Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.
An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, Antithrombin I (see FIBRIN) and ANTITHROMBIN III appear to be of major importance.
Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Modern medical literature refers to peer-reviewed articles, journals, and books published from the late 19th century to the present, encompassing advancements in medical knowledge, research, technology, and evidence-based practices that have contributed to significant improvements in diagnostic techniques, treatment methods, and public health interventions.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
'Rare Books,' in a medical context, refers to old or out-of-print textbooks, journals, and manuscripts that hold historical significance, document the evolution of medical knowledge, and are highly valuable due to their scarcity and demand among collectors and researchers.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.

Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. (1/392)

This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important.  (+info)

Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study Group. (2/392)

BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol poisoning causes metabolic acidosis and renal failure and may cause death. The standard treatment is inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol, given in intoxicating doses, and adjunctive hemodialysis. We studied the efficacy of fomepizole, a new inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, in the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. METHODS: We administered intravenous fomepizole to 19 patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (plasma ethylene glycol concentration, > or =20 mg per deciliter [3.2 mmol per liter]). Patients who met specific criteria also underwent hemodialysis. Treatment was continued until plasma ethylene glycol concentrations were less than 20 mg per deciliter. Acid-base status, renal function, the kinetics of fomepizole, and ethylene glycol metabolism were assessed at predetermined intervals. RESULTS: Fifteen of the patients initially had acidosis (mean serum bicarbonate concentration, 12.9 mmol per liter). Acid-base status tended to normalize within hours after the initiation of treatment with fomepizole. One patient with extreme acidosis died. In nine patients, renal function decreased during therapy; at enrollment, all nine had high serum creatinine concentrations and markedly elevated plasma glycolate concentrations (> or =97.7 mg per deciliter [12.9 mmol per liter]). None of the 10 patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations at enrollment had renal injury during treatment; all 10 had plasma glycolate concentrations at or below 76.8 mg per deciliter (10.1 mmol per liter). Renal injury was independent of the initial plasma ethylene glycol concentration. The plasma concentration of glycolate and the urinary excretion of oxalate, the major metabolites of ethylene glycol, uniformly fell after the initiation of fomepizole therapy. Few adverse effects were attributable to fomepizole. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ethylene glycol poisoning, fomepizole administered early in the course of intoxication prevents renal injury by inhibiting the formation of toxic metabolites.  (+info)

Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human lung fibroblasts: protective roles of glutathione. (3/392)

Although reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related cell damage has been implicated in pathogenesis of fibrogenetic pulmonary disorders, features of ROS-mediated cell death in human lung fibroblasts are not completely understood. We therefore examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on cell growth kinetics in human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cells) and tested the roles of antioxidants on the H2O2-induced cell death (i.e., necrosis and apoptosis) in HFL-1 cells. We found that the relatively low concentrations of H2O2 ranging from 10 microM to 100 microM induced predominantly apoptosis, whereas higher concentration of H2O2 ranging 1 mM-10 mM induced predominantly necrosis in HFL-1 cells. Extracellular supplementation of glutathione (GSH) in culture media significantly abolished the H2O2-induced cell death, whereas GSH-depleted cells by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) were likely to undergo cell death caused by a lower concentration of H2O2 than normal HFL-1 cells without BSO treatment. These results indicate that H2O2 induces both necrosis and apoptosis of human lung fibroblasts at least in part through the action of ROS and that modulation of the ROS production inside and outside of cells may influence the cell survival during oxidative insults.  (+info)

Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role? (4/392)

In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metastases who elsewhere might have received prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy. Of the 69 patients, 67 received intravenous chemotherapy only. The other two patients had cerebral metastases at presentation. One patient who received only intravenous chemotherapy subsequently developed a cerebral metastasis, but this patient's initial treatment was compromised by non-compliance. This experience supports our current policy of not treating patients with pulmonary metastases, without clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with prophylactic intrathecal therapy.  (+info)

The presentation and management of post-partum choriocarcinoma. (5/392)

Post-partum choriocarcinoma is a rare complication of pregnancy. We have analysed a series of nine consecutive patients presenting with choriocarcinoma after a full-term non-molar pregnancy. All patients were managed at the Supraregional Trophoblastic Disease Screening and Treatment Centre at Weston Park Hospital, Sheffield between 1987 and 1996. All presented with persistent primary or secondary post-partum haemorrhage. Treatment with multiagent chemotherapy (initially methotrexate, dactinomycin and etoposide) was successful in all cases. Early diagnosis is important because this rare condition is potentially curable with appropriate chemotherapy.  (+info)

Gastric decontamination--a view for the millennium. (6/392)

The management of acute poisoning remains an important part of accident and emergency (A&E) care. Three gastric decontamination procedures have been widely used: gastric lavage, ipecac, and activated charcoal. Their role has recently been reviewed and position statements developed by working groups of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. These have important implications for A&E, as they indicate that activated charcoal is now the agent of choice for most poisons, but than in most situations it is probably only effective if given within an hour of overdose. Ipecac is effectively obsolete and gastric lavage has a narrow range of indications, principally for potentially serious amounts of agents not adsorbed by charcoal. Protocols for care of overdose patients should be modified accordingly.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' B versus Dukes' C colon cancer: results from four National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project adjuvant studies (C-01, C-02, C-03, and C-04) (7/392)

PURPOSE: Although the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy has been clearly established in patients with Dukes' C colon cancer, such benefit has been questioned in patients with Dukes' B disease. To determine whether patients with Dukes' B disease benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate the magnitude of the benefit, compared with that observed in Dukes' C patients, we examined the relative efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy according to Dukes' stage in four sequential National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trials (C-01, C-02, C-03, and C-04) that compared different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens with each other or with no adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The four trials included Dukes' B and C patients and were conducted between 1977 and 1990. The eligibility criteria and follow-up requirements were similar for all four trials. Protocol C-01 compared adjuvant semustine, vincristine, and fluorouracil (5-FU) (MOF regimen) with operation alone. Protocol C-02 compared the perioperative administration of a portal venous infusion of 5-FU with operation alone. Protocol C-03 compared adjuvant 5-FU and leucovorin (LV) with adjuvant MOF. Protocol C-04 compared adjuvant 5-FU and LV with 5-FU and levamisole (LEV) and with the combination of 5-FU, LV, and LEV. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of the patients included in these four trials had resected Dukes' B tumors. In all four studies, the overall, disease-free, and recurrence-free survival improvement noted for all patients was evident in both Dukes' B and Dukes' C patients. When the relative efficacy of chemotherapy was examined, there was always an observed reduction in mortality, recurrence, or disease-free survival event, irrespective of Dukes' stage, and in most instances, the reduction was as great or greater for Dukes' B patients as for Dukes' C patients. When data from all four trials were examined in a combined analysis, the mortality reduction was 30% for Dukes' B patients versus 18% for Dukes' C patients. The mortality reduction in Dukes' B patients occurred irrespective of the presence or absence of adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with Dukes' B colon cancer benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and should be presented with this treatment option. Regardless of the presence or absence of other clinical prognostic factors, Dukes' B patients seem to benefit from chemotherapy administration.  (+info)

Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in B2 colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of B2 Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT B2) Investigators. (8/392)

PURPOSE: The goal of this analysis was to determine whether fluorouracil (FU) and folinic acid (leucovorin, LV) is an effective adjuvant therapy for patients after potentially curative resection of colon cancer in patients with B2 tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One thousand sixteen patients with B2 colon cancer entered onto five separate trials were randomized to FU + LV or observation. A pooled analysis for event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) using a stratified log-rank and Cox model was performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 5.75 years. Patients receiving FU + LV did not experience a significant increase in EFS or OS. The hazards ratio at 5 years was 0.83 (90% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.07) for EFS and 0.86 (90% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.07) for OS. The 5-year EFS was 73% for controls and 76% for FU + LV. The 5-year OS was 80% for controls and 82% for FU + LV. Increasing age and poorly differentiated tumors were significant indicators of poor prognosis (P < .02). CONCLUSION: This data set does not support the routine use of FU + LV in all patients with B2 colon cancer. Longer follow-up may identify a small benefit. At present, studies in B2 colon cancer designed with a no-treatment control arm should be considered appropriate.  (+info)

An antidote is a substance that can counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. It works by neutralizing, reducing, or eliminating the harmful effects of the toxic substance. Antidotes can be administered in various forms such as medications, vaccines, or treatments. They are often used in emergency situations to save lives and prevent serious complications from poisoning.

The effectiveness of an antidote depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxin involved, the timing of administration, and the individual's response to treatment. In some cases, multiple antidotes may be required to treat a single poisoning incident. It is important to note that not all poisons have specific antidotes, and in such cases, supportive care and symptomatic treatment may be necessary.

Examples of common antidotes include:

* Naloxone for opioid overdose
* Activated charcoal for certain types of poisoning
* Digoxin-specific antibodies for digoxin toxicity
* Fomepizole for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
* Dimercaprol for heavy metal poisoning.

Cholinesterase reactivators are a type of medication used to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning, particularly organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, as well as nerve agents. These chemicals work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This can lead to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine and result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Cholinesterase reactivators, also known as oximes, work by reactivating the inhibited enzyme and allowing it to resume its normal function. The most commonly used cholinesterase reactivator is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is often administered in combination with atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of nerve agents or pesticides, and their use should be determined by a medical professional based on the specific type of poisoning involved. Additionally, these medications can have side effects and should only be administered under medical supervision.

Hydroxocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12 that is used in medical treatments. It is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring compound, and it is often used to treat vitamin B12 deficiencies. Hydroxocobalamin is also used to treat poisoning from cyanide, as it can bind with the cyanide to form a non-toxic compound that can be excreted from the body.

In medical terms, hydroxocobalamin is defined as: "A bright red crystalline compound, C21H30CoN4O7·2H2O, used in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency and as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. It is converted in the body to active coenzyme forms."

It's important to note that hydroxocobalamin should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use can lead to serious side effects or harm.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Heparin antagonists, also known as heparin neutralizers or reversal agents, are medications used to reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin, a type of blood thinner. Heparin works by activating antithrombin III, which inactivates clotting factors IIa and Xa. Heparin antagonists, such as protamine sulfate, work by binding to heparin, forming a stable complex that is unable to bind to and activate antithrombin III, thereby neutralizing its anticoagulant effect.

Protamine sulfate is the most commonly used heparin antagonist. It is a highly basic protein derived from fish sperm that can neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin by forming a stable complex with it. The dose of protamine required to reverse the effects of heparin depends on the amount and type of heparin administered, as well as the timing of administration.

It is important to note that while heparin antagonists can reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin, they do not reverse the underlying coagulation disorder or prevent further clot formation. Therefore, additional treatments may be necessary to manage the underlying condition and prevent recurrent thrombosis.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

Pralidoxime compounds are a type of antidote used to treat poisoning from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. These compounds work by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by organophosphates. This helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system and can save lives in cases of severe poisoning.

Pralidoxime is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote that blocks the effects of excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Together, these compounds can help to manage the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent long-term neurological damage.

It is important to note that pralidoxime must be administered as soon as possible after exposure to organophosphates, as its effectiveness decreases over time. This makes rapid diagnosis and treatment crucial in cases of suspected nerve agent or pesticide poisoning.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Thiosulfates are salts or esters of thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). In medicine, sodium thiosulfate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and as a topical treatment for wounds, skin irritations, and certain types of burns. It works by converting toxic substances into less harmful forms that can be eliminated from the body. Sodium thiosulfate is also used in some solutions for irrigation of the bladder or kidneys to help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poetry as Topic" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It seems to be a subject that falls under the humanities or arts, rather than being a medical concept. Poetry can sometimes be used in therapeutic settings as a form of expressive art therapy, but it is not a medical diagnosis or treatment. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Gastric lavage, also known as stomach pumping, is a medical procedure where the stomach's contents are emptied using a tube that is inserted through the mouth or nose and into the stomach. The tube is then connected to suction, which helps remove the stomach contents. This procedure is often used in emergency situations to treat poisonings or overdoses by removing the toxic substance before it gets absorbed into the bloodstream. It can also be used to empty the stomach before certain surgeries or procedures.

Thevetia is a genus of toxic shrubs or small trees in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. It includes several species such as Thevetia peruviana (syn. T. neriifolia), known as yellow oleander or be-still tree, and Thevetia nerifolia (syn. T. thevetia), known as white oleander. These plants contain cardiac glycosides, including thevetin and oleandrin, which can be highly toxic to humans and animals if ingested, inhaled, or contacted through the skin. Symptoms of poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, seizures, and respiratory failure, which can lead to death.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

Soman is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2(C=O)N(CH2)4SH. It is a potent nerve agent, a type of organic compound that can cause death by interfering with the nervous system's ability to regulate muscle movement. Soman is an odorless, colorless liquid that evaporates slowly at room temperature and is therefore classified as a "v-type" or "volatile" nerve agent. It is considered to be one of the most toxic substances known. Exposure to soman can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of symptoms including nausea, seizures, respiratory failure, and death.

Oximes are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group =N-O-, where two organic groups are attached to the nitrogen atom. In a clinical context, oximes are used as antidotes for nerve agent and pesticide poisoning. The most commonly used oxime in medicine is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is used to reactivate acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus compounds, such as nerve agents and certain pesticides. These compounds work by forming a bond with the phosphoryl group of the inhibited enzyme, allowing for its reactivation and restoration of normal neuromuscular function.

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a chemical compound with the formula H-C≡N. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that has a bitter almond-like odor in its pure form. However, not everyone can detect its odor, as some people lack the ability to smell it, which makes it even more dangerous. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and its aqueous solution is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid.

Hydrogen Cyanide is rapidly absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it inhibits the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which is essential for cellular respiration. This leads to rapid death due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) at the cellular level. It is used industrially in large quantities as a pesticide, fumigant, and chemical intermediate, but it also has significant potential for use as a chemical weapon.

In the medical field, Hydrogen Cyanide poisoning can be treated with high-concentration oxygen, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate, which help to restore the function of cytochrome c oxidase and enhance the elimination of cyanide from the body.

Mushroom poisoning refers to the adverse health effects that occur after ingesting toxic mushrooms. These effects can range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, to severe neurological and systemic reactions, including hallucinations, organ failure, and even death in serious cases. The severity of the poisoning depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxic mushroom consumed, the age and health status of the individual, and the time elapsed between ingestion and medical treatment. It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if mushroom poisoning is suspected, as some symptoms may not appear until several hours or days after consumption, and delays in treatment can lead to more severe outcomes.

Unithiol is the common name for the drug compound mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG). It is a synthetic aminocarboxylic acid that acts as a chelating agent, binding to heavy metals in the body and facilitating their elimination. Unithiol has been used in the treatment of various conditions associated with heavy metal toxicity, such as Wilson's disease, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning. It is also known for its potential use in protecting against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

In medical terms, Unithiol can be defined as:

A synthetic chelating agent with the chemical formula C5H9NO3S, used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning to promote the excretion of toxic metals from the body. It is administered orally and works by forming stable complexes with heavy metals, which are then eliminated through urine. Unithiol has been found to be particularly effective in treating Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder that causes copper accumulation in various organs. Additionally, it may provide neuroprotective effects against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Antithrombin proteins are a type of protein found in the blood that inhibit the formation of blood clots. They work by binding to and neutralizing thrombin and other coagulation factors, such as factor Xa, that are involved in the coagulation cascade. Antithrombin proteins are an important part of the body's natural anticoagulant system, which helps to prevent excessive clotting and maintain proper blood flow.

Antithrombin proteins can be increased through the use of medications such as heparin, which binds to and enhances the activity of antithrombin. This is why heparin is often used as a treatment for conditions associated with abnormal blood clotting, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

It's worth noting that while antithrombin proteins are important for preventing excessive clotting, having too few of these proteins can also be a problem, as it can increase the risk of abnormal bleeding.

A Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) is a situation in which the number of injured or deceased individuals exceeds the local resources available to respond and manage the incident. It typically involves multiple victims, often resulting from natural disasters, transportation accidents, terrorist attacks, or industrial incidents. The severity and scale of injuries require additional resources, coordination, and response from regional, national, or international emergency management and healthcare systems.

Bacteriophage P1 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within a specific host, which is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that can integrate its genetic material into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicate along with it (lysogenic cycle), or it can choose to reproduce independently by causing the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell (lytic cycle).

Bacteriophage P1 is known for its ability to package its DNA into large, head-full structures, and it has been widely studied as a model system for understanding bacterial genetics, virus-host interactions, and DNA packaging mechanisms. It also serves as a valuable tool in molecular biology for various applications such as cloning, mapping, and manipulating DNA.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it is not required in the diet because the body can produce it from other amino acids. It is produced in the liver and is also found in some foods such as meat, poultry, and fish.

Beta-alanine plays a role in the production of carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that helps to regulate muscle pH and improve muscle function during high-intensity exercise. When muscles contract during intense exercise, they produce hydrogen ions, which can cause the muscle pH to decrease (become more acidic), leading to fatigue and reduced muscle function. Carnosine acts as a buffer against this acidity, helping to maintain optimal muscle pH levels and improve performance during high-intensity exercise.

Beta-alanine supplements have been shown to increase carnosine levels in muscles, which may lead to improved athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense effort, such as weightlifting or sprinting. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects and potential benefits of beta-alanine supplementation.

It's important to note that while beta-alanine supplements are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause a tingling sensation in the skin (paresthesia) when taken in high doses. This is a harmless side effect and typically subsides within an hour or so of taking the supplement.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Modern" is a term that refers to a period in time, specifically the modern period which is generally considered to be from the late 19th century to the present. "Literature," on the other hand, is a broad term that refers to written works, especially those considered to have artistic or intellectual value.

So, when you ask for a medical definition of "Literature, Modern," it's not entirely clear what you are looking for. If you are asking for examples of modern literature that deal with medical themes or issues, there are many notable works to choose from, including:

* "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks" by Rebecca Skloot, which explores the ethical implications of medical research using human cells without consent.
* "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston, a thriller about the Ebola virus and its potential to cause a global pandemic.
* "Complications: A Surgeon's Notes on an Imperfect Science" by Atul Gawande, a collection of essays that examine the challenges and uncertainties of medical practice.
* "Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness" by Susannah Cahalan, a memoir about the author's experience with a rare autoimmune disorder that affected her brain.

If you are looking for something else, please let me know and I will do my best to assist you!

Parathion is not a medical term, but a chemical one. It refers to a type of organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin or ingested. Parathion works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death. Although parathion is not used in medical treatments, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of its potential health effects, particularly in cases of accidental or intentional exposure.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rare Books" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the book collecting and library sciences fields to refer to books that are scarce or uncommon due to various factors such as age, limited print runs, historical significance, or condition. These books are often sought after by collectors, researchers, and institutions for their cultural, artistic, or informational value. If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to try to help!

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

Amygdalin is a naturally occurring compound found in the seeds of some fruits, such as apricots, and in certain nuts, including almonds. It is also known as "laetrile" and has been promoted as an alternative treatment for cancer. However, its effectiveness as a cancer treatment is not supported by scientific evidence, and it can have serious side effects, including cyanide poisoning. The use of amygdalin as a medical treatment is not approved by regulatory agencies in many countries, including the United States and Canada.

Aptamers are short, single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that bind to specific target molecules with high affinity and specificity. They are generated through an iterative process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX), where large libraries of randomized oligonucleotides are subjected to repeated rounds of selection and amplification until sequences with the desired binding properties are identified. Nucleotide aptamers have potential applications in various fields, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and research tools.

The term "nucleotide" refers to the basic building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). A nucleotide consists of a pentose sugar (ribose for RNA and deoxyribose for DNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous bases in nucleotides are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). In aptamers, the nucleotide sequences form specific three-dimensional structures that enable them to recognize and bind to their target molecules.

Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula NaCN. It is a white solid that is readily soluble in water, and it has a bitter, almond-like odor that some people can detect. Sodium cyanide is used in various industrial processes, including metal cleaning and electroplating, but it is perhaps best known as a poison.

Cyanide ions (CN-) are extremely toxic because they bind to the ferric iron (Fe3+) in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the mitochondria that is responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. When cyanide ions bind to this enzyme, it becomes unable to function, leading to a rapid depletion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and an accumulation of lactic acid, which can cause metabolic acidosis, coma, and death within minutes to hours.

It is important to note that sodium cyanide should be handled with extreme care and only by trained professionals who are familiar with its hazards and proper safety protocols. Exposure to this compound can cause severe health effects, including respiratory failure, convulsions, and cardiac arrest.

Emetics are substances that induce vomiting. They are used in medical situations where it is necessary to evacuate the stomach, such as in cases of poisoning. Common emetics include syrup of ipecac and apomorphine. It's important to note that the use of emetics is not a common treatment for poisoning anymore, and you should always consult with a healthcare professional or poison control center for advice in case of suspected poisoning.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

Protamines are small, arginine-rich proteins that are found in the sperm cells of many organisms. They play a crucial role in the process of sperm maturation, also known as spermiogenesis. During this process, the DNA in the sperm cell is tightly packed and compacted by the protamines, which helps to protect the genetic material during its journey to fertilize an egg.

Protamines are typically composed of around 50-100 amino acids and have a high proportion of positively charged arginine residues, which allow them to interact strongly with the negatively charged DNA molecule. This interaction results in the formation of highly condensed chromatin structures that are resistant to enzymatic digestion and other forms of damage.

In addition to their role in sperm maturation, protamines have also been studied for their potential use in drug delivery and gene therapy applications. Their ability to bind strongly to DNA makes them attractive candidates for delivering drugs or genetic material directly to the nucleus of a cell. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks associated with these applications.

Sodium nitrite is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2. Medically, it is used as a vasodilator and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. It is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol. In solution, it is easily oxidized to sodium nitrate (NaNO3), which is stable and less toxic.

In the food industry, sodium nitrite is used as a preservative and coloring agent in meat and fish products. It helps prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism. However, under certain conditions, sodium nitrite can react with proteins in food to form potentially carcinogenic compounds, so its use is regulated.

Sarin is a potent and deadly nerve agent, a type of organic compound called a phosphoro-organic fluid. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid, which is also known as GB. Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent that is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.

Sarin works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions and synapses, causing uncontrolled muscle contractions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

Exposure to Sarin can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Symptoms of exposure include runny nose, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blurred vision, and confusion. Immediate medical attention is required for anyone exposed to Sarin, as antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime can be administered to counteract its effects.

Succimer is an medication, specifically a chelating agent, that is used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury. It works by binding to the metal ions in the body and allowing them to be excreted through urine. The chemical name for succimer is dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). It is available in the form of oral capsules and is typically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used for its antioxidant effects and to help loosen thick mucus in the lungs. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. Acetylcysteine is also known by the brand names Mucomyst and Accolate. It works by thinning and breaking down mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. Additionally, acetylcysteine is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It is available as a oral tablet, liquid, or inhaled medication.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

A "Pharmacy Service, Hospital" is a health care service that provides for the careful compounding, dispensing, and distribution of medications and pharmaceutical devices within a hospital or healthcare facility. It is typically staffed by licensed pharmacists and pharmacy technicians who work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to ensure the safe and effective use of medications for patients.

The hospital pharmacy service is responsible for managing the medication use process, including the acquisition, storage, preparation, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medications. This includes ensuring that medications are properly labeled, stored, and distributed to patients in a timely manner, as well as providing education and counseling to patients on the safe and effective use of their medications.

The hospital pharmacy service may also provide specialized services such as sterile product preparation, investigational drug services, medication therapy management, and pharmacokinetic dosing services. These services are designed to optimize medication therapy, improve patient outcomes, reduce medication errors, and minimize the risk of adverse drug events.

Overall, the hospital pharmacy service plays a critical role in ensuring the safe and effective use of medications in the hospital setting, and contributes to the overall quality and safety of patient care.

"Antidotes - Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 27 May 2009. Murphy, Lauren (8 April 2008). "Foals - Antidotes". entertainment.ie. ... Antidotes is the debut studio album by British indie rock band Foals. It was released on 24 March 2008 in the United Kingdom on ... However, Foals remixed Antidotes in London, complaining that he made it sound like it was "recorded in the Grand Canyon." ... "Foals: Antidotes (2008): Reviews". www.metacritic.com. Retrieved 27 May 2009. "Certified Awards". Bpi.co.uk. Archived from the ...
Look up antidote in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Antitoxin Antivenom Snakebite Universal antidote Shapur ibn Sahl "antidote ... Antidotes for anticoagulants are sometimes referred to as reversal agents. The antidotes for some particular toxins are ... An antidote is a substance that can counteract a form of poisoning. The term ultimately derives from the Greek term φάρμακον ... In early 2019, a group of researchers in Australia published the finding of a new box jellyfish venom antidote using CRISPR. ...
The antidote to agitation and dullness is awareness (samprajaña, shes-bzhin). Sakyong Mipham states: The antidote to both ... These four antidotes are not always presented in the same order. For example, the antidotes are presented by the following ... Antidote to overapplication 8. non-application (anabhisaṃskāra, 'du mi-byed-pa) The four antidotes to laziness are belief ( ... Antidote to forgetting the instructions: 5. mindfulness (smṛti, dran-pa) Antidote to agitation and dullness 6. awareness ( ...
... is an independent British record label, ran by Adrian Hossler - an artist, manager, producer, athlete, ... Kacperhaha Adrian Hossler Ugly Duckling Lists of record labels List of independent UK record labels Official website Antidote ...
Antidote, Antidotes or The Antidote may also refer to: Antidote (band), punk band from the Netherlands formed in 1996 Antidote ... "Antidote" Antidotes (album), 2008 release by Foals The Antidote (Benzino album), 2007 Antidote (Chick Corea album) The Antidote ... Knife Party "Antidote" (Travis Scott song), 2015 "Antidote", a 2000 song by Cameo Sexy Sweet Thing "Antidote", a 1999 song by ... 2005 The Antidote (The Wiseguys album), 1999 Soundpieces: Da Antidote, 1999 album by Lootpack "Antidote" (Swedish House Mafia ...
"Antidote Films (I) [us]". imdb.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013. "Antidote Films". debate.org. Archived from the original on 29 ... Antidote Films, also known as Antidote International Films, Inc., is an independent film production company founded by producer ... "Antidote Films (I)". metacritic.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013. Dunkley, Cathy (2003-09-05). "Antidote taps Louiso, Shainberg ... Prior to this, Antidote produced several narrative films until The Last Winter, when the company shifted its focus to ...
... is the debut studio album by Swedish singer Johan Palm, released in May 2009. It features ten songs, including the ... "My Antidote". Swedishcharts. 2009. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019. (Articles with short ... Antidote [03:45] Satellite [04:13] You're Killing Me [03:44] More to Her Than Meets The Eye [02:51] Let The Dream Begin [04:18 ... Johan Palm - vocals Peter Mansson - drums, percussion, guitar, keyboard, producer Joakim Hemming - bass "My Antidote". Swedish ...
"Antidote". Film Threat. Retrieved 10 January 2023. Antidote at IMDb Antidote at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short ... Antidote is a 2021 science fiction horror film written and directed by Peter Daskaloff along with Matthew Toronto. A woman, ... Enrique Acosta, writing for Film Threat, said, "Antidote is a credible effort. I would love to see what Mr. Daskaloff might ... If you get a chance, I recommend you check this one out." "Antidote". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2 January 2023. Acosta, ...
Antidote website Antidote's page on Charged Records Antidote on Discogs Provoost, Frank (2018-05-30). "De professor doet een ... "Antidote (Interview)". list of shows on the band website Dennis Bruns (2008-02-01). "Reviews: ANTIDOTE: No Communication" (in ... Antidote was a Dutch Punk rock band from the Netherlands, formed in 1996. Inspiration for the band came when the band members ... Antidote's music has been categorized as punk, hardcore, or straight edge. They write politically motivated songs with lyrics ...
China Daily article on Antidote Shift Japan article on Antidote Shanghaiist interview with Antidote founder Time magazine ... Most notable among them are Shanshui Records, founder of Sulumi, Antidote co-founder B6, and other foreign guests. Antidote ... Antidote Shanghai began in 2005 at a party in a small Shanghai bar called C's club. The event turned into a monthly phenomenon ... Antidote Shanghai is a group of Chinese music producers and DJs that host several monthly events in Shanghai, and in other ...
Antidote Films website Antidote Films at IMDb Screen Australia New Directions Stage 2 Review (Articles with short description, ... Antidote Films distributes a range of documentaries and feature films including: A Crude Awakening: The Oil Crash A Good Man A ... Antidote Films is a Brisbane-based independent film distributor, formerly known as Gil Scrine Films, specialising in arthouse ... In 2010 Gil Scrine Films formally became known as Antidote Films, ending out the year as a recipient of Screen Australia's ...
... is a 1938 detective novel by the Irish-born novelist Freeman Wills Crofts. It is the eighteenth in his series ...
... ! is the first full-length studio album by American hip hop trio Lootpack. It was released on June 29, ... Soundpieces Da Antidote at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... "Lootpack - Soundpieces: Da Antidote! Album Reviews, Songs & More , AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved March 6, 2023. Taylor, ... "Lootpack - Soundpieces: Da Antidote! (album review ) , Sputnikmusic". Sputnikmusic. May 18, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2023. ...
The Antidote at Allmusic The Antidote at Discogs (Articles lacking sources from June 2010, All articles lacking sources, ... Benzino's The Antidote introduces his new crew, made up of MC's from Miami, New York, and his hometown of Boston, collectively ... The Antidote is the fourth solo album by Boston, Massachusetts rapper Benzino, released August 21, 2007 on 7th Floor Music. The ... The album package includes the DVD "Countdown To Antidote," which allows fans to spend 3 days in real-time with Benzino and The ...
Listing for The Antidote album on Discogs.com (accessed 23 March 2015). Chart listing for The Antidote (accessed 23 March 2015 ... The Antidote is the fifth album by Morcheeba, released in May 2005. It featured Daisy Martey on vocals, who replaced Skye ... "Album Review: Morcheeba - The Antidote". Prefixmag. Retrieved 6 June 2015. Morgan, Simon. "BBC - Music - Review of Morcheeba - ... "Ultratop.be - Morcheeba - The Antidote" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 19 August 2022. "Ultratop.be - Morcheeba - The ...
"Travis Scott Performs 'Antidote/Pray 4 Love' on 'Late Night'". Retrieved 1 July 2016. "Travi$ Scott Performs "Antidote" And " ... "Antidote" and "Pray 4 Love". Blainer (21 June 2015). "Travis Scott "Antidote" JMBLYA". Retrieved 1 July 2016 - via YouTube. " ... "Antidote" is a song by American rapper and singer Travis Scott. It was released on July 28, 2015, as the second single from his ... "Antidote" was not initially intended to appear on Rodeo, as confirmed on Scott's SoundCloud on June 23, 2015: "This is for the ...
Antidote is a studio album by Chick Corea and The Spanish Heart Band. The album received a Grammy Award for Best Latin Jazz ... "Antidote - Chick Corea, Spanish Heart Band". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 2019-07-31. Retrieved 2020-01-27. v t e ( ... "Antidote", "Admiration") and three pieces from other composers, including Paco de Lucia's "Zyryab". The recording sessions have ... ". "Antidote" - 9:14 "Duende" - 10:13 "The Yellow Nimbus" - Part 1 - 5:47 "The Yellow Nimbus" - Part 2 - 5:57 "Prelude To My ...
"FREE DOWNLOAD: The Antidote By Fashawn & The Alchemist". hiphopdx.com. "Fashawn & The Alchemist - The Antidote [Mixtape]". ... The Antidote is a collaboration mixtape by American hip hop recording artists Fashawn and The Alchemist, released on September ...
"강다니엘, 'Antidote' MV 12시간 만에 1천만뷰 돌파..자체 최단 [공식]" [Kang Daniel, 'Antidote' MV exceeded 10 million views in 12 hours.. Self- ... "강다니엘, 신곡 'Antidote' 마지막 티저 공개..독무 퍼포먼스" [Kang Daniel, the final teaser for the new song 'Antidote' released.. Solo performance ... "강다니엘 컴백 타이틀 'Antidote' 직접 작사 "기존 틀 깼다"[공식]" [Kang Daniel's comeback title 'Antidote' directly written "Breaking the Existing ... "강다니엘 'Antidote' MV 티저 공개…시공간 경계 초월" [Kang Daniel 'Antidote' MV teaser released… transcending space-time boundaries]. Newsen (in ...
The Antidote is the sixth studio album by Portuguese gothic metal band Moonspell, released in 2003 by Century Media. It is ... The album was released with a (limited) book named O Antídoto ("the antidote") by José Luís Peixoto. They both share a single ... "Portuguesecharts.com - Moonspell - The Antidote". Hung Medien. Retrieved 12 December 2021. v t e (Use dmy dates from October ... Multimedia Player with: "The Novel of Antidote" (digital book) "Everything Invaded" (video) Fernando Ribeiro - vocals Ricardo ...
"The Antidote - The Wiseguys". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 January 2018. Martin, Piers (5 October 1998). "The Wiseguys - The Antidote ... The Antidote is the second studio album by The Wiseguys, released through Wall of Sound on 5 October 1998. It peaked at number ... The Antidote at Discogs (list of releases) (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Articles with short description, Short description ... "Wiseguys: The Antidote". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 9 June 2000. Retrieved 22 April 2020. "The Wiseguys Chart ...
Knife Party - Antidote" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. "Swedish House Mafia vs. Knife Party - Antidote" (in Dutch). Ultratop ... Knife Party - Antidote" (in French). Les classement single. "Swedish House Mafia Vs. Knife Party - Antidote" (in German). GfK ... "Antidote - Single by Swedish House Mafia & Knife Party". iTunes "Antidote (Remixes) Swedish House Mafia vs. Knife Party". ... Knife Party - Antidote". Singles Top 100. "Swedish House Mafia vs. Knife Party - Antidote". Swiss Singles Chart. "Official ...
The Antidote is the debut album by English jazz guitarist Ronny Jordan, that was released by Island Records in 1992. Allmusic ... The Antidote accessed 29 April 2010 "Ronny Jordan Chart History". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved June 27, 2015 ...
The Antidote is the first studio album by American rappers Indo G and Lil' Blunt. It was released in 1994 via Luther Campbell's ... Indo G & Lil' Blunt - The Antidote at Discogs (list of releases) v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... " "The Antidote - Indo G & Lil' Blunt , Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved December 30, 2018. ...
Antidotes 1. Ngilu(Hidup makan tidur mati muzik) 2. Daulat Tuanku 3. Cuai 4. Urusan Seri Paduka Baginda 5. Selamat Tinggal ... Epitome (instrumental demo) 1. Malayneum 2. Antidotes 3. Pretty Rain 4. State of Abyssmal 5. Ginseng 6. Am I Phoney? 7. Mating ...
Diver, Mike (February 15, 2008). "Foals - Antidotes". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. ...
"; "Antidotes, Inoculations"; "Trotter"; "Watcher, Guarder": Fence, Vol. 4, No. 1 The House (short novel): Burning Deck Press ...
Merkin, Daphne (August 28, 2016). "Antidotes to Punditry". New York Times Book Review. Retrieved 22 September 2016. "Mark Greif ...
There is an antidote, flumazenil, but its use is controversial. Deaths from single-drug benzodiazepine overdoses occur ... Nelson, LH; Flomenbaum N; Goldfrank LR; Hoffman RL; Howland MD; Neal AL (2006). "Antidotes in depth: Flumazenil". Goldfrank's ... Flumazenil (Romazicon) is a competitive benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that can be used as an antidote for benzodiazepine ...
But she possesses antidotes. It is believed that those who produce ku themselves become ku after death. The ghosts of those who ... This ranghe 蘘荷 "myoga ginger" is a renowned antidote to gu poisoning, see below. The Shanhaijing (山海经) says the meat of a ... Groot and Eberhard detail numerous Chinese antidotes and cures for gu poison-magic. For instance (see 2.4), the Shanhaijing ... he will then of his own accord immediately mention the name of the owner of the ku Many gu-poison antidotes are homeopathic, in ...
  • Livestreaming from the Sydney Opera House on September 5th, Antidote 2021 promises an exciting and inspiring line-up of speakers for its fifth celebration of ideas, action, and change. (theaureview.com)
  • The management of sulfonylurea overdose includes administration of glucose but also may include the use of octreotide, a unique antidote for sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia," Smollin told Medscape. (medscape.com)
  • Of those treated with the antidote for early-onset severe or life-threatening toxicity, 89% were alive at 30 days. (medscape.com)
  • Hospitals have adequate stocks of antidotes to treat most cases of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Of those who were treated with the antidote for overdose, 97% were still alive at 30 days. (medscape.com)
  • Alberta is bolstering its response to the fentanyl overdose crisis by making an antidote to the powerful opioid available without a prescription, becoming the second province to do so as public-health researchers call for others to follow suit. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Cite this: Surgeon General Urges More Americans to Carry Overdose Antidote - Medscape - Apr 05, 2018. (medscape.com)
  • Haydock S. Poisoning, overdose antidotes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Maine and across the United States, prescriptions for a life-saving opioid antidote have escalated since 2016, according to federal and state statistics. (sunjournal.com)
  • Experts say there's a strong correlation between the two trends, as the use of the antidote naloxone helps substance use disorder patients stay alive until they can get into treatment. (sunjournal.com)
  • Dr. Juurlink said that there might, in theory, be a risk that making naloxone more readily available could prompt fentanyl users to be more aggressive in their dosage, but said the possibility was remote and was outweighed by the benefits of the antidote. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Researchers in the US, China and Saudi Arabia developed a vehicle that stabilises as otherwise short-lived nerve agent antidote so it can neutralise the effects of the chemicals. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • If they have nerve agent antidotes with them, you may have a greater chance of living. (cdc.gov)
  • CHEMPACKs are deployable containers of nerve agent antidotes that work on a variety of nerve agents and can be used even if the actual agent is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Because inadequacies in hospital stocking of antidotes appear to be widespread, community disaster planners need to inventory local/regional stocks and ensure they are adequate. (cdc.gov)
  • Research undertaken by Steven E. Patterson, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota's Center for Drug Design and colleagues has discovered a promising new alternative antidote. (foxnews.com)
  • Ricin, the potent toxin and bioterrorism agent, has no antidote and can cause death within days. (sciencenews.org)
  • A new study presented February 7 at the American Society for Microbiology's Biothreats meeting reveals a ricin antidote that, in mice, works even days after exposure to the toxin. (sciencenews.org)
  • Because no antidote exists, the most important factor is avoiding ricin exposure in the first place. (cdc.gov)
  • If exposure to these agents is a possibility, antidotes (e.g., atropine) should be immediately available. (cdc.gov)
  • Repeated studies have reported that many hospitals lack sufficient antidote stores to treat even one severe case of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning, much less enough for a multiple casualty event or terrorist attack. (cdc.gov)
  • Pradaxa Antidote, Praxbind, Only Available in Hospitals. (yourlawyer.com)
  • One survey in a major metropolitan area in the year 2000 found that while 1,213.237 grams were available city-wide, only 1 of 21 area hospitals had a 3 g supply of the antidote on hand. (cdc.gov)
  • 2003) Another study of 38 hospitals reported that atropine was one of the "conspicuously under stocked items," although the actual amounts of the antidote stocked were not given. (cdc.gov)
  • No US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved specific antidote for cyclopeptide poisoning exists. (medscape.com)
  • For the first time, an antidote to certain types of chemotherapy has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (medscape.com)
  • The bleeding risk for people taking the blood-thinning drug Pradaxa is well documented, and the risk persists despite a recently developed bleeding antidote. (yourlawyer.com)
  • It's the antidote to change fatigue and discouragement. (edutopia.org)
  • Antidote at the Sydney Opera House is marketed as a 'festival of ideas, art and change' and the 2022 line-up presented a diverse and intriguing list of topics from climate change to the war in Ukraine. (theaureview.com)
  • Providing the antidote to old school viewpoints to help people around the world get the information they didn't get in school to help them succeed in work, life and entrepreneurship! (apple.com)
  • Another presented study offers a potential explanation for how such an antidote might work. (sciencenews.org)
  • Episode 016 of the Antidote One Podcast was a 'proud poppa' moment for me. (apple.com)
  • The latest episode in the American Chemical Society's Global Challenges/Chemistry Solutions podcast series brings very good news for this threat: A new antidote that may help seal off this gap in national defense. (foxnews.com)
  • No antidote exists for ricin poisoning, but a new antibody treatment that's effective in mice could potentially help. (sciencenews.org)
  • It is true that no antidote exists for ricin. (cdc.gov)
  • The CHEMPACK team must coordinate with limited manufacturers to keep the antidote supply chain functioning. (cdc.gov)
  • Identify what antidotes should be stocked for the treatment of patients, or mass casualties involving cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • Can you make the antidote and escape from Doctor Mabbb's laboratory before the virus takes effect? (steampowered.com)
  • Hakique Virani, a professor of preventive medicine at the University of Alberta, urged other provinces to make the antidote more accessible. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It proposes the internal capacity for bonding as the true antidote to solitude. (bvsalud.org)
  • Is it true that there's no cure/antidote for ricin? (cdc.gov)
  • If boredom is the silent relationship killer, novel and arousing activities seem to be the powerful antidote. (psychologytoday.com)
  • But nerve agents block acetylcholinesterase so muscles stay contracted, brain function is warped and eventually, an afflicted individual dies unless they have antidote on hand. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • There are a few types of antidote, such as another enzyme called organophosphorus acid anhydrolase that chops up nerve agents. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • If I told you the whole story of the creation of "Antidote" and "Impossible", you would hallucinate. (genius.com)
  • Not all pharmacies in the province carry the antidote but an average of 10 sign up a week, said Ms. Ehrkamp, the Health Ministry spokewoman. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Become a member to see COMPANYmeter for Antidote Films (I). (imdb.com)
  • The early demos feature original Antidote singer Jeff White (plus future Prong/Danzig axeman Tommy Victor on bass) and show the natural evolution from the band's punky roots to the well-oiled hardcore machine they became on their vinyl debut. (revhq.com)
  • Digoxin Immune FAB ( Antidote ) is a prescription antidote used for treating digoxin poisoning . (rxlist.com)
  • And this antidote could be self-administered, sort of like the average allergy injection pens that many small children carry with them to school. (foxnews.com)
  • As an antidote to this depressing new Internet trend, we recommend browsing Vine's #babies tag. (thecut.com)