule, protein, proteomics, pseudopleuronectes americanus, structure, thermal hysteresis protein, white background, winter ...
By right clicking on a region of the protein (not the guide) it will pull up a menu with 6 tools. The bottom right one is " ... Developed by: UW Center for Game Science, UW Institute for Protein Design, Northeastern University, Vanderbilt University ... This will help you see what sections on your protein correspond to the guide! ... "Align Guide". Clicking on it will align the native guide to the region of the protein you selected.. ...
... is thought to act as an adjunct to the previously characterised antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), the two acting together to ... A recently identified Antarctic fish protein termed antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) ... A recently identified Antarctic fish protein termed antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) is thought to act as an adjunct to ... Chemical synthesis of a masked analogue of the fish antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) Org Biomol Chem. 2013 Aug 14;11(30): ...
Antifreeze Proteins Market report categorizes the global market by End Use (Medical, Cosmetics, and Food), Type (Type I, Type ... III, and Antifreeze Glycoproteins), Source (Fish, Plants, and Insects), and Region ... 4.2 Antifreeze Proteins Market Size, By Region 4.3 Antifreeze Proteins Market, By Type 4.4 Antifreeze Proteins Market, By End ... Antifreeze Proteins Market Snapshot. Figure 27 Europe: Antifreeze Proteins Market Snapshot. Figure 28 Asia Pacific: Antifreeze ...
  • It has been argued that for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to stop ice crystal growth, they must irreversibly bind to the ice surface. (pnas.org)
  • This increase in melting temperature was more appreciable for hyperactive AFPs compared to the AFPs with moderate antifreeze activity. (pnas.org)
  • Knight and DeVries predicted that ice crystals in a solution containing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) would remain stable when superheated ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • AFPs are structurally diverse proteins evolved in marine and terrestrial organisms to help survival in freezing conditions ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1 However, a class of proteins called antifreeze proteins (AFPs) appear to have gone against this trend. (creation.com)
  • 2 So do these AFPs represent a neo-Darwinian mechanism producing a new protein? (creation.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments. (bionity.com)
  • Unlike the widely used automotive antifreeze, ethylene glycol, AFPs do not lower freezing point in proportion to concentration. (bionity.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), a class of proteins capable of arresting ice crystal growth, are known to inhibit this phenomenon even at sub milli-molar concentrations. (nature.com)
  • IBPs, including the antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that prevent the freezing of organisms, are found in nearly all biological kingdoms. (queensu.ca)
  • Antarctic notothenioid fishes are protected from freezing by antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to invading ice crystals and inhibit their growth. (pnas.org)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. (pnas.org)
  • Various polar teleost fishes rely on the presence of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in their blood and other body fluids to survive in the freezing seawater (−1.9 °C) of the world's polar oceans. (pnas.org)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect marine teleosts from freezing in icy seawater by binding to nascent ice crystals and preventing their growth. (queensu.ca)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) aid the survival of cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals in the organism. (rsc.org)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are characterized by their ability to protect organisms from subfreezing temperatures. (ruc.dk)
  • The production of this protein through insect cell line fermentation provides a platform for the future production and optimization of AFPs for hydrate inhibition. (ruc.dk)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are characterized by their ability to protect organisms from subfreezing temperatures by preventing tiny ice crystals in solution from growing as the solution is cooled below its freezing temperature. (dtu.dk)
  • This inhibition of ice growth is called antifreeze activity, and in particular, certain insect AFPs show very high antifreeze activity. (dtu.dk)
  • There are four types of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). (ijbs.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have been found in fungi, bacteria, plants and animals, and they can bind to ice crystals to inhibit growth and recrystallization of ice [ 21 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are often called ice-binding proteins and are thought to bind to ice or ice-like crystals exclusively to control their growth. (growkudos.com)
  • The crystal recognition repertoire of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) has been first expanded beyond ice and ice-like crystals and the effects of AFPs on the non-ice like crystal growth are highly efficient, compared with those of other additives on crystal growth control. (growkudos.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or structure of ice. (paperity.org)
  • The bulky side chain of Leu174 in domain A sterically hinders the binding of water molecules to the protein backbone, partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this protein and general insight on how structural differences in the ice-binding sites affect the activity of AFPs. (paperity.org)
  • As an adaptive response to cold environmental conditions, many organisms, such as fish, plants and insects, have developed antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that allow them to survive at subfreezing temperatures. (calstatela.edu)
  • Highly efficient enhancers can greatly increase the antifreeze activity of AFPs and thus reduce the cost of the usage of AFPs in these applications. (calstatela.edu)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to ice crystal surfaces and arrest their growth. (amolf.nl)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) production is a survival strategy of psychrophiles in ice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, there is not much information regarding the interaction of Antarctic bacterial AFPs with ice, and new determinations are needed to understand the behaviour of these proteins at the water/ice interface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modelled proteins showed a triangular prism form similar to β-helix AFPs with a linear distribution of threonine residues at one side of the prism that could correspond to the putative ice binding side. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modeled proteins possess a β-helix structure, and molecular docking analysis revealed the AFP gu3B could be the most efficient AFPs in order to avoid the formation of ice crystals, even when gu3A has a higher affinity for ice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists know about these antifreeze proteins (AFPs), but not so much about the mechanisms that make them work. (ucsd.edu)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) is also known as ice structuring proteins (ISPs). (theinsightpartners.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of protein characterized by their ability to depress the freezing point of water sufficient to prevent the formation of ice crystals by adsorbing to the surface of ice crystals. (unh.edu)
  • AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. (amolf.nl)
  • Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. (amolf.nl)
  • The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. (amolf.nl)
  • Fish blood, which is considerably less salty, would be expected to freeze at -0.5 °C. To avoid this, Arctic fish have evolved specialised antifreeze proteins (AFPs). (scienceinschool.org)
  • The properties of these proteins have led them to be referred to as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), thermal hysteresis (TH) proteins, ice-binding proteins, and re-crystallization inhibiting (RI) proteins. (usda.gov)
  • The relatively low TH activity of plant AFPs (IBPs), however, has been solely demonstrated in vitro in plant or protein (purified and non-purified) extracts. (usda.gov)
  • Therefore, more studies on TH activity of plant AFPs (IBPs) should be conducted in nanopore systems that simulate cell wall structure to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the potential role of the TH activity of plant AFPs in ice formation and propagation, especially since these proteins are secreted into the apoplast. (usda.gov)
  • An effective strategy for cold resistance is the expression of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) - a class of polypeptides that allow survival in cold environments. (northgeorgia.edu)
  • AFPs and AFGPs (antifreeze glycoproteins) are relatively high molecular mass molecules that have the ability to stabilize membranes during chilling and control ice crystal growth during freezing of cells and tissues. (northgeorgia.edu)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have been found in the blood of many teleost species and have the ability to bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. (mun.ca)
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), found in certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria have the ability to permit their survival in subzero environments by thermal hysteresis mechanism. (figshare.com)
  • The inhibition activities of two antifreeze proteins (AFPs) on the formation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate have been tested. (gc.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementing vitrification and warming solutions with two types of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and the combination thereof on the follicular integrity of vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries . (bvsalud.org)
  • According to an article in New Scientist, an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of California. (slashdot.org)
  • If you are talking about substitutes for fuel or lubricant oil, then i dont know though, but i would suspect, that ordinary oil would not freexe at normal temperatures (except in the extreme arctic or antarctic environments) and similarly with kerosene or petrol, they are liquid below 0C centigrade as they is, and the additives in those is not for antifreeze, bur rathre for engine performance and durability. (slashdot.org)
  • Antarctic notothenioid fish avoid freezing in their perpetually icy environment because of an antifreeze protein that circulates in their blood. (physicsforums.com)
  • Researchers have recently posited a detailed evolutionary scenario for the evolution of an antifreeze protein from such a gene duplication event in a species of Antarctic eelpout (ray-finned fish), Lycodichthys dearborni . (creation.com)
  • Antifreeze glycoproteins or AFGPs are found in Antarctic notothenioids and northern cod. (bionity.com)
  • Antarctic fish that manufacture their own 'antifreeze' proteins to survive in the icy Southern Ocean also suffer an unfortunate side effect, researchers funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report: The protein-bound ice crystals that accumulate inside their bodies resist melting even when temperatures warm. (nsf.gov)
  • We discovered what appears to be an undesirable consequence of the evolution of antifreeze proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fish,' said University of Oregon doctoral student Paul Cziko, who led the research with University of Illinois animal biology professors Chi-Hing 'Christina' Cheng and Arthur DeVries. (nsf.gov)
  • With NSF support, Arthur DeVries discovered antifreeze proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fish in the late 1960s, and was the first to describe how the proteins bind to ice crystals in the blood to prevent the fish from freezing. (nsf.gov)
  • This long-standing and continuously refined work on the antifreeze properties of Antarctic fish exemplifies one of the best and defining features of good science,' said Charles Amsler, organisms and ecosystems program director in Polar Programs. (nsf.gov)
  • Antarctic fishes that manufacture their own "antifreeze" proteins to survive in the icy Southern Ocean also suffer an unfortunate side effect, researchers report: The protein-bound ice crystals that accumulate inside their bodies resist melting even when temperatures warm. (innovations-report.com)
  • The paper, "Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming," is available online or from the U. of I. News Bureau . (innovations-report.com)
  • This thesis describes: 1) the use of protein engineering to increase ice-binding protein (IBP) activity and thermal stability, and 2) the binding interaction and microcolony formation between an Antarctic bacterium and diatom. (queensu.ca)
  • The IBP found on the cell surface of a Gram-negative Antarctic bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis, is one region of an exceptionally large multi-domain 1.5 MDa protein, MpIBP. (queensu.ca)
  • A recently identified Antarctic fish protein termed antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) is thought to act as an adjunct to the previously characterised antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), the two acting together to inhibit ice crystal growth in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • R&D in TU/e University (Netherlands) for extraction of antifreeze proteins from polar fish such as Antarctic fish, snow scorpionflies, and other cold climate fishes has revealed significant differences in the types of protein extracted. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • It was hypothesized that the cold ice-shelf water, lethal to fishes without antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP's) in their blood, was excluding the oceanic species from most of the Antarctic continental shelf waters. (usf.edu)
  • Many organisms in extremely cold environments such as the Antarctic Pole have evolved antifreeze molecules to prevent ice formation. (ijbs.com)
  • Evolutionary disparate Antarctic notothenioids and Arctic gadids have adapted to their freezing environments through the elaboration of essentially identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs). (cambridge.org)
  • Genomic basis for antifreeze glycopeptide heterogeneity and abundance in Antarctic notothenioid fishes. (cambridge.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of an Isoform Antifreeze Protein from the Antarctic Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile and Suggestion of the Core Region. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • An intracellular antifreeze protein from an Antarctic microalga that responds to various environmental stresses. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Different Antarctic places were screened for antifreeze activity and microorganisms were selected for the presence of thermal hysteresis in their crude extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fish in the Antarctic have antifreeze proteins. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • To stop their blood freezing, some fish that live in the Arctic and Antarctic have special antifreeze proteins. (planet-science.com)
  • The protein was isolated from the blood plasma of winter flounder. (bionity.com)
  • Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). (sciencephoto.com)
  • A cDNA made to antifreeze protein mRNA of the winter flounder was cloned in the plasmid pBR322 and its sequence was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. (caltech.edu)
  • Isolation, characterization, and physical properties of protein antifreezes from the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In order to further our understanding of these proteins that are not produced in the liver, epithelial cells of the winter flounder gill were isolated and maintained in culture to look for the presence of skin type I AFP. (mun.ca)
  • The winter flounder is one such fish that utilizes these proteins to survive in its frigid environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins [AF(G)Ps] have been well-known for their ability to inhibit ice growth and recrystallization by interactions with specific ice crystal faces, representing a noteworthy example of crystal control in nature. (calstatela.edu)
  • Antifreeze glycoproteins not lost with the faeces are resorbed from the gut via the rectal epithelium, transported to the blood and ultimately secreted into the bile, from where they re-enter the gastrointestinal tract. (cambridge.org)
  • N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains ( glycans ) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are attached to some proteins to form glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins , where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on type, the market is segmented into type i, type iii, antifreeze glycoproteins and others. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • This is the ability of the proteins to stop ice crystals from growing larger. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The study showed that fclBP attaches to both basal and prism faces of ice crystals although it is capable of lowering the freezing point by less than 1 degree C or so, defying the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • The protein binds to tiny ice crystal and prevent the growth of these crystals. (physicsforums.com)
  • These proteins bind to the surface of ice crystals and prevent water molecules from binding to the ice crystals, preventing the ice crystals from growing. (creation.com)
  • What we found is that the antifreeze proteins also stop internal ice crystals from melting. (nsf.gov)
  • In the new study, the team investigated whether the antifreeze protein-bound ice crystals inside these fish would melt as expected when temperatures warmed. (nsf.gov)
  • By testing the antifreeze proteins in the lab, the team found that these proteins also were responsible for preventing the internal ice crystals from melting. (nsf.gov)
  • Strangely enough, in very cold conditions, the same proteins can also promote the growth of ice crystals. (innovations-report.com)
  • The scientists wanted to compare the antifreeze proteins to natural proteins that can promote the growth of ice crystals. (innovations-report.com)
  • While in pure water microdroplets with nothing added, ice would begin to form at around 38.5 degrees below zero, in around half of the samples with antifreeze proteins, ice crystals began forming at a higher temperature - close to minus 34. (innovations-report.com)
  • In other words, at certain temperatures, which are extreme but not unknown on the planet, the antifreeze actually becomes pro-freeze, initiating the growth of ice crystals. (innovations-report.com)
  • The group compared these findings to what is known about the natural proteins that promote the growth of ice crystals (ice-nucleating proteins, or INPs). (innovations-report.com)
  • For Prof. Rudich, whose work focuses on atmosphere and climate, it may help shed light on the physical processes that affect cloud formation, in which proteins and other complex molecules have an impact on the development of ice crystals in clouds. (innovations-report.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins provide fish with protection against the freezing effect of polar environments by binding to ice surfaces and inhibiting growth of ice crystals. (rcsb.org)
  • These special proteins irreversibly bind to ice crystals that enter the body, depressing the temperature at which ice will grow below the equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP) of body fluids (approximately −0.7 to −1.0 °C) to a lower nonequilibrium hysteresis freezing point (hFP) ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • By binding to the surface of ice crystals, type III antifreeze protein (AFP) can depress the freezing point of fish blood to below that of freezing seawater. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. (umassmed.edu)
  • Antifreeze proteins are naturally occurring proteins and peptides, which are found in a variety of living organisms (such as fish, plants, and insects).where they do not prevent freezing, but control the size, shape and aggregation of ice crystals. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins" refer to a class of proteins that have the property of sticking fast to a specific facet of ice crystals. (or.jp)
  • Antifreeze proteins bind to the surface of ice crystals and inhibit the growth of these crystals, this inhibition causes thermal hysteresis. (mybiosource.com)
  • Ice-binding proteins protect organisms in cold habitats from freezing or ice injuries by inhibiting the formation of ice crystals. (europa.eu)
  • The most striking property antifreeze proteins is their ability to prevent growth of ice crystals upon cooling and thus they produce a thermal hysteresis, i.e. a separation of the equilibrium freezing point of a solution and the temperature where an ice crystal can grow. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Professor Peter Davies said they have been studying snow fleas and have identified what they call "antifreeze" proteins, which bond to ice crystals to keep them from growing and stopping circulation. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Antifreeze proteins prevent water from freezing by absorbing to the ice surface and stopping the growth of minute ice crystals to large crystals in a non-colligative manner. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • In his research, DeVries found that when these fish entered freezing waters, the proteins attached to ice crystals inside the body and inhibited their growth. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Proteins that determine the temperature at which ice crystals will form in water-based solutions in cells and tissues, that bind to growing ice crystals, thus affecting their size, and that impact ice re-crystallization have been widely-documented and studied in many plant, bacterial, fungal, insect, and other animal species. (usda.gov)
  • They also mapped the protein's genetic sequence to show how it stops ice crystals from forming on tissue and tested the protein on liver tissue to demonstrate its effectiveness as an antifreezing agent. (yaledailynews.com)
  • There are many techniques that aid in maintaining a liquid state, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, which bind to ice crystals to prevent water molecules from binding and spreading the growth of ice. (wikipedia.org)
  • We need to understand the molecular mechanisms behind their antifreeze properties. (eurekalert.org)
  • Or do you think this might be an example of a protein that functions in the absence of any molecular interaction? (physicsforums.com)
  • Two antifreeze proteins with molecular weights of approx. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • a) Steric structure of Tis antifreeze protein, (b) Molecular surface of Tis antifreeze protein. (or.jp)
  • This second volume, written in four parts, offers the reader a thorough picture on molecular, structural and applied aspects of antifreeze proteins. (springer.com)
  • Low molecular weight organic compounds tend to have melting points lower than water, which recommends them as antifreeze agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined molecular dynamics and neural network method for predicting protein antifreeze activity. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • HR-MAS NMR proved to be a viable tool for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of ionic liquid - protein interactions. (unh.edu)
  • Here, four long explicit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (277 and 298 K) with and without glycan to study the conformational rigidity of the Ocean pout type III antifreeze protein in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its ice-binding surface. (figshare.com)
  • Also known as Antifreeze protein Maxi (5a-like AFP) (Type 1 hyperactive antifreeze protein) (AFP Hyp-1). (mybiosource.com)
  • We found that no mutant exhibited the dramatic activity of the wild-type version of this hyperactive antifreeze protein. (plu.mx)
  • Beta-helix structure and ice-binding properties of a hyperactive antifreeze protein from an insect. (readabstracts.com)
  • Volume production of antifreeze proteins hold promise for technology development for stable frozen storage of food products and biological cells. (or.jp)
  • Therefore it may be a promising source for low-cost production of antifreeze proteins, leading to the promotion of frozen storage technologies for stable preservation of such perishable items as food products and biological cells. (or.jp)
  • Thus, this has surged the demand for antifreeze proteins to prevent crystallization during the freezing and storage. (gmiresearch.com)
  • This antifreeze proteins market report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the sub-segments from 2017 to 2027. (reportsanddata.com)
  • The "Global Antifreeze Proteins Market Analysis to 2027" is a specialized and in-depth study of the food and beverage industry with a special focus on the global market trend analysis. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The Type I antifreeze protein is found in fishes that live in cold weather. (gmiresearch.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins and organismal freezing avoidance in polar fishes. (cambridge.org)
  • DUBLIN , Oct. 11, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Antifreeze Proteins - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (yahoo.com)
  • Market Size - USD 2.0 Million in 2019, Market Growth - CAGR of 27.4%, Market Trend- Increasing Investment in R&D and Innovations to Strengthen Demand is an opportunity for the antifreeze proteins market. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Scope of the Report: The worldwide market for Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2024, from xx million US$ in 2019, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study. (intenseresearch.com)
  • Kondo is the co-author of an October 2019 study in the journal Science that determined the structure of the complex of proteins that make up B-Raf and also found how the paradoxical B-Raf activation happens. (phys.org)
  • We also found that carboxylated PLLs showed antifreeze protein properties, such as ice recrystallization inhibition, which may contribute to successful cryopreservation by membrane protection. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of antifreeze protein III for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi (Bubalus bubalis) buffalo bull sperm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. (scienceopen.com)
  • Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. (scienceopen.com)
  • Modulation of antifreeze activity and the effect upon post-thaw HepG2 cell viability after cryopreservation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Because of these proteins' ability to prevent and slow the rate of ice crystal formation, they have great potential in the application of cryopreservation in medicine, agriculture and food science. (unh.edu)
  • It helps to prepare Marketing Policies by understanding the rising trends developing and improving antifreeze proteins market development. (bbstate.com)
  • Ice-binding protein functions cannot be evaluated only by the attachment of the proteins to basal faces or by ice crystal growth inhibition. (eurekalert.org)
  • These AFP multimers had improved antifreeze and ice-recrystallization inhibition activity. (queensu.ca)
  • Here we show that an insect antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle, Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1), the most potent protein yet found for freezing inhibition, can inhibit methane hydrates as effectively as the synthetic polymeric inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). (dtu.dk)
  • RmAFP1 clearly showed inhibition of hydrates compared to amino acids (l-valine and l-threonine) and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). (dtu.dk)
  • The results are discussed in the context of a two-stage model for the absorption−inhibition mechanism of antifreeze protein binding to ice surfaces. (plu.mx)
  • Ice recrystallization inhibition mediated by a nuclear-expressed and -secreted recombinant ice-binding protein in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Multiple forms of antifreeze proteins are synthesized within each organism. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Metallothioneins and most forms of antifreeze proteins from insects are known to contain unusually high amounts cysteine. (bibsys.no)
  • During the extreme winter months, the spruce budworm resists freezing at temperatures approaching −30 °C. The Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides can survive in a temperature of -60 °C by using antifreeze agents that are not proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not once in that time did temperatures increase enough to overcome the antifreeze proteins' anti-melting effect to completely rid the fish of their internal ice, the researchers report. (nsf.gov)
  • Antifreeze is life's means of surviving in cold winters: Natural antifreeze proteins help fish, insects, plants and even bacteria live through low temperatures that should turn their liquid parts to deadly shards of ice. (innovations-report.com)
  • View of a research chip through a microscope: a high concentration of antifreeze proteins ensures that the drops freeze at temperatures that are less cold than usual (frozen drops are dark). (innovations-report.com)
  • Once the antifreeze proteins were added to the droplets, they were cooled to chilling temperatures. (innovations-report.com)
  • INPs can efficiently form ice at higher temperatures than those in which the antifreeze proteins switched to ice production. (innovations-report.com)
  • This study suggests that these proteins may have limitations, and could actually promote ice buildup when exposed to extremely cold temperatures such as those that hit the North American continent this year. (innovations-report.com)
  • Exposure to low temperatures stimulates synthesis of antifreeze proteins in large amounts. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Antifreeze protein is the class of polypeptides, which are produced from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi that allow their survival in temperatures below the freezing point of water. (gmiresearch.com)
  • Many insects and animals have special proteins that act like car antifreeze to prevent ice from forming and spreading in their bodies amidst harsh winter temperatures. (ucsd.edu)
  • Rather, thanks to deep ocean waters that never freeze solid, combined with uniquely wonderful antifreeze proteins produced within their bodies, many polar and subpolar marine bony fish are able to go about their lives in relative comfort, despite the frigid temperatures. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • By flash-freezing viruses at temperatures hundreds of degrees below zero, essentially stopping their motion while still preserving their structure, researchers can use electron microscopes to take pictures of viruses and their proteins. (phys.org)
  • It is said that all proteins function by binding to other molecules. (physicsforums.com)
  • see the Perspective by Sharp ) report a high-resolution structure showing that the antifreeze protein Maxi retains about 400 water molecules in its core. (sciencemag.org)
  • The final model consists of protein residues 23-445 for protein molecule A, 23-446 for protein molecule B, one nitrate anion and 684 water molecules. (omictools.com)
  • We find thatRmAFP, unlike other proteins,retains its hydrating water molecules upon adsorption to the ice surface. (amolf.nl)
  • The animal responds by producing special protein molecules antibodies that bind to the coat of the parasite and stop its growth. (panspermia.org)
  • Those pictures revealed where the antibody binds to the protein, information that could help other researchers design molecules to interfere with infection. (phys.org)
  • To avoid the problems faced by other researchers, we used a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction to examine the structure of the protein and its interactions with water molecules. (scienceinschool.org)
  • From rotational auto correlation function of water molecules around ice-binding sites, it is prominent that with increase in temperature, strong interaction between the water oxygen and the hydrogen bond acceptor group on the protein-binding surface decreases. (figshare.com)
  • However, insect antifreeze proteins are 10-30 times more active than any known fish protein. (bionity.com)
  • SciRep)(29.3 °F). However, insect antifreeze proteins are 10-30 times more active than fish proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we have characterized the antifreeze protein ApAFP752 from the beetle Anatolica polita to better understand method of action of antifreeze activity of insect antifreeze proteins and to identify it potential applications in cryoprotection. (unh.edu)
  • We found the protein to have a β-helix secondary structure, similar to other known insect antifreeze proteins. (unh.edu)
  • However, postulating that gene duplication and subsequent mutation can result in new functional proteins is not enough. (creation.com)
  • They proposed that a type III antifreeze protein gene evolved from a duplicated copy of the sialic acid synthase ( SAS ) gene called LdSAS-B (Ld stands for Lycodichthys dearborni) . (creation.com)
  • 4 , 5 This achieved two fortuitous things that transformed the putative SAS gene into an AFP gene: it stripped it of any SAS function, and enabled a change in reading frame, which altered the signal peptide, enabling the new protein to be secreted. (creation.com)
  • Characterization of antifreeze protein gene expression in summer spruce budworm larvae. (umassmed.edu)
  • As is typical in investigations of protein structures, we inserted the synthetic gene for the type-III AFP into Escherichia coli , where it was over-expressed to allow us to collect sufficient amounts of the protein. (scienceinschool.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein fold supports both the anchored-clathrate water mechanism of antifreeze protein adsorption to ice and the water-expulsion mechanism of protein folding. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adsorption site on the ice surface is shown in yellow, (c) Schematic representation of Tis antifreeze protein adsorbed on an ice crystal. (or.jp)
  • During the past three decades a considerable amount of research has been conducted on the characterization of and structure - activity studies of antifreeze proteins. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of a novel antifreeze protein from carrot (Daucus carota). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alcohols - ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, etc. - have been the basis of all antifreezes since they were commercialized in the 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol (EGW) or propylene glycol (PGW). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovaries (n=154) were obtained from 5-week-old BDF1 female mice (n=77) and vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide with the supplementation of 10 mg/mL of Flavobacterium frigoris ice - binding protein (FfIBP), 10 mg/mL of type III AFP, or the combination thereof. (bvsalud.org)
  • These mutants, maintaining the regularity of amino acid spacing found in the wild-type protein but with different functional groups on the surface, were tested for antifreeze activity by measuring thermal hysteresis and observing ice grown in their presence. (plu.mx)
  • There has been an increase in the application of antifreeze proteins in organ transplants, vaccinations, cryosurgeries, which are driving the market growth. (gmiresearch.com)
  • The protein does not kill bacteria, Fikrig explained. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This protein could lead to a new class of antibacterial agents to use against diverse bacteria, either alone or in conjunction with other antibiotics," Fikrig said. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The antifreeze proteins are effective against viruses, fungi, bacteria, and protozoa in the body and on the skin. (gmiresearch.com)
  • During the summer the team focused on mass-producing the protein using the model organism E. coli as the host - a difficult feat, Hakim said, because antifreeze proteins do not function well in bacteria. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The solution structure of spruce budworm antifreeze proteins is reported and its ice-biding properties are characterized. (readabstracts.com)
  • Antifreeze glycoprotein recirculation conserves energy expenditure and explains how high levels of AFGPs reach the blood in notothenioids since, unlike Arctic gadids which also synthesize AFGP in the liver, AFGP secretion in notothenioids is directed exclusively towards the gastrointestinal lumen. (cambridge.org)
  • The cells of the thawed samples with antifreeze protein conserved the structure of the reference samples of in natura strawberry. (scielo.br)
  • Antifreeze proteins produced by fungi stick fast onto an ice crystal and hinder its growth. (or.jp)
  • Fungi capable of mass cultivation can be a novel, low cost source for antifreeze proteins. (or.jp)
  • Further the antifreeze activity was found to be dependent of the buffer osmolality resulting in increasing thermal hysteresis when buffer osmolality was raised from 0 to 1M. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Peptide backbone circularization had no effect on antifreeze activity but significantly increased thermal stability compared to the non-cyclized form. (queensu.ca)
  • Antifreeze proteins, also known as thermal hysteresis proteins, ice binding proteins and ice structuring proteins (ISP). (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • This protein inhibits the recrystallization of ice and exhibits thermal-hysteresis activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An antifreeze protein, thermal hysteresis, has been purified from Tenebrio molitor, the common yellow mealworm beetle. (readabstracts.com)
  • Previous attempts to purify thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) have failed to produce sufficient yield to account for that of haemolymph. (readabstracts.com)
  • Flour beetle larvae, for example, have such proteins on their outer shells, to keep away ice that could break their fragile skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • They then added carefully measured amounts of antifreeze proteins purified from flour beetle larvae or from a fish that lives in the arctic year-round. (innovations-report.com)
  • By source, fish antifreeze proteins are widely preferred sources in applications such vaccinations, organ transplants, cosmetics such as antiaging creams, and food products such as ice creams and frozen desserts. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins could also be used to prevent food freezing and to preserve delicate organs during organ transplants. (planet-science.com)
  • Many of these insects produce so called antifreeze proteins that protect them from lethal freezing. (bibsys.no)
  • Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins Cheng, Chi-Hing C 1998-12-01 00:00:00 Different types of ice-growth-inhibiting antifreeze proteins, first recognized in fish, have now been isolated from insects and plants, and the list continues to expand. (deepdyve.com)
  • Different types of ice-growth-inhibiting antifreeze proteins, first recognized in fish, have now been isolated from insects and plants, and the list continues to expand. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results significantly contribute to our understanding of the AFP mechanism and will be helpful in applying these proteins in different fields. (rsc.org)
  • Antifreeze proteins have been known for over five decades, however, their exact mechanism of action is still under investigation. (unh.edu)
  • On the basis of our results, we postulate a mechanism for heterogeneous nucleation, the memory effect and its elimination by antifreeze proteins. (gc.ca)
  • Organisms living in cold zones produce ice-binding (antifreeze) proteins to prevent themselves from freezing to death. (eurekalert.org)
  • The mature protein matches in composition one of the alanine-rich serum antifreeze proteins that was purified by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography. (caltech.edu)
  • We report the crystal structure of an alanine-rich antifreeze protein that retains ~400 waters in its core. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, the effectiveness of an insect cell expressed novel monomeric streptavidin fusion protein version of Rhagium mordax RmAFP1 antifreeze protein (mSA-RmAFP1), and four amino acids (histidine, lysine, tyrosine and proline), on CH4 hydrate nucleation, growth and decomposition was investigated using a rocking cell apparatus, then compared with the commercial inhibitors Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Luvicap Bio. (ruc.dk)
  • Low thermodynamic but high kinetic stability of an antifreeze protein from Rhagium mordax. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • One of the key reasons why fish can survive here is that they produce a series of antifreeze (glyco)proteins. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • To what ligand do you suppose antifreeze proteins bind to keep the fish from freezing. (physicsforums.com)
  • This was the finding of experiments carried out in Israel and Germany using proteins taken from fish and beetles. (innovations-report.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins like those in the fish are used today, among other things, to keep ice cream smooth and to keep outside surfaces frost-free. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hence, though present even in cool waters of moderate climatic zones, the amount of antifreeze proteins generated in fish here is lower than fish in cooler climates. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Extraction of an antifreeze protein from fish is a complex process and involves huge R&D investments. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of the antifreeze protein on the microstructure and physicochemical properties of hidroponic strawberries, evaluating the titratable acidity, pH, colour and optical microscopy before freezing both in natura (IN) and impregnated with the protein (IP), and after thawing without the protein (TWP) and impregnated (TIP) with the antifreeze protein (AFP Type I from fish) by vacuum impregnation. (scielo.br)
  • Antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AF(G)Ps) from the blood of polar fish species are extremely potent ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRI), but are difficult to synthesise or extract from natural sources. (rsc.org)
  • The oceanic fish families analyzed: Myctophidae (Electrona and Gymnoscopelus), Zoarcidae (Melanostigma), Gempylidae (Paradiplospinus), Paralepididae (Notolepsis), and Bathylagidae (Bathylagus) showed no antifreeze activity. (usf.edu)
  • Type-IV antifreeze proteins (AFP4s) are present also in certain temperate and even tropical fish, which has raised a question as to whether these AFP4s have important functions in addition to antifreeze activity. (ijbs.com)
  • Furthermore, advancements in technology to enhance fish farming in colder climates is also projected to influence the antifreeze proteins market significantly. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The antifreeze proteins that these fish possess were discovered in the early 1960s by then Stanford graduate student Dr. Art DeVries . (bestlifeonline.com)
  • To find out more about how antifreeze proteins work, go to Neutrons and antifreeze: research into Arctic fish . (planet-science.com)
  • Matthew Blakeley from ILL and his colleagues from ESRF and elsewhere have discovered how antifreeze in Arctic fish blood keeps them alive in sub-zero conditions. (scienceinschool.org)
  • This setup enabled the group to be sure that any ice-forming or -preventing activity was solely due to the actions of the proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • The antifreeze activity of Z. viviparus antifreeze proteins is concentration dependent and showed a saturation effect when the protein concentration reached 30mg·ml −1 (crude serum) and 8mg·ml −1 (partly purified serum) respectively. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Previously, AFP activity was increased by fusing an AFP to another protein, or by increasing the size of the IBP's ice-binding face. (queensu.ca)
  • Disruptive mutations on the ice-binding site of type III AFP lower antifreeze activity but can also change ice crystal morphology. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, it is possible to select a single protein with appropriate characteristics and a suitable level of activity for a specific food product. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Two endemic species captured in the same sampling program did show antifreeze activity: the important pelagic species Pleuragramma antarcticum (Nototheniidae) and the Bathydraconid (Vomeridens). (usf.edu)
  • Mutating any of the smaller residues on the ice binding site to bulkier ones decreased the antifreeze activity. (paperity.org)
  • November Structural basis of antifreeze activity of a bacterial multi-domain antifreeze protein Chen Wang 0 1 Svetlana Pakhomova 0 1 Marcia E. Newcomer 0 1 Brent C. Christner 0 1 Bing- Hao Luo 0 1 ☯ These authors contributed equally to this work. (paperity.org)
  • Perturbation of bacterial ice nucleation activity by a grass antifreeze protein. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Hydrophilic residues N14, T18 and Q44 are essential to antifreeze activity. (figshare.com)
  • So far, Oliver, Arvin and Chiu have begun to gather images of the varicella-zoster virus and a protein that helps the virus get into cells, glycoprotein B, along with an antibody to the protein. (phys.org)
  • The report presents a forward-looking prospect on the global antifreeze proteins market past data, status, and expected forecast, product, revenue, consumption. (bbstate.com)
  • Consequently, the wide range of commercial applications of antifreeze proteins is expected to drive market growth during the forecast period. (reportsanddata.com)
  • The global antifreeze proteins market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • It provides overview and forecast of the global antifreeze proteins market based on various segments. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report analyzes factors affecting antifreeze proteins market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • This precursor has both a signal polypeptide and a prosequence before the mature protein of 38 amino acid residues. (caltech.edu)
  • When polypeptide chains fold into a protein, hydrophobic groups are compacted in the center with exclusion of water. (sciencemag.org)
  • This indicates that proteins or amino acids do not generally inhibit hydrate formation. (dtu.dk)
  • Ice easily recrystallizes during warming after vitrification, and antifreeze protein (AFP) can inhibit the re-crystallization. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most recent antifreeze discovery was supported by a grant from NSF's Division of Polar Programs. (nsf.gov)
  • IBPv shares low sequence identity (29%) with the ice binding protein LeIBP from Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. (omictools.com)
  • These results suggested interactions of antifreeze proteins with the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • ZnF-containing proteins are among the most abundant protein superfamilies in eukaryotic genomes and participate in a variety of cellular processes, such as replication and repair, transcription and translation, and metabolism and signaling, where they typically mediate sequence-specific nucleic acid binding, protein-protein interactions, and protein-lipid interactions. (calstatela.edu)
  • Our goal is to determine the detailed structure basis of the interactions of toxic metal ions with ZnF-containing DNA repair proteins. (calstatela.edu)
  • Ionic liquids are highly viscous liquids at room temperature comprised entirely of ions, which makes it challenging to study their interactions with protein by traditional NMR methods. (unh.edu)
  • Chilling slows cellular function, alters protein-protein interactions, and reduces membrane fluidity, among other effects. (northgeorgia.edu)
  • Zachariassen, K.E.. Cadmium exposure of the beetle Tenebrio molitor (L): Internal distribution of Cd and induction of a Cd-binding protein in the gut content. (bibsys.no)
  • The 1.4-A resolution crystal structure of a small protein from the beetle Tenebrio molitor is reported. (readabstracts.com)
  • They are cysteine rich globular proteins containing five disulfide bonds (Ng and Hew, 1992). (bionity.com)
  • This 7-kDa globular protein is encoded by a multigene family that produces two major isoforms, SP and QAE, which are 55% identical. (nih.gov)
  • Most globular proteins release water as they fold to form a dry hydrophobic core. (sciencemag.org)
  • In glycation , also known as non-enzymatic glycosylation, sugars are covalently bonded to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme, but through a Maillard reaction . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fold of the β-helical antifreeze protein from Tenebrio molitor (TmAFP) proved to be surprisingly tolerant of multiple amino acid substitutions, enabling the construction of a panel of mutants displaying grids of single amino acid types in place of the threonines on the ice-binding face. (plu.mx)
  • 6.5-7 kDa were characterised and found to share high similarity to the type III antifreeze proteins found in other members of the family Zoarcidae . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • By attaching green fluorescent protein to different mutants and isoforms and by examining the binding of these fusion proteins to single-crystal ice hemispheres, we show that type III AFP has a compound ice-binding site. (nih.gov)
  • The main objective of the report is to define, segment, and project the global market size for antifreeze proteins on the basis of type, source, form, end-use, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Induction of one of these two types of proteins may potentially deplete the cysteine pool and thus reduce the capacity to produce the other type. (bibsys.no)
  • Global Antifreeze Proteins Market provides different sections and sub-sections based on separation by type, application, key players, and end-user, segments, developments, topographical areas of this market. (bbstate.com)
  • In addition, Npc1 (Niemann-Pick disease, type C1), a 13 transmembrane-spanning protein containing a sterol-sensing domain, was also demonstrated to contribute early morphogenetic movements including epiboly and CE movements [ 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The increasing use of type I antifreeze protein, particularly in medical and cosmetics applications, is propelling the market growth. (gmiresearch.com)
  • Organizations such as A/F Protein Inc., and Nichirei Corporation, are some of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of this type of protein. (gmiresearch.com)
  • The report aims to provide an overview of antifreeze proteins market with detailed market segmentation by type, form, end use, and source and geography. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The global antifreeze proteins market is segmented on the basis of type, form, end use, and source. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • It activated the un-mutated, wild-type B-Raf protein kinases, which again triggered melanoma. (phys.org)
  • Preparation of cultures such as these provide a means of examining the mechanisms involved in skin type I AFP production, regulation and also how these proteins function in gill epithelia. (mun.ca)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • After learning that Danish researchers isolated a protein from a beetle that is able to survive the Siberian cold, the team focused on learning more about it, Hakim said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties. (nih.gov)
  • We take inspiration from natural cryoprotective biopolymers, so-called ice binding proteins (IBPs) to develop novel polymeric antifreeze agents for application in biomedicine and materials science. (voetslab.nl)
  • Antifreeze proteins improve the quality of frozen food products such as ice creams that are consumed in the frozen state by inhibiting recrystallization and maintaining a smooth texture. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The increasing demand for frozen food products around the world is contributing to the growth of the global antifreeze proteins market share. (gmiresearch.com)
  • The solid antifreeze proteins have applications, including in frozen meat, skin whitening creams, and ice creams. (gmiresearch.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins have unique effects on ice in frozen solutions. (reportsanddata.com)
  • These proteins have potential in frozen food industry avoiding the damage in the structure of animal or vegetal foods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists have discovered that an ice-binding protein (fcIBP) from the sea ice microalga does not fit in the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins, suggesting unknown mechanisms behind its antifreeze property. (eurekalert.org)