Relationship of plasmin generation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly men and women. (1/402)Plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) marks plasmin generation and fibrinolytic balance. We recently observed that elevated levels of PAP predict acute myocardial infarction in the elderly, yet little is known about the correlates of PAP. We measured PAP in 800 elderly subjects who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2 cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. Median PAP levels did not differ between the Cardiovascular Health Study (6.05+/-1.46 nmol/L) and the Honolulu Heart Program (6.11+/-1.44 nmol/L), and correlates of PAP were similar in both cohorts. In CHS, PAP levels increased with age (r=0. 30), procoagulant factors (eg, factor VIIc, r=0.15), thrombin activity (prothrombin fragment F1+2, r=0.29), and inflammation-sensitive proteins (eg, fibrinogen, r=0.44; factor VIIIc, r=0.37). PAP was associated with increased atherosclerosis as measured by the ankle-arm index (AAI) (P for trend, +info)
Usefulness of D-dimer, blood gas, and respiratory rate measurements for excluding pulmonary embolism. (2/402)BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the SimpliRED D-dimer test, arterial oxygen tension, and respiratory rate measurement for excluding pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: Lung scans were performed in 517 consecutive medical inpatients with suspected acute PE over a one year period. Predetermined end points for objectively diagnosed PE in order of precedence were (1) a post mortem diagnosis, (2) a positive pulmonary angiogram, (3) a high probability ventilation perfusion lung scan when the pretest probability was also high, and (4) the unanimous opinion of an adjudication committee. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed by standard ultrasound and venography. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases of PE and 37 cases of DVT were objectively diagnosed. The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding objectively diagnosed PE was 0.99 (error rate 2/249), that of PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg (10.7 kPa) was 0.97 (error rate 5/160), and that of a respiratory rate of < or = 20/min was 0.95 (error rate 14/308). The best combination of findings for excluding PE was a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 > or = 80 mm Hg, which gave a predictive value of 1.0 (error rate 0/93). The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding VTE was 0.98 (error rate 5/249). CONCLUSIONS: All three of these observations are helpful in excluding PE. When any two parameters were normal, PE was very unlikely. In patients with a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg a lung scan is usually unnecessary. Application of this approach for triage in the preliminary assessment of suspected PE could lead to a reduced rate of false positive diagnoses and considerable resource savings. (+info)
Tranexamic acid increases peritoneal ultrafiltration volume in patients on CAPD. (3/402)OBJECTIVE: The preservation of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity is crucial to maintaining long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antiplasmin agent tranexamic acid (TNA) increases UF volume in CAPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on CAPD, 5 with UF loss and 10 without UF loss, were recruited for the study. The effect of TNA was evaluated with respect to changes in UF volume, peritoneal permeability, peritoneal clearance, bradykinin (BK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) concentration. SETTING: Dialysis unit of the Saiseikai Central Hospital. RESULTS: In patients with UF loss, 2 weeks of treatment with oral TNA produced a significant increase in UF volume in all subjects (5/5).TNA also produced a significant increase in peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine (Cr). However, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) revealed that TNA had no effect on dialysate/plasma (D/P) Cr, Kt/V, or the protein catabolic rate (PCR).TNA also had no effect on net glucose reabsorption. In contrast, significant decreases in BK and blood tPA concentrations in response to TNA treatment were noted. BK concentration in drainage fluid was also reduced. In the case of patients without UF loss,TNA produced an increase in UF volume in 70% (7/10). However, no differences were found in blood and drainage BK and tPA concentrations between theTNA treatment and nontreatment periods in these patients. A comparison of basal BK and tPA concentration showed that there were no differences in these parameters between patients with UF loss and those without loss of UF. Furthermore,TNA given intraperitoneally to a patient also produced a marked increase in UF volume. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests thatTNA enhances UF volume in patients both with and without UF loss. SinceTNA did not affect peritoneal permeability and glucose reabsorption, the mechanism by which TNA exerts an enhancing action on UF is largely unknown. We speculate that it may be associated with suppression of the BK and/or tPA system, at least in patients with UF loss. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of educational package on management of menorrhagia in primary care: the Anglia menorrhagia education study. (4/402)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in East Anglia. SUBJECTS: 100 practices (348 doctors) in primary care were recruited and randomised to intervention (54) and control (46). INTERVENTIONS: An educational package based on principles of "academic detailing" with independent academics was given in small practice based interactive groups with a visual presentation, a printed evidence based summary, a graphic management flow chart, and a follow up meeting at 6 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: All practices recorded consultation details, treatments offered, and outcomes for women with regular heavy menstrual loss (menorrhagia) over 1 year. RESULTS: 1001 consultation data sheets for menorrhagia were returned. There were significantly fewer referrals (20% v 29%; odds ratio 0. 64; 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.99) and a significantly higher use of tranexamic acid (odds ratio 2.38; 1.61 to 3.49) in the intervention group but no overall difference in norethisterone treatment compared with controls. There were more referrals when tranexamic acid was given with norethisterone than when it was given alone. Those practices reporting fewer than 10 cases showed the highest increase in prescribing of tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The educational package positively influenced referral for menorrhagia and treatment with appropriate non-hormonal drugs. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of epsilon-aminocaproic acid in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery. (5/402)BACKGROUND: Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is commonly infused during cardiac surgery using empiric dosing schemes. The authors developed a pharmacokinetic model for EACA elimination in surgical patients, tested whether adjustments for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) would improve the model, and then used the model to develop an EACA dosing schedule that would yield nearly constant EACA blood concentrations. METHODS: Consenting patients undergoing elective coronary artery surgery received one of two loading doses of EACA, 30 mg/kg (group I, n = 7) or 100 mg/kg (group II, n = 6) after CPB, or (group III) a 100 mg/kg loading dose before CPB and a 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) maintenance infusion continued for 4 h during and after CPB (n = 7). Two patients with renal failure received EACA in the manner of group III. Blood concentrations of EACA, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were subjected to mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling. RESULTS: The EACA concentration data were best fit by a model with two compartments and corrections for CPB. The elimination rate constant k10 fell from 0.011 before CPB to 0.0006 during CPB, returning to 0.011 after CPB. V1 increased 3.8 l with CPB and remained at that value thereafter. Cl1 varied from 0.08 l/min before CPB to 0.007 l/min during CPB and 0.13 l/min after CPB. Cl2 increased from 0.09 l/min before CPB to 0.14 l/min during and after CPB. Two patients with renal failure demonstrated markedly reduced clearance. Using their model, the authors predict that an EACA loading infusion of 50 mg/kg given over 20 min and a maintenance infusion of 25 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) would maintain a nearly constant target concentration of 260 microg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: EACA clearance declines and volume of distribution increases during CPB. The authors' model predicts that more stable perioperative EACA concentrations would be obtained with a smaller loading dose (50 mg/kg given over 20 min) and a more rapid maintenance infusion (25 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) than are typically employed. (+info)
The effect of prophylactic epsilon-aminocaproic acid on bleeding, transfusions, platelet function, and fibrinolysis during coronary artery bypass grafting. (6/402)BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytic medications administered before skin incision decrease bleeding after cardiac surgery. Numerous case reports indicate thrombus formation with administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (epsilon-ACA). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of epsilon-ACA administered after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass in reducing bleeding and transfusion requirements after primary coronary artery bypass surgery. METHODS: Seventy-four adult patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive 125 mg/kg epsilon-ACA followed by an infusion of 12.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) or an equivalent volume of saline. Coagulation studies, thromboelastography, and platelet aggregation tests were performed preoperatively, after bypass, and on the first postoperative day. Mediastinal drainage was recorded during the 24 h after surgery. Homologous blood transfusion triggers were predefined and transfusion amounts were recorded. RESULTS: One patient was excluded for surgical bleeding and five patients were excluded for transfusion against predefined criteria One patient died from a dysrhythmia 2 h postoperatively. Among the remaining 67, the epsilon-ACA group had less mediastinal blood loss during the 24 h after surgery, 529+/-241 ml versus 691+/-286 ml (mean +/- SD), P < 0.05, despite longer cardiopulmonary bypass times and lower platelet counts, P < 0.05. Platelet aggregation was reduced in both groups following cardiopulmonary bypass but did not differ between groups. Homologous blood transfusion was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic administration of epsilon-ACA after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass is of minimal benefit for reducing blood loss postoperatively in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting. (+info)
The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the conformation of plasminogen. (7/402)Plasminogen undergoes a large conformational change when it binds 6-aminohexanoate. Using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and native PAGE, we show that hydrostatic pressure brings about the same conformational change. The volume change for this conformational change is -33 mL.mol-1. Binding of ligand and hydrostatic pressure both cause the protein to open up to expose surfaces that had previously been buried in the interior. (+info)
Relationship of TIMI myocardial perfusion grade to mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs. (8/402)BACKGROUND: Although improved epicardial blood flow (as assessed with either TIMI flow grades or TIMI frame count) has been related to reduced mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs, the relationship of myocardial perfusion (as assessed on the coronary arteriogram) to mortality has not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: A new, simple angiographic method, the TIMI myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade, was used to assess the filling and clearance of contrast in the myocardium in 762 patients in the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) 10B trial, and its relationship to mortality was examined. TMP grade 0 was defined as no apparent tissue-level perfusion (no ground-glass appearance of blush or opacification of the myocardium) in the distribution of the culprit artery; TMP grade 1 indicates presence of myocardial blush but no clearance from the microvasculature (blush or a stain was present on the next injection); TMP grade 2 blush clears slowly (blush is strongly persistent and diminishes minimally or not at all during 3 cardiac cycles of the washout phase); and TMP grade 3 indicates that blush begins to clear during washout (blush is minimally persistent after 3 cardiac cycles of washout). There was a mortality gradient across the TMP grades, with mortality lowest in those patients with TMP grade 3 (2.0%), intermediate in TMP grade 2 (4.4%), and highest in TMP grades 0 and 1 (6.0%; 3-way P=0.05). Even among patients with TIMI grade 3 flow in the epicardial artery, the TMP grades allowed further risk stratification of 30-day mortality: 0.73% for TMP grade 3; 2.9% for TMP grade 2; 5.0% for TMP grade 0 or 1 (P=0.03 for TMP grade 3 versus grades 0, 1, and 2; 3-way P=0.066). TMP grade 3 flow was a multivariate correlate of 30-day mortality (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.02, P=0.054) in a multivariate model that adjusted for the presence of TIMI 3 flow (P=NS), the corrected TIMI frame count (OR 1.02, P=0.06), the presence of an anterior myocardial infarction (OR 2.3, P=0.03), pulse rate on admission (P=NS), female sex (P=NS), and age (OR 1.1, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired perfusion of the myocardium on coronary arteriography by use of the TMP grade is related to a higher risk of mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs that is independent of flow in the epicardial artery. Patients with both normal epicardial flow (TIMI grade 3 flow) and normal tissue level perfusion (TMP grade 3) have an extremely low risk of mortality. (+info)
Aminocaproic Acid is a medication that is used to control bleeding by reducing the breakdown of blood clots. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called plasmin, which is responsible for breaking down blood clots. Aminocaproic Acid is often used to treat bleeding disorders such as hemophilia, as well as bleeding associated with surgery or trauma. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms.
Tranexamic acid is a medication that is used to reduce bleeding. It works by blocking the breakdown of blood clots, which helps to prevent excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid is often used to treat bleeding associated with heavy menstrual periods (menorrhagia), as well as bleeding associated with surgery, including dental surgery and surgery to treat injuries. It is also sometimes used to treat bleeding associated with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease and kidney disease. Tranexamic acid is available in both oral and injectable forms.
Aminocaproates are a class of amino acid derivatives that are commonly used in the medical field as chelating agents. They are used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead poisoning, by binding to the heavy metal ions and facilitating their elimination from the body. Aminocaproates are also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, by disrupting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. They are typically administered intravenously and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
Aprotinin is a protease inhibitor that is derived from bovine lung. It is used in the medical field as an antifibrinolytic agent to reduce blood loss during surgery and to prevent excessive bleeding in patients with certain medical conditions. Aprotinin works by inhibiting the activity of enzymes called proteases, which are involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is typically administered intravenously and is available as a sterile powder that must be reconstituted with sterile water before use. Aprotinin has been used in a variety of surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass surgery, liver transplantation, and kidney transplantation. However, its use has been controversial due to concerns about its safety and efficacy, and it is no longer widely used in many countries.
Blood loss during surgery refers to the amount of blood that is lost from the body during a surgical procedure. This can occur due to various reasons, such as damage to blood vessels during the surgery, excessive bleeding from the surgical site, or the use of anticoagulants that increase bleeding. Blood loss during surgery can be a significant concern for both the patient and the surgical team, as it can lead to anemia, hypovolemia (low blood volume), and other complications. To manage blood loss during surgery, the surgical team may use techniques such as suturing or stapling to close blood vessels, applying pressure to the surgical site, or administering blood transfusions or other fluids to replace lost blood. In some cases, excessive blood loss during surgery may require emergency interventions, such as the use of a blood transfusion or the application of a surgical technique called "damage control surgery," which involves temporarily stabilizing the patient and addressing the underlying cause of the bleeding at a later time.
Carboxypeptidase U (CP-U) is an enzyme that is found in the kidneys and is involved in the metabolism of certain peptides and proteins. It is a member of the carboxypeptidase family of enzymes, which are responsible for cleaving peptide bonds at the C-terminus (the end) of amino acids. CP-U specifically cleaves peptide bonds that are followed by the amino acid arginine or lysine. CP-U plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure by breaking down certain hormones and other molecules that can affect blood vessel tone. It is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, including some diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Abnormalities in the activity of CP-U have been associated with a number of conditions, including hypertension, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.
Postoperative hemorrhage refers to the excessive bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. It can occur immediately after surgery or may take several days to develop. Hemorrhage can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary hemorrhage occurs during the surgical procedure, while secondary hemorrhage occurs after the surgery has been completed. Postoperative hemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to blood vessels during surgery, failure to control bleeding during surgery, and the use of blood-thinning medications. Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include a rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, dizziness, and weakness. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage may include blood transfusions, medications to stop bleeding, and in severe cases, surgery to repair or remove the source of bleeding. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor patients after surgery to detect and treat postoperative hemorrhage promptly to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Carboxypeptidase B (CPB) is an enzyme that is found in the pancreas and other organs in the body. It is a member of the carboxypeptidase family of enzymes, which are responsible for cleaving peptide bonds at the C-terminus (the end) of amino acids. Specifically, CPB cleaves peptide bonds between basic amino acids (such as arginine and lysine) and the C-terminus of the peptide chain. CPB plays an important role in the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. It helps to break down large protein molecules into smaller peptides and individual amino acids, which can then be absorbed by the body. CPB is also involved in the regulation of blood pressure and the metabolism of certain hormones. In the medical field, CPB is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of the enzyme in the blood or other body fluids. Abnormal levels of CPB can be an indication of certain medical conditions, such as pancreatitis, kidney disease, or liver disease. It is also used as a research tool to study the function of the enzyme and its role in various biological processes.
Thrombomodulin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood clotting. It is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the inner lining of blood vessels. When a blood vessel is damaged, thrombomodulin is released and binds to thrombin, an enzyme that is involved in the formation of blood clots. This binding activates thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen, a plasma protein, into fibrin. Fibrin forms a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the blood clot and prevents further bleeding. Thrombomodulin also plays a role in the regulation of inflammation by activating protein C, another plasma protein that inhibits the coagulation cascade and promotes the clearance of damaged cells and debris from the blood vessel. Abnormalities in thrombomodulin expression or function can lead to bleeding disorders or an increased risk of blood clots, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.
Alpha-2-Antiplasmin (α2-AP) is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood clotting. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it inhibits the activity of plasminogen activators, enzymes that convert plasminogen into plasmin. Plasmin is a protease that breaks down fibrin, the main component of blood clots, and helps to dissolve clots. In the medical field, α2-AP is often measured as a diagnostic marker for various conditions related to blood clotting, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Abnormal levels of α2-AP can also indicate liver disease or other conditions that affect its production or function. In addition to its role in blood clotting, α2-AP has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases.
Carboxypeptidases are a group of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds at the C-terminus (the end) of amino acids in proteins or peptides. These enzymes are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the pancreas, liver, and kidneys, and play important roles in the metabolism of proteins and peptides. There are several different types of carboxypeptidases, each with its own specific substrate specificity and tissue distribution. For example, carboxypeptidase A is primarily found in the pancreas and is involved in the digestion of proteins, while carboxypeptidase B is found in the liver and kidneys and is involved in the metabolism of hormones and other signaling molecules. Carboxypeptidases are important for maintaining the proper balance of amino acids in the body and for regulating the activity of various signaling molecules. In some cases, defects in carboxypeptidase activity can lead to certain medical conditions, such as inherited disorders of protein metabolism or kidney disease.
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- Prolonged therapy with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or solvent/detergent-treated plasma (SDP) or antifibrinolytic agents may be needed in patients with alpha2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha2-PI), depending on the clinical circumstance. (medscape.com)
- Bleeding episodes may require nonspecific treatment, such as desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) or antifibrinolytic agents. (medscape.com)
- Heparin, antifibrinolytics and/or plasmapheresis/exchange transfusion have been used in the management of some Hazard Level 1 envenomings, but evidence-based analysis positively contraindicates the use of any of these interventions. (ox.ac.uk)
- More than 85% of MDS cases are idiopathic or "de novo", while 10-15% are secondary to a recognized prior exposure to a DNA damaging agent such as alkylating agent / topoisomerase inhibitor chemotherapy, or ionizing radiation. (dermatologyadvisor.com)
-  ,  The challenge is evident in multiple techniques used: tourniquets, hemostatic agents, hypotensive anesthesia, perioperative medications, various coagulation devices, reinfusion drains, and blood donation and transfusions. (jmedscindmc.com)
- For prophylactic care, long-term oral therapy with antifibrinolytics has successfully reduced the incidence of bleeding in patients with inherited alpha2-PI deficiency. (medscape.com)
- These agents are now acceptable alternatives to warfarin for use in prophylaxis and treatment of VTE and stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
- It has been in use for more than 40 years and is generally an important agent for the treatment of essential hypertension. (medscape.com)
- However, over the last decade, newer agents with different mechanisms of action have become available for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
- This agent is often preferred because of its potassium-sparing effects, particularly in a clinical setting that includes secondary hyperaldosteronism. (medscape.com)
- Physicians must become familiar with the pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action, indications, risks, and benefits of these agents to become comfortable using them in clinical practice. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
- But melasma patients often relapse when they stop taking the antifibrinolytic agent, and research on tranexamic acid's long-term efficacy and safety is limited, according to a recent review of studies looking at the use of tranexamic acid for melasma and other dermatologic conditions published in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology . (dermatologytimes.com)
- This review will serve to discuss these aspects of the novel non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulant agents. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
- Discuss the types of anti-fibrinolytic agents, its indications for therapy. (edu.pk)
- Antifibrinolytics are particularly useful and may be sufficient for dental extractions even in patients with severe deficiency. (medscape.com)
- These agents can be used both for patients with DVT and those with PE. (msdmanuals.com)
- But melasma patients often relapse when they stop taking the antifibrinolytic agent, and research on tranexamic acid's long-term efficacy and safety is limited. (dermatologytimes.com)
- Tooth extractions can be managed by using only antifibrinolytic agents without replacement therapy. (medscape.com)
- Continuation of oral antifibrinolytic therapy on an outpatient basis is warranted, particularly if the drug was effective in controlling bleeding, as in persons with hemophilia following oral surgical procedures. (medscape.com)
- Disadvantages to its use include the large volumes required, the potential for transmission of infective agents, and the possibility of allergic reactions. (medscape.com)
- Disadvantages include large infusion volumes to achieve appropriate control of bleeding, a potential for transmitting infective agents, and the possibility of allergic reactions. (medscape.com)
- Discuss the potential thrombotic risk of antifibrinolytic agents. (medscape.com)
- Discuss the management of hemorrhagic complications of anti coagulation agents. (edu.pk)
- Other agents that increase NO levels independently of ecNOS may also be used. (patentpc.com)
- A recent systematic review [ 6 ] of randomized, controlled trials of antifibrinolytic agents (mainly aprotinin or tranexamic acid) in elective surgical patients identified 89 trials, including 8580 randomized patients (74 trials in cardiac, 8 in orthopaedic, 4 in liver, and 3 in vascular surgery). (medscape.com)
- The Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage (CRASH2) trial will be a large, international, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of the early administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid on death, vascular events, and transfusion requirements. (medscape.com)
- An antifibrinolytic concentration of tranexamic acid remains in different tissues for about 17 hours, and in the serum, up to seven or eight hours. (nih.gov)
- Antifibrinolytic agents, such as tranexamic acid, help treat bleeding after childbirth or during dental work and other procedures. (nih.gov)
- Intravenous antifibrinolytics (e.g., epsilon-aminocaproic acid [EACA] and tranexamic acid) can be used for severe bleeding manifestations, including intracranial hemorrhage (with or without hematoma evacuation). (nih.gov)
- To evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, in reduction of surgical hemorrhage during endoscopic nasal surgery. (aijcr.com)
- Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent which inhibits the action of plasmin. (aijcr.com)
- Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that competitively inhibits breakdown of fibrin clots. (arogga.com)
- Therapy for prevention of bleeding during surgery in patients with severe FXI deficiency consists of plasma, factor XI concentrates, fibrin glue and antifibrinolytic agents. (tau.ac.il)
- We aimed to assess the efficacy of antifibrinolytic agents for preventing bleeding complications in people on oral anticoagulants undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions. (nih.gov)
- Antifibrinolytic agents are widely used to reduce perioperative haemorrhage. (smu.ac.za)
- Systemic antifibrinolytic agents have been used in the management of eye injuries, of which there is some evidence that they reduce the rate of secondary hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- In cases of non-compressible torso hemorrhage when standard prehospital interventions have been exhausted, the RDCR algorithm would seek to further mitigate end-organ hypoxia and the "lethal triad" through the judicious employment of blood products, procoagulants and antifibrinolytic agents by prehospital medical providers. (rdcr.org)
- Heavy menstrual bleeding can often be managed with oral antifibrinolytics or hormonal suppression therapy. (nih.gov)
- Systemic antifibrinolytic agents are widely used in major surgery to prevent fibrinolysis and thus reduce surgical blood loss. (medscape.com)
- Antifibrinolytics should be used to prevent bleeding for surgical and dental procedures, childbirth, and other invasive procedures. (nih.gov)
- 1. The use of haemostatic drugs in haemophilia: desmopressin and antifibrinolytic agents. (nih.gov)
- The goal of this review is normally to supply an traditional perspective on scientific studies CX-6258 that defined and examined therapies for fibrinolysis shutdown, aswell as appraise and synthesize the prevailing books on impaired postinjury fibrinolysis to specify potential directions in handling these coagulation adjustments and factors for using antifibrinolytics within this individual population. (ipa2014.org)
- May consider prophylactic administration with antifibrinolytics prior to minor procedures (eg, dental). (medscape.com)
- Infusion of fresh-frozen plasma can be used as needed to increase PAI-1 activity prior to achieving therapeutic steady-state levels of antifibrinolytics. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, the water extract from J. effusus L. in the presence of antimicrobial agents or antifibrinolytics already used as ingredients in mouthwash could significantly reduce the production of chemokines from P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated oral epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- Because the hemostatic abnormalities that occur after injury are similar to those after surgery, it is possible that antifibrinolytic agents may also reduce blood loss, the need for transfusion, and mortality following trauma. (medscape.com)
- Bypassing agents can help your blood clot when antibodies that block clotting factors are causing your bleeding disorder. (nih.gov)
- The gingival epithelium acts as the first physical barrier in fighting attacks by periodontopathogenic pathogens, such as the primary etiological agent Porphyromonas gingivalis, and various exogenous chemicals, as well as regulates the local innate immune responses. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- Data from other disease states, however, raise the possibility that certain agents not routinely used, may be effective. (nih.gov)
- Some agents may have different, more attractive mechanisms and may work better. (nih.gov)
- Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. (mdwiki.org)