Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Chylous Ascites: Presence of milky lymph (CHYLE) in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, with or without infection.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Hymenaea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain resins (RESINS, PLANT) and GLUCANS.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Asclepiadaceae: The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.IndiaHibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.

Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity. (1/211)

The antihyperalgesic properties of the opiate antidiarrheal agent loperamide (ADL 2-1294) were investigated in a variety of inflammatory pain models in rodents. Loperamide exhibited potent affinity and selectivity for the cloned micro (Ki = 3 nM) compared with the delta (Ki = 48 nM) and kappa (Ki = 1156 nM) human opioid receptors. Loperamide potently stimulated [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding (EC50 = 56 nM), and inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (IC50 = 25 nM) in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human mu opioid receptor. The injection of 0.3 mg of loperamide into the intra-articular space of the inflamed rat knee joint resulted in potent antinociception to knee compression that was antagonized by naloxone, whereas injection into the contralateral knee joint or via the i.m. route failed to inhibit compression-induced changes in blood pressure. Loperamide potently inhibited late-phase formalin-induced flinching after intrapaw injection (A50 = 6 microgram) but was ineffective against early-phase flinching or after injection into the paw contralateral to the formalin-treated paw. Local injection of loperamide also produced antinociception against Freund's adjuvant- (ED50 = 21 microgram) or tape stripping- (ED50 = 71 microgram) induced hyperalgesia as demonstrated by increased paw pressure thresholds in the inflamed paw. In all animal models examined, the potency of loperamide after local administration was comparable to or better than that of morphine. Loperamide has potential therapeutic use as a peripherally selective opiate antihyperalgesic agent that lacks many of the side effects generally associated with administration of centrally acting opiates.  (+info)

The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies. (2/211)

Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these changes were measured. Sales of ORS in intervention pharmacies increased by an average of 30% in Kenya (almost a two-fold increase) and 21% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05); antidiarrhoeal sales declined by an average of 15% in Kenya and 20% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward increased communication in both countries, and in Kenya we observed significant increases in discussion of dehydration during pharmacy visits (p < 0.05). We conclude that face-to-face training of pharmacy attendants which targets deficits in knowledge and specific problem behaviours can result in significant short-term improvements in product sales and communication with customers. The positive effects and cost-effectiveness of such programmes need to be tested over a longer period for other health problems and in other countries.  (+info)

Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. (3/211)

Common pathogens in traveler's diarrhea include enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia and many other species. Viruses and protozoa are the cause in many cases. Fortunately, traveler's diarrhea can usually be avoided by carefully selecting foods and beverages. Although drug prophylaxis is now discouraged, treatment with loperamide (in the absence of dysentery) and a fluoroquinolone, such as ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice daily for one to three days), is usually safe and effective in adults with traveler's diarrhea. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline are alternatives, but resistance increasingly limits their usefulness. Antibiotic treatment is best reserved for cases that fail to quickly respond to loperamide. Antibiotic resistance is now widespread. Nonabsorbable antibiotics, immunoprophylaxis with vaccines and biotherapeutic microbes that inhibit pathogen infection may eventually supplant antibiotic treatment. In the meantime, azithromycin and new fluoroquinolones show promise as possible replacements for the older agents. Ultimately, the best solution is improvements in sanitary engineering and the development of safe water supplies.  (+info)

Effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3)-receptor antagonist KB-R6933 on experimental diarrhea models. (4/211)

The effects of a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3)-receptor antagonist KB-R6933 (6-amino-5-chloro-1-isopropyl-2-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-benzimidazole dimaleate) on experimental diarrhea and on intestinal fluid secretion stimulated by cholera toxin were examined and compared with those of ramosetron and loperamide. KB-R6933 and ramosetron (0.03-1 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the diarrhea induced by 5-HT, but not that by castor oil or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in mice. Loperamide significantly inhibited the diarrhea induced by 5-HT, castor oil and PGE2. All drugs tested inhibited the diarrhea induced by restraint stress and the intestinal fluid secretion stimulated by cholera toxin in rats. The results suggest the possibility that KB-R6933 may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea.  (+info)

Oral rehydration therapy plus loperamide versus loperamide alone in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. (5/211)

Eighty United States students in Mexico received either loperamide (an initial dose of 4 mg, followed by 2 mg after passage of each unformed stool, up to 8 mg/d; 40 patients) or loperamide (at the same dosage schedule) plus an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) preparation (500 mL initially, followed by 250 mL after each subsequently passed unformed stool, up to 1,000 mL per 24 hours; 40 patients). The ORT preparation was a modification of the World Health Organization-recommended solution, adjusted to a sodium concentration of 60 mEq/L. All treatments were given for 48 hours. The study demonstrated equivalent clinical responses with regard to diminishment of diarrhea or subjective findings such as abdominal pain/cramps, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, or thirst. Stool number (by form) and specific gravity of urine postenrollment were similar in the groups. Administration of loperamide plus ORT for the management of traveler's diarrhea, in cases in which subjects were encouraged to drink ad libitum, offered no benefit over administration of loperamide alone.  (+info)

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of traveler's diarrhea: clinical response to ciprofloxacin. (6/211)

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in the development of traveler's diarrhea and the clinical response of patients with EAEC diarrhea following treatment with ciprofloxacin. Sixty-four travelers with diarrhea and no other recognized enteropathogen were enrolled in treatment studies in Jamaica and Mexico from July 1997 to July 1998. EAEC was isolated from 29 travelers (45.3%). There was a significant reduction in the duration of posttreatment diarrhea in the 16 patients treated with ciprofloxacin, as compared with that in the 13 patients who received placebo (mean of 35.3 versus 55.5 hours; P = .049). There was a nonsignificant reduction in the mean number of unformed stools passed during the 72 hours after enrollment in the ciprofloxacin-treated group (5.6), as compared with that in the placebo group (7.5) (P = .128). This study provides additional evidence that EAEC should be considered as a cause of antibiotic-responsive traveler's diarrhea.  (+info)

Racecadotril demonstrates intestinal antisecretory activity in vivo. (7/211)

BACKGROUND: Racecadotril (acetorphan), a potent enkephalinase inhibitor, protects endogenous enkephalins from degradation. Racecadotril exhibits experimental and clinical antidiarrhoeal activity without any effect on intestinal motility, suggesting selective antisecretory activity. The antisecretory effect of racecadotril was directly assessed in the present study. METHODS: A 1 m, jejunal, Thiry-Vella loop was created in six mongrel dogs, and water and ionic fluxes were evaluated during infusion (2 mL/min) of Tyrode solution labelled with 14C-polyethylene glycol. Fluxes were determined both in the basal state and 5-6 h after commencement of a 2-h infusion of cholera toxin (0.4 microgram/mL). Racecadotril (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given orally with and without prior intravenous administration of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg) or phentolamine (0.2 mg/kg). RESULTS: Basal absorption remained unchanged following racecadotril administration; however, racecadotril significantly decreased (P = 0.01) cholera toxin-induced water, sodium, and potassium hypersecretion, from 0.73 +/- 0.15 to 0.37 +/- 0.13 mL/min; from 125.0 +/- 16.1 to 14.7 +/- 9.5 microMol/min; and from 3.41 +/- 0.66 to 1.66 +/- 0.61 microMol/min, respectively. This antisecretory activity of racecadotril was suppressed by naloxone but not by phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: This study directly demonstrates the antisecretory activity of racecadotril in relation to the protection of endogenous enkephalins.  (+info)

Effects of racecadotril and loperamide on bacterial proliferation and on the central nervous system of the newborn gnotobiotic piglet. (8/211)

METHODS: The effects of 4 days of oral administration of different doses of two drugs, an enkephalinase inhibitor (the antisecretory agent, racecadotril) and a mu-receptor agonist (loperamide), on intestinal growth of a bacterial nonpathogenic strain (Escherichia coli E 404) and on the central nervous system (CNS) were compared in newborn gnotobiotic piglets. RESULTS: The E. coli content of the proximal jejunum (segment S1) and the E. coli ratio of stomach:segment S1 were similar in the racecadotril (20 mg/kg b.d., n = 5) and control groups. In contrast, in the loperamide group (1 mg/kg b.d., n = 4), the E. coli content of segment S1 and the E. coli ratio stomach:S1 were both significantly higher than with racecadotril or control (P = 0.04 and 0.005, respectively, for E. coli content; P = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively, for stomach:S1). There were no clinical signs of neurotoxicity and no deaths with racecadotril given orally at a high dose of 130 mg/kg b.d. (n = 5)--nearly 60 times the paediatric dosage. In contrast, an equivalent high dose of loperamide (5 mg/kg b.d.) resulted in death in three out of four piglets. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to loperamide, racecadotril did not induce bacterial overgrowth and did not produce central neurotoxicity.  (+info)

*Antidiarrhoeal

An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for ... ATC code A07 Antidiarrheals, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001 ... Opioids' classical use besides pain relief is as an anti-diarrhoeal drug. Opioids have agonist actions on the intestinal opioid ...

*Loperamide

... is an anti-diarrheal agent which decreases intestinal movement. As such, when combined with other antimotility drugs ... Schuermans V, Van Lommel R, Dom J, Brugmans J (1974). "Loperamide (R 18 553), a novel type of antidiarrheal agent. Part 6: ... In 1990, all formulations for children of the antidiarrheal loperamide were banned in Pakistan. Loperamide is not recommended ... During the 1980s, Imodium became the best-selling prescription antidiarrheal in the United States. In March 1988, McNeil ...

*ANO1

Crofelemer, an antidiarrhoeal, inhibits this channel. Consequently, ANO1 activation is necessary for normal function of the ICC ... Tradtrantip, L.; Namkung, W.; Verkman, A. S. (2009). "Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer ...

*Equipment of a combat medic

Loperamide (Imodium AD) an anti-diarrheal agent. Pepto Bismol tablets, to settle upset stomachs, treat diarrhea, and heartburn ...

*Alhagi maurorum

Atta AH, Mouneir SM.: Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun;92(2-3), pp ... It is used as a medicinal herb for its gastroprotective, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, antidiarrhoeal and ...

*Co-phenotrope

Diphenoxylate is anti-diarrheal and atropine is anticholinergic. A subtherapeutic amount of atropine sulfate is present to ... Atropine has no anti-diarrheal properties, but will cause tachycardia when overused. The medication diphenoxylate works by ... The drug combination diphenoxylate/atropine (trade name Lomotil) is a popular oral anti-diarrheal in the United States, ...

*Native American ethnobotany

Pluchea sericea, used as an antidiarrheal and eyewash. Podophyllum peltatum, used as an emetic, cathartic, and antihelmintic ...

*Egyptian zythos

It works as both a laxative and an antidiarrhoeal. It is forbidden during Passover because it contains barley, thus making it ...

*Dysentery

"The use of Bacillus subtilis as an antidiarrhoeal microorganism". Boll. Chim. Farm. 133 (1): 3-18. PMID 8166962. Warren, W. ...

*Gastroenterocolitis

Doctors usually do not recommend antidiarrheal medications (e.g., Loperamide) for gastroenteritis because they tend to prolong ...

*Tannate

Albumin tannate (also known as Tannin albuminate) is an antidiarrheal. Medical Dictionary definition. ...

*Thiorphan

... is the active metabolite of the antidiarrheal racecadotril (acetorphan). It prevents the degradation of endogenous ...

*Crofelemer

"Glenmark gets an arbitration upshot on anti-diarrheal compound Crofelemer". BusinessLine. "Napo Terminates Salix for Breach of ... "FDA approves first anti-diarrheal drug for HIV/AIDS patients". FDA. Retrieved 31 December 2012. Cottreau, J.; Tucker, A.; ... an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer Extracted from Croton lechleri, Targets Two Distinct Intestinal ...

*Controlled Substances Act

Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone ... Opium tincture (Laudanum): a potent antidiarrheal Oxycodone (semi-synthetic opioid; active ingredient in Percocet, OxyContin, ... an antidiarrheal drug, such as when combined with atropine (Motofen) (difenoxin is 2-3 times more potent than diphenoxylate, ... Some centrally-acting antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate (Lomotil) when mixed with atropine (to make it unpleasant for ...

*Croton lechleri

"FDA approves first anti-diarrheal drug for HIV/AIDS patients". Food and Drug Administration. Dec 31, 2012. ... Tradtrantip, L.; Namkung, W.; Verkman, A. S. (2009). "Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer ...

*Memecylon umbellatum

... the leaves are said to have anti-diarrhoeal properties. J. K. Grover, S. Yadav, V. Vats (June 2002). "Medicinal plants of India ...

*Shigellosis

Antidiarrheal agents may worsen the sickness, and should be avoided. In most cases, the disease resolves within four to eight ... Antidiarrheal drugs (such as diphenoxylate or loperamide) may prolong the infection and should not be used. Antibiotics should ...

*Trilepisium madagascariense

A methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from the stem bark has been shown to possess antidiarrhoeal activities, and ... "Antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from Trilepisium madagascariense stem bark". Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 42 ...

*Polycarbophil calcium

Saito, T; Mizutani, F; Iwanaga, Y; Morikawa, K; Kato, H (2002). "Laxative and anti-diarrheal activity of polycarbophil in mice ...

*Clay

Kaolin clay and attapulgite have been used as anti-diarrheal medicines. Clay is one of the oldest building materials on Earth, ...

*Ceratotheca sesamoides

Toyin, Y.M.; Khadijat, O.F; Saoban, S.S; Olakune, A.T; Abraham, B.F; Luqman, Q.A (2012). "Antidiarrheal activity of aqueous ... Toyin, Y.M, Khadijat, O.F, Saoban, S.S, Olakunle, A.T, Abraham, B.F, Luqman, Q.A. (2012). Antidiarrheal activity of aqueous ...

*PF-3845

Antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were also seen in mouse models of pain. Ahn, K; Johnson, DS; Mileni, M; Beidler, D; ... "Selective inhibition of FAAH produces antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effect mediated by endocannabinoids and cannabinoid- ...

*Potentilla canadensis

The Iroquois take a pounded infusion of the roots as an antidiarrheal. The Natchez give the plant as a drug for those believed ...

*Cinnamomum tamala

2008). "Antidiarrhoeal activity of the standardised extract of Cinnamomum tamala in experimental rats". Journal of Natural ...

*Giles Milton

... antidiarrheal, hypnotic, analgesic and hemodynamic (blood pressure) parameters". Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 24: 675-80. ...
Pharmaceutical sector is growing at a significant rate globally due to increase in the prevalence of diseases, rise in aging population and improvement in the healthcare facilities. Gastrointestinal drugs may be classified on the basis of different active ingredients used in it. Antidiarrheal drugs refer to a class of drugs that are used to treat diarrhea. Antidiarrheal drugs market is growing at a significant rate globally due to increasing incidence of diarrhea and growing awareness in this field.. North America, followed by Europe, dominates the global market for antidiarrheal drugs due to high prevalence of diarrhea cases and high adoption rate for antidiarrheal drugs. Asia is expected to experience high growth rate in the next few years in global antidiarrheal drugs market. China and India are expected to be the fastest growing antidiarrheal drugs markets in Asia. Some of the key driving forces for antidiarrheal drugs market in emerging countries are large pool of patients, increasing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant effects and antidiarrheal activity of balacaturbhadrika churna - an ayurvedic preparation. AU - Pratap, Rahul. AU - Aswatha Ram, Hn N.. AU - Chandrashekar, K. S.. AU - Pai, Vasudev. AU - Khan, Saleemulla. AU - Kamath, Venkatesh. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Balacaturbhadrika churna (BC) is an important pediatric preparation in Ayurveda. It is used to treat various diseases of gastro-intestinal tract particularly diarrhea in children. Free radicals cause oxidative damage in the intestine and are correlated with its diseases. In the current study, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of BC extracts were determined and their antioxidant evaluation in various in vitro models was carried out. Procedures mentioned in The Ayurvedic Formulary of India were followed to prepare in-house BC; alcoholic (BCAL) and aqueous (BCAQ) extracts were prepared and tested by standard procedures. BCAL was tested for antidiarrheal activity in ...
Total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant effects and antidiarrheal activity of balacaturbhadrika churna - an Ayurvedic preparation
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Prospecção Tecnológica de polissacarídeos com atividade antidiarreica/ Exploration Technology of polysaccharides with antidiarrheal activity
As part of the fight against the nations opioid epidemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Tuesday that one common antidiarrheal drug should be given new packaging.
Up and Up Anti-Diarrheal Solution official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
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Jaguar Animal Health, Inc. and Elanco US Inc., a subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company, today announced an agreement to license, develop and commercialize Canalevia, a Jaguar drug product candidate under investigation for treatment of acute and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID) in dogs. Diarrhea is one of the most common reasons for veterinary office visits for […]
Pharmos discovers and develops novel therapeutics to treat a range of indications with a focus on specific diseases of the nervous system including disorders of the brain-gut axis (gastrointestinal/irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)), pain/inflammation, and autoimmune disorders. The Companys lead product, dextofisopam, has completed Phase 2a testing in IBS, with positive effect on the primary efficacy endpoint (n=141, p=0.033). The Company plans a Phase 2b study of dextofisopam for the treatment of IBS in 2007. The Companys core proprietary technology platform focuses on discovery and development of synthetic cannabinoid compounds. Cannabinor and other CB2 agonist compounds in Pharmos pipeline are in clinical and pre-clinical studies targeting pain, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders. Pharmos is also working to commercialize its unique proprietary NanoEmulsion drug delivery system, which is in clinical stage development for topical application of analgesic and ...
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Travelers diarrhea often goes away in a few days. Often the only treatment is replacing fluids. You may be told to drink lots of fluids. These can include clear broth, flat soda, or juice. You may be given antibiotics or other medicines if your symptoms dont get better. Combination treatment with an antibiotic and an antidiarrheal medicine may help you get better more quickly. Your healthcare provider may give these to you before you travel so you can take them at the first signs of travelers diarrhea. ...
By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here [2]. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here [6] to begin the singup process ...
Imodium can help you regain control - fast.Controls symptoms of diarrhea plus bloating, pressure, and cramps commonly referred to as gas.PURPOSE: ...
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Felipoff, Ana Lia et al. Not any type of rice performs equally to improve lactose-induced diarrhea characteristics in rats: is amylose an antidiarrheal factor?. Ci nc. Tecnol. Aliment., June 2012, vol.32, no.2, p.323-328. ISSN 0101- ...
Broiler grower feed has been produced for 22 days to 42 days old broiler. Complied to quality standards referred by (France)nutritionist of Guyomarch Company, it is comprised with not less than 19 percent of protein, high quality materials, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, probiotics, anti-fungal, antidiarrheal and supplements like appetizer and acidifier appropriately to be more economic leading to make great profit.. ...
NERLYNX is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the extended adjuvant treatment of adult patients with early-stage HER2-overexpressed/amplified breast cancer, to follow adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy. Learn about antidiarrheal prophylaxis with NERLYNX.
Toxi-Sorb Bolus - Non-medicated anti-diarrheal bolus for use as an aid in the relief of simple diarrhea and digestive disturbances in calves and colts. Three-way action absorbs bacterial toxins, neutralizes acid, relieves pain. Easy, convenient, accurate administration and dosage. Each bolus c
Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 13.. The patient was given therapy with argon plasma coagulation therapy.. Radiation colitis, an insidious, progressive disease of increasing frequency, develops 6 mo to 5 years after regional radiotherapy for malignancy, owing to the deleterious effects of the latter on the colon and the small intestine. When dealing with radiation colitis and its complications, the most conservative modality should be employed because the areas of intestinal injury do not tend to heal. Acute radiation colitis is mostly self-limited, and usually, only supportive management is required. Chronic radiation colitis, a poorly predictable progressive disease, is considered as a precancerous lesion; radiation-associated malignancy has a tendency to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and to bear a dismal prognosis. Therefore, management of chronic radiation colitis remains a major challenge owing to the progressive evolution of the disease, including development of fibrosis, endarteritis, ...
Abstract Morus nigra Linn. (black mulberry) is used in gastrointestinal ailments. This study demonstrates gut modulatory properties of M. nigra. The prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal activities of M. nigra were assessed in mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum were used to explore insight into mechanism(s). At 30 and 70 mg/kg, the crude extract of M. nigra (Mn.Cr) exhibited atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative effects, similar to carbachol (CCh). While at higher doses (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg), Mn.Cr offered protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. In rabbit jejunum, Mn.Cr and its chloroform fraction inhibited CCh-induced contractions more potently compared with high K(+) (80 mm). Conversely, petroleum fraction was more potent against high-K(+) -induced contractions. At 0.01 mg/mL, Mn.Cr caused a parallel shift in acetylcholine concentration-response curves (CRCs) followed by a non-parallel shift at 0.03 mg/mL, similar to dicyclomine. At further tested
Racecadotril is used in the treatment of diarrhoea.get complete information about racecadotril including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with racecadotril at 1mg.com
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Background: Areca nut included Palmae plants that are almost in all parts of Indonesia. Areca husks have not been scientifically tested as a drug, not like a leaf and areca seeds. Pectin and flavonoids contained in the areca husks can be used as antidiarrheal medication. Objective: The objective of this research was to know the characteristics and chemical compounds of simplex powder and ethanol extract of areca husk, and antidiarrheal activity of ethanol extract of areca husk compared with loperamide HCl. Methods: The ethanol extract of areca husk was extracted by maceration with 80% ethanol. Filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporator and dried by freeze dryer. Simplex powder and extracts were characterized and phytochemical screened, then antidiarrheal activity of extracts was tested using rats that had been induced with oleum ricini. Rats were divided into six group, each consisting of five rats, each rat was given doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg bw compared with loperamide HCl dose of ...
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0018]Thus, the present invention also relates to a method of preventing or controlling diarrhea associated with administering an epothilone derivative of formula (I) to a patient suffering from a solid tumor disease, which comprises administering an effective amount of an corticosteroid antidiarrheal agent selected from prednisone, prednisolone and dexomethosone, to the patient receiving treatment with the epothilone derivative. The present invention further relates to a method of preventing or controlling diarrhea associated with administering an epothilone derivative of formula (I) to a patient suffering from a solid tumor disease selected from breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cancer of the colon, and generally the GI tract, cervix cancer, lung cancer, in particular small-cell lung cancer, and non-small-cell lung cancer, head and neck cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the prostate or Kaposis sarcoma, which comprises administering an effective amount of an corticosteroid antidiarrheal agent ...
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Antidiarrhoeal medicines may help reduce your diarrhoea and slightly shorten how long it lasts. However, theyre not usually necessary. Loperamide is the main antidiarrhoeal medicine used, as it has been shown to be effective and causes few side effects. Loperamide slows down the muscle movements in your gut so more water is absorbed from your stools. This makes your stools firmer and theyre passed less frequently. An alternative to loperamide is a different type of antidiarrhoeal medicine called racecadotril, which works by reducing the amount of water produced by the small intestine. Evidence suggests this medication may be as effective as loperamide for treating diarrhoea.. Some antidiarrhoeal medicines can be bought from a pharmacy without a prescription. Check the patient information leaflet that comes with the medicine to find out whether its suitable for you and what dose you should take. Ask your pharmacist for advice if youre unsure.. Dont take antidiarrhoeal medicines if theres ...
Summary of the evidence on racecadotril with oral rehydration for treating acute diarrhoea in children to inform local NHS planning and decision-making
Different regimens include things like A 3 working day system of rifaximin (Xifaxan) two hundred mg thrice day by day or azithromycin (Zithromax) five hundred mg once every day. Rifaximin should not be utilized by those with fever or bloody stools and is not authorized for pregnant Ladies or Individuals below age 12. Azithromycin needs to be averted in All those allergic to erythromycin published here or relevant antibiotics. An antidiarrheal drug which include loperamide (Imodium) or diphenoxylate (Lomotil) ought to be taken as needed to slow official source the frequency of stools, but not sufficient to stop the bowel movements completely. Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) and loperamide (Imodium) should not be specified to small children beneath age two. Most situations of travelers diarrhea are delicate and do not demand either antibiotics or antidiarrheal medication. Sufficient fluid ...
Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on parfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF (0.16- 3.2mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT in mice established an i.p LD50 of > 4000mg/kg for D. oliveri and 1131.4mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oilinduced diarrhea, 80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200mg/kg and 60% protection was observed at 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at doses of 120mg/kg and 60mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5mg/kg. The result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity against diarrhea ...
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... |p||span|Controls the symptoms of diarrhea.Proven antidiarrheal loperamide hydrochloride.Doctor-recommended.Easy-to-take liquid with mint flavor.|/span||/p|
Loperamide is the active ingredient in Immodium, an over-the-counter antidiarrheal agent which also has μ-opioid receptor agonist activity. With therapeutic oral dosing, loperamide acts on μ-opioid receptor in the gastrointestinal tract and does not enter the central nervous system. At recommended doses, opioid effects on the central nervous system are not observed, there is no high, and therefore a low potential for abuse.. Patients attempting to self-treat their opioid addiction have been turning to loperamide as an opioid substitute, which, in supratherapeutic doses, can produce a high. In addition to being constipating, when taken in excessive amounts Loperamide can cause ventricular dysrhythmias and prolongation of the QRS duration and QTc interval.. There were two deaths in recently in New York linked to loperamide abuse and more life-threatening dysrhythmias and deaths have been linked to Loperamide overdose in five states over the past 18 months.. Loperamide, at one time, could only be ...
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. Electrolyte solutions, while not true antidiarrhoeals, are used to replace lost fluids and salts in acute cases. Bulking agents like methylcellulose, guar gum or plant fibre (bran, sterculia, isabgol, etc.) are used for diarrhoea in functional bowel disease and to control ileostomy output. Absorbents absorb toxic substances that cause infective diarrhoea, methylcellulose is an absorbent. Anti-inflammatory compounds such as bismuth subsalicylate. Anticholinergics reduce intestinal movement and are effective against both diarrhoea and accompanying cramping. Opioids classical use besides pain relief is as an anti-diarrhoeal drug. Opioids have agonist actions on the intestinal opioid receptors, which when activated cause constipation. Drugs such as morphine or codeine can be used to relieve diarrhoea this way. A notable opioid for the purpose of relief of diarrhoea ...
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Can my dog have anti-diarrheal pills (composition Loperamide Hydrochloride) to help curb his diarrhea? Will it help? - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian
Antidiarrhoeal medicines are not usually necessary. However, you may wish to reduce the number of trips that you need to make to the toilet. You can buy antidiarrhoeal medicines from pharmacies. The safest and most effective is loperamide. The adult dose of this is two capsules at first. This is followed by one capsule after each time you pass some diarrhoea, up to a maximum of eight capsules in 24 hours. It works by slowing down your guts activity. You should not take loperamide for longer than five days.. Note: do not give antidiarrhoeal medicines to children aged under 12 years. Also, do not use antidiarrhoeal medicines if you pass blood or mucus with the diarrhoea or if you have a high temperature (fever). People with certain conditions should not take loperamide. Therefore, read the leaflet that comes with the medicine to be safe. For example, pregnant women should not take loperamide.. Paracetamol or ibuprofen are useful to ease a high temperature or headache.. As explained above, if ...
Pathogenesis. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and caliciviruses invade and destroy mature epithelial cells in the middle and upper villus, causing decreased absorption of sodium and water from the bowel lumen. Diagnosis. Diagnostic tests usually are not performed to identify the causes of viral gastroenteritis. However, a rapid antigen test of stool, either by enzyme immunosorbent assay or the latex agglutination test, can be used to aid in the diagnosis of rotavirus infection.. Therapy and Prevention. Viral gastroenteritis is a self-limiting disease, but it is often necessary to administer fluids and electrolytes to patients to prevent dehydration. Oral rehydration therapy is recommended for preventing and treating early dehydration. Shock, severe dehydration, and decreased consciousness require intravenous therapy. Administering antiemetics and antidiarrheal agents to small children is not recommended.. Natural immunity is usually incomplete, and multiple episodes of viral gastroenteritis can occur in ...
Purchase Loperamide Online. High quality Loperamide from trusted supplier. Affordable Price. Visa, Mastercard accepted. Imodium is an antidiarrheal drug which slows the rhythm of digestion and absorption of fluid in the small intestines.
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, paclitaxel, and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy and radiation therapy are more effective when given with or without additional chemotherapy in treating cervical cancer.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy to see how well they work when given with or without additional chemotherapy in treating patients with high-risk early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy. ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, paclitaxel, and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy and radiation therapy are more effective when given with or without additional chemotherapy in treating cervical cancer.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy to see how well they work when given with or without additional chemotherapy in treating patients with high-risk early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy. ...
Between 1991 and 1996, 268 patients were entered onto the study. Two hundred forty-three patients were assessable (127 RT + CT patients and 116 RT patients). Progression-free and overall survival are significantly improved in the patients receiving CT. The hazard ratios for progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT only arm versus the RT + CT arm are 2.01 (P =.003) and 1.96 (P =. 007), respectively. The projected progression-free survivals at 4 years is 63% with RT and 80% with RT + CT. The projected overall survival rate at 4 years is 71% with RT and 81% with RT + CT. Grades 3 and 4 hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity were more frequent in the RT + CT group. Conclusion: ...
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. (NASDAQ:RDHL) (Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange:RDHL) is a specialty biopharmaceutical company, primarily focused on the development and commercialization of late clinical-stage, proprietary drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. RedHill commercializes and promotes four gastrointestinal products in the U.S.: Donnatal® - a prescription oral adjunctive drug used in the treatment of IBS and acute enterocolitis; Esomeprazole Strontium Delayed-Release Capsules 49.3 mg - a prescription proton pump inhibitor indicated for adults for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other gastrointestinal conditions; EnteraGam® - a medical food intended for the dietary management, under medical supervision, of chronic diarrhea and loose stools; and Mytesi® an anti-diarrheal indicated for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy. RedHills key clinical-stage development programs include: (i) ...
The plant grows up to 50 cm, has finely toothed kidney-shaped green leaves and dense clusters of small yellow-green flowers. The parts used are the aerial parts, cut and dried, while the plant is flowering. Ladys Mantle helps with anti-diarrheal, astringent, depurative, emmenagogue
As is the situation for many drugs, the most common side effects associated with myeloma treatment are gastrointestinal, such as constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Ms. Faiman noted that diarrhea can occur within the first 24 to 48 hours after each dose of bortezomib and lenalidomide, but there are many nonpharmacological options nurses can recommend, such as increasing fluid intake and avoiding fiber and caffeine or carbonated drinks.. Antidiarrheal agents should be used with caution, however, and intravenous hydration may be necessary for extreme cases, she continued. In some patients with severe symptoms, dose reduction is warranted. A stool culture should be also taken in patients to check for Clostridium difficile bacteria.. Steroids also come with a range of potential side effects. Those used most often to treat myeloma include dexamethasone, prednisone, and prednisolone, either individually or in combination with other drugs. Steroids can affect the entire body and ...
i.e., soft or watery) stools and >200 g of abnormal stool weight over a 24-h period. Subjects discontinued all antidiarrheal agents >24 h before enrollment. Stool samples were studied for routine pathogens. Subjects received 500 mg p.o. of SP-303 or placebo every 6 h for 96 h (4 days). Stool frequency and weights were recorded. Subjects were monitored for symptoms and side effects and were seen 1 wk later in follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 26 subjects received SP-303, and 25 received placebo. There were no significant demographic differences between treatment arms. A total of 41 subjects (80%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 39 subjects (77%) were receiving at least one protease inhibitor. Stool studies revealed no pathogens in 48 of 51 patients (94%). There were no serious adverse events or laboratory abnormalities. The SP-303 treatment group demonstrated a mean reduction from baseline stool weight of 451 g/24 h versus 150 g/24 h with placebo on day 4 of treatment (p = 0.14), and a ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Gastrointestinal agents Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global gastrointestinal agents market was valued at US$ 17,255.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 21,177.7 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 2.6% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Gastrointestinal Agents Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/gastrointestinal-agents-market. Market Insights. Medications for gastrointestinal diseases and symptoms include prescription and nonprescription drugs, conventional and unconventional agents, simple small molecules, complex macromolecules and large recombinant proteins. These medications can be classified based upon their use: drugs for nausea and vomiting (antiemetics), prokinetic agents, laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, drugs for acid peptic disease, drugs for irritable bowel ...
Most helminths and protozoa exit the body in the fecal stream.The patient should be instructed to collect feces in a clean waxed or cardboard container and to record the time of collection on the container. Contamination with water (which could contain free-living protozoa) or with urine (which can damage trophozoites) should be avoided. Fecal samples should be collected before ingestion of barium or other contrast agents for radiologic procedures and before treatment with antidiarrheal agents and antacids, because these substances change the consistency of the feces and interfere with microscopic detection of parasites. Because of the cyclic shedding of most parasites in the feces, a minimum of three samples collected on alternate days should be examined. Examination of a single sample can be up to 50% less sensitive. When delays in transport to the laboratory are unavoidable, fecal samples should be kept in polyvinyl alcohol or another fixative to preserve protozoal trophozoites. New ...
Sandoz Loperamide: Loperamide belongs to the family of medications called antidiarrheals. Loperamide, along with rehydration therapy (fluids and electrolytes), is used to treat short bouts of diarrhea that are not caused by a bacterial infection. It is also used to treat chronic diarrhea caused by inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohns disease) and to reduce the amount of stool produced for people who have ileostomies, colostomies, or have had part of their intestines removed.
Loperamide is an antidiarrhoeal (antidiarrheal) medication used to control acute (sudden) diarrhoea it works by slowing the movement of bowel content so you can get on with your day. Diarrhoea can start quite suddenly but doesnt usually last for many days. Diarrhoea is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning or foreign travel.. ...
One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally. Loperamide is an opioid receptor agonist and acts on the mu opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus large intestines; it does not affect the central nervous system like other opioids; Loperamide usually as hydrochloride, is a drug effective against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease. In most countries it is available generically under brand names such as Lopex, Imodium, Dimor and Pepto Diarrhea Control; Treatment should be avoided in the presence of fever or if the stool is bloody. Treatment is not recommended for patients who could suffer detrimental effects from rebound constipation. If there is a suspicion of diarrhea associated with organisms that can penetrate the intestinal walls, such as E. coli O157:H7 or ...
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Secretory diarrhea is usually characterized by a large volumes of watery diarrhea. There is usually little pain and notably the diarrhea continues even in the absence of food intake ...
Loperamide slows the rhythm of digestion so that the small intestines have more time to absorb fluid and nutrients from the foods you eat. Loperamide is used to treat diarrhea. Loperamide is also used to reduce the amount of stool in people who have an ileostomy (re-routing of the bowel through a surgical opening in the...
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Pet Pectillin Diarrhea Medication contains pectin and kaolin to quickly help relieve diarrhea or loose stools in dogs and cats. It provides a protective coating to calm the digestive tract and absorb toxins helping to alleviate irritation, discomfort and cramping associated with diarrhea. Kaolin absorbs liquid to increase the bulk and slow down the passage of feces. Pet Pectillin also replenishes electrolytes aiding in recovery from dehydration caused by diarrhea. Lightly sweetened for palatability. Easy to feed directly or mix with food. Made in USA.
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Dont take more than the recommended dose of the medication. Serious heart conditions that could be fatal can be caused by misuse of loperamide. Adhere to each of dosing instructions carefully. Do not take more than 16 mg per day if your physician has prescribed loperamide. The loperamide chewable tablet must be chewed before swallowing. If you do not own a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist. Take loperamide with a full glass of water. Drink loads of fluids when loperamide is being taken by you, to keep from becoming dehydrated.. New Imodium A-D Liquid and imodium A-D Liquid contain two strengths of loperamide. Follow the instructions if you change from using one brand to utilizing the other. Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after two weeks of therapy, or if you also have stomach bloating. Store at room temperature away from heat and moisture. Do not allow the liquid medication to freeze. You might not be on a dosing schedule when needed since loperamide is used. Use the ...
One of the long-acting synthetic antidiarrheals; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.
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Targeted cancer therapies can cause diarrhea by various pathophysiologic mechanisms (1), and careful evaluation is required to determine the most effective antidiarrheal treatment for individual patients. Ideally, a systematic evaluation of the mechanism mediating diarrhea and the contribution of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic effects of the therapies is necessary. The clinical investigation includes the analysis of duration, severity, constellation of signs and symptoms of the toxicity, and if possible the histopathology analysis of damaged tissue. The limited number of patients exposed to the experimental therapies, particularly at the early phase of development, the incomplete evaluation of the contribution of each individual drug when given in combination, and the lack of supportive biopsy often lead to incomplete conclusion. In vitro investigations using cellular models of the gastrointestinal mucosa are alternative investigational tools that can successfully provide molecular and ...
Diphenoxylate is an opioid used only for diarrhea. The drug is insoluble in water and hence cannot be abused by parenteral routes. When taken orally in antidiarrheal doses, diphenoxylate has no significant effect on the CNS. ...
Pre-broiler starter feed has been produced for 43 days to 50 days old broiler. Complied to quality standards referred by nutritionist of Guyomarch Company, it is comprised with not less than 18 percent of protein, high quality materials, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, probiotics, anti-fungal, antidiarrheal and supplements like appetizer and acidifier appropriately preventing the diseases, lowering mortality, increase growth rate, less feed conversion ratio, which lead to make more profit.. ...
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Food and Drug Administration issued warning for using high doses of loperamide ( imodium) as it causes heart problems and cardiac arrest which can lead to death.
Understanding of human intestinal physiology, pathophysiology of diarrheal diseases and development of anti-diarrheal drug therapy has been held back by lack of...
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Molecular Weight: 513.50 Mp 223-225°C Appearance: white crystalline powder Quality Standard: USP Content: ≥ 98% Loss on drying: ≤ 0.5% Produ
慢性腹瀉,長年不斷地拉肚子,西醫最強的止瀉藥就是Loperamide,是鴉片類製劑,讓腸子不蠕動,一般腹瀉一吃馬上就好,但對慢性腹瀉就不行了,因為腸子根本不吸收,蠕動慢也沒用,照拉。
Inaadvise ng mga doktor na huwag muna agad uminom ng gamot sa pagtatae gaya ng Loperamid (Imodium). Hayaan munang makadumi ang nagtatae para mailabas ang anumang nakaing panis na pagkain o kontaminadong tubig. Base sa aking karanasan, hinahayaan ko munang makadumi ako ng 3 beses bago ako uminom ng Loperamide ...
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Schrijf je dan hier in voor onze nieuwsbrief. Klik hier en er zal in een nieuw venster het inschrijf formulier geopend worden.. ...
Aim of the study To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal properties of Alstonia congensis leaves claimed to be effective for the treatment of diarrhoea by traditional healers during our ethnopharmacological investigation conducted in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Materials and methods The aqueous extract (decoction), and the 80% hot methanol extract (Soxhlet extraction) were obtained. This last extract was fractionated. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea in animals. The potential antibacterial activity of all samples was also assessed in vitro. Results At all oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, all A. congensis samples showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in treated Wistar rats characterised by significant increase of onset time and decrease of all other diarrhoeal parameters at various degrees compared to untreated groups in both models. At the highest oral dose of 200 mg/kg bodyweight, the 80% ...
Tamarind plant traditionally is widely used in the treatment. The part of the plant was used seed for asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, tuberculosis, sores, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, vertigo and diabetes. The active compound contained in tamarind seeds are phenolic compounds, tannins, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic of simplex and extracts, phytochemical screening and testing antidiarrheal effects of ethanol extract of tamarind seeds on male mice with intestinal transit method. Extraction was done by maceration with 80% ethanol. The extract was made suspension with a concentration of 2% then tested antidiarrheal effects on adult mice male at a doses of 50 mg/kg bw, 150 mg / kg bw and 450 mg/kg bw with castor oil was used as an inducer of diarrhea and suspension norit 5% was used a marker. Antidiarrheal test method was used the method of intestinal transit by way of calculating the percent of ...
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Zithromax Dosage TravelerS Diarrhea. Azithromycin for the Self-Treatment of Travelers Diarrhea The cost of the recommended regimens for treatment of travelers diarrhea at the 2 pharmacies, respectively, were as follows: for azithromycin (1-g single dose), $34.25 and $42.69; for ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice daily for 3 days), $16.25 and $43.49; for levofloxacin (500 mg once daily buy cialis for 3 days), $44.69 and $40.55; and for rifaximin (200 mg given 3 times daily for 3 days), $47.95 and $43.79.Single-Dose Azithromycin Effective in Travelers DiarrheaDuring the summers of 1999 to 2001, 217 U.S. adults with travelers diarrhea acquired in Guadalajara, Mexico, were randomized to receive a single oral dose of 1,000 mg azithromycin or 500 mg levofloxacin. Over a follow-up period of four days, three patients in each group dropped out of the study.Zithromax Travelers Diarrhea , 1stDrugstoreZithromax Travelers Diarrhea - best choice! 100% Secure and Anonymous. Low Prices, 24/7 online support, ...
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and the IBS are the therapeutic targets of tricyclic antidepres- sants (TCAs). In a comprehensive study, one third of the 3.19. Antidiarrheal Drugs subjects used an antidepressant, although the purpose of The analogues of the opioid receptors in the GI tract taking the drug was not obvious (92). TCAs are drugs with such as diphenoxylate and loperamide inhibit intesti- J Arch Mil Med. 2015;3(3):e30057 Abtahi SR et al. nal motility and secretion. The anti-diarrheal effect of emerging therapies in the IBS based upon the evolving loperamide is higher than its anti-spasmodic effect (105, understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder. 106). Loperamide has negligible side effects. A combina- The chief complaint of the IBS patients is abdominal tion of diphenoxylate and atropine (co-phenotrope) is pain. A percentage of these patients present with aggra- available, but loperamide is preferred. Another agent is vated pain sensitivity to gut distention ...
Polycarbophil calcium (INN) is a drug used as a stool stabilizer. Chemically, it is a synthetic polymer of polyacrylic acid cross-linked with divinyl glycol, with calcium as a counter-ion. It is used as stool stabilizer to treat constipation, diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Bulk laxatives absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft bulky stool. The bulky mass stimulates the intestinal muscles, speeding stool transit time through the colon. Results usually occur within 12 to 72 hours. Calcium polycarbophil will not work without increased fluid intake. Calcium polycarbophil has been marketed as an over-the-counter agent used for treating functional bowel disorder and as a bulk-producing agent. A study looked at the effects of calcium polycarbophil on general irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Fourteen patients with IBS-diarrhea and twelve with IBS-constipation were given calcium polycarbophil for eight weeks and their colon transit times were measured with radiopaque markers ...
Vaginal stenosis can occur as a result of treatment for pelvic malignancies. Women receiving pelvic radiation therapy using a vaginal dilator 5-7 times
First, it would be ideal to stop the antibiotic that led to the infection in the first place. This may not always be possible, however, as some infections, like severe bone or heart infections, need long-term antibiotics. If the symptoms are mild, metronidazole 500 mg, three times a day for ten days is recommended. If one cannot tolerate metronidazoles side effects, or early in pregnancy when it is not recommended, alternate treatment is vancomycin 125 mg, four times a day for ten days. If the patient does not get better after several days on metronidazole, a switch to vancomycin is recommended. Fidaxomicin is a new antibiotic that appears equivalent to vancomycin, but is much more expensive. Antidiarrheal drugs should never be used for CDI, as slowing down an inflamed colon may result in a severe complication called toxic megacolon.. Patients with severe disease may not have diarrhea if their colon is very inflamed. They are usually very sick, with fever, severe abdominal pain and tenderness. ...
Travelers diarrhea is a digestive tract disorder that commonly causes loose stools and abdominal cramps. Its caused by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Fortunately, travelers diarrhea usually isnt serious - its just unpleasant.
With the diagnosis in hand, a treatment program can be started. A diet high in insoluble fiber or stool softeners is begun if necessary. Antidiarrheal agents may be used, and various creams can be applied, such as topical 2.5% hydrocortisone cream. Suppositories are rarely needed. Prolonged sitting on the toilet is to be discouraged. Pregnant women are encouraged to lie on the left side, allowing the enlarged uterine dome to rotate off of the vena cava, thus promoting improved pelvic venous drainage. Many people enjoy reading while having a bowel movement and this prolonged sitting and straining is to be discouraged.. In patients with the acute onset of painful external thrombotic disease, the thrombotic hemorrhoid can be incised and drained. Not all thrombotic hemorrhoids are amenable to this method of treatment however, and surgical treatment must be individualized. Alternatively, with supportive care, the hemorrhoid may be simply allowed to resolve over time.. Symptoms unresponsive to local ...
Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Md. Nazmul Hasan, Md. Hosne Mobarak Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury*. ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of the study to evaluate the medicinal properties of Bombax ceiba, S. colocasiifolia and P. sikkimensis as antidiarrheal. Methods: Leaves of Bombax ceiba and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with pure ethanol (EEBC and EESC) and P. sikkimensis was extracted with pure methanol (MEPS). Antidiarrheal effect was carried out by using a standard method of bioassay: Castor oil-induced diarrhea test. Result: In the castor oil-induced diarrhea conduct experiment, the leaves extract of Bombax ceiba success to produce a noticeable antidiarrheal result in the mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, the extract produced significant inhibition of faces. The total number of wet feces produced upon administration of castor oil decreased (4.10±0.38, at 250 mg/kg and 2.90±0.45, at 500 mg/kg) compared to the control group (5.8 ...
Travelers diarrhea is the most common health problem of international travelers. We determined the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. associated with travelers diarrhea and analyzed the geographic distribution, clinical features, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Aeromonas spp. were isolated as a cause of travelers diarrhea in 18 (2%) of 863 patients. A. veronii biotype sobria was isolated in nine patients, A. caviae in seven patients, and A. jandai and A. hydrophila in one patient each. Aeromonas spp. were isolated with a similar prevalence in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Watery and persistent diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps were common complaints. All strains were resistant to ampicillin; showed variable resistance to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole; and were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. The persistence of symptoms made antimicrobial treatment necessary.
ABSTRACT: In a double blind trial a glycine fortified oral glucose electrolyte solution was evaluated in a group of infants and small children (n = 25) with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea, and was compared with a matched control group (n = 26) receiving only glucose based oral rehydration solution. It is seen that the diarrhoea stool output, duration of diarrhoea, and volume of oral rehydration fluid required to achieve and maintain hydration are significantly lower in the group receiving glycine fortified glucose electrolyte solution. The possibility of developing an oral rehydration solution which could also act as an absorption promoting drug is discussed. ...
Looking for online definition of oral rehydration therapy in the Medical Dictionary? oral rehydration therapy explanation free. What is oral rehydration therapy? Meaning of oral rehydration therapy medical term. What does oral rehydration therapy mean?
The present invention provides methods for treating a variety of urogenital disorders, such as, for example, vaginismus, dyspareunia, vulvodynia (including vulvar vestibulitis), interstitial cystitis, nonspecific urethriris (i.e., nonspecific pain and/or burning of the urinary tract) and sexual dysfunctions, such as, for example, female sexual arousal disorders and female sexual orgasmic disorders, using a variety of compounds, including, but not limited to, NO donors, calcium channel blockers, cholinergic modulators, α-adrenergic receptor antagonists, β-adrenergic receptor agonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activators (e.g., cAMP mimetics), superoxide scavengers, potassium channel activators, estrogen-like compounds, testosterone-like compounds, benzodiazepines, adrenergic nerve inhibitors, antidiarrheal agents, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, smooth muscle relaxants, adenosine receptor modulators, adenylyl cyclase activators, endothelin receptor antagonists,
CASTOR OIL Explanation Castor oil is obtained from the seeds of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae). The oil consists of a triglyceride of fatty acids. The fatty acid content of castor oil consists of about 88-90% ricinoleic acid, 4-5% linoleic acid, 2-3% oleic acid, 1% palmitic acid, 1% stearic acid, about 1% dihydroxystearic acid, and trace amounts of other fatty acids (Binder et al. 1962). BIOLOGICAL DATA BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS About 7% of the ricinoleic acid present in a 1 ml oral dose of castor oil given by stomach tube to fasted Sprague-Dawley rats was absorbed into the chyle within a 24-hour period. About 24% of the ricinoleic acid was absorbed if the substance was given to fed rats. Seven weanling rats were given a diet containing 20% castor oil, the animals gained weight on the diet, although at a lower rate than animals fed an olive oil supplemented diet. After eight weeks on the castor oil diet, the amount of ricinoleic acid in the animals fat pads was about 9.7%. ...
Intestinal protozoa account for a minority of cases of acute travelers diarrhea, but they are common pathogens in travelers who experience protracted diarrhea during or after travel. Evaluation of the traveler with chronic diarrhea should include a careful examination for typical infecting organisms, such as Giardia and Entamoeba species, as well as for emerging parasites, such as Cryptosporidium species, Cyclospora species, and microsporidia. The microbiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the most common intestinal parasites found in travelers are presented in this minireview.. ...

AntidiarrhealsAntidiarrheals

Pharmacological Actions : Antidiarrheals : CK(110) : AC(20) [1]. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539) [64 ... Pharmacological Actions : Antidiarrheals : CK(110) : AC(20) [1]. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539) [64 ... Pharmacological Actions : Antidiarrheals : CK(110) : AC(20) [1]. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539) [64 ... Pharmacological Actions : Antidiarrheals : CK(110) : AC(20) [1]. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539) [64 ...
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Antidiarrheal drug overdose: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAntidiarrheal drug overdose: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

This article discusses overdose of antidiarrheal drugs containing diphenoxylate and atropine. Both ingredients help slow ... Antidiarrheal drugs are used to treat loose, watery, and frequent stools. ... Antidiarrheal drugs are used to treat loose, watery, and frequent stools. This article discusses overdose of antidiarrheal ...
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Antidiarrheal AgentsAntidiarrheal Agents

... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments ... In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients with diarrhea, antidiarrheal agents such as loperamide and diphenoxylate can be ...
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There are several anti-diarrheal medications that a person with Crohns can use to treat acute bouts of diarrhea.. Crohns ... In this article, we look at different anti-diarrheal drug treatments for people with Crohns disease along with some general ... A doctor may prescribe anti-diarrheal treatment when a person has Crohns disease and diarrhea. ...
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DailyMed - ANTI-DIARRHEAL- loperamide hcl tabletDailyMed - ANTI-DIARRHEAL- loperamide hcl tablet

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Anti-Diarrheal, 2 mg, Caplets Imodium Anti-Diarrheal, 2 mg, Caplets 00300450295323 ... Active Ingredients: In Each Caplet: Loperamide HCl (2 mg). Purpose: Anti-Diarrheal. Inactive Ingredients: Anhydrous Lactose, ...
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Common Brand Name(s): Imodium, Kaopectate 1-D, Maalox Anti-Diarrheal, Pepto Diarrhea Control ...
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Pepto-Bismol Upset Stomach Reliever/Antidiarrheal Liquid | WalgreensPepto-Bismol Upset Stomach Reliever/Antidiarrheal Liquid | Walgreens

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Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

... Daniel Zavala-Mendoza,1 Francisco J. Alarcon-Aguilar,2 Salud ... M. D. F. F. Melo, G. Thomas, and R. Mukherjee, "Antidiarrhoeal activity of bisnordihydrotoxiferine isolated from the root bark ...
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Pet Pectillin Anti-Diarrheal | Revival Animal HealthPet Pectillin Anti-Diarrheal | Revival Animal Health

Pet Pectillin Anti-Diarrheal. *Pet Pectillin treats diarrhea in dogs and cats ... Home»Cat Supplies»Pet Pectillin Anti-Diarrheal ...
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Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals,...Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals,...

Diphenoxylate and atropine is an antidiarrheal drug combination wherein diphenoxylate is chemically related to the narcotic ... Difenoxin and atropine is an antidiarrheal drug combination wherein diphenoxylate is chemically related to the narcotic ... antidiarrheals, and antibiotics. The agents that are most useful in the treatment of these disorders are neostigmine, [35] ...
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Good Neighbor Anti-Diarrheal - FDA prescribing information, side effects and usesGood Neighbor Anti-Diarrheal - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Good Neighbor Anti-Diarrheal. Generic Name: loperamide hydrochloride. Dosage Form: oral solution. ... antidiarrheals loperamide, Lomotil, Imodium, Acidophilus, atropine / diphenoxylate, Pepto-Bismol. Travelers Diarrhea ...
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Antidiarrheal agents | definition of antidiarrheal agents by Medical dictionaryAntidiarrheal agents | definition of antidiarrheal agents by Medical dictionary

What is antidiarrheal agents? Meaning of antidiarrheal agents medical term. What does antidiarrheal agents mean? ... Looking for online definition of antidiarrheal agents in the Medical Dictionary? antidiarrheal agents explanation free. ... antidiarrheal. /an·ti·di·ar·rhe·al/ (-di″ah-re´al) counteracting diarrhea, or an agent that does this.. antidiarrheal. (ăn′tē- ... antidiarrheal. (redirected from antidiarrheal agents). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to ...
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Antidiarrhoeal - WikipediaAntidiarrhoeal - Wikipedia

An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for ... ATC code A07 Antidiarrheals, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001 ... Opioids classical use besides pain relief is as an anti-diarrhoeal drug. Opioids have agonist actions on the intestinal opioid ...
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Anti-Diarrheal Efficacy of Oral Rehydration Solution in GEP-... : Oncology TimesAnti-Diarrheal Efficacy of Oral Rehydration Solution in GEP-... : Oncology Times

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Sulfonamides | Intestinal antiinfectives | Antidiarrheals intestinal antiinflammatory/antiinfective agentsSulfonamides | Intestinal antiinfectives | Antidiarrheals intestinal antiinflammatory/antiinfective agents

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Imodium A-D Anti-Diarrheal, Caplets - 24ea - MedshopexpressImodium A-D Anti-Diarrheal, Caplets - 24ea - Medshopexpress

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Motofen anti diarrheal agent - New Doctor InsightsMotofen anti diarrheal agent - New Doctor Insights

Anti-diarrheal meds: Depends on the individual and the situation. With heart-burn like symptoms, kaopectate is good at coating ... Imodium (loperamide) is a synthetic anti-diarrheal medicine. If youre having diarrhea from a virus or soiled food etc, let the ... Motofen is an anti-diarrheal agent which is a kind of gastroenterology drug. ...Read more ... Difenoxin,atropine is an anti-diarrheal agent which is a kind of gastroenterology drug. ...Read more ...
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Pro-Pectalin Anti-Diarrheal Gel for Dogs & Cats (30 cc)Pro-Pectalin Anti-Diarrheal Gel for Dogs & Cats (30 cc)

Anti-Diarrheal oral gel for dogs and cats helps resolve and provides relief for diarrhea caused by stress or other influences ... Pro-Pectalin Anti-Diarrheal Tablets for Dogs & Cats (250 Tabs)Reg price: $73.99. Sale price: $53.68. ... Pro-Pectalin Anti-Diarrheal Gel contains koalin, pectin and Enterococcus faecium, a beneficial bacteria to help resolve ...
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