Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Nocturnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Diurnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during the daytime while one is awake.YemenToilet Training: Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IReceptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype that binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE. It is found predominately in the BRAIN.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Eucommiaceae: A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Literature, ModernReceptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Quinolinium CompoundsAlkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Short-Wave Therapy: The use of focused short radio waves to produce local hyperthermia in an injured person or diseased body area.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Medical Device Recalls: Removal of a MEDICAL DEVICE from the market due to a problem occurring in the manufacture or distribution of the product.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Heptanes: Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Zinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Acids, Heterocyclic: A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.

Clinical review: Vasopressin and terlipressin in septic shock patients. (1/79)

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is emerging as a potentially major advance in the treatment of septic shock. Terlipressin (tricyl-lysine-vasopressin) is the synthetic, long-acting analogue of vasopressin, and has comparable pharmacodynamic but different pharmacokinetic properties. Vasopressin mediates vasoconstriction via V1 receptor activation on vascular smooth muscle. Septic shock first causes a transient early increase in blood vasopressin concentrations; these concentrations subsequently decrease to very low levels as compared with those observed with other causes of hypotension. Infusions of 0.01-0.04 U/min vasopressin in septic shock patients increase plasma vasopressin concentrations. This increase is associated with reduced need for other vasopressors. Vasopressin has been shown to result in greater blood flow diversion from nonvital to vital organ beds compared with adrenaline (epinephrine). Of concern is a constant decrease in cardiac output and oxygen delivery, the consequences of which in terms of development of multiple organ failure are not yet known. Terlipressin (one or two boluses of 1 mg) has similar effects, but this drug has been used in far fewer patients. Large randomized clinical trials should be conducted to establish the utility of these drugs as therapeutic agents in patients with septic shock.  (+info)

Vasopressin, not octreotide, may be beneficial in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: a retrospective study. (2/79)

BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a severe complication of cirrhosis and is associated with high mortality. Ornipressin and terlipressin are effective in treatment of HRS, but are not available in the USA. The efficacy of vasopressin (AVP) and octreotide (OCT) infusions, commonly utilized in the USA, in the treatment of HRS is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects of AVP and OCT on renal function, systemic haemodynamics and clinical outcomes in HRS. METHODS: This observational study evaluated patients receiving AVP or OCT therapy for HRS from January 2000 to December 2003. Recovery from HRS was defined as a decrease in the serum creatinine (SCr) to a value < or =1.5 mg/dl. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were identified: eight received AVP, 16 received OCT and 19 received both AVP and OCT. Patients who received AVP alone or in combination with OCT had significantly greater recovery rates than those receiving OCT monotherapy (42 vs 38 vs 0%, respectively, P = 0.01). The average time to response in serum creatinine (SCr) was 7+/- 2 days. The mean AVP doses were 0.23+/-0.19 U/min in patients demonstrating clinical response. Therapy with AVP was an independent predictor of recovery (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-31.8). Patients who responded to therapy had significantly lower mortality (23 vs 67%, P = 0.008) and higher rates of liver transplantation (23 vs 0%, P = 0.005). No adverse effects related to AVP therapy were observed. CONCLUSION: When compared with OCT, HRS patients treated with AVP had significantly higher recovery rates, improved survival and were more likely to receive a liver transplant.  (+info)

Acute and fatal hyponatraemia after resection of a craniopharyngioma: a preventable tragedy. (3/79)

Central diabetes insipidus developed for the first time in a 14-year-old female during the resection of a craniopharyngioma. The water diuresis persisted until a vasopressin analogue (dDAVP) was given. Professor McCance was asked to explain why hypernatraemia developed, to anticipate dangers that might develop in the salt and water area with therapy, and to provide insights into why this patient died, due to the subsequent development of hyponatraemia that caused a lethal rise in intracranial pressure. The team specifically wanted Professor McCance's opinions as to why a PNa of 124 mmol/l was uniquely dangerous for this patient, and this was a particularly challenging conundrum. Nevertheless, with the aid of a mini-experiment, a careful chart review, and creative thinking, he was able to offer a novel solution, and to suggest ways to prevent its occurrence in other patients.  (+info)

High-throughput identification of IMCD proteins using LC-MS/MS. (4/79)

The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is an important site of vasopressin-regulated water and urea transport. Here we have used protein mass spectrometry to investigate the proteome of the IMCD cell and how it is altered in response to long-term vasopressin administration in rats. IMCDs were isolated from inner medullas of rats, and IMCD proteins were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We present a WWW-based "IMCD Proteome Database" containing all IMCD proteins identified in this study (n = 704) and prior MS-based identification studies (n = 301). We used the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) technique to identify IMCD proteins that change in abundance in response to vasopressin. Vasopressin analog (dDAVP) or vehicle was infused subcutaneously in Brattleboro rats for 3 days, and IMCDs were isolated for proteomic analysis. dDAVP and control samples were labeled with different cleavable ICAT reagents (mass difference 9 amu) and mixed. This was followed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE separation, in-gel trypsin digestion, biotin-avidin affinity purification, and LC-MS/MS identification and quantification. Responses to vasopressin for a total of 165 proteins were quantified. Quantification, based on semiquantitative immunoblotting of 16 proteins for which antibodies were available, showed a high degree of correlation with ICAT results. In addition to aquaporin-2 and gamma-epithelial Na channel (gamma-ENaC), five of the immunoblotted proteins were substantially altered in abundance in response to dDAVP, viz., syntaxin-7, Rap1, GAPDH, heat shock protein (HSP)70, and cathepsin D. A 28-protein vasopressin signaling network was constructed using literature-based network analysis software focusing on the newly identified proteins, providing several new hypotheses for future studies.  (+info)

Distribution, activity and evidence for the release of an anti-diuretic peptide in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. (5/79)

In the haematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, diuresis is accomplished through the combined actions of peptidergic diuretic hormones and 5-HT released from neurohaemal sites on the abdominal nerves. Preliminary work on anti-diuresis in this blood-feeder, previously believed to occur through a decrease in the levels of the diuretic factors, indicates that an anti-diuretic hormone, with properties similar to CAP2b (pELYAFPRVamide; recently renamed Mas-CAPA-1), might also be present in R. prolixus. Here, we present evidence from immunohistochemical analysis that suggests a PRXamide-like neuropeptide may be released from the abdominal neurohaemal sites beginning 3-4 h following feeding; a time that coincides with the cessation of diuresis. We also show evidence for an endogenous factor, isolated from the central nervous system using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, which mimics the effects of Mas-CAPA-1. Specifically, this endogenous anti-diuretic factor inhibits rates of 5-HT-stimulated secretion in a dose-dependent manner and elevates intracellular cGMP levels of Malpighian tubules stimulated with 5-HT.  (+info)

Nocturnal polyuria in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis refractory to desmopressin treatment. (6/79)

The transition from day to night is associated with a pronounced decline in diuresis with reductions in the amount of excreted water, electrolytes, and other end products of our metabolism. Failure to do so leads to a large urine output at night, a condition known as nocturnal polyuria, encountered in a large proportion of children with nocturnal enuresis. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the nocturnal polyuria seen in enuretics with inadequate response to desmopressin (dDAVP). Forty-six enuretics (7-14 yr of age) and fifteen age-matched controls were admitted for a 24-h protocol with standardized fluid and sodium intake, comprising urine collections, blood sampling, and blood pressure monitoring. We included patients with severe enuresis (5 +/- 1 wet nights/wk) showing <50% reduction in wet nights on dDAVP. We characterized the patients on the basis of their nocturnal urine production. The children with nocturnal polyuria excreted larger amounts of sodium and urea at night than nonpolyurics and controls. Solute-free water reabsorption as well as urinary arginine vasopressin and aquaporin-2 excretion were normal in polyurics, and no differences were found in atrial natriuretic peptide, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin levels. Urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) excretion was significantly higher in polyurics. The nocturnal polyuria in children with dDAVP-resistant nocturnal enuresis seems to be the result of augmented sodium and urea excretion. The high urinary PGE2 levels found in these children point toward a role for increased prostaglandin synthesis in the pathogenesis of enuresis-related polyuria.  (+info)

Vasopressin increases plasma membrane accumulation of urea transporter UT-A1 in rat inner medullary collecting ducts. (7/79)

Urea transport, mediated by the urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) and/or UT-A3, is important for the production of concentrated urine. Vasopressin rapidly increases urea transport in rat terminal inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD). A previous study showed that one mechanism for rapid regulation of urea transport is a vasopressin-induced increase in UT-A1 phosphorylation. This study tests whether vasopressin or directly activating adenylyl cyclase with forskolin also increases UT-A1 accumulation in the plasma membrane of rat IMCD. Inner medullas were harvested from rats 45 min after injection with vasopressin or vehicle. UT-A1 abundance in the plasma membrane was significantly increased in the membrane fraction after differential centrifugation and in the biotinylated protein population. Vasopressin and forskolin each increased the amount of biotinylated UT-A1 in rat IMCD suspensions that were treated ex vivo. The observed changes in the plasma membrane are specific, as the amount of biotinylated UT-A1 but not the calcium-sensing receptor was increased by forskolin. Next, whether forskolin or the V(2)-selective agonist dDAVP would increase apical membrane expression of UT-A1 in MDCK cells that were stably transfected with UT-A1 (UT-A1-MDCK cells) was tested. Forskolin and dDAVP significantly increased UT-A1 abundance in the apical membrane in UT-A1-MDCK cells. It is concluded that vasopressin and forskolin increase UT-A1 accumulation in the plasma membrane in rat IMCD and in the apical plasma membrane of UT-A1-MDCK cells. These findings suggest that vasopressin regulates urea transport by increasing UT-A1 accumulation in the plasma membrane and/or UT-A1 phosphorylation.  (+info)

The role of vasopressin in congestive heart failure. (8/79)

Neurohormonal abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF). Successful approaches to improving the prognosis of patients with CHF are based largely on therapeutic interruption of activated neurohormonal systems. The use of antagonists and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems has significantly improved clinical outcomes in CHF. Excessive secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) has the potential for deleterious effects on various physiologic processes in CHF Inhibition of AVP through vasopressin receptor antagonist therapy is a potentially beneficial new therapeutic approach to CHF  (+info)

*Antidiuretic

... Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "antidiuretic" at Dorland's Medical ... The major endogenous antidiuretics are antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also called vasopressin) and oxytocin. Both of those are also ... An antidiuretic is a substance that helps to control fluid balance in an animal's body by reducing urination, opposing diuresis ... Antidiuretics reduce urine volume, particularly in diabetes insipidus (DI), which is one of their main indications. The ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... natriuretic agents MeSH D27.505.696.560.249 --- antidiuretic agents MeSH D27.505.696.560.500 --- diuretics MeSH D27.505.696.560 ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*Diuretic

Alternatively, an antidiuretic such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... Antidiuretic Laxative Shaukat Shah, M.D.; Ibrahim Khatri, M.D.; Edward D. Freis, M.D. "Mechanism of antihypertensive effect of ... Cadwallader AB, de la Torre X, Tieri A, Botrè F. "The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ...

*Neurogenic shock

Dopamine (Intropin) is often used either alone or in combination with other inotropic agents. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone ...

*Vasopressin receptor 2

... such as that caused by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure, however these agents should be ... Seibold A, Brabet P, Rosenthal W, Birnbaumer M (Nov 1992). "Structure and chromosomal localization of the human antidiuretic ... "Molecular cloning of the receptor for human antidiuretic hormone". Nature. 357 (6376): 333-5. doi:10.1038/357333a0. PMID ...

*Clofibrate

It is a lipid-lowering agent used for controlling the high cholesterol and triacylglyceride level in the blood. It increases ... It can induce SIADH, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH (vasopressin). Clofibrate can also result ...

*Onconephrology

Several chemotherapeutic agents - for example cisplatin - are associated with acute and chronic kidney injuries. Newer agents ... The Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) that causes low serum sodium concentration and first described in ... Dialysis and chemotherapy agents 14. Tumor invasion of the kidney 15. Obstructive renal disease 16. Chronic Kidney disease ... vomiting and diarrhea that occur following chemotherapy or occasionally due to kidney toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents. ...

*Demeclocycline

356-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ... Tolstoi LG (2002). "A brief review of drug-induced syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone". Medscape ... due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) when fluid restriction alone has been ineffective. ... Demeclocycline inhibits the renal action of antidiuretic hormone by interfering with the intracellular second messenger cascade ...

*Trimipramine

ISBN 978-0-915274-23-9. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... Seizures Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone Blood dyscrasias including: Agranulocytosis ... Trimipramine should not be given with sympathomimetic agents such as epinephrine (adrenaline), ephedrine, isoprenaline, ...

*Von Willebrand disease

The antifibrinolytic agents epsilon amino caproic acid and tranexamic acid are useful adjuncts in the management of vWD ... Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of the natural antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Its overuse can lead to water retention and ...

*Secretin

There were problems with the availability of this agent from 2012 to 2015. A wave of enthusiasm for secretin as a possible ... abnormalities in such secretin release could explain the abnormalities underlying type D syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic ...

*Mallinckrodt General Clinical Research Center

In the 1950s, Alexander Leaf and Frederic Bartter first described the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion ... Stephen Grinspoon treated HIV lipodystrophy and associated metabolic syndrome with insulin-sensitizing agents. Enrico Cagliero ...

*Vasopressin receptor antagonist

Palm C, Pistrosch F, Herbrig K, Gross P (July 2006). "Vasopressin antagonists as aquaretic agents for the treatment of ... "Demeclocycline in the treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release: with measurement of plasma ADH ... A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VRA) is an agent that interferes with action at the vasopressin receptors. Most commonly ... will likely be the preferred agent. Selective V2R antagonists such as tolvaptan, lixivaptan etc. will likely be useful in ...

*Protriptyline

... but protriptyline is considered the least sedating agent among this class of agents. Its side effects are especially noticeable ... antidiuretic hormone) secretion;tinnitus; alteration in EEG patterns. Anticholinergic: Paralytic ileus; hyperpyrexia; urinary ... 836-. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...

*Detomidine

As detomidine is an arrhythmogenic agent, extreme care should be exercised in horses with cardiac disease, and in the ... Due to inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system, detomidine also has cardiac and respiratory effects and an antidiuretic ...

*Cyclophosphamide

In 1959 it became the eighth cytotoxic anticancer agent to be approved by the FDA. The abbreviation CP is common, although ... High-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a ... The main use of cyclophosphamide is with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of brain cancer, ... Like other alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and contraindicated in pregnant women (pregnancy category D) ...

*Insect diuretic hormones

Antidiuretic factors are less well studied than diuretic factors. They act either on the Malpighian tubules to inhibit urine ... Their effects are mimicked by the pharmacological agent, thapsigargin, which is sometimes used in fluid secretion assays when a ... "Insect Diuretic and Antidiuretic Hormones". Advances in Insect Physiology 29: 279-409. Furuya, K.; Milchak, R. J.; Schegg, K. M ... To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a ...

*Aminophylline

Note that diuresis is caused by an increase in cAMP which acts in the CNS to inhibit the release of antidiuretic hormone ( ... It is used off-label as a reversal agent during nuclear stress testing. Aminophylline is a nonselective adenosine receptor ...

*List of adverse effects of doxepin

Side effects that are common (based on its pharmacology or the frequency of these side effects with related agents) appear with ... Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) Closed-angle glaucoma Alzheimer's disease or dementia* " ...

*Shock (circulatory)

Patients who are receiving inotropic or vasopressor agents may have a normalized blood pressure at the time that perfusion ... The renin-angiotensin axis is activated, and arginine vasopressin (Anti-diuretic hormone; ADH) is released to conserve fluid ...

*List of human endocrine organs and actions

Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone are not secreted in the posterior lobe, merely stored. The pancreas is a mixocrine gland and ... Frühbeck G (July 2004). "The adipose tissue as a source of vasoactive factors". Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents. 2 (3 ...

*Management of heart failure

Drugs used include: diuretic agents, vasodilator agents, positive inotropes, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, and aldosterone ... Tolvaptan and conivaptan antagonize the effects of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), thereby promoting the specific excretion ... The inotropic agent dobutamine is advised only in the short-term use of acutely decompensated heart failure, and has no other ...

*Vasopressin (medication)

Vasopressin is used to manage anti-diuretic hormone deficiency. It has off-label uses and is used in the treatment of ... A vasopressin receptor antagonist is an agent that interferes with action at the vasopressin receptors. They can be used in the ... Vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus related to low levels of antidiuretic hormone. It is available as Pressyn. ... Palm C, Pistrosch F, Herbrig K, Gross P (July 2006). "Vasopressin antagonists as aquaretic agents for the treatment of ...

*Osmotherapy

Osmotic agents work by primarily affecting the blood brain barrier. It's very important that the osmotic agents cannot cross ... Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) results in hyponatremia which leads to water retention and antidiuretic hormone ... Commonly used osmotic agents are urea, glycerol, mannitol and Hypertonic Saline. Dosage of osmotic agent administration is ... An ideal osmotic agent would be characterized by its inertness, relative non-toxicity and complete exclusion from brain entry. ...

*Fluoride toxicity

Other sources include glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents like ammonium bifluoride or hydrofluoric acid, industrial ... Inorganic fluoride inhibits adenylate cyclase activity required for antidiuretic hormone effect on the distal convoluted tubule ...

*Lung cancer

During World War Two and the Korean War asbestos also played a part and Agent Orange may have caused some problems during the ... In lung cancer, these phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, abnormally ... with better results seen with modern agents. The NSCLC Meta-Analyses Collaborative Group recommends if the recipient wants and ...
Registration is closed. This one-day workshop, featuring seven expert speakers, is scheduled for Saturday, March 10, 2007, from 9:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m. It will provide a concise introduction to protein mass spectrometry, with an emphasis on: 1. The fundamentals of protein mass spectrometry 2. Research applications of protein mass spectrometry, including:
This trial will assess the phaemacodynamics, efficacy and tolerability of desmopressin in patients with nocturia. The primary endpoints are changes in plasma
The idea is that if one can match spectrum of an unknown peptide to a very similar MS/MS spectrum in a database with a determined sequence/annotation then one can annotate unknown peptide in a process similar to orthologue annotation in protein sequence databases. Caveat: bad annotations will also get propagated. ...
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Nocturnal enuresis affects 10% of the 7-year-old children and is essentially caused by a mismatch between nocturnal bladder capacity and the amount of urine produced during the night together with failure of the child to awaken in response to a full bladder.Urine overproduction at night or nocturnal polyuria (NP) is a major factor contributing to monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) pathophysiology in a large proportion of patients.. Since NP is related to an abnormal circadian rhythm of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, the synthetic AVP analogue desmopressin is widely used to treat MNE.. It is recommended by the International Consultation on Incontinence (grade A,level 1). Desmopressin is available in 3 different formulations: nasal spray, tablet and the newest form melt.. Baeyens et al demonstrated an increased prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with MNE According to recent data there is a high incidence of periodic limb movements in sleep at ...
Nocturnal enuresis affects 10% of the 7-year-old children and is essentially caused by a mismatch between nocturnal bladder capacity and the amount of urine produced during the night together with failure of the child to awaken in response to a full bladder.Urine overproduction at night or nocturnal polyuria (NP) is a major factor contributing to monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) pathophysiology in a large proportion of patients.. Since NP is related to an abnormal circadian rhythm of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, the synthetic AVP analogue desmopressin is widely used to treat MNE.. It is recommended by the International Consultation on Incontinence (grade A,level 1). Desmopressin is available in 3 different formulations: nasal spray, tablet and the newest form melt.. Baeyens et al demonstrated an increased prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with MNE According to recent data there is a high incidence of periodic limb movements in sleep at ...
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The freeMD virtual doctor has found 2 conditions that can cause Back is Tender and Nocturnal Polyuria. There is 1 uncommon condition that can cause Back is Tender and Nocturnal Polyuria. There is 1 rare condition that can cause Back is Tender and Nocturnal Polyuria.
Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by damage to both the glomerulus and tubulointerstitium, but relatively little is known about accompanying cell-specific changes in gene expression. We performed unbiased single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) on cryopreserved human diabetic kidney samples to generate 23,980 single-nucleus transcriptomes from 3 control and 3 early diabetic nephropathy samples. All major cell types of the kidney were represented in the final dataset. Side-by-side comparison demonstrated cell-type-specific changes in gene expression that are important for ion transport, angiogenesis, and immune cell activation. In particular, we show that the diabetic thick ascending limb, late distal convoluted tubule, and principal cells all adopt a gene expression signature consistent with increased potassium secretion, including alterations in Na+/K+-ATPase, WNK1, mineralocorticoid receptor, and NEDD4L expression, as well as decreased paracellular calcium and magnesium reabsorption. We ...
Desmopressin (trade names: DDAVP, DesmoMelt, Stimate, Minirin) is a synthetic replacement for vasopressin, the hormone that reduces urine production.Desmopressin (Minirin®) induces release of intracellular von Willebrand factor thus increasing levels of circulating factor VIII. It can be given intravenously or.. Desmopressin Bedwetting, Desmopressin Acetate, Minirin Desmopressin, Desmopressin Cost, Desmopressin Tablets, Generic Ddavp, Buy Ddavp.Faut-il traiter le pipi au lit ? Et à quel âge devons-nous y songer ? Des questions que nous entendons chaque jour sur le support du Bed Wet Store. Il est tout à.In patients with moderate or mild haemophilia A, administration of desmopressin (Minirin®) may suffice to ensure adequate levels of factor VIII (i.e. 2 to 8 times ...
To the editor: Kobrinsky and associates (1) show that patients receiving 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (desmopressin) had a decreased blood loss during Harrington rod spinal fusion surgery. The authors speculate that the decreased blood loss was due to various hematologic effects of desmopressin and conclude that "the use of desmopressin in other surgical procedures associated with significant blood loss is recommended.". This conclusion is probably unwarranted. Intraoperatively "a balanced technique with normotension" was used. Unless specifically contraindicated, induced hypotension with a mean blood pressure of about 70 torr is the accepted anesthetic technique (2). This is done to minimize intraoperative blood loss. ...
For diabetes insipidus: The usual recommended dose for adults is 10 µg to 40 µg daily. The usual recommended dose for children 3 months to 12 years of age is 5 µg to 30 µg daily. The dose may be given as a single dose or divided into 2 or 3 doses. The lowest effective dosage should be used. Do not drink any fluids for at least 1 hour before taking desmopressin and for 8 hours after using desmopressin.. For preventing bleeding: The usual recommended dose is one 150 µg spray in each nostril, or one 150 µg spray in one nostril for people who weigh less than 50 kg (110 lbs). If it is being used to prevent bleeding related to surgery, it is given 2 hours before surgery.. Follow the instructions in the package insert on how to use medication. This medication should not be sniffed or inhaled; it works by being absorbed through the nose. To ensure the best absorption of the medication, place a finger on the outside of the nostril you just sprayed to close it for 10 seconds. During this time, ...
Desmopressin is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland. This hormone is important for many functions including blood flow, blood pressure, kidney function, and regulating how the body uses water. Desmopressin injection is used to treat bleeding episodes in people with hemophilia A or...
The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has issued its monthly advice on newly licensed medicines. Desmopressin (Noqdirna®) has been rejected for use in the
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Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of human endogenous antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin; its major action is to reduce urine production.16 Nørgaard et al17 postulated that some children with nocturnal enuresis produce high volumes of urine with low osmolarity at night, with no associated increase in secretion of antidiuretic hormone, hence the applicability of desmopressin given at bedtime to supplement antidiuretic hormone and increase overnight urine osmolality and decrease urine volume, leading to dry nights.18-20 According to several literature reviews, desmopressin treatments render immediate response; however, they are associated with high relapse rates after abrupt withdrawal.5,6 Critical care studies have postulated that suppressed endogenous vasopressin caused by vasopressin infusion and sudden withdrawal may lead to sustained vasopressin deficiencies.21 Endocrine withdrawal syndrome is an established physiologic phenomenon after discontinuation of hormone therapy, which ...
In February 2016, NHS England released a patient safety alert highlighting the associated mortality and morbidity when desmopressin is omitted in individuals with cranial diabetes insipidus (DI).1 Over a 7-year period, the UK National Reporting and Learning System had identified 76 near misses, 56 dosing errors leading to harm and 4 cases where desmopressin omission has resulted in severe dehydration and death.1 Gleeson et al,2 concerned about the care of adult patients with DI when admitted to hospital, recently reported a retrospective audit in which desmopressin was missed or delayed in 88% of admissions in two-thirds of cases because medication was unavailable. Both publications raise awareness of the risks and call for improved education, easier access to desmopressin in the inpatient setting and heightened pharmacovigilance using increasingly popular e-prescribing to flag patients on desmopressin and alert endocrinologists to their admission.1 ,2. To our knowledge, there are no comparable ...
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs. Bedwetting in children and adults can result in emotional stress. Complications can include urinary tract infections. Most bedwetting is a developmental delay-not an emotional problem or physical illness. Only a small percentage (5% to 10%) of bedwetting cases are caused by specific medical situations. Bedwetting is frequently associated with a family history of the condition. Nocturnal enuresis is considered primary (PNE) when a child has not yet had a prolonged period of being dry. Secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE) is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry. Treatments range from behavioral-based options such as bedwetting alarms, to medication such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral enlargement. Since most bedwetting is simply a developmental delay, most treatment plans aim to protect or improve self-esteem. ...
Understandably, when children wet the bed parents ask questions such as: why is my child bed wetting, what are the causes and how can I help?. Wetting the bed, or nocturnal enuresis, can be as upsetting for parents as it is for children. It may be of some comfort to know that wetting the bed is very common and majority of children will grow out of it. Generally, bed wetting can be categorised as primary nocturnal enuresis or secondary nocturnal enuresis. ...
Desmopressin and the bedwetting alarm are the standard treatment options for nocturnal enuresis. Research on alternative treatments has yielded varying results. Alternative treatments include, for example, the orthodontic widening of the palate, psychotherapy, hypnosis, medicinal herbs, chiropractic adjustment, transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation and classic or laser acupuncture.
If you are reading this, then youre probably a parent of a child who is experiencing bedwetting. The medical term for bedwetting is called Nocturnal Enuresis. This means, for whatever reason, a child is unable to control their bladder while they are sleeping. Enuresis/Bedwetting Basics: Bedwetting is more common among boys than with girls. Sometimes children have difficulty with wetting the bed from toddler-hood; other children develop bedwetting at a later age. Some teenagers also experience bedwetting. The older the child, the more embarrassing it becomes. It may also cause a child to avoid certain situations out of fear of others finding out. Bedwetting is very common. The most important thing for a parent to know is that bedwetting should not be punished. Disciplining a child or saying things like, "Do you need to wear a diaper, baby?" is not going to help matters. Children who wet the bed can not help that they are wetting the bed. There are basically two types of enuresis: Primary: A ...
Nocturnal enuresis, also known as bedwetting, sleepwetting or nighttime urinary incontinence, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which the control of the bladder usually occurs. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
... is usually more recognized as nighttime bedwetting. this involuntary urination during sleep is present in absence...
Desmopressin is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland. This hormone is important for many functions including blood flow, blood pressure, kidney function, and regulating how the body uses water. Desmopressin is used to treat bed-wetting, central cranial diabetes insipidus, and...
Desmopressin is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland. This hormone is important for many functions including blood flow, blood pressure, kidney function, and regulating how the body uses water. Desmopressin nasal is used to treat central cranial diabetes insipidus, and increased...
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For kids with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), there are two primary bed wetting causes. First, they need to urinate at night. Second ...
article{754c050a-be64-4de3-8f90-1bae6da76137, author = {Rembratt, Åsa and Norgaard, J P and Andersson, Karl-Erik}, issn = {1464-4096}, language = {eng}, number = {7}, pages = {642--646}, publisher = {Blackwell Science Ltd}, series = {BJU International1999-01-01+01:00}, title = {Desmopressin in elderly patients with nocturia: short-term safety and effects on urine output, sleep and voiding patterns.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04170.x}, volume = {91}, year = {2003 ...
(HealthDay)-Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablets are effective and well-tolerated for nocturia among women and men at doses of 25 and 50 µg per day, respectively, according to two studies published in the September ...
Definition of desmopressin acetate. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Im currently taking a course focused on criminological theory and as Ive been thinking through the theories, Ive tried to better understand all of the things that can go wrong in a person that causes him/her to take the life of another. More specifically, how can this happen in the case of a child? Read More →. ...
Bedwetting can be embarrassing and upsetting for teens, but there are effective ways to correct the problem and scientists are constantly developing new treatments.
Bedwetting can be embarrassing and upsetting for teens, but there are effective ways to correct the problem and scientists are constantly developing new treatments.
Systematic (as opposed to random) deviation of the results of a study from the true results that is caused by the way the study is designed or conducted. ...
Bedwetting can be embarrassing and upsetting for teens, but there are effective ways to correct the problem and scientists are constantly developing new treatments.
Prognostic factors associated with clinical presentation include the number of tumors, presence of ulceration, and fixation of tumors to underlying tissue. Survival outcome is significantly worse for dogs with ulcerated mammary carcinomas with a median survival time of 118 days and 1- and 2-year survival rates of 10.8% and 5.4%, respectively, compared to a median survival time of 443 days and 1- and 2-year survival rates of 52.6% and 45.0%, respectively, for dogs with non-ulcerated mammary carcinomas.. The use of desmopressin in the perioperative period significantly improves median survival times in dogs with grade II and III mammary carcinomas. In one prospective study of 18 dogs treated with desmopressin and 10 dogs treated with a saline placebo, the overall median survival time was significantly longer in dogs treated with desmopressin (809 days) compared to dogs in the placebo group (237 days) with 17% and 80% of dogs dying because of disease-related reasons in each group, respectively. ...
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 37 conditions that can cause Nocturia. There are 6 common conditions that can cause Nocturia. There are 5 somewhat common conditions that can cause Nocturia. There are 12 uncommon conditions that can cause Nocturia. There are 14 rare conditions that can cause Nocturia.
Do You Have Nocturia? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Nocturia group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. Nocturia anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, treatment, ...
Dr. Zetoony responded: Primary enuresis. Means that person has never stayed dry through the night since birth vs a secondary enuresis where person had been dry for at leats 6-12 months during the night and then returns to wetting bed.
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Central diabetes insipidus is characterized by increased thirst and urine output. Learn the causes, tests and treatment for central Diabetes insipidus
The attainment of nocturnal continence appears in part to depend on the development of a circadian rise in AVP resulting in reduced urine production at night. Neuronal networks involving the hypothalamic pituitary axis and AVP begin to become established early after birth,6 with circadian rhythms being determined from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), one of the three hypothalamic nuclei associated with AVP production. A number of studies have provided evidence for this circadian rise, although a previous study has shown wide variation in AVP concentrations, suggesting that frequent sampling is required to obtain an accurate picture of plasma AVP release at night.7 In children with low concentrations of AVP there is a direct relation between the mean plasma AVP concentration and response (fig 1). The lower the AVP the less likely the child is to respond to DDAVP. The confounding factor is the influence of previous breast feeding on response to DDAVP. Breast feeding is known to enhance early ...
Joel Alcantara, BSc, D.C. John E. Weisberg, D.C., FICPA Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health - Chiropractic - Volume 2010 Issue 4, Pages 143-149. Objective: To describe successful chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting).. Clinical Features: A nine year old boy with nocturnal enuresis was presented for chiropractic care after unsuccessful medical approaches. Visual examination revealed several postural abnormalities. Motion palpation revealed vertebral subluxations in the cervical and lumbosacral spine regions.. Interventions and Outcomes: The patient was cared for with contact specific, high velocity, low-amplitude type thrust to sites of spinal subluxations. Proper dietary modifications were implemented as indicated from the patients 7-day dietary intake form. By the seventh visit, it was reported that the patient had been enuresis free for two weeks which continued to be the case at a four month follow up; which deemed resolution of nocturnal ...
Hyponatremia in patients with nocturnal enuresis treated with DDAVP.: Hyponatremia is a potential adverse effect in patients with nocturnal enuresis who are tre
Detailed Desmopressin dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Diabetes Insipidus, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis, von Willebrands Disease and more; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
... is a rare condition that often causes excess urination. This section of the eMedTV library explains what causes this condition and talks about some of the treatment options that are available.
Abstract: Nocturia is a common urologic condition with prevalence increasing in the elderly and can result in fragmented sleep, impaired daytime functioning, and falls. It can be a symptom of BPH or OAB but is commonly multifactorial with fluid intake, sleep apnea, and diabetes contributing. Nocturia is often a result of nocturnal polyuria which is best diagnosed by recording voiding frequency and volumes. Treatment is driven by patient symptoms and reported level of bother, with first-line therapy being lifestyle modification and second-line therapy being desmopressin (Nocdurna ...
Every child must be fully assessed using the appropriate Continence Assessment Form. If night time wetting (nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting) is identified, follow the Flowchart for Night Time Wetting to ensure the child receives the correct assessment, treatment and management.
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a tendency to have nocturnal enuresis (NE) more than normal children with males being more affected than females. Mechanisms..
Australian/New Zealand Standard 2394:1994: Conditioning Equipment for the Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis (Bedwetting), 9780726288227, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
This Viewpoint uses the example of the US FDAs 2017 approval of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia to discuss the risks of approving a drug for symptoms ra
Context: The desmopressin (DDAVP) test has been proposed to discriminate Cushing s disease (CD) from Pseudo-Cushing states (PC); however, current information on its value is scarce and contradictory.. Objective: To assess the ability of the DDAVP test in distinguishing between these conditions, with emphasis on subjects with mild hypercortisolism.. Design: Retrospective/prospective study.. Setting: Division of Endocrinology, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.. Patients: Fifty-two subjects with CD, 28 with PC and 31 control subjects (CT).. Intervention(s): DDAVP test and standard diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of Cushing s syndrome.. Main outcome measure(s): Diagnosis/exclusion of CD.. Results: Interpretation of the DDAVP test based on percent and absolute increment of cortisol and ACTH did not afford acceptable values of both sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). CD diagnosis based on simultaneous positivity for basal serum cortisol ,331 nmol/l and absolute ACTH increment ...
Study Flashcards On Diuretics, Anti-HTN, HF, Vasopressin, Desmopressin at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
On the basis of strong evidence, both the bedwetting alarm and desmopressin are considered first-line therapy for children with PMNE.
Our specialties include the following: Enuresis Treatment, Bed Wetting Solutions, Bedwetting Solutions, Enuresis Treatment for Children, Bed Wetting Solutions for Children, Bedwetting Solutions for Children, Enuresis Treatment for Teens, Bed Wetting Solutions for Teens, Bedwetting Solutions for Teens, Enuresis Treatment for Adults, Bed Wetting Solutions for Adults, Bedwetting Solutions for Adults, How to Stop Bedwetting, How to Stop Bed Wetting and Nocturnal Enuresis Treatment. For information on any of these topics, please be sure to contact us today ...
The Australian Continence Exchange has resources and forums for health professionals to share info on the treatment and management of incontinence.
Pharmacologic treatments (desmopressin and tricyclic antidepressants) and alarm devices are effective for controlling nocturnal enuresis during treatment. There is limited evidence of lower relapse rates after stopping alarm-device treatment than after stopping medication.
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Diagnosis Code N39.44 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Nocturia is particularly important because of its impact on quality of life. Frequently waking to pass urine can leave patients chronically fatigued and sleep deprived, leading to impairment during the day and at work. For those at risk of falls and fractures it can be a cause, especially with poor visibility at night. Patients who are unable to make it to the washroom urgently may experience episodes of incontinence during the night. As a possible symptom of many different diseases, nocturia may be the presenting complaint that prompts further investigations and eventually leads to a diagnosis and treatment. It may be associated with other urinary tract conditions including infection and inflammation. Its diagnosis is equally important because of available treatments for either the underlying disease or for nocturnal polyuria-a common cause of nocturia ...
Scientists have developed a variety of methods for studying proteins and technologies such as mass spectrometry have evolved to the point where researchers can measure the molecular weights of protein molecules accurately, revealing details in the protein sequence and modifications that will help the design and discovery of effective new drugs.. But scientists must first extract proteins into a water solution from cell or tissue samples by using surfactants, detergents. However, conventional surfactants can interfere with mass spectrometry analysis of proteins as they overwhelm the signals from proteins in mass spectrometers. Ges team sought an agent that met three key criteria: It needed to be water soluble and rapidly degradable; it needed to be a strong surfactant; and it needed to be compatible with whole protein mass spectrometry.. To help extract membrane proteins from cells and tissues for analysis, Ge and her colleagues, including lead author Kyle Brown, a UW-Madison graduate student, ...
It was really a mystery for a long time, Blankenship said. We knew it was a big effect. But there was no way we could figure out how it actually worked.. A clever solution. The mystery remained unsolved until advances in protein mass spectrometry allowed Gregory Orf, a postdoctoral scholar then in the Blankenship lab and now at Arizona State University, to accurately probe the amino acids deep inside the FMO protein.. There, Orf found not the complex, modified amino acids that scientists suspected would account for quenching, but simply two normal cysteines, one of the 20 standard amino acids.. I noticed that the only amino acids that had any significant difference in reactivity with and without oxygen were these two cysteines, and theyre the only two cysteines in the whole protein, Orf said.. The cysteines were next to the two chlorophylls closest to the reaction center, a good location for a photosynthetic on/off switch. The researchers found that if they modified these cysteines so that ...
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World Bedwetting Day encourages discussion and raises awareness of bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis) as a common condition that can and should be treated.
Comparison of urine concentrations of CXCL1 between a the cancer and non-cancer groups, b low-grade and high-grade BCa and c low stage (NMIBC) and high stage BC
What are the measures to prevent uremic nocturia increased ? Did you find yourself often appear to increase the phenomenon of nocturia? Then this time we should be careful to increase the night elders to be alert to the problem of uremia. T
Description: Nocturia - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Nocturia (Genito Urinary System And Sex Hormones) pipeline landscape. Nocturi
Tynetec Altec 169MHz Enuresis Sensor inc one Plastic Sensing Sheet (ZXT431) at great prices. Full product description, technical specifications and customer reviews from BT Business Direct
Nocturia is the technical term for getting up to go to the toilet in the night. Although this is usually perfectly normal, if you find yourself getting up more often, this could be a symptom of something more serious.
This may perpetuate both diurnal and nocturnal enuresis. Parental expectations are believed to play a role in the toilet training experience. Parents who allow children to sleep in diapers may be delaying the achievement of night dryness. However, it is unlikely that the use of diapers causes nocturnal enuresis. Poor toilet habits, particularly infrequent voiding or constipation may be associated with urinary tract infections.. . 2. Maturational delay. The development of the inhibitory reflex of urination may be delayed in some children which may contribute to bedwetting until the age of five years. This is similar to the range with which children achieve other developmental milestones. Beyond this age maturational is not a common cause for enuresis.. 3. Small bladder capacity. Studies show that some children with enuresis have smaller bladder capacities. This is associated with diurnal frequency or incontinence.. 4. Sleep disorder/impaired arousal. Children who bed-wet have diminished arousal ...
Enuresis is a disorder of wetting the bed or clothing. As with many developmental disorders, it is not unusual to find enuresis coexisting with Aspergers Disorder. Primary enuresis is found in children who have never been dry for longer than six months. Secondary enuresis occurs in children who have achieved dryness for at least six months and then begin to wet themselves. Nocturnal enuresis is more commonly known as bedwetting, while diurnal enuresis occurs during the waking hours. Encopresis involves bowel movements outside the toilet in children age four or older. This is far less common in all children, including those with Aspergers Disorder.. Children and teens understandably do not like to admit to toileting problems, and therefore we do not know the number of children and teens with enuresis and encopresis. Studies estimate that at age five years enuresis affects 5-10 percent of all children, with the majority being boys. The incidence drops significantly with age. By age ten, it ...
A concentrated DDAVP intranasal spray is available for outpatient use. Its effectiveness is similar to that of the intravenous preparation, although its peak effect is observed later, at 60-90 minutes... more
Generic Desmopressin is used for treating increased thirst and urination. You can save up to $35.18 on ordering tablets and save $44.99 on ordering the nasal spray.
A careful history and physical exam are very important in the evaluation of enuresis. Any treatment modality should include the parents as well as the child. Children should limit the intake of fluids before going to sleep and should void prior to going to bed. Waking the child at night is of little value and is disruptive to the entire family. De-emphasize the significance of the problem and point out that only 1% of adults are still enuretic. Make the child responsible for changing their bed clothes and sheets and bringing them to the laundry. Never punish and appreciate that you may be dealing with a child with poor self esteem ...
... occurs for a number of reasons. In some situations an exact cause can be found, such as when the ureter (the tube which carries the urine from the kidney to the bladder) attaches in the wrong place. This, however, is a rather infrequent cause of enuresis. Often times we do not know the exact reason that wetting occurs. There are many theories that have been proposed as causes for wetting, particularly in patients with nocturnal enuresis. Some possible causes relate to the amount of urine produced during the night, sleep patterns and their relationship to bladder filling and emptying, or the bladder being "too small" for the patients age.. When it starts rather suddenly in a child who previously has had no problems with wetting, enuresis can be the first sign of a urinary tract infection. This deserves prompt investigation by his or her primary doctor.. Children who have had numerous infections may have a bladder that is "small" for their age, or is more sensitive to filling, and thus ...
Home » Enuresis. Enuresis (Science: paediatrics, urology) involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which urinary control should have been achieved, often used alone with specific reference to involuntary discharge of urine occurring during sleep at night (bed wetting, nocturnal enuresis). Origin: gr. Enourein = to void urine ...
For those who do not suffer from diabetes, but whose Nocturia is affected by polyuria, the answer can be much simpler. Be very careful about how much you drink, especially within 4-5 hours of getting into bed. For many, drinking nothing after 6-7pm is a good rule of thumb.. What you drink or eat can also be a major factor. Drinks and food with caffeine will accelerate the production of urine for 10-12 hours or more, so try to avoid caffeine within 12 hours of going to bed. Caffeine also increases prostaglandin production, so that is a second important reason to avoid it later in the day. Tea, coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and anything else containing caffeine can cause increased Nocturia. Alcohol also increases urine production, so it is safe to assume a Nocturia penalty will be paid whenever caffeine and/or alcohol are consumed later in the day.. Getting appropriate lifestyle advice to the many who suffer from Nocturia should be a major goal of whatever firm brings an effective Nocturia drug ...
As part of diabetes insipidus treatment, doctors recommend drinking lots of fluids, and also prescribe a medicine called desmopressin acetate to counter ADH deficiency.
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DDAVP® Rhinal Tube System: This is a soft plastic tube with numbers (doses) marked on the side. Draw the drops into the tube until the liquid reaches the number for your dose. Put one end of the tube into your nose and the other end into your mouth. Blow gently until the medicine is sprayed into your nose. Do not let any medicine run down through the tube into your mouth ...
Dr. Lewy-Weiss responded: DDAVP (desmopressin) & Symptoms. That your child is getting treatment is the best way to become adjusted. Now your toddler will be much better able to |a href="/topics/sleep" track_data="{
Children (over 5 years of age): Neurogenic bladder instability: the usual dose is 2.5mg twice a day. This dose may be titrated upwards to 5mg two or three times a day to obtain a clinical response provided the side effects are well tolerated. Nocturnal enuresis: the usual dose is 2.5mg twice a day. This dose may be titrated upwards to 5mg two or three times a day to obtain a clinical response provided the side effects are tolerated. The last dose should be given before bedtime. STORAGE. Store this medicine at room temperature in a tightly-closed container, away from heat and light.. MORE INFO:. Active ingredient: Oxybutynin. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do not use Oxytrol if you are allergic to oxybutynin, or if you have ...
Children (over 5 years of age): Neurogenic bladder instability: the usual dose is 2.5mg twice a day. This dose may be titrated upwards to 5mg two or three times a day to obtain a clinical response provided the side effects are well tolerated. Nocturnal enuresis: the usual dose is 2.5mg twice a day. This dose may be titrated upwards to 5mg two or three times a day to obtain a clinical response provided the side effects are tolerated. The last dose should be given before bedtime. STORAGE. Store this medicine at room temperature in a tightly-closed container, away from heat and light.. MORE INFO:. Active ingredient: Oxybutynin ...
Bedwetting is also known as nocturnal enuresis. While it is most often a problem for children - it can affect people of all ages. Here are a few remedies that can be considered for patients large or small that are challenged by this problem:
My husband is a 30 yr. Old male who has shown multiple symptoms and seen several doctors with a diagnosis at one point of monosymptomatic demyelinating disease. Early in 1999 he began feeling general...
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A 7-year-old boy had a left-sided cerebrovascular accident 48 hours after beginning intranasal desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) therapy for persistent secondary nocturnal enuresis and approximately 2 weeks after varicella infection. A possible connection between desmopressin therapy or varicella infection (or both) and the patients neurologic symptoms is discussed, as is the relationship of desmopressin with hypercoagulability. Suggestions for patient/parent education, medical history taking, and patient surveillance are offered to prescribing physicians. ...
Deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) underlies diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine and persistent thirst. In this issue of the JCI, Shi et al. report that Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded pro-arginine vasopressin (proAVP) in the ER. Additionally, mice with Sel1L deficiency, either globally or specifically within AVP-expressing neurons, developed central diabetes insipidus. The results of this study demonstrate a role for ERAD in neuroendocrine cells and serve as a clinical example of the effect of misfolded ER proteins retrotranslocated through the membrane into the cytosol, where they are polyubiquitinated, extracted from the ER membrane, and degraded by the proteasome. Moreover, proAVP misfolding in hereditary central diabetes insipidus likely shares common physiopathological mechanisms with proinsulin misfolding in hereditary diabetes ...
Indications and usage for Minirin Nasal Spray (Desmopressin Acetate), including primary nocturnal enuresis and central cranial diabetes insipidus.
This patient has nocturia, which is defined by the International Continence Society as waking at least once during the night to void, with each void being preceded and followed by sleep.1 Patients can be monosymptomatic (i.e., having symptoms only at night) or have concomitant daytime symptoms (e.g., frequency and reduced flow).. Before diagnosing nocturia, it is important to consider other causes for waking such as noise, pain, depression or disturbance by a partner; if woken for such reasons, many people will empty their bladder before returning to sleep.. The three most common types of nocturia are nocturnal polyuria (normal total daily urine output, and , 33% of the total daily urine output occurring at night in patients aged , 65 yr or , 20% of total output in patients aged , 65 yr), global polyuria (24-h urine output , 3200 mL) and bladder dysfunction.2-6. A focused history can help clarify the type and cause of nocturia (Box 1).3-6 Because this patient has symptoms only at night, evening ...
Neurogenic diabetes insipidus, also known as central diabetes insipidus, is the most common type of DI. Learn the causes, symptoms and treatments
Biology Assignment Help, What is the function of the antidiuretic hormone, What is the function of the antidiuretic hormone? Where is it made and which are the stimuli that enhance or decrease its secretion? The antidiuretic hormone is secreted by the hypophysis (also called as pituitary) and it acts in the nephron tubu
Nocturia Nocturia can be defined as the condition which compels one to wake up during night to urinate one or more times. Aged people have this problem commonly. Nocturia can affect the quality of sleep and may cause significant problems in adults. It can seriously affect the onset of sleep and can cause sleep disturbance. ...
Ddavp - Get up-to-date information on Ddavp side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Ddavp
Paper:nocturnal enuresis in children :is adeno tonsillar hypertrophy a possible aetiology , Author: , Year:1950 , Faculty of Medicine ,Department of OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY ,Benha University
Diabetes insipidus, symptoms of insipidus, signs and causes of insipidus, canine diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus emedicine, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus in dogs, diabetes insipidus diagnosis and more.
Central diabetes insipidus, also called neurogenic diabetes insipidus, is a type of diabetes insipidus due to a lack of vasopressin (ADH) production in the brain. Vasopressin acts to increase the volume of blood (intravascularly), and decrease the volume of urine produced. Therefore, a lack of it causes increased urine production and volume depletion. It is also known as neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, referring to the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), which is supplied by the hypothalamus in the brain. This condition has only polyuria in common with diabetes and although not mutually exclusive, with most typical cases, the name diabetes insipidus is a misleading misnomer. A better name might be "hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal ADH deficiency". In at least 25% of cases (the most commonly occurring classification), neurogenic diabetes insipidus is of unknown cause, meaning that the lack of vasopressin production arose from an unknown cause. It is also due to damage of the hypothalamus, ...
Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients. ...

ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...

ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER. Robert Z. Gussin, Ulrike Miksche and Alfred ... ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER. Robert Z. Gussin, Ulrike Miksche and Alfred ... ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER. Robert Z. Gussin, Ulrike Miksche and Alfred ... ALKYLATING AGENTS AND THE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE IN THE TOAD BLADDER ...
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A Study of Oral Desmopressin in Previously Untreated Children Aged 5 to 15 Years With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis - Full Text...A Study of Oral Desmopressin in Previously Untreated Children Aged 5 to 15 Years With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis - Full Text...

Children receiving substances that are known or suspected to potentiate antidiuretic hormone, e.g. SSRI, tricyclic ...
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Intranasal Desmopressin vs IV Ketorolac in Renal Colic Pain Control - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govIntranasal Desmopressin vs IV Ketorolac in Renal Colic Pain Control - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. ... Antirheumatic Agents. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Hemostatics ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. ...
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Fused azepine derivatives and their use as antidiuretic agents. US20040244589 *. 2. Febr. 2004. 9. Dez. 2004. Bossard Peter R. ... in the presence of a reducing agent such as hydrazine, an autocatalytic process of reducing a metastable palladium salt complex ...
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Patente US9173979 - Bioabsorbable polymeric compositions, processing methods, and medical ... - Google PatentesPatente US9173979 - Bioabsorbable polymeric compositions, processing methods, and medical ... - Google Patentes

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pineal region germ cell tumor drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginepineal region germ cell tumor drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-minor] Antidiuretic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 ... MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. ... Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic ...
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Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidiuretic Agents; ENR1LLB0FP / Deamino Arginine Vasopressin. * 24. de Ostrovich KK, Lambertz I ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 33515-09 ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functions as a mitogenic agent in the human prostate gland acting by autocrine/paracrine ... Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Leuprolide / adverse effects. ...
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Extended-release formulation for reducing the frequency of urination and     method of use thereof - Patent # 8685453 -...Extended-release formulation for reducing the frequency of urination and method of use thereof - Patent # 8685453 -...

... composition comprising an analgesic agent formulated for extended-release. ... analgesic agent formulated in an extended-release formulation. Another method comprises administering to a subject in need ... 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said pharmaceutical composition further comprises one or more antidiuretic agents.. 10. The ... Attorney Or Agent:. Wang; PingAndrews Kurth LLP. U.S. Class:. 424/484; 424/400; 514/192; 514/304; 514/305; 514/420; 514/422; ...
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US9321917B2 - Bioabsorbable polymeric compositions, processing methods, and medical devices therefrom 
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... antidiuretic agents; antidiarrheals; antihistamines; anti-inflammatory agents; antimigraine preparations; contraceptives; ... Examples of radio-opacification agents include barium sulfate while examples of osseointegration agents include tricalcium ... clot dissolving agents, radioactive agents and cystostatics. Therapeutically effective dosages may be determined by in vitro or ... Examples of antimicrobial agents include the polychloro phenoxy phenols such as 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (also ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9321917

Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. RootPharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. Root

... and antidiuretic agents, and also in hepatic disorders.[4-6] The water extract of the plant showed significant ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3159276/?lang=en-ca

Vasopressin, Cardiovascular Regulation, and Hypertension | SpringerLinkVasopressin, Cardiovascular Regulation, and Hypertension | SpringerLink

... a highly potent and specific antidiuretic agent possessing protracted effects. J Med Chem 16: 975 - 978PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Vasopressin analogues that antagonize antidiuretic responses by rats to the antidiuretic hormone. Science 212: 49-51PubMed ... Design of more potent and selective antagonists of the antidiuretic responses to arginine-vasopressin devoid of antidiuretic ... Brazeau P (1975) Agents affecting the renal conservation of water. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds) The pharmacological basis of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-68493-7_4

Antidiuretic - WikipediaAntidiuretic - Wikipedia

Antidiuretic Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "antidiuretic" at Dorlands Medical ... The major endogenous antidiuretics are antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also called vasopressin) and oxytocin. Both of those are also ... An antidiuretic is a substance that helps to control fluid balance in an animals body by reducing urination, opposing diuresis ... Antidiuretics reduce urine volume, particularly in diabetes insipidus (DI), which is one of their main indications. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antidiuretic

Patent US6967234 - Alkyd-lactone copolymers for medical applications - Google PatentsPatent US6967234 - Alkyd-lactone copolymers for medical applications - Google Patents

... antiasthmatic agents; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antidiuretic agents; antidiarrheals; antihistamines; antiinflammatory ... By effective amount of a bioactive agent, it is meant that the composition comprises the bioactive agent in minimum amounts ... radioactive agents; and cystostatics.. Rapamycin, risperidone, and erythropoietin are preferred bioactive agents that may be ... antidiuretics, antidiarrheals, antihistamines, antiinflammatory agents, antimigraine preparations, antinauseants, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6967234?dq=5,664,133

List of MeSH codes (D16) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D16) - Wikipedia

... natriuretic agents MeSH D27.505.696.560.249 --- antidiuretic agents MeSH D27.505.696.560.500 --- diuretics MeSH D27.505.696.560 ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D16)

Patent US7902319 - Unsymmetrical aromatic ether diacids and absorbable polymers therefrom - Google PatentsPatent US7902319 - Unsymmetrical aromatic ether diacids and absorbable polymers therefrom - Google Patents

... antiasthmatic agents; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antidiuretic agents; antidiarrheals; antihistamines; antiinflammatory ... an antimicrobial agent; (d) an anti-inflammatory agent; (e) a pain-reducer; and, (f) an antioxidant agent. Also, the ... A coupling agent may also be added to the polymers of the present invention. A coupling agent is a reagent that has a least two ... The amount of coupling agent to be added before gelation occurs is a function of the type of coupling agent used and the ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US7902319

Patente US7824601 - Process of making a tubular implantable medical device - Google PatentesPatente US7824601 - Process of making a tubular implantable medical device - Google Patentes

... antiasthmatic agents; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antidiuretic agents; antidiarrheals; antihistamines; antimigrain ... drugs or active can be other than antiproliferative agents or anti-inflammatory agents. These active agents can be any agent ... In some embodiments, such agents may be used in combination with antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory agents. These agents ... An antiproliferative agent can be a natural proteineous agent such as a cytotoxin or a synthetic molecule. Preferably, the ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US7824601

Kudos - helping increase the reach and impact of researchKudos - helping increase the reach and impact of research

Twelve-week, prospective, open-label, randomized trial on the effects of an anticholinergic agent or antidiuretic agent as add- ...
more infohttps://www.growkudos.com/profiles/15801

US7105629B2 - Coumarin endcapped absorbable polymers 
        - Google PatentsUS7105629B2 - Coumarin endcapped absorbable polymers - Google Patents

... antiasthmatic agents, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antidiuretic agents, antidiarrheals, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory ... Synthetic absorbable hemostatic agent US4595713A (en) 1985-01-22. 1986-06-17. Hexcel Corporation. Medical putty for tissue ... Synthetic absorbable hemostatic agent US4496446A (en) 1980-10-20. 1985-01-29. American Cyanamid Company. Modification of ... Composition for delivering bioactive agents for immune response and its preparation US5427779A (en) * 1987-12-07. 1995-06-27. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7105629?oq=897813

Patent US7524530 - Residual solvent extraction method and microparticles produced thereby - Google PatentsPatent US7524530 - Residual solvent extraction method and microparticles produced thereby - Google Patents

... antidiuretic agents such as metformin; anticoagulants such as sodium citrate and heparin; hemostatic agents such as thrombin, ... anti-migraine agents; anti-Parkinson agents such as L-dopa; anti-spasmodics; anticholinergic agents (e.g. oxybutynin); ... anti-cancer agents; anti-convulsants; anti-emetics; antihistamines; anti-inflammatory agents such as hormonal agents, ... active agent would mean 10 parts active agent by weight and 90 parts polymer by weight. Unless otherwise indicated to the ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7524530?dq=6462713

Patent US6800663 - Crosslinked hydrogel copolymers - Google PatentsPatent US6800663 - Crosslinked hydrogel copolymers - Google Patents

... antidiuretic agents such as metformin; anticoagulants such as sodium citrate and heparin; hemostatic agents such as thrombin, ... anti-migraine agents; anti-Parkinson agents such as L-dopa; anti-spasmodics; anticholinergic agents (e.g. oxybutynin); ... anti-cancer agents; anti-convulsants; anti-emetics; antihistamines; anti-inflammatory agents such as hormonal agents, ... non-steroidal antifertility agents; parasympathomimetic agents; psychotherapeutic agents; tranquilizers; decongestants; ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6800663

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Antidiuretic Effect (0) see Antidiuretic Agents. Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists (7) • Endogenous compounds and drugs ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ... Antithrombotic Agents (0) see Fibrinolytic Agents. Antithyroid Agents (10) • Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by ... Antifibrillatory Agents (0) see Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antifibrinolytic Agents (7) • Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Antidiuretic Effect (0) see Antidiuretic Agents. Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists (7) • Endogenous compounds and drugs ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ... Antithrombotic Agents (0) see Fibrinolytic Agents. Antithyroid Agents (10) • Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by ... Antifibrillatory Agents (0) see Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antifibrinolytic Agents (7) • Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/drugNamesAndCategories.jsp
  • In addition, there are various other antidiuretic drugs, some molecularly close to ADH or oxytocin and others not. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is particularly advantageous to encapsulate a biologically active or pharmaceutically active agent within a biocompatible, biodegradable wall-forming material (e.g., a polymer) to provide sustained or delayed release of drugs or other active agents. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to nitric oxide releasing prodrugs of known drugs or therapeutic agents wherein the drug or therapeutic agents contain at least one carboxylic acid group. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage. (nih.gov)