Antifreeze Proteins: Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.Antifreeze Proteins, Type I: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are 3-5 kDa in size and contain a single alanine-rich amphipathic alpha-helix.Antifreeze Proteins, Type III: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are globular, 6.5 kDa in size and contain compact beta-sheet structures.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Antifreeze Proteins, Type IV: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that contain four amphipathic alpha-helices folded into an antiparallel helix bundle.Antifreeze Proteins, Type II: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that have a cystine-rich globular structure of approximately 14 kD.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Marinomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the family OCEANOSPIRILLACEAE. Members of this genus have the ability to synthesize MELANIN pigments.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Flaveria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.Salmoniformes: An order of fish comprising salmons, trouts, whitefish, graylings, and other families. They are both marine and freshwater fish, found in all oceans and are quite numerous in the Northern Hemisphere. (From Nelson: Fishes of the World)Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Sirenia: An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of type III antifreeze protein structure and function. (1/194)

Some cold water marine fishes avoid cellular damage because of freezing by expressing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to ice and inhibit its growth; one such protein is the globular type III AFP from eel pout. Despite several studies, the mechanism of ice binding remains unclear because of the difficulty in modeling the AFP-ice interaction. To further explore the mechanism, we have determined the x-ray crystallographic structure of 10 type III AFP mutants and combined that information with 7 previously determined structures to mainly analyze specific AFP-ice interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Quantitative assessment of binding was performed using a neural network with properties of the structure as input and predicted antifreeze activity as output. Using the cross-validation method, a correlation coefficient of 0.60 was obtained between measured and predicted activity, indicating successful learning and good predictive power. A large loss in the predictive power of the neural network occurred after properties related to the hydrophobic surface were left out, suggesting that van der Waal's interactions make a significant contribution to ice binding. By combining the analysis of the neural network with antifreeze activity and x-ray crystallographic structures of the mutants, we extend the existing ice-binding model to a two-step process: 1) probing of the surface for the correct ice-binding plane by hydrogen-bonding side chains and 2) attractive van der Waal's interactions between the other residues of the ice-binding surface and the ice, which increases the strength of the protein-ice interaction.  (+info)

A leucine-rich repeat protein of carrot that exhibits antifreeze activity. (2/194)

A gene encoding an antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) using sequence information derived from the purified protein. The carrot AFP is highly similar to the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) family of apoplastic plant leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. Expression of the AFP gene is rapidly induced by low temperatures. Furthermore, expression of the AFP gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants leads to an accumulation of antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that a new type of plant antifreeze protein has recently evolved from PGIPs.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a novel antifreeze protein from carrot (Daucus carota). (3/194)

A modified assay for inhibition of ice recrystallization which allows unequivocal identification of activity in plant extracts is described. Using this assay a novel, cold-induced, 36 kDa antifreeze protein has been isolated from the tap root of cold-acclimated carrot (Daucus carota) plants. This protein inhibits the recrystallization of ice and exhibits thermal-hysteresis activity. The polypeptide behaves as monomer in solution and is N-glycosylated. The corresponding gene is unique in the carrot genome and induced by cold. The antifreeze protein appears to be localized within the apoplast.  (+info)

Studies of a putative ice-binding motif in winter flounder skin-type anti-freeze polypeptide. (4/194)

Winter flounder contains two distinct anti-freeze protein isoforms, which are the liver-type extracellular anti-freeze proteins and the skin-type intracellular anti-freeze protein. The skin-type anti-freeze proteins exhibit lower anti-freeze activities than the liver-type isoforms and this might be due to their lacking complete ice-binding motifs. One of the skin-type anti-freeze proteins, skin-type anti-freeze protein-3, does contain putative overlapping ice-binding motifs with the sequences '-K-DT-' and '-DT-K-'. Synthetic anti-freezes containing 0-3 repeats of the '-DT-K-' motif were tested for stability and activity. Loss of the single '-DT-K-' of skin-type anti-freeze protein-3 increases the anti-freeze activity and increasing the number of motifs to two or three lowers the activity. The decrease in activity with an increasing frequency of the motif correlates with a decrease in the helical content of these peptides at 0 degrees C.  (+info)

Artificial antifreeze polypeptides: alpha-helical peptides with KAAK motifs have antifreeze and ice crystal morphology modifying properties. (5/194)

Antifreeze polypeptides from fish are generally thought to inhibit ice crystal growth by specific adsorption onto ice surfaces and preventing addition of water molecules to the ice lattice. Recent studies have suggested that this adsorption results from hydrogen bonding through the side chains of polar amino acids as well as hydrophobic interactions between the non-polar domains on the ice-binding side of antifreeze polypeptides and the clathrate-like surfaces of ice. In order to better understand the activity of one of the antifreeze polypeptide families, namely the alpha-helical type I antifreeze polypeptides, four alpha-helical peptides having sequences not directly analogous to those of known antifreeze polypeptides and containing only positively charged and non-polar side chains were synthesized. Two peptides with regularly spaced lysine residues, GAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAGGY-NH2 and GAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAGGY-NH2, showed antifreeze activity, albeit weaker than seen in natural antifreeze polypeptides, by the criteria of freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) and ice crystal modification to a hexagonal trapezohedron. Peptides with irregular spacing of Lys residues were completely inactive. Up to now, lysine residues have not been generally associated with antifreeze activity, though they have been implicated in some antifreeze polypeptides. This work also shows that lysine residues in themselves, when properly positioned on an alpha-helical polyalanine scaffold, have all the requisite properties needed for such an activity.  (+info)

Secretory expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the winter flounder skin-type antifreeze polypeptides. (6/194)

Winter flounder contains both liver-type, extracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wflAFPs) and less active skin-type, intracellular antifreeze polypeptides (wfsAFPs). The lower activity of wfsAFPs might be due to their lack of complete ice-binding motifs '-K-DT-'. In order to test the functional role of this putative ice-binding motif, mutations were introduced into the N-terminal or C-terminal regions of wfsAFP-2, which lack any presumptive ice-binding motifs. The wild-type and mutant wfsAFP-2 were secreted in Escherichia coli culture media as mature antifreeze proteins and purified to homogeneity. Surprisingly, the antifreeze activity decreased with the introduction of ice-binding motifs. However, there was a corresponding decrease in alpha-helical content as well as thermal stability and this would suggest a compromise in retaining helical structure with the presence of ice-binding motifs. These studies have brought new definitions of the roles of ice-binding motif residues in type I antifreeze proteins.  (+info)

Ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze. (7/194)

We employed computational techniques, including molecular docking, energy minimization, and molecular dynamics simulation, to investigate the ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze protein (AFP). The putative ice-binding site was previously identified by mutagenesis, structural analysis, and flatness evaluation. Using a high-resolution x-ray structure of fish type III AFP as a model, we calculated the ice-binding interaction energy of 11 surface patches chosen to cover the entire surface of the protein. These various surface patches exhibit small but significantly different ice-binding interaction energies. For both the prism ice plane and an "ice" plane in which water O atoms are randomly positioned, our calculations show that a surface patch containing 14 residues (L19, V20, T18, S42, V41, Q9, P12, A16, M21, T15, Q44, I13, N14, K61) has the most favorable interaction energy and corresponds to the previously identified ice-binding site of type III AFP. Although in general agreement with the earlier studies, our results also suggest that the ice-binding site may be larger than the previously identified "core" cluster that includes mostly hydrophilic residues. The enlargement mainly results from the inclusion of peripheral hydrophobic residues and K61.  (+info)

Type I 'antifreeze' proteins. Structure-activity studies and mechanisms of ice growth inhibition. (8/194)

The type I 'antifreeze' proteins, found in the body fluids of fish inhabiting polar oceans, are alanine-rich alpha-helical proteins that are able to inhibit the growth of ice. Within this class there are two distinct subclasses of proteins: those related to the winter flounder sequence HPLC6 and which contain 11-residue repeat units commencing with threonine; and those from the sculpins that are unique in the N-terminal region that contains established helix breakers and lacks the 11-residue repeat structure present in the rest of the protein. Although 14 type I proteins have been isolated, almost all research has focused on HPLC6, the 37-residue protein from the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. This protein modifies both the rate and shape (or 'habit') of ice crystal growth, displays hysteresis and accumulates specifically at the {2 0 2; 1} ice plane. Until very recently, all models to explain the mechanism for this specific interaction have relied on the interaction of the four threonine hydroxyls, which are spaced equally apart on one face of the helix, with the ice lattice. In contrast, proteins belonging to the sculpin family accumulate specifically at the {2 1; 1; 0} plane. The molecular origin of this difference in specificity between the flounder and sculpin proteins is not understood. This review will summarize the structure-activity and molecular modelling and dynamics studies on HPLC6, with an emphasis on recent studies in which the threonine residues have been mutated. These studies have identified important hydrophobic contributions to the ice growth inhibition mechanism. Some 50 mutants of HPLC6 have been reported and the data is consistent with the following requirements for ice growth inhibition: (a) a minimum length of approx. 25 residues; (b) an alanine-rich sequence in order to induce a highly helical conformation; (c) a hydrophobic face; (d) a number of charged/polar residues which are involved in solubility and/or interaction with the ice surface. The emerging picture, that requires further dynamics studies including accurate modelling of the ice/water interface, suggests that a hydrophobic interaction between the surface of the protein and ice is the key to explaining accumulation at specific ice planes, and thus the molecular level mechanism for ice growth inhibition.  (+info)

*Antifreeze protein

Fish Antifreeze Produced in Pancreas Antifreeze Proteins: Molecule of the Month, by David Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank. ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... These proteins were later called antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) or antifreeze glycopeptides to distinguish them from newly ... Jorov A, Zhorov BS, Yang DS (June 2004). "Study of interaction of winter flounder antifreeze protein with ice". Protein Sci. 13 ...

*Supercooling

Noncolligative proteins are secreted by the liver into the bloodstream. Other animals use colligative antifreezes, which ... There are many techniques that aid in lowering the freezing point, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, or AFPs, ... Garth L Fletcher; Choy L Hew & Peter L Davies (2001). "Antifreeze Proteins of Teleost Fishes". Annual Review of Physiology. 63 ... J.G. Duman (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annual Review of Physiology. 63: 327-357 ...

*Carex firma

ISBN 3-85474-140-5. Ökke Atıcıa & Barbaros Nalbantoğlu (2003). "Antifreeze proteins in higher plants". Phytochemistry. 64 (7): ...

*RiAFP

... refers to an antifreeze protein (AFP) produced by the Rhagium inquisitor longhorned beetle. It is a type V antifreeze ... "Theoretical study of interaction of winter flounder antifreeze protein with ice". Protein Sci. 13 (6): 1524-37. doi:10.1110/ps. ... Whereas most insect antifreeze proteins contain cysteines at least every sixth residue, as well as varying numbers of 12- or 13 ... Duman JG (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63: 327-57. doi:10.1146 ...

*Insect winter ecology

These antifreeze proteins are thought to stabilize SCPs by binding directly to the surface structures of the ice crystals ... Hanover, NH: University Press of New England ISBN 978-0874517859 Duman JG (2001) Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in ... OIKOS 93:286-293 Duman JG (2001) Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods. Annual Review of Physiology. ... A seasonal photoperiodic timing mechanism is responsible for increasing the antifreeze protein levels with concentrations ...

*Xylomannan

Unlike antifreeze proteins, xylomannan is not a protein. Instead, it is a combination of a sugar (saccharide) and a fatty acid ... "New Antifreeze Molecule Isolated In Alaska Beetle - Science News - redOrbit". Damonte E, Neyts J, Pujol CA, et al. (June 1994 ... Ishiwata A, Sakurai A, Nishimiya Y, Tsuda S, Ito Y (Dec 7, 2011). "Synthetic study and structural analysis of the antifreeze ... Xylomannan is an antifreeze molecule, found in the freeze-tolerant Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides. ...

*Cold hardening

Antifreeze protein Cryobiology Cryopreservation Thorsen, Stig Morten; Höglind, Mats (2010-12-15). "Modelling cold hardening and ... Duman, J (2002). "The inhibition of ice nucleators by insect antifreeze proteins is enhanced by glycerol and citrate". Journal ... Proteins also play a large role in the cryoprotective compounds that increase ability to survive the cold hardening process and ... This chemistry found within the glycerol compound and reaction between water has been used as an antifreeze in the past, and ...

*Cryobiology

Antifreeze proteins cloned from such fish have been used to confer frost-resistance on transgenic plants.[citation needed] ... See insect winter ecology and antifreeze protein. Another invertebrate that is briefly tolerant to temperatures down to -273 °C ... Materials or systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole organisms. Temperatures may range from ... Freezing is made possible by specialized proteins and glucose, which prevent intracellular freezing and dehydration." The wood ...

*Ecophysiology

... production of antifreeze proteins and dehydrins increases. As temperatures rise, production of heat shock proteins increases. ... In response to extremes of temperature, plants can produce various proteins. These protect them from the damaging effects of ...

*Vitrification

Arctic fish use antifreeze proteins, sometimes appended with sugars, as cryoprotectants. Ordinary soda-lime glass, used in ... which can be used to image objects such as proteins or virus particles. Cold-adapted frogs and some other ectotherms naturally ... such as the vitrification of an antifreeze-like liquid in cryopreservation. Vitrification is the progressive partial fusion of ...

*Clifton nanolitre osmometer

This phenomenon arises when biological antifreeze proteins are present in a solution. Solutions that do not contain antifreeze ... Fluids from cold-hardy plants Any fluid that contains antifreeze proteins. ... The Clifton nanolitre osmometer is especially well suited for determining the antifreeze activity or thermal hysteresis of a ... of very small volumes of aqueous solutions Tears Biological samples Plant fluids Determination of the antifreeze activity or ...

*David Leitner

Meister, K.; Duman, J.G.; Xu, Y.; DeVries, A.L.; Leitner, D.M.; Havenith, M. The role of sulfates on antifreeze protein ... Agbo, J.K.; Gnanasekaran, R.; Leitner, D.M. Communication Maps: Exploring Energy Transport through Proteins and Water. Isr. J. ... His interests are energy-molecule relations and his highest paper is An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins, ... An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins. 104:52. 20749-20752. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...

*Hypogastrura nivicola

"New antifreeze protein may allow longer storage of transplant organs". Queen's University (Canada). 2005-10-21. (Press release ... Researchers at Queen's University (Canada) have sequenced and synthesised the anti-freeze-like protein that allows H. nivicola ... Unlike proteins with similar functions in other species, the protein found in H. nivicola breaks down easily at higher ... 1 March 2007). "Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein". Biophysical Journal. 92 (5): 1717-1723. doi:10.1529/ ...

*Flavobacterium xanthum

2007). "A novel, intracellular antifreeze protein in an antarctic bacterium, Flavobacterium xanthum". Cryo Letters. 28 (1): 39- ...

*Rainbow smelt

They overwinter under the ice in estuaries, producing an antifreeze protein and glycerol. In the spring, they spawn at night in ...

*Cucujus clavipes

... producing anti-freeze proteins (AFPs) and anti-freeze glycolipids (AFGL), entering into a diapause, producing a multimolar ... The use of antifreeze proteins for frost protection in sensitive crop plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 106:60-69 ... roles of antifreeze proteins, polyols, dehydration and diapause. The Journal of Experimental Biology 208:4467-4477 Bercha, R. ... A thermal hysteresis-producing xylomannan glycolipid antifreeze associated with cold tolerance is found in diverse taxa. ...

*Rye

Researchers have pinpointed certain proteins that are responsible for the antifreeze properties, which are proteins that help ... Hon, W. C.; Griffith, M.; Chong, P.; Yang, D. S.-C. (March 1, 1994). "Extraction and Isolation of Antifreeze Proteins from ... capability occurs in a different manner from the antifreeze property of some fish and insects that also have antifreeze ... cereale produce various polypeptides that possess the antifreeze capability which are different than the antifreeze ...

*McMurdo Sound

The notothenioids feature an Antifreeze protein in their bloodstream that prevents them from freezing. Notothenioids account ... Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in Antarctic notothenioid fish, Proceedings of the National ...

*Thermoregulation

... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Amphibians and reptiles ... This mechanism is due to overexpressing the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2), which elevated hypothalamic ... "OMIM entry on human UnCoupling Protein 2 (UCP2)". Simpson S, Herring PT (1905-05-09). "The effect of cold narcosis on reflex ...

*Fish physiology

... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Most sharks are "cold- ...

*Bald notothen

Antifreeze proteins in its blood prevent it freezing in the subzero water temperatures of Antarctica. Growing to a maximum ...

*Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

Cryptobiosis Antifreeze proteins Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., & Tunnacliffe, A. (2005). "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation ... Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA proteins) are proteins in animals and plants that protect other proteins from ... LEA proteins function by mechanisms which are distinct from those displayed by heat shock molecular chaperones. Although the ... LEA proteins were initially discovered accumulating late in embryogenesis of cotton seeds. Although abundant in seeds and ...

*Threitol

It serves as a cryoprotectant (antifreeze agent) in the Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides. Antifreeze protein Dithiothreitol, a ...

*Beta helix

Other proteins that contain beta helices include the antifreeze proteins from the beetle Tenebrio molitor (right-handed) and ... Leinala EK, Davies PL, Jia Z (May 2002). "Crystal structure of beta-helical antifreeze protein points to a general ice binding ... The beta helix is a type of solenoid protein domain. The structure is stabilized by inter-strand hydrogen bonds, protein- ... "Mimicry of ice structure by surface hydroxyls and water of a beta-helix antifreeze protein". Nature. 406 (6793): 322-4. doi: ...

*Antarctic fishes

Cziko, Paul; DeVries, Arthur; Evans, Clive; Cheng, Chi-hing (7 October 2014). "Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice ... Antifreeze glycoproteins bind to ice that enters the body through ingestion of food, water and from their environment to ... Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed during exposure to high temperatures and is a characteristic held by most organisms. ... Genetic evidence shows that crocodile icefish had erythrocytes but have back evolved to not use hemoglobin, or any protein ...

*Boreogadus saida

... but may tolerate colder temperatures owing to the presence of antifreeze protein compounds in its blood. They group in large ...
Insect antifreeze protein. Molecular model of an insect antifreeze protein (AFP) from the Tenebrio molitor beetle. - Stock Image F006/9320
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or structure of ice. We report the crystal structure of the first multi-domain AFP that has been characterized. The two ice binding domains are structurally similar. Each consists of an irregular β-helix with a triangular cross-section and a long α-helix that runs parallel on one side of the β-helix. Both domains are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. A flat plane on the same face of each domains β-helix was identified as the ice binding site. Mutating any of the smaller residues on the ice binding site to bulkier ones decreased the antifreeze activity. The bulky side chain of Leu174 in domain A sterically hinders the binding of water molecules to the protein backbone, partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this
Fish antifreeze protein. Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). - Stock Image F009/6275
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the ...
Very little is known about the mechanism of antifreeze action of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) present in Antarctic teleost fish. Recent NMR and CD studies assisted with total synthesis of synthetic AFGP variants have provided insight into the structure of short AFGP glycopeptides, though the observations did not yield information on the antifreeze mechanism of action. In this study, we use Hamiltonian replica exchange (HREX) molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structure and surrounding aqueous environments of both the natural (AFGP8) and synthetic (s-AFGP4) AFGPs. AFGPs can adopt both amphiphilic and pseudoamphiphilic conformations, the preference of which is related to the proline content of the peptide. The arrangement of carbohydrates allows the hydroxyl groups on terminal galactose units to form stable water bridges which in turn influence the hydrogen-bond network, structure, and dynamics of the surrounding solvent. Interestingly, these local effects lead to the perturbation of ...
Certain Arctic and Antarctic ectotherm species have developed strategies for survival under low temperature conditions that, among others, consist of antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP). AFGP form a class of biological antifreeze agents that exhibit the ability to inhibit ice growth in vitro and in vivo and, hence, enable life at temperatures below the freezing point. AFGP usually consist of a varying number of (Ala-Ala-Thr)(n) units (n=4-55) with the disaccharide beta-D-galactosyl-(1 -> 3)-alpha-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine glycosidically attached to every threonine side chain hydroxyl group. AFGP have been shown to adopt polyproline II helical conformation. Although this pattern is highly conserved among different species, microheterogeneity concerning the amino acid composition usually occurs; for example, alanine is occasionally replaced by proline in smaller AFGP. The influence of minor and major sequence mutations on conformation and antifreeze activity of AFGP analogues was investigated by ...
Brrrrr! Its cold outside. Lots of animals are much better adapted to the cold weather than we are. Polar bears have thick fur, seals and whales have a layer of blubber and some birds migrate.. But what if youre a fish?. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded. They can keep their body temperature higher than the icy environment around them. Fish are cold-blooded. Their body temperature is the same as their surroundings. In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, the temperature is very chilly - below 0 degrees Celsius. The salt in the oceans stops them freezing.. Why dont fish freeze?. To stop their blood freezing, some fish that live in the Arctic and Antarctic have special antifreeze proteins.. Antifreeze proteins are very clever. They slow down the formation of bonds between water molecules, which prevents the formation of ice crystals in the fishs blood.. Scientists are working out how they could use these antifreeze proteins as a non-polluting de-icer for cars and machinery. Antifreeze proteins ...
Market Research Report on Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Market begins with definition, application, classification, industry chain analysis, news analysis, region, revenue, forecast, demand, growth, trends and policy analysis of the market.. This report studies Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer. Access Full Report With TOC: http://www.fiormarkets.com/report/global-antifreeze-proteins-afp-market-research-report-2016-16319.html. Covering Manufacturers ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) market is...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are often called ice-binding proteins and are thought to bind to ice or ice-like crystals exclusively to control their growth. Here molecular recognition repertoire of AFPs has been greatly expanded to other hydroxyl containing, non-ice like compounds. The inhibitory and habit-modifying effects of AFPs on the stable nuclei formation and on the crystals of nucleosides have been first demonstrated.
Before Its News). HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 100 pages on title Global Antifreeze Coolant Market Research Report 2017′ with detailed analysis, forecast and strategies.. Summary. Production, means the output of Antifreeze Coolant. Revenue, means the sales value of Antifreeze Coolant. Request a sample report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/sample-report/244274-global-antifreeze-coolant-market-1. Report Highlights. This report studies Antifreeze Coolant in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering. DOW Chemical. Chevron. BASF. Kost USA. Buy this report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/buy-now?format=1&report=244274. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Antifreeze ...
The report on global Antifreeze market portrays comprehensive information and conducts a complete study to provide latest market updates and information about present and forecast market scenario. The changes taking place in Antifreeze are elaborated in this report to help readers in making vital business decisions. The Antifreeze industry details are provided in the form of graphs, pie-charts to help the emerging and existing market players, buyers, and suppliers in planning the business strategies. These details will fuel the development of their business and will bring huge revenues in return.. Further, this report incorporates both quantitative as well as qualitative data sets which include market framework, executive summary for the global Antifreeze market.The report also includes key players profile description, details on fiscal & accounting, business tactics and fresh developments in global Antifreeze Market.Tools for competition mapping are also inculcated in the report as an assistant ...
A diver himself, Cziko worked with other divers to place and maintain a temperature-logging device in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, one of the coldest marine environments on the planet. The device recorded ocean temperatures there for 11 years, a substantial portion of notothenioids lifespan. Not once in that time did temperatures increase enough to overcome the antifreeze proteins anti-melting effect to completely rid the fishes of their internal ice, the researchers report.. The researchers suspect that the accumulation of ice inside the fishes could have adverse physiological consequences, but none have yet been discovered.. If the fishes are destined to carry ice crystals around all their lives, Cheng said, it is conceivable that ice particles could obstruct small capillaries or trigger undesired inflammatory responses. Cziko likens the potential threat to dangers posed by asbestos in the lungs or blood clots in the brain.. "Since much of the ice accumulates in the fishes spleens, we think ...
Synergism of antifreeze protein type III (macrozoarces americanus) and hydrocolloids on recrystallization inhibition of ice in sucrose ...
Sea water freezes at -1.9C which presents a problem for any creature that wants to live in Arctic or Antarctic seas. Some species of fish have antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that allow them to live in such environments. Such proteins bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. Consequently the freezing point of blood and body…
Self Bias Resistor writes: According to an article in New Scientist, an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of California. Apparently, this discovery could have a wide variety of applications such as frost-resistant con...
Plattner, C., Nagel, L., Budke, C., Koop, T., and Sewald, N. (2009). Antifreeze glycopeptide analogs: synthesis, structural, and functional analysis. AMINO ACIDS 37, 41-41 ...
heating system antifreeze catologs and heating system antifreeze manufacturers - 4,124 heating system antifreeze Manufacturers, Exporters & suppliers from China
Despite differences in the crystal structures of ice and nucleosides, antifreeze polypeptides (AFPs) have been demonstrated to inhibit nucleation of 5-methyluridine, cytidine, and inosine and modify the crystal growth of the nucleosides efficiently. The molecular recognition repertoire of AFPs has been expan
Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal
AFGPs have evolved convergently in unrelated fishes from both Antarctic and Arctic seas to prevent freezing in these cold ice-laden environments. Previous studies have shown that AFGPs of Antarctic notothenioids are encoded by a family of polyprotein genes, with each gene encoding a large precursor containing multiple AFGP molecules linked in tandem by cleavable small spacers (Chen et al., 1997a). High concentrations of AFGPs circulate in the serum of several northern cods either through the whole year or during winter. The size and compositional heterogeneity has been reported for several species of northern cods, but only three AFGP genes from a partial genomic library of polar cod have been characterized. Four more polar cod B. saida AFGP gene sequences, their structures, and organization in the genome are reported here. Genomic Southern analysis indicates that a large AFGP gene family exists in its genome. A high percentage of the AFGP member genes appear to be arranged in tandem and ...
Press Release issued May 15, 2017: Anti-freeze coolants are used in automobiles, HVAC systems, and heat exchangers to facilitate heat transfer process in adverse cold weather conditions. Also, they prevent overheating of the vehicle in summer. These are antifreeze agents or chemicals that are added in water in a certain proportion. This mixture is called an anti-freeze coolant. Antifreeze coolants ensure workability and performance of engines and heat exchangers. Chemicals predominantly used as anti-freeze agents include propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and glycerol. Adverse cold climatic conditions and automotive demand from relatively colder regions across the world maintain stable volumes of demand across the world. Other applications of antifreeze coolants are found in aerospace, industrial applications, and the electronics industry. Typical application in aerospace includes development of anti-icing and de-icing materials.
... meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
... meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about antifreeze at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about antifreeze easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
New Roles of Antifreeze Proteins - Antifreeze Proteins as Highly Effective Additives to Control the Crystallization of Non-Ice like Compounds Antifreeze Protein Enhancers: Identification and Mechanisms Effects of Toxic Metal Ions on Zinc Finger Proteins Collaborators Funding
Natural Regulating Factors Budworm populations are usually regulated by combinations of several natural factors such as insect parasites, vertebrate and invertebrate predators, and adverse weather conditions. However, the combined effect of natural agents does not prevent or reduce population resurgences when climatic and forest stand conditions are favorable for an increase in budworm populations. During prolonged outbreaks when stands become heavily defoliated, starvation can be an important mortality factor in regulating populations. Western spruce budworm larvae, pupae, and adults are parasitized and preyed upon by several groups of insects and other arthropods, small mammals, and birds. There are more than 40 species of insect parasites (small wasps and flies) of the western spruce budworm, of which four or five species are most common. Spiders, ants, snakeflies, true bugs, and larvae of certain beetles feed on the budworm, as do chipmunks and squirrels. Birds known to feed on the budworm ...
Used in a growing range of fields, from biology and medicine to astronomy, citizen science involves volunteers gathering data to help scientists answer research questions.. In the case of the spruce budworm outbreak, an innovative project called Budworm Tracker is giving volunteers in eastern Canada the tools to gather and report data on spruce budworm populations - data that is helping scientists monitor and better understand the insect and its spread.. In this initiative, volunteers receive a free Budworm Tracker kit containing a pheromone trap, a data collection sheet and detailed instructions. They hang their trap from a lower branch of a spruce or balsam fir tree near where they live or work.. From mid-June until the end of the summer, these citizen scientists check the trap at least once a week, collecting and counting the moths and recording their findings. Volunteers with a smartphone can report their findings directly on the Budworm Tracker website or use a downloadable app. At the end ...
Psychrophilic organisms produce AFPs in order to prevent ice growth during freezing. Some studies have demonstrated that these proteins are extremely effective in the inhibition of recrystallization of ice even at very low concentrations [49]. However, their working mechanism is not well understood. Moreover, their properties offer the opportunity to exploit AFPs for biotechnological applications, especially in food industry. In frozen food products, freezing provides a multitude of small ice crystals, but it is also important to prevent the formations of large ice crystals [50]. AFPs from Antarctic bacteria GU1.7.1, GU3.1.1 and AFP5.1 were able to reduce the damage associated to ice, probably through the reduction of the size of large ice crystals in buffer solution. This phenomenon was evidenced when zucchini and cucumbers tissues were treated with a commercial and bacterial AFPs, where small pore were (red asterisk Figs. 1, 2) formed on plant cell walls of treated tissues in comparison to the ...
Antifreeze After watching murder, upon murder shows, one key thing Ive learned about antifreeze is that it has a sweet taste. While Ive never tasted it, I can say that TV has come in quite handy with the knowledge of avoiding antifreeze. The fatal substance is common in driveways in the winter. Some car owners take care of their car very carefully, which can involve antifreeze/coolant changes to prepare for harsh winter weather. A spill is common, and usually unintentional, but the small accident can be a fatal one. The sweet, intoxicating, smell and taste can be a lure for pups. The main ingredient in antifreeze is ethylene glycol. If ingested, the toxic chemical could lead to severe illnesses and even death. According to Petxtreme, "The mortality rate in dogs poisoned by antifreeze ranges from 50 to 70% and is thought to be even higher in cats." That is an extremely high number! If the animal isnt treated immediately, nervous system damage or kidney damage could occur, if death doesnt come ...
An apparatus for carrying out an enzymatic cycling reaction including a turntable arranged in a reaction tank, a number of reaction vessels being arranged in the turntable along its periphery, a device for circulating an antifreeze liquid through the reaction tank, a heater for heating the antifreeze liquid, a refrigerator for cooling the antifreeze liquid and a switching valve for selectively passing the antifreeze liquid through the heater or refrigerator. Until all the samples and cycling mixture are delivered into the reaction vessels, the reaction tank is held at a very low temperature at which no enzymatic cycling reaction proceeds. Then the antifreeze liquid is heated to an enzymatic cycling reaction temperature so as to perform the enzymatic cycling reaction simultaneously for liquids contained in all the reaction vessels for a desired period. Then, the antifreeze liquid is heated to a high temperature so as to stop simultaneously the cycling reaction in all the reaction vessels.
Pool antifreeze is an insurance policy against freeze damage to pool pipes and plumbing. Non-toxic pool antifreeze is propylene glycol based - protects pool pipes down to -50° F.
... provides superior heat transfer and excellent protection against corrosion, cylinder-liner cavitation, freezing and boilover. It provides maximum protection in extreme temperatures and operating conditions, and provides superior protection for aluminum, steel, cast iron, copper, brass and solder alloys.
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Rat and mouse poisons are toxic to children. Antifreeze. Though there are several types of anticoagulants available as rat poison, some populations. The liver metabolizes ethylene glycol into glycolate and oxalate, which cause extensive cellular damage in various tissues, especially the kidneys, but across many different organs. A greedy rat can eat enough poison to kill 20 rats before he starts to feel sick and if a dog or cat eats the rat, the poison is transferred. Most rodent poisons use anti-coagulants that kill the animals by causing uncontrollable bleeding. But usually not quickly. It may sample a small dose but then it would realise that it is not good & not take anymore. There are some types of road salt that apparently contain some antifreeze which can be toxic to dogs. Varmints learn fast by habit and ease of procuring the prey. She said shes received four birds in the past week that have died from poisoning. In the photo below, a homeowner attempted to perform do it yourself raccoon ...
ES Compleat Antifreeze Coolant - Propylene Glycol Concentrate|br|ES Compleat PG is a high performance fully formulated Extended Life Propylene Glycol Antifreeze/Coolant, an environmentally safer and less toxic fluid. It is Fleetguards answer to the maintenance demands of heavy-duty diesel cooling systems. ES Compleat PG only requires possible re-inhibition after 1 year, 150,000 miles or 4,000 hours of operation. It is the perfect mixture that protects your cooling system by preventing scaling, foaming, corrosion and liner pitting. ES Compleat is easy to use, cost effective, and outperforms other extended life coolant products in the marketplace today. |ul||li|For All Heavy-Duty Engines |/li||li|1 Gallon|/li||/ul|
D2982 - 07(2013) Standard Test Methods for Detecting Glycol-Base Antifreeze in Used Lubricating Oils , glycol-base antifreeze, glycol-base coolant, used lubricating oil,
Ingesting a Small Amount of Antifreeze Causes Kidney Failure in Dogs Pound for pound, antifreeze is the heavyweight of poisons seen in small-animal veterin
Having an atomistic insight into rare transitions and their respective important interactions is pivotal for understanding and experimentally controlling such processes. Water is an important agent on its own in facilitating protein folding, recognizing ice crystal planes (anti-freeze proteins) and in mediating protein association. By using molecular simulations we better understand the role of water at the hydration shell of single proteins in terms of structure and dynamics, we resolve the mechanisms of association and first steps of self-assembly food and anti-freeze proteins, and elucidate the role of water during protein association. Finally, in order to improve the efficiency of rare event sampling we develop a new algorithm which efficiently samples complex rare transitions as well as gives insight into the barrier region of the transition ...
The AA. investigate the effects of spruce budworm on tree growth at 5 areas within Itasca State Park in northwestern Minnesota near the southwestern margin of the range of balsam. They also document the species composition and age structure along transects in sites infested by spruce budworm. The objectives were to : 1) discover when the latest spruce budworm outbreak started; 2) determine whether tree growth was similarly reduced in earlier decades; and 3) test whether radial tree growth and the start of the outbreak(s) were correlated with climate. They used the computer program OUTBREAK to determine that the current spruce budworm infestation began to reduce tree growth in the 1990s, before it was detected by park officials in 2001. The results show that outbreaks are related to climatic conditions, but they also depend on other factors such as the availability of sufficient food for the spruce budworm ...
The blood serums of Antarctic fishes freeze at -2°C, which is approximately 1°C below the melting points of their serums. This thermal hysteresis is due to the influence of serum glycoproteins. The temperatures of freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of the purified glycoproteins suggest that this thermal hysteresis results from the adsorption of the glycoprotein molecule onto the surface of ice crystals. ...
The Nutshell Putative Gay Genes Identified, Questioned A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
My research involves investigation into synthetic Antifreeze glycoproteins and extremeophile bacteria resistant to cold temperatures within the Gibson group at Warwick chemistry depatment. Further details will be posted at a later date. The image shows a selection of antifreeze proteins (from http://2011.igem.org/Team:KULeuven/Afp) highlighting the large diversity and potential for research ...
The western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, is the most widely distributed and destructive forest defoliator in western North America. Several outbreaks have occurred in Colorado, the largest exceeding two million acres. They commonly infest Douglas-fir and white fir. Occasionally, they also attack Engelmann spruce, blue spruce and sub-alpine fir.
In 2010, the FDA invited public comment on a genetically modified strain of salmon ("Frankenfish" to its critics). There were two issues: whether the FDA should approve this "new animal drug application" (because it is new ground for the FDA and there are no regulations about genetically engineered animals, it was evaluated as if it were an animal treated with drugs); and whether the fish (if approved) must be labeled as genetically engineered or not.. AquAdvantage Salmon was designed to grow twice as fast as traditional fish. It is an Atlantic salmon containing the Chinook salmon growth hormone gene, plus an antifreeze protein gene from the ocean pout-an eel-like creature from a different family of marine organisms.. In 2015, the FDA approved the genetically engineered salmon despite a vocal public outcry, making it the first GE animal to be approved for human consumption. The approval of the GE salmon will likely lead to the development of more GE animals. The New York Times reports that ...
One was a lovely toy poodle which ingested poison in a North Vancouver park (Princess Park) this week-end. The other dogs in the household were also sick but, given the patients small size, the amount of poison he consumed, he did not survive. His presentation was extremely unusual case as the antifreeze (ethylene glycol) was laced with something else which made the detection more difficult. We were told by the family that poison is at times put out in the parks of North Vancouver for dogs and wildlife (bears, coyotes or raccoons). While we can not think who would be so misguided as to do this, we wish to warn the pet owners in that area.. We recently saw a cat who had been exposed to minoxidil (Rogaine). It is known to cause irreversible heart failure in cats. Whether there is some left on hands after applying it, or even if they like to nuzzle (or lick) the treated area or the bottle itself, they become exposed. As more compounds are available for topical treatments (to lessen side effects to ...
A sweet-smelling aroma and antifreeze smell could indicate that the cars heater core is leaking. Other common signs of a bad heater core include a foggy windshield, a water surging sound inside the...
Antifreeze and engine coolant manufacturers who sell products in the U.S. must now add a bitter flavor agent to prevent animals and children from being poisoned by the sweet-tasting liquid. Previously enacted in 17 states, the industry will now voluntarily add the bitter taste to all coolant products sold across 50 states.
Although painted turtles dont have much else in common with automobiles, their wintertime coping strategies include antifreeze, too.
Title: A-A-52624, Date: 1997-Feb-06, Status: Active, Desc: COMMERCIAL ITEM DESCRIPTION ANTIFREEZE MULTI-ENGINE TYPE (06-FEB-1997) [SUPERSEDING O-A-548 A-A-870 MIL
A Sacramento family is mourning the loss of their beloved dog. They believe foul play is involved after their vet discovered antifreeze in the dogs system.
A wife succumbs to a mysterious illness, and she grew more debilitated and depressed by the day. Finally doctors find something deadly in her system… antifreeze! Was it murder, an accident or, in her despair, did she take her own life?
SPRINGFIELD, Mo. (AP) - A southwest Missouri woman is charged with using antifreeze to fatally poison her husband and son and attempt to kil…
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Chemistry: Freezing Point Depression and Osmotic Pressure. See what people are saying about Chemistry: Freezing Point Depression and Osmotic Pressure.
Story and Photography by Jim Marotta Back in the day, no matter which brand you chose, antifreeze was green. The glycol-based formula contained silicates as corrosion inhibitors. You mixed the antifreeze 50/50 with water and poured it in the radiator. As the engine operated, the antifreeze performed its primary duties of carrying heat to the… Read more. ...
My lab utilizes a combination of polymer chemistry, protein engineering, and bioconjugation techniques to address human health needs. We study fundamental glycobiology with the ultimate goal of developing glycoform targeted therapeutics. Current projects include 1) glycocalyx engineering to study the role of mucin glycoproteins in cancer; 2) synthetic epithelial mucus to model infection and absorption processes; 3) synthetic antifreeze proteins for cryopreservation of medical tissues and ultimately whole organs.
Freezing point depression represents the variation in the freezing temperature of a pure solvent from that of the solvent in solution. In the equation ΔT=Kf m i, where i is the vant Hoff...
Exercse 1 DETERINTION OF OLR SS FRO FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION Collgatve propertes The propertes we now consder are the lowerng of vapour pressure, the elevaton of bolng pont, the depresson of freezng pont,
A chemical compound used to stabilize particles in suspension has proved capable of controlling the growth of ice crystals. Unlike the macromolecules previously
Self-assembled thermoresponsive polymers in aqueous solution have great potential as smart, switchable materials for use in biomedical applications. In recent years, attention has turned to the reversibility of these polymers thermal transitions, which has led to debate over what factors influence discrepan Stimulus-responsive polymers
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
When the weather changes, its time to think about boat storage. If you can take your vessel to a marina or storage yard, theyll help you with the process, and they have special yard trailers to move your vessel to safe storage. However, whether you use a marina or not, there are several things you can do to keep your boat in good condition while its in storage. Here are 4 tips to help you get started. 1. Cooling System. When you have an inboard motor or an engine which uses a raw water cooling system, make sure to run fresh water through the engine to flush out all dirt and debris. This helps to prevent corrosion. If you live in an area with very cold winters, its a good idea to place antifreeze in the water pump. You can do this by taking out the thermostat and pouring the antifreeze inside.. 2. Cleaning. If you want to make it easier on yourself this spring, take some time to clean the boat before storage. Wash off the deck, top, and bottom. Clean the hardware and wax the top side and ...
Low-cost laboratory analysis for antifreeze (ethylene glycol) in food or drink samples. Prevent antifreeze poisoning of family and pets.
Antifreeze (ethylene glycol), as a result of its sweet flavor, poses an Extraordinary Threat of poisoning to dogs and cats if ingested. Even an exceedingly small sum like a tablespoon can certainly show deadly. The antifreeze alone is not toxic, but is metabolized by means of the liver to the toxins glycolate and oxalate, which cause intoxication and vomiting, metabolic acidosis, and finally acute kidney failure resulting in seizures and Demise. By the time clinical signs are noticed, the kidneys are often way too weakened for the Doggy to survive so acting quickly is vital. Fast treatments include things like inducing vomiting by using dog pain pills tramadol apomorphine or dilute hydrogen peroxide Answer (if This may be done shortly after ingestion), but these simply decrease the volume absorbed - instant veterinary treatment continues to be normally critical due to high toxicity with dog growing pain the compound ...
ClimateMasters Pressure Drop Calculator Software is an Excel based program that calculates the minimum system flow rate (gpm) needed for optimum system function and also calculates the amount of antifreeze needed for a proper water/antifreeze solution.. Download Pressure Drop Calculator Software. Version changed from 1.91 to 1.92. This version includes updated pumping data for the UPMXL with the check valve.. Download Legacy Pressure Drop Calculator Software ...
Vaccine Volume 20, Supplement 3, 31 May 2002, Pages S18-S23. Daily Aluminum intake:. The daily aluminum intake ( in adult humans) by means of normo- and hypocaloric menus was computed, and ranges between 2.4231 and 0.8677 mg aluminum.. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2000 Jul-Sep;104(3):107-12. And consistent with your never ending flare for the dramatic ( and inaccurate) concerning your comment about antifreeze. The main ingredient in antifreeze is Ethylene glycol. Check this very complete and extensive document from the CDC http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/appendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf. It lists the known ingredients in virtually every vaccine on the market. You will not find Ethylene Glycol listed anywhere.. I think dougsmith really hit the nail on the head with his car fatality analogy. The problem weldesgin is that you are so completely and rabidly antivaccine that you have lost all perspective. You hunt around the internet for scraps of information that will support ...
Yea,, but remember, its got no antifreeze in it, just straight water under pressure at 240+ Even with antifreeze, when they overheat severely, the...
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If this is a 16-valve DOHC engine then I would say that your head gasket is blown. Check your oil to see if their is a milky substance in it. Usually the milky substance is at the bottom of the oil dipstick. On these engines blowing the head gasket does not mean you will overheat. On my 2.5 DOHC engine the head gasket blew between cylinders 2 and 3 which allowed coolant to get into the cylinders and it basically burned it during combustion. If this is happening you should notice a white puff of smoke when you accelerate hard or when you first turn the car on. White smoke is not normal exhaust color and if you have this then you have a major repair bill on your hands ...
PREVENTION:. Kidney failure can develop naturallyas the kidneys wear our. Since this happens with age, there is no real preventative measure; it can only be treated.. Ingestion of even a small amount of antifreeze can lead to acute kidney failure and death. Its more common with outdoor pets that are more often exposed to antifreeze.. PROGNOSIS:. Acute:. ARF is a life-threatening condition, with a guarded prognosis.. The prognosis is better if infection was the cause, rather than a toxic substance.. The long-term prognosis for recovery depends on the amount of kidney damage that has occurred, because kidney tissue cannot re-grow.. Your veterinarian will do blood and urine tests during treatment to see how well the kidneys are responding. If there is a positive change within the first 48-72 hours of therapy, there is a good prognosis. If there is no change, the prognosis is weak.. Chronic:. Most cases of CRF progress slowly. Therefore, with proper management, your dog can have a good quality of ...
purchased a 04 mcs alittle under a year ago. have done an oil change, and keep everything looked over pretty good. the coolant tank is alittle low...
Now, thanks to indicators identified by Canadian Forest Service scientists, forest managers may be able to use simple chemical analyses to identify areas at particular risk to budworm outbreaks. Insect Ecologist Vince Nealis and Research Scientist Jason Nault plotted changing chemistry within developing Douglas-fir needles against the ability of western spruce budworms to feed successfully on the trees buds. From that, they determined that the same molecular compounds that give evergreens their distinctive smell also indicate the potential success of budworms in a given year.. "An important part of the life history of the budworm has to do with how well it is synchronized with the flush of new buds in the spring," says Nealis. "We wanted to quantify the relationship between emergence of western spruce budworm and development of the insects preferred food, Douglas-fir buds.". Key to the prediction method is a mixture of complex, aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, called terpenes, found in all ...
On survivorman last year Les used a couple of chemicals together to make fire... not sure what they were. I know you can use antifreeze and something... or battery acid and something that will react and burst into flames. Anyone tried this? Not really practical but it looked like a cool experiement.
[123 Pages Report] Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) Market categorizes the global market by Application (Fiber, PET, Antifreeze & Coolant, Film), Technology, and Geography (Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and South America)
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noun: a light volatile flammable poisonous liquid alcohol; used as an antifreeze and solvent and fuel and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol ...
usage: a light volatile flammable poisonous liquid alcohol; used as an antifreeze and solvent and fuel and as a denaturant for ethyl ...
If you want to know more about MRI or if you want to like--chicken meal, turkey meal, lamb meal, herring meal, etc. One common complain that woman who suffer kidney MRI scan several times within six months to monitor their disease. Unfortunately when the pain the treatment it needs so that it can live life comfortably despite its condition. Remember, this disease can pass from your dog to recognized, grouped by tissue origin. Have him undergone where could they be? Lack of proper treatment can lead to antifreeze, they dont bring their pet in for care until it is very ill. Better to first inspect. .... Read more ...
Twenty years ago, putting coolant in a heavy truck could be a bit like a kids chemistry experiment. You started out with silicate-based coolant/antifreeze designed for cars and light trucks
From fertilizer to antifreeze and medicines to makeup, poisonous items are throughout our homes. Heres how to protect your kids from ingesting a poisonous substance.
Plot a phase diagram of NaCl solution ,the minimum depression is 23 degrees celcious at concentration 5mol/dm-3. (I)concentration of NaCl(mol/dm-3) 0,6 ;1,2;2,2;3,5 freezing point depression (degrees celcious 2,0;4,0;8,0 ;14,0 ...
Researchers from the University of Leeds have taken an important step forward in mimicking natures prowess at protecting cells from deep-freeze conditions.
Nature. Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides Canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal PNAS. Together with American colleagues, the RUB-researchers showed that interactions between the antifreeze proteins and water molecules contribute significantly to protection against the cold. Previously, it was assumed that the effect was only achieved through direct contact of the protein with ice crystals. The team obtained the results through a combination of terahertz spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.. Protein-ice interaction: locally and over longer distances. The structure of the fire beetle antifreeze proteins resembles a triangular prism. The ice binding surface of the "prism" ...
Antifreeze protein from an Antarctic fish [ PDB file ] [ PubMed link ] Many animals that live in extremely cold climates produce proteins that act to prevent the formation of ice crystals in the bodily fluids of the organism. Antarctic fish produce a range of such proteins, as the water temperatures can drop below 0 degrees Celsius. We have determined the structure of the type I antifreeze protein (SS3) from the blood of the shorthorn sculpin at both 5 degrees and -5 degrees. The structure largely comprises a long alpha-helix that displays conserved Thr residues (red) along a single surface. These residues are important for preventing the growth of ice crystals, although the mechanism of action is not currently understood. An additional short helix exists at the N-terminus of the protein, although the conformational relationship between the two helices is not well defined. This is the first solution structure of a wild-type type I antifreeze protein ...
Zoarces americanus (4ny6, 1ame, 1b7i, 1b7k, 1ekl, 1gzi, 1hg7, 1jab, 1kde, 1kdf, 1msi, 1msj, 2ame, 2jia, 2msi, 2msj, 2spg, 3ame, 3qf6, 4msi, 5cr7, 5msi, 6ame, 6msi, 7msi, 8ame, 8msi, 9ame, 9msi ...
Raman spectra of a mixture of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) 6, 7 and 8 adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface spanning the range of 50 to 4500 cm−1 were measured. It was found that the Raman signature of AFGP had been significantly altered because of its interaction with the HOPG surface; when compared with the spectra of bulk AFGP compounds, at least three new peaks were observed around 860, 940 and 1000 cm−1, and two other peaks that were not well resolved in the bulk spectra around 1050 and 1155 cm−1 were enhanced and well discriminated. The peak positions depended on the facet of HOPG presented to the proteins, and their relative intensities depended on the concentration of AFGP used in the adsorption experiment. The results indicated the possibility of multiple binding sites of AFGP on HOPG surfaces. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ...
1KDF: Refined solution structure of type III antifreeze protein: hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction.
1KDF: Refined solution structure of type III antifreeze protein: hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction.
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The evolutionary model escape from adaptive conflict (EAC) posits that adaptive conflict between the old and an emerging new function within a single gene could drive the fixation of gene duplication, where each duplicate can freely optimize one of the functions. Although EAC has been suggested as a common process in functional evolution, definitive cases of neofunctionalization under EAC are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms leading to functional innovation are not well-understood. We report here clear experimental evidence for EAC-driven evolution of type III antifreeze protein gene from an old sialic acid synthase (SAS) gene in an Antarctic zoarcid fish. We found that an SAS gene, having both sialic acid synthase and rudimentary ice-binding activities, became duplicated. In one duplicate, the N-terminal SAS domain was deleted and replaced with a nascent signal peptide, removing pleiotropic structural conflict between SAS and ice-binding functions and allowing rapid optimization of the ...
1982 by the National Academy of Sciences. Communicated by Norman H. Horowitz, September 28, 1981. We thank Donna Stapleton and Christine Hough-McElhanney for technical assistance and Dr. Geoff Flynn for his advice and his help in performing the automated Edman degradation. We are also grateful to Dr. Joseph Beard and the National Cancer Institute for the gift of reverse transcriptase. This work was supported by grants to P.L.D. and C.-L.H. from the Medical Research Council of Canada and by the award of a Medical Research Council Scholarship to P.L.D. This is contribution 435 from the Marine Sciences Research Laboratory, Memorial University of Newfoundland. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement" in accordance with 18 U.S.C. §1734 solely to indicate this fact ...
Shop the AMSOIL online store for high performance coolant products. Propylene Glycol Antifreeze and Engine Coolant is a safe, universal glycol antifreeze offering maximum service life. Dominator Coolant Boost provides effective heat transferring abilities and enhanced corrosion protection.
NEW YORK, NY - A recent study in knockoff perfumes has revealed that they can contain ingredients like antifreeze and urine!. The magazine Harpers Bazaar recently did a study on the contents of counterfeit perfumes. Many Americans buy them, either on the street or online, as they find brand names to be too costly, especially during a recession.. What they dont know is how these counterfeit manufacturers attempt to replicate the popular scents with cheap ingredients to keep the price down. Samples tested contained antifreeze, bacteria and even urine!. See the ABC News report below:. ...
[IMG] AMSOIL PROPYLENE GLYCOL ANTIFREEZE (ANT) MSDS WARRANTY Product Description AMSOIL Antifreeze & Engine Coolant is formulated to provide...
Antifreeze in the Gatorade was the preferred method by a Springfield, Mo., woman who fatally poisoned her husband and son and almost killed a daughter as well, Greene County authorities say. Diane Staudte, 51, has been charged with two counts of first-degree murder, one count of first-degree assault and one count of armed criminal action. A 22-year-old daughter, Rachel Staudte, also of Springfield, was charged Saturday with the same offenses.. Diane Staudte admitted Thursday to poisoning all three with antifreeze over a 14-month period, according to a probable cause statement. She told investigators that she killed her husband because she hated him and her son because he was "worse than a pest." She said she wanted to kill her 24-year-old daughter, Sarah Staudte, because the young woman "would not get a job and had student loans that had to be paid," the probable cause statement said. Her earlier story was that her husband, Mark Staudte, 61, hadnt been feeling well and suffered from seizures ...
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), a unifying name for antifreeze proteins, recrystallization inhibition proteins, and ice nucleating proteins, are found in organisms living in cold ecosystems where ice is present. Organisms from many branches of the tree of life use IBPs to embrace the consequences of freezing by several strategies such as preventing freezing or tolerating it. The program consists of plenary lectures, oral presentations, poster sessions, and an excursion.
Ticks are one of those arachnids that give most people the creeps. I know that Ive shuddered when pulling them off my dogs during the spring and summer months, and theyre the last thing I want to see crawling on my leg! But these little bloodsuckers might actually be able to help humans in a unique way. During the cold months, ticks have an "antifreeze protein" called IAFGP that protects their cells by preventing ice crystals from forming inside them. This unique property made researchers wonder if IAFGP could help prevent frostbite in mammals. To test this theory, they worked with genetically modified mice in the laboratory. These mice produced the tick antifreeze protein, and amazingly, when testing tolerance to cold, IAFGP helped protect the mice against frostbite! Now that IAFGP has proven to help prevent frostbite in mammalian cells, researchers are trying to figure out how to harness the power of this tick protein to help humans. Could IAFGP help improve organ transplantation by ...
0121]Make the 5 mg/ml solution in a sterile 1.5 ml-2 ml eppendorf tube. [0122]6) Make enough 4% DMSO solution (in another eppendorf tube) to plate the two positive control rows, taking into account loss of solution to the boat. [0123]7) Put your vial with the remaining UW, the tube with the DMSO, and the tube with your compound on crushed ice. Put two empty boats on ice. Also put your cells on crushed ice. Let them all cool for half an hour. [0124]8) Add the required UW solution to the boat. Add the required DMSO solution to the other boat (label them). [0125]9) Spray a few Kim Wipes with ethanol, fold them into a large square and put them in the hood. Shake out the medium that is in the plate onto the Kim Wipes. Replace the empty plate (with cells in it) on the ice to keep the cells cold. [0126]10) Add 40 μl of UW solution to the first two rows with the multi-channel pipette. [0127]11) Add 40 μl of the 5 mg/ml solution to the next two rows, to one well at a time. Use the P100 pipette and add ...
The Notothenioidei dominates the fish fauna of the Antarctic in both biomass and diversity. This clade exhibits adaptations related to metabolic function and freezing avoidance in the subzero Antarctic waters, and is characterized by a high degree of morphological and ecological diversity. Investigating the macroevolutionary processes that may have contributed to the radiation of notothenioid fishes requires a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis. To date published molecular and morphological hypotheses of notothenioids are largely congruent, however, there are some areas of significant disagreement regarding higher-level relationships. Also, there are critical areas of the notothenioid phylogeny that are unresolved in both molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of notothenioids using partial mtDNA 12S and 16S rRNA sequence data have resulted in limited phylogenetic resolution and relatively low node support. One particularly controversial result
Disease outbreaks are a major constraint to salmon aquaculture worldwide. Therefore, there is considerable interest in finding means to alleviate this problem by enhancing their innate immune system. Because lysozyme is an important component of this system, we generated a line of transgenic Atlantic salmon using a gene construct consisting of a rainbow trout lysozyme gene under the control of the ocean pout antifreeze protein gene promoter op5a (opAFP-rtLys). The results show that the transgene exhibited Mendelian inheritance at both the F1 and the F2 generations and demonstrated that it had integrated into a single chromosome in the genetic founder. Sequence analysis of F2 generation salmon revealed the presence of a complete copy of an intact lysozyme transgene integrant that was identical in sequence to that of the construct. The computationally translated peptide sequence of the lysozyme coding region differed by four amino acids from those present in GenBank (accession nos CAA42084; ...
First feeding of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae: use of Brachionus plicatilis acclimated at low temperatures as live prey
The effect of 7 juvenile hormone analogues on the development of larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana was studied in the laboratory at 23 degrees C, LD 16:8 and 65% RH by topical application of the compounds to early 6th-instar larvae. Fenoxycarb showed the highest potential for control, with an LC50 of 0.26 micro g/larva. The relative lethal effectiveness, based on LC50s was fenoxycarb , ZR-9892 , ZR-8487 , S-71639 , methoprene , ZR-9582 , ZR-10151 [the numbered compounds being Show moreThe effect of 7 juvenile hormone analogues on the development of larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana was studied in the laboratory at 23 degrees C, LD 16:8 and 65% RH by topical application of the compounds to early 6th-instar larvae. Fenoxycarb showed the highest potential for control, with an LC50 of 0.26 micro g/larva. The relative lethal effectiveness, based on LC50s was fenoxycarb , ZR-9892 , ZR-8487 , S-71639 , methoprene , ZR-9582 , ZR-10151 [the numbered compounds being of unstated composition].. Show ...
PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUS MODIFICATION OF DIHYDRATE GYPSUM AND MODIFIED DIHYDRATE GYPSUM OBTAINED BY THE PROCESS - Disclosed is a process for the continuous modification of dihydrate gypsum. The process includes a hemihydration step of calcining the dihydrate gypsum as a raw material into hemihydrate gypsum and a recrystallization step of hydrating and recrystallizing the hemihydrate gypsum in an aqueous slurry to convert the hemihydrate gypsum into modified dihydrate gypsum of a crystalline form different from the dihydrate gypsum as the raw material. In the recrystallization step, the aqueous slurry in a recrystallization reaction tank is maintained at a constant temperature under stirring such that the aqueous slurry becomes uniform, and a feed rate of the hemihydrate gypsum to the recrystallization reaction tank and a discharge rate of the recrystallized and modified dihydrate gypsum from the recrystallization reaction tank are controlled such that the feed rate and the discharge rate become ...
An assay screening five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana from various geographic and host origins, found the following strains most pathogenic toward 4th, 5th and 6th instars of Eastern Spruce Budworm (ESB): 1756 (sawfly larva, Nova Scotia); ARSEF1850 (Western Spruce Budworm larva, British Columbia); and DAOM196480 (ESB larva, N.B.). The ARSEF and DAOM strains were mass cultured on long grain white rice and pearled barley, and the pathogenicity of the resultant product towards 6th instars of ESB larvae was assessed in a bioassay. ARSEF out-performed DAOM in the mass culture trials, and white rice and barley were suitable production substrates. With the exception of one inoculum that consistently caused lower mortality, efficacy of the commercial product BotaniGard (GHA strain)-a positive control in the bioassay, and the barley, rice, and agar grown isolates toward ESB, was similar. The GHA strain and agar grown isolates demonstrated slightly higher virulence however ...

Fish antifreeze protein - Stock Image C025/1900 - Science Photo LibraryFish antifreeze protein - Stock Image C025/1900 - Science Photo Library

Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). - Stock Image C025 ... Caption: Fish antifreeze protein. Molecular model of a fish antifreeze protein (AFP) from the winter flounder ( ... fish antifreeze protein, ice structuring protein, illustration, isp, model, molecular, molecular model, molecular structure, ... molecule, protein, proteomics, pseudopleuronectes americanus, structure, thermal hysteresis protein, white background, winter ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/665456/view

RCSB PDB 









- 1KDF: NORTH-ATLANTIC OCEAN POUT ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN TYPE III ISOFORM HPLC12 MUTANT, NMR, MINIMIZED AVERAGE...RCSB PDB - 1KDF: NORTH-ATLANTIC OCEAN POUT ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN TYPE III ISOFORM HPLC12 MUTANT, NMR, MINIMIZED AVERAGE...

... hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction. ... Refined solution structure of type III antifreeze protein: ... NORTH-ATLANTIC OCEAN POUT ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN TYPE III ISOFORM ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1KDF

Structural basis of antifreeze activity of a bacterial multi-domain antifreeze protein - omicXStructural basis of antifreeze activity of a bacterial multi-domain antifreeze protein - omicX

Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this protein ... Mutating any of the smaller residues on the ice binding site to bulkier ones decreased the antifreeze activity. The bulky side ... partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or ...
more infohttps://omictools.com/8a5a5178d663d9289fcfe958906e027a-protocol

Family » 2.4.34.01. Type III antifreeze proteinFamily » 2.4.34.01. Type III antifreeze protein

Type III antifreeze protein (1 family). *Family:. 2.4.34.01. Type III antifreeze protein PF08666, PDBsum. Ice-structuring ... Type III antifreeze protein PF08666, PDBsum (6 proteins). Protein Name. PDB ID. Species. Localization. Num. Subunits. Num. TM ... Type III antifreeze protein nfeAFP11. 2lx2. Zoarces elongatus. Secreted. 1. 0. 5.3 ± 1.0. 53 ± 5. -7.0. ... Ice-structuring protein SP2(HPLC 1). 1ops. Zoarces americanus. Secreted. 1. 0. 2.4 ± 1.4. 60 ± 12. -4.8. ...
more infohttp://opm.phar.umich.edu/families.php?family=834

Structural and Functional Characterization of a Multifunctional Alanine-Rich Peptide Analogue from Pleuronectes americanusStructural and Functional Characterization of a Multifunctional Alanine-Rich Peptide Analogue from Pleuronectes americanus

... previously isolated as an antifreeze peptide from Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP showed activities against different targets ... Antifreeze proteins Is the Subject Area "Antifreeze proteins" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047047

Mackay & Matthews LabMackay & Matthews Lab

SS3 antifreeze protein at -5 degrees [ PDB file ] [ PubMed link ] In order to get an idea of the conformation of SS3 at a sub- ... Antifreeze protein from an Antarctic fish [ PDB file ] [ PubMed link ] Many animals that live in extremely cold climates ... We have determined the structure of the type I antifreeze protein (SS3) from the blood of the shorthorn sculpin at both 5 ... This is the first solution structure of a wild-type type I antifreeze protein. ...
more infohttps://sydney.edu.au/science/molecular_bioscience/mackay/selfdir2.php?numX=15&goToLink=strucgall.imag

Antifreeze-Protein Inspired MaterialsAntifreeze-Protein Inspired Materials

... and Cryopreservation Nature has evolved a huge range of mechanisms to allow life to ... One of the key reasons why fish can survive here is that they produce a series of antifreeze (glyco)proteins. The most famous ... Congdon, TC, Notman, R., Gibson, MI, Biomacromolecules, 2013, DOI 10.1021/bm400217j Antifreeze (Glyco)Protein Mimetic Behaviour ... We are very interested in developing antifreeze-protein mimics to enhance cellular and ultimately organ storage.. ...
more infohttps://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/chemistry/research/gibson/gibsongroup/research/cryopreservation/

Antifreeze proteins help | Physics ForumsAntifreeze proteins help | Physics Forums

Antarctic notothenioid fish avoid freezing in their perpetually icy environment because of an antifreeze... ... It is said that all proteins function by binding to other molecules. To what ligand do you suppose antifreeze proteins bind to ... Antarctic notothenioid fish avoid freezing in their perpetually icy environment because of an antifreeze protein that ... The protein binds to tiny ice crystal and prevent the growth of these crystals.. But in more technical terms. These compounds ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/antifreeze-proteins-help.56907/

Antifreeze Protein Synthesised - SlashdotAntifreeze Protein Synthesised - Slashdot

... an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I think the point is that since the protein can be ... Antifreeze Protein Synthesised 13 Posted by timothy on Monday August 20, 2001 @07:56PM. from the new-chemical-factories dept. ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I guarantee that your average protein is larger ...
more infohttps://science.slashdot.org/story/01/08/20/2349219/antifreeze-protein-synthesised?sdsrc=nextbtmnext

Antifreeze Protein Synthesised - SlashdotAntifreeze Protein Synthesised - Slashdot

... an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I think the point is that since the protein can be ... Antifreeze Protein Synthesised 13 Posted by timothy on Monday August 20, 2001 @06:56PM. from the new-chemical-factories dept. ... but how would an anti-freeze PROTEIN help us form frost-resistant CONCRETE? I guarantee that your average protein is larger ...
more infohttps://science.slashdot.org/story/01/08/20/2349219/antifreeze-protein-synthesised?sdsrc=nextbtmprev

Global Antifreeze Proteins Market Analysis & Trends, 2019-2025Global Antifreeze Proteins Market Analysis & Trends, 2019-2025

Antifreeze Proteins market worldwide is projected to grow by US$12.5 Million, driven by a compounded growth of 28.6%. ... Antifreeze Proteins - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering. ... Antifreeze Proteins market worldwide is projected to grow by US$12.5 Million, driven by a compounded growth of 28.6%. Fish, one ... "Antifreeze Proteins - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering. ...
more infohttps://finance.yahoo.com/news/global-antifreeze-proteins-market-analysis-191500515.html

Antifreeze protein evolution - creation.comAntifreeze protein evolution - creation.com

... fail as evidence formolecules-to-man evolution though they may be a new protein produced by mutation and natural selection. ... Antifreeze proteinsin general, and this example in particular, ... a class of proteins called antifreeze proteins (AFPs) appear to ... more akin to beneficial debris than a new complex and specified protein. Creating an antifreeze protein naturalistically is ... Antifreeze protein evolution: turning wrenches into hammers. by Shaun Doyle. Evolutionists have often claimed that gene ...
more infohttps://creation.com/antifreeze-protein-evolution

Antifreeze Protein EngineeringAntifreeze Protein Engineering

IBPs, including the antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that prevent the freezing of organisms, are found in nearly all biological ... PROTEIN KINASE A, EXCHANGE PROTEIN ACTIVATED BY cAMP 1, AND PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4D ALL ASSOCIATE WITH VE-CADHERIN TO REGULATE ... Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) is an integral membrane protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily ... Biochemical Characterization of Nucleotide and Protein Interactions of Human Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)  Wang ...
more infohttps://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/22711

Antifreeze proteins in Antarctic fishes prevent freezing … and meltingAntifreeze proteins in Antarctic fishes prevent freezing … and melting

... antifreeze proteins »crystals »ice crystals »marine environments »melting point »notothenioid »proteins »proteins in » ... antifreeze proteins , crystals , ice crystals , marine environments , melting point , notothenioid , proteins , proteins in , ... By testing the antifreeze proteins in the lab, the team found that these proteins also were responsible for preventing the ... DeVries discovered antifreeze proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fishes in the late 1960s, and was the first to describe how ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/study-antifreeze-proteins-in-antarctic-fishes-prevent-freezing-and-melting.html

Beetle Antifreeze Protein (2VCNULAAF) by 3DBiologyBeetle Antifreeze Protein (2VCNULAAF) by 3DBiology

... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in ... Antifreeze Proteins (AFPs) or Ice Structuring Proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... product/2VCNULAAF/beetle-antifreeze-protein /, ,input type=hidden class= name=confirmation value=emailConfirmationModal ... Models Biology Chemistry Biochemsitry Enzyme Biological Models Science Cell Cellular Biology Cell Biology Antifreeze Protein ...
more infohttps://www.shapeways.com/product/2VCNULAAF/beetle-antifreeze-protein

Isolation and some characterisation of antifreeze protein from th...: Ingenta ConnectIsolation and some characterisation of antifreeze protein from th...: Ingenta Connect

The antifreeze activity of Z. viviparus antifreeze proteins is concentration dependent and showed a saturation effect when the ... Two antifreeze proteins with molecular weights of approx. 6.5-7 kDa were characterised and found to share high similarity to ... At least 3 different antifreeze proteins were purified from Z. viviparus serum but more isoforms are most likely present. ... Isolation and some characterisation of antifreeze protein from the european eelpout Zoarces viviparus ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/cryo/cryo/2006/00000027/00000006/art00007

Antifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarketsAntifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarkets

Antifreeze Proteins Market report categorizes the global market by End Use (Medical, Cosmetics, and Food), Type (Type I, Type ... III, and Antifreeze Glycoproteins), Source (Fish, Plants, and Insects), and Region ... 4.2 Antifreeze Proteins Market Size, By Region 4.3 Antifreeze Proteins Market, By Type 4.4 Antifreeze Proteins Market, By End ... Antifreeze Proteins Market Snapshot. Figure 27 Europe: Antifreeze Proteins Market Snapshot. Figure 28 Asia Pacific: Antifreeze ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/antifreeze-protein-market-264931272.html

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Type II antifreeze protein - A0ZT93 (A0ZT93 9TELE)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Type II antifreeze protein - A0ZT93 (A0ZT93 9TELE)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/A0ZT93

Antifreeze protein - WikipediaAntifreeze protein - Wikipedia

Fish Antifreeze Produced in Pancreas Antifreeze Proteins: Molecule of the Month, by David Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank. ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... These proteins were later called antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) or antifreeze glycopeptides to distinguish them from newly ... Jorov A, Zhorov BS, Yang DS (June 2004). "Study of interaction of winter flounder antifreeze protein with ice". Protein Sci. 13 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifreeze_protein

Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties.  - PubMed - NCBIPolyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties. - PubMed - NCBI

Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties.. Matsumura K1, Hyon SH. ... We also found that carboxylated PLLs showed antifreeze protein properties, such as ice recrystallization inhibition, which may ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19515417

Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 : ReportsnReportsGlobal Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 : ReportsnReports

In this report, the global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) market is... ... Check for Discount on Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales ... Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 Table of Contents. Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market ... 2.2 Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) (Volume and Value) by Type. 2.2.1 Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales and Market Share ... 4.3 China Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 4.4 China Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Volume and ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/865873-global-antifreeze-proteins-afp-sales-market-report-2017.html

The type I antifreeze protein gene family in PleuronectidaeThe type I antifreeze protein gene family in Pleuronectidae

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect marine teleosts from freezing in icy seawater by binding to nascent ice crystals and ...
more infohttps://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/1683

Request Bundle Reports - Antifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarketsRequest Bundle Reports - Antifreeze Proteins Market by End Use & Type - Global Forecast 2023 | MarketsandMarkets

Antifreeze Proteins Market by Source (Fish, Plants, and Insects), End Use (Medical, Cosmetics, and Food), Type (Type I, Type ... What are the Known and Unknown Adjacencies Impacting the Antifreeze Proteins Market ... III, and Antifreeze Glycoproteins), Form (Liquid and Solid), and Region - Global Forecast to 2023 ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/RequestBundleReport.asp?id=264931272
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or structure of ice. (omictools.com)
  • The bulky side chain of Leu174 in domain A sterically hinders the binding of water molecules to the protein backbone, partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this protein and general insight on how structural differences in the ice-binding sites affect the activity of AFPs. (omictools.com)
  • Many animals that live in extremely cold climates produce proteins that act to prevent the formation of ice crystals in the bodily fluids of the organism. (edu.au)
  • This protein is tryptophan-containing mutant of BKLF F3 that retains native structure and function. (edu.au)
  • The atomic coordinates and structure factors (code 5UYT) have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. (omictools.com)
  • We have determined the structure of the type I antifreeze protein (SS3) from the blood of the shorthorn sculpin at both 5 degrees and -5 degrees. (edu.au)
  • This is the first solution structure of a wild-type type I antifreeze protein. (edu.au)
  • However, postulating that gene duplication and subsequent mutation can result in new functional proteins is not enough. (creation.com)
  • They proposed that a type III antifreeze protein gene evolved from a duplicated copy of the sialic acid synthase ( SAS ) gene called LdSAS-B (Ld stands for Lycodichthys dearborni) . (creation.com)
  • 4 , 5 This achieved two fortuitous things that transformed the putative SAS gene into an AFP gene: it stripped it of any SAS function, and enabled a change in reading frame, which altered the signal peptide, enabling the new protein to be secreted. (creation.com)
  • At least 3 different antifreeze proteins were purified from Z. viviparus serum but more isoforms are most likely present. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The antifreeze activity of Z. viviparus antifreeze proteins is concentration dependent and showed a saturation effect when the protein concentration reached 30mg·ml −1 (crude serum) and 8mg·ml −1 (partly purified serum) respectively. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The mature protein matches in composition one of the alanine-rich serum antifreeze proteins that was purified by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography. (caltech.edu)
  • 6.5-7 kDa were characterised and found to share high similarity to the type III antifreeze proteins found in other members of the family Zoarcidae . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The main objective of the report is to define, segment, and project the global market size for antifreeze proteins on the basis of type, source, form, end-use, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Evolutionary precursors of several members have been identified - divergent proteins of apparently unrelated function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Antifreeze proteins improve the quality of frozen food products such as ice creams that are consumed in the frozen state by inhibiting recrystallization and maintaining a smooth texture. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • These results suggested interactions of antifreeze proteins with the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Previously, AFP activity was increased by fusing an AFP to another protein, or by increasing the size of the IBP's ice-binding face. (queensu.ca)
  • Peptide backbone circularization had no effect on antifreeze activity but significantly increased thermal stability compared to the non-cyclized form. (queensu.ca)
  • Therefore, it is possible to select a single protein with appropriate characteristics and a suitable level of activity for a specific food product. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Two endemic species captured in the same sampling program did show antifreeze activity: the important pelagic species Pleuragramma antarcticum (Nototheniidae) and the Bathydraconid (Vomeridens). (usf.edu)
  • It also helps to understand the structure of the antifreeze proteins market by identifying its various segments. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The cells of the thawed samples with antifreeze protein conserved the structure of the reference samples of in natura strawberry. (scielo.br)
  • Key participants in the antifreeze proteins market are manufacturers, antifreeze protein manufacturers, distributors & suppliers, associations & industry bodies, and end users. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This work aimed to evaluate the effects of antifreeze proteins on the microstructure and physicochemical characteristics of strawberries grown in a hydroponic system. (scielo.br)
  • The partly non-protein-coding signal peptide (SP) precursor sequence in SAS-B ' that was modified to become a coding sequence for the AFPIII signal peptide is shown at the bottom. (creation.com)
  • The antifreeze protein impregnated strawberries showed no statistical differences with respect to the physicochemical properties, but the drip loss was statistically lower from the thawed strawberries treated with the antifreeze protein. (scielo.br)
  • It also destroyed the integrity of the first exon, which exposed coding for a signal peptide targeting the protein for secretion that was previously latent in the 5' flanking region of LdSAS-B . (creation.com)
  • The other objectives include analyzing opportunities in the market for stakeholders and providing a competitive landscape of market trends, analyzing the macro- and micro-indicators of this market, and projecting the size of the antifreeze proteins market and its submarkets, in terms of value as well as volume. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the size of the antifreeze proteins market and to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • I think the point is that since the protein can be added to water to reduce the freezing point of the water, it would be useful in allowing the concrete to set up in below freezing conditions. (slashdot.org)