Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.
Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Procedures used for the targeted destruction of the mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (1/684)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (2/684)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion. (3/684)

There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release.  (+info)

A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. (4/684)

In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year.  (+info)

Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review. (5/684)

This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants.  (+info)

Course of antidepressant treatment with tricyclic versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor agents: a comparison in managed care and fee-for-service environments. (6/684)

We compared course of treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCADs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to assess interactive effects of antidepressant type with payer type and patient characteristics. A nationwide sampling of adults (n = 4,252) from approximately equal numbers of health maintenance organization (HMO) and indemnity enrollees were prescribed no antidepressants for 9 months, and thereafter prescribed a TCAD or SSRI. Using a retrospective analysis of prescription claims, these cohorts of TCAD and SSRI utilizers were followed for 13 to 16 months after their initial antidepressant prescription. Outcome measures included (1) termination of antidepressant treatment before 1 month; and (2) failure to receive at least one therapeutic dose during treatment lasting 3 months or more. Rates of premature termination and subtherapeutic dosing were significantly higher for TCAD-treated than SSRI-treated patients, and for HMO than indemnity enrollees. The interaction of HMO enrollment and TCAD use was associated with particularly high rates. Excluding patients terminating in the first month, the proportions of TCAD and SSRI utilizers remaining in treatment over time were not significantly different. We conclude that SSRIs may provide advantages in treatment adherence and therapeutic dosing, particularly in environments with limited prescriber time. The first month of treatment may be especially critical in determining compliance.  (+info)

Incidence and risk factors for hyponatraemia following treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine in elderly people. (7/684)

AIMS: To establish the incidence, time course and risk factors of hyponatraemia complicating treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine in an elderly population. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive and case control study in an inpatient/outpatient assessment and rehabilitation service for people aged 65 years and over. Fourteen elderly patients with hyponatraemia complicating treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine, matched with 56 controls drawn from 845 patients treated with fluoxetine or paroxetine over 3.5 years. No other SSRI antidepressants were used over the study period. RESULTS: The incidence of hyponatraemia was 4.7/1000 people treated/year (6.3/1000 for fluoxetine and 3.5/1000 for paroxetine). Hyponatraemia was detected at a median 13.5 (mean 18.6, range 4-64) days after commencing the drug. Mean (95% confidence intervals) body weights were lower in cases at 53.0 (95% CI 46.5-59.5) kg compared with controls at 64.5 (95% CI 60.1-68.4) kg (P<0.01). 71% of cases were women compared with 45% of controls (P=0.07) but the effect of gender was confounded by body weight. There were trends for cases to be older (odds ratio 1.10: 95% CI 0.99, 1.23) and lighter (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 200 elderly people treated per year with fluoxetine or paroxetine developed complicating hyponatraemia. Low body weight was a particular risk factor. Most cases occurred within 3 weeks of treatment.  (+info)

Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression. (8/684)

This study investigated the effects of open-label fluoxetine (20 mg/d) on the polysomnogram (PSG) in depressed outpatients (n = 58) who were treated for 5 weeks, after which dose escalation was available (< or = 40 mg/d), based on clinical judgment. Thirty-six patients completed all 10 weeks of acute phase treatment and responded (HRS-D < or = 10). PSG assessments were conducted and subjective sleep evaluations were gathered at baseline and at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Of the 36 subjects who completed the acute phase, 17 were reevaluated after 30 weeks on continuation phase treatment and 13 after approximately 7 weeks (range 6-8 weeks) following medication discontinuation. Acute phase treatment in responders was associated with significant increases in REM latency, Stage 1 sleep, and REM density, as well as significant decreases in sleep efficiency, total REM sleep, and Stage 2 sleep. Conversely, subjective measures of sleep indicated a steady improvement during acute phase treatment. After fluoxetine was discontinued, total REM sleep and sleep efficiency were found to be increased as compared to baseline.  (+info)

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

Causes of Menorrhagia

There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:

1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.

Symptoms of Menorrhagia

The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:

1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath

Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia

If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs

Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding

It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of parasites consumed. Mild cases may not exhibit any symptoms at all, while more severe cases can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Skin rash
* Swelling of the face and eyelids

In severe cases, trichinellosis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the heart, brain, and liver, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Trichinellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or biopsies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasite, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of trichinellosis primarily involves proper food handling and cooking practices, such as cooking meat to an internal temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) to kill any Trichinella parasites that may be present. Avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly from wild game animals, can also help prevent the infection.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Some common types of psychotic disorders include:

1. Schizophrenia: A chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
2. Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder that causes extreme changes in mood, energy, and behavior. It can lead to manic or hypomanic episodes, as well as depression.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental disorder that combines symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings.
4. Brief Psychotic Disorder: A short-term episode of psychosis that can be triggered by a stressful event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
5. Postpartum Psychosis: A rare condition that occurs in some new mothers after childbirth. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
6. Drug-Induced Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by taking certain medications or drugs. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
7. Alcohol-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by alcohol use disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
8. Trauma-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by a traumatic event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
9. Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): A catch-all diagnosis for psychotic episodes that do not meet the criteria for any other specific psychotic disorder.

Symptoms of psychotic disorders can vary depending on the individual and the specific disorder. Common symptoms include:

1. Hallucinations: Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
2. Delusions: False beliefs that are not based in reality.
3. Disorganized thinking and speech: Difficulty organizing thoughts and expressing them in a clear and logical manner.
4. Disorganized behavior: Incoherent or bizarre behavior, such as dressing inappropriately for the weather or neglecting personal hygiene.
5. Catatonia: A state of immobility or abnormal movement, such as rigidity or agitation.
6. Negative symptoms: A decrease in emotional expression or motivation, such as a flat affect or a lack of interest in activities.
7. Cognitive impairment: Difficulty with attention, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions and relationships.
9. Lack of self-care: Neglecting personal hygiene, nutrition, and other basic needs.
10. Suicidal or homicidal ideation: Thoughts of harming oneself or others.

It's important to note that not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. With proper treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

The BCR-ABL gene is a fusion gene that is present in the majority of cases of CML. It is created by the translocation of two genes, called BCR and ABL, which leads to the production of a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein that promotes the growth and proliferation of abnormal white blood cells.

There are three main phases of CML, each with distinct clinical and laboratory features:

1. Chronic phase: This is the earliest phase of CML, where patients may be asymptomatic or have mild symptoms such as fatigue, night sweats, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). The peripheral blood count typically shows a high number of blasts in the blood, but the bone marrow is still functional.
2. Accelerated phase: In this phase, the disease progresses to a higher number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with evidence of more aggressive disease. Patients may experience symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and pain in the joints or abdomen.
3. Blast phase: This is the most advanced phase of CML, where there is a high number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with significant loss of function of the bone marrow. Patients are often symptomatic and may have evidence of spread of the disease to other organs, such as the liver or spleen.

Treatment for CML typically involves targeted therapy with drugs that inhibit the activity of the BCR-ABL protein, such as imatinib (Gleevec), dasatinib (Sprycel), or nilotinib (Tasigna). These drugs can slow or stop the progression of the disease, and may also produce a complete cytogenetic response, which is defined as the absence of all Ph+ metaphases in the bone marrow. However, these drugs are not curative and may have significant side effects. Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is also a potential treatment option for CML, but it carries significant risks and is usually reserved for patients who are in the blast phase of the disease or have failed other treatments.

In summary, the clinical course of CML can be divided into three phases based on the number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, and treatment options vary depending on the phase of the disease. It is important for patients with CML to receive regular monitoring and follow-up care to assess their response to treatment and detect any signs of disease progression.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

"Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006117. doi: ... Hansen RA, Gaynes BN, Gartlehner G, Moore CG, Tiwari R, Lohr KN (May 2008). "Efficacy and tolerability of second-generation ... For example, a meta-analysis of 12 new-generation antidepressants showed that sertraline and escitalopram are the best in terms ... Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E (May 1994). "Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation ...
Second-Generation+Antidepressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Diagrams at ... The term "third generation antidepressant" is sometimes used to refer to newer antidepressants, from the 1990s and 2000s, often ... The second-generation antidepressants are a class of antidepressants characterized primarily by the era of their introduction, ... This list is not exhaustive, and different sources vary upon which items should be considered second-generation. Amineptine ...
"Milnacipran versus other antidepressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (3): CD006529. ... a potential fourth generation antidepressant drug". Neuropharmacology. 24 (12): 1211-9. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(85)90157-1. PMID ... acceptability and tolerability when comparing milnacipran with other antidepressant agents. However, compared with TCAs, ...
... first-generation and newer agents. Ergoline derived agonists are the first generation and are not used as much as the newer ... further research is crucial to establish the anti-depressive effects of dopamine agonists in treating depressive symptoms and ... Ergoline-derived agents, bromocriptine and cabergoline are mostly used in treatment. Research shows that these agents reduce ... dopamine reuptake inhibitors and dopamine releasing agents. These are not considered dopamine agonists, since they have no ...
... antidepressive agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.700.122.050 - antidepressive agents, second-generation MeSH D27.505.954.427.700.122. ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
Risk of overdose is increased in patients taking multiple serotonergic agents or interacting agents. Symptoms of SNRI overdose ... Over the past two decades, second-generation antidepressants have simply replaced first-generation antidepressants, such as ... Venlafaxine was the first compound described in a new class of antidepressive substances called phenylethylamines. These ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ...
... 's antidepressive efficacy may predominently result from its ability to desensitize 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Pindolol is a ... Pindolol is a first generation, non-selective beta blocker in the class of β-adrenergic receptor antagonists. On the receptor ... Celada P, Bortolozzi A, Artigas F (2013). "Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as targets for agents to treat psychiatric disorders: ... Antihypertensive agents, Beta blockers, Indole ethers at the benzene ring, N-isopropyl-phenoxypropanolamines). ...
Tricyclic+Antidepressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1 maint: multiple ... Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E (1994). "Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation ... having been replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin) and stimulants ...
Hansen RA, Gaynes BN, Gartlehner G, Moore CG, Tiwari R, Lohr KN (May 2008). "Efficacy and tolerability of second-generation ... These include lithium and thyroid augmentation, dopamine agonists, sex steroids, NRIs, glucocorticoid-specific agents, or the ... It is unknown if undergoing psychological therapy at the same time as taking anti-depressants enhances the anti-depressive ... Hengartner MP, Jakobsen JC, Sørensen A, Plöderl M (2020). "Efficacy of new-generation antidepressants assessed with the ...
The drug is described as an atypical or "second-generation" TCA because, unlike other TCAs, it seems to be a fairly weak ... ISBN 978-0-915274-23-9. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... Berger M, Gastpar M (1996). "Trimipramine: a challenge to current concepts on antidepressives". Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin ... Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E (1994). "Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation ...
Johnsen TJ, Friborg O (July 2015). "The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy as an anti-depressive treatment is falling: A ... Komossa K, Depping AM, Gaudchau A, Kissling W, Leucht S (December 2010). Leucht S (ed.). "Second-generation antipsychotics for ... with medication offered only in conjunction with the former and generally not as a first line agent. The possibility of ... May 2021). Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group (ed.). "New generation antidepressants for depression in children and ...
These include psychedelic agents, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Dolder PC, Schmid Y, Haschke M, Rentsch KM, Liechti ... Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Riba J, Zuardi AW, Hallak JE (June 2016). "Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive ... Veysey they profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made ... "Evaluating LSD as a psychotherapeutic agent". In Hoffer A (ed.). A program for the treatment of alcoholism: LSD, malvaria, and ...
Brené S, Bjørnebekk A, Aberg E, Mathé AA, Olson L, Werme M (2007). "Running is rewarding and antidepressive". Physiol. Behav. ... The clinical actions of fluoxetine, like those of many neuropharmacologic agents, reflect drug-induced neural plasticity, which ... the generation of new neurons postnatally). Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 8:Atypical Neurotransmitters". In ...
"Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD006534. doi: ... Tiagabine Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) Olanzapine (evidence of effectiveness is merely a trend) Ziprasidone ... Like other serotonergic agents, SNRIs have the potential to cause serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal systemic response to ... Overdose of an SSRI or concomitant use with another agent that causes increased levels of serotonin can result in serotonin ...
Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Riba J, Zuardi AW, Hallak JE (June 2016). "Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive ... In 2020, a second-generation synthesis of psilocybin has been developed. Biosynthetically, the biochemical transformation from ... spirituality-enhancing agent) grew in the next decade, owing largely to the increased availability of information on how to ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. Serotonin Antagonists. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / adverse effects Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
Amitriptyline and all other terms with a PA of Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, or Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation ( ... This heading is assigned the PA, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic which is an indention of Antidepressive Agents in the ... also an indention of Antidepressive Agents) are included on the list for the PA Antidepressive Agents (see Figure 3). ... Figure 3: Portion of list of terms for the PA search Antidepressive Agents pointing out the actual PA assignment for some terms ...
Antidepressive Agents--therapeutic use. Depressive Disorder, Major--drug therapy. Drug Discovery. Ketamine--therapeutic use. ... In addition, the Branch provides training to develop the next generation of clinical translational researchers. The Astute ... In addition, the Branch provides training to develop the next generation of clinical translational researchers. ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. Registry Number. C1LJO185Q9. Related Numbers. 56-69-9. CAS Type 1 Name. 2-amino-3-(5- ...
Second Generation Antidepressive Agents Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Second-Generation Antidepressive Drugs ... Second Generation Antidepressive Agents. Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents. Second-Generation Antidepressive Drugs. ... Antidepressive Agents, Second Generation Antidepressive Drugs, Second Generation Antidepressive Drugs, Second-Generation ... Antidepressive Agents, Second Generation. Antidepressive Drugs, Second Generation. Antidepressive Drugs, Second-Generation. ...
Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents 30% * Psychotic Affective Disorders 26% * Regional, cellular, and subcellular ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation MeSH DeCS ID:. 30515 Unique ID:. D017367 NLM Classification:. QV 77.5 ...
Objective: To review the possible role of new-generation antidepressive agents in the treatment of pain in diabetic peripheral ... The effectiveness of antidepressive agents has been described in different types of neuropathic pain, but their effectiveness, ... Discussion: Antidepressive agents are frequently employed in the specific case of diabetic neuropathy; their analgesic benefit ... This work has thus consisted of a meta-analysis for determining which antidepressive agent had the best analgesic potential in ...
D15.80 Antidepressive Agents D15.700.122 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation D15.700.122.50 Antidepressive Agents, ... D24.185.800.380 Fertility Agents D7.552 Fertility Agents, Female D7.552.344 Fertility Agents, Male D7.552.510 Festschrift [ ... E2.875.194.540 Contraceptive Agents D7.360 Contraceptive Agents, Female D7.360.276 Contraceptive Agents, Male D7.360.443 ... D27.505.954.33.30 Anti-Anxiety Agents D15.210.950.12 D15.700.872.15 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents D18.97 Anti-Asthmatic Agents D21.760 ...
Comparative Study 2007; 28(6): 889-894 PubMed PMID: 18063943 Citation Keywords: Adult, Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation ... Case Reports 2008; 29(1): 47-50 PubMed PMID: 18283244 Citation Keywords: Adolescent, Antipsychotic Agents:therapeutic use, ...
Anti-Anxiety Agents. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 ... Antidepressive Agents (1979-1991). Oximes (1966-1991). Serotonin Antagonists (1978-1991). Public MeSH Note. 92; FLUVOXAMINE was ...
The role of iron in reactive oxygen species generation from diesel exhaust particles. Park, S., Nam, H., Chung, N., Park, J. D. ... Antidepressive Agents 34% 122 Citations (Scopus) * The role of image size in the recognition of conversational facial ...
Antianxiety Agents. Class Summary. Augmentation with antianxiety agents such as buspirone may be beneficial in patients with ... Its antidepressive action is theorized to be due to serotonergic and noradrenergic potentiation in the CNS. ... Komossa K, Depping AM, Meyer M, Kissling W, Leucht S. Second-generation antipsychotics for obsessive compulsive disorder. ... Antipsychotic Agents. Class Summary. Antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone, have been used with some ...
The most commonly used medications are antidepressive and anticonvulsant agents. Prednisolone has been known for decades and is ... Amoxicillin (amoxicillin-clavulanate) is a second-generation cephalosporin, which means that the drug works on different parts ... of the body to antibiotics in the older generation such as penicillin and erythromycin. I have to take this drug everyday for ...
A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine worth mentioning, NVX-CoV2373, has demonstrated 90% overall efficacy as well as a high ... These results suggest that it is possible to search for immunosuppressive agents targeting innate immunity by using a silkworm ... HET stimulated a 5-HT2CR-induced current response, whereas Juzentaohoto (JTT), which has anti-depressive action similar to that ... Several first-generation COVID-19 vaccines were approved at the end of 2020. However, the COVID-19 pandemic is persisting ...
MH - Antidepressive Agents/*THERAPEUTIC USE/ADVERSE EFFECTS MH - Bipolar Disorder/PSYCHOLOGY/*DRUG THERAPY MH - Combined ... To determine whether Gag is sufficient for generation of a target for Vpu- mediated particle release, we expressed HIV-1 Gag ... MH - Adult MH - Antidepressive Agents/THERAPEUTIC USE/*METABOLISM MH - Breast Feeding MH - Citalopram/THERAPEUTIC USE/* ... Antidepressive Agents) DP - 1997 Sep TA - Br J Clin Pharmacol IS - 0306-5251 JC - AU9 PG - 295-298 IP - 3 VI - 44 AB - AIMS: ...
Topics: adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , antidepressive agents , antidiabetics , antihypertensive agents , ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obesity: Moving to the Next Research Generation: In Reply Molly E. Waring, MA; ... Topics: fluid flow , nasal continuous positive airway pressure , ventilators, mechanical , pressure-physical agent , infant, ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obesity: Moving to the Next Research Generation Samuele Cortese, MD; Marco ...
"Previously the nmda (n-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor (nmdar) antagonist ketamine was shown to disrupt generation of the auditory ... mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive ... A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents. *Mycophilia. *EU FP7 ... 2003). Effects of the 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on mismatch negativity generation and AX-continuous performance task: ...
Antidepressive Agents[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND last 1 Year [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] ... Dependence on newer generation antidepressants. Vaaler A. Vaaler A. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2022 Aug 9;142(11). doi: 10.4045/ ... Antidepressive Agents[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND last 1 Year [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/pharmacology*; Blotting, Western; Brain/drug effects*; Brain/ ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ...
This study looked at four widely used second-generation antipsychotic drugs to evaluate their efficacy against depressive ... Anti-depressive properties have been indicated for several second generation antipsychotics (SGAs).[7-11] Different hypotheses ... The evidence for efficacy is strongest in bipolar depression in which some SGAs have become agents of first choice.[10] ... Cite this: Anti-depressive Effectiveness of Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone and Ziprasidone - Medscape - Aug 31, 2011. ...
Second Generation Antidepressive Agents Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Second-Generation Antidepressive Drugs ... Second Generation Antidepressive Agents. Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents. Second-Generation Antidepressive Drugs. ... Antidepressive Agents, Second Generation Antidepressive Drugs, Second Generation Antidepressive Drugs, Second-Generation ... Antidepressive Agents, Second Generation. Antidepressive Drugs, Second Generation. Antidepressive Drugs, Second-Generation. ...
Antidepressive Agents [D27.505.954.427.700.122] * Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation [D27.505.954.427.700.122.050] ... Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Registry Number. 0. Previous Indexing. Antidepressive Agents (1977-1994). Public MeSH ... Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Preferred Term Term UI T055641. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995) ... Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Term UI T055640. Date01/26/1994. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995). ...
Antidepressive Agents [D27.505.954.427.700.122] * Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation [D27.505.954.427.700.122.050] ... Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Registry Number. 0. Previous Indexing. Antidepressive Agents (1977-1994). Public MeSH ... Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Preferred Term Term UI T055641. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995) ... Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents Term UI T055640. Date01/26/1994. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995). ...
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Aortic Coarctation Article Birth Defects Cleft Palate Cyclohexanols Epidemiology ...
Antidepressive Agents Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic Antidiarrheals Antidiuretic ... Anti-HIV Agents Anti-Infective Agents Anti-Infective Agents, Local Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Anti-Inflammatory Agents Anti ... Anti-Allergic Agents Anti-Anxiety Agents Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Anti-Asthmatic Agents Anti-Bacterial Agents Anti-Dyskinesia ... Antitrichomonal Agents Antitrust Laws Antitubercular Agents Antitussive Agents Antivenins Antiviral Agents Antlers Antley- ...
It is also used as an antidepressive agent. HN - 2019 (1976) MH - Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase UI - D000077548 MN - D8.811. ... A third-generation oral cephalosporin antibacterial agent that is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract ... A fourth-generation cephalosporin antibacterial agent that is used in the treatment of infections, including those of the ... calcium-sensitizing agent, and inotropic agent that is used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE. HN - 2019 (1992) MH - Sitting ...
Antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain is associated with polymorphisms in genes coding for COMT and TPH1. International ... Association of HTR2C-759C/T and -697G/C polymorphisms with antipsychotic agent-induced weight gain]. Zhong nan da xue xue bao. ... 759C,T Polymorphism of the HTR2C Gene is Associated with Second Generation Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Female Patients ...
Up to now, there is no fast-onset antidepressive and anxiolytic agents suitable for the management of acute stroke. ZL006-05, a ... For the next generation of chemical sensors, in addition to rapid qualitative and quantitative detection, it is also necessary ... This study aims to determine whether ZL006-05 can be used as an antistroke agent with fast-onset antidepressant and anxiolytic ... signal intensity by acting as a contrast agent for MRI. More importantly, the released IR780 can produce ROS to kill tumor ...
3) Sympathetic blocking agents can have a highly selective action. For example, isopropyl- methoxamine (BW 61-43) is an agent ... Wertlake in the Patho- logical Anatomy Department, Whether the de- generation and atrophy observed is attributable to the ... cause of resistance to other drugs or need for anti- depressive medication. Beneficial effects in patients with angina pectoris ... agent. Consequently, it is not possible to distin- guish between an effect of the reducing agent on the tissue or on the ...
... atypical antipsychotic agents has the potential to enhance the effect of certain antihypertensive agents. Monitor blood ... Atypical (2nd generation) antipsychotics inhibit dopamine D2 receptors in varying degrees (clozapine and quetiapine are lower ... Pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressive drugs showed an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior ... atypical antipsychotic agents has the potential to enhance the effect of certain antihypertensive agents. Monitor blood ...
  • This heading is assigned the PA, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic which is an indention of Antidepressive Agents in the hierarchy of MeSH headings (see Figure 2 ). (
  • Amitriptyline and all other terms with a PA of Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, or Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation (also an indention of Antidepressive Agents) are included on the list for the PA Antidepressive Agents (see Figure 3 ). (
  • A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine worth mentioning, NVX-CoV2373, has demonstrated 90% overall efficacy as well as a high level of efficacy against circulating variants in Phase 3 clinical trials. (
  • Figure 2: Hierarchical display of the heading Antidepressive Agents and its indentions in MeSH. (
  • Figure 3: Portion of list of terms for the PA search Antidepressive Agents pointing out the actual PA assignment for some terms. (
  • An example of this is the PA search term Autonomic Agents. (
  • In addition, the Branch provides training to develop the next generation of clinical translational researchers. (
  • Antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain is associated with polymorphisms in genes coding for COMT and TPH1. (
  • The interesting observation is that people have much more control over lethal drug overdoses than they do of Covid-19 in the sense that the exposure to the agent of death is under the individual's control. (