Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/3228)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Psychotropic drug use among women. (2/3228)

The consistent 2:1 ratio of women to men in the receipt of prescriptions for psychotropic drugs is reflected in the higher rates for women of neurotic illness, symptoms of both physical and mental discomfort, and help-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. Physicians' perceptions of the problems presented by their male and female patients influence their prescribing of these drugs. Recent statistics in Ontario indicate that greater use of physicians' services by women is an inadequate explanation of the higher rate of prescribing of psychotropic drugs to women. A longitudinal study of a large insured population in Ontario showed that almost twice the proportion of females, compared with males, received a prescription for psychotropic drugs in 1970-71 and in 1973-74, a higher proportion of females received multiple prescriptions for each drug class, and males were more likely than females to have received only one prescription in a year.  (+info)

Alternative insurance arrangements and the treatment of depression: what are the facts? (3/3228)

Using insurance claims data from nine large self-insured employers offering 26 alternative health benefit plans, we examine empirically how the composition and utilization for the treatment of depression vary under alternative organizational forms of insurance (indemnity, preferred provider organization networks, and mental health carve-outs), and variations in patient cost-sharing (copayments for psychotherapy and for prescription drugs). Although total outpatient mental health and substance abuse expenditures per treated individual do not vary significantly across insurance forms, the depressed outpatient is more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications is preferred provider organizations and carve-outs than when covered by indemnity insurance. Those individuals facing higher copayments for psychotherapy are more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications. For those receiving treatment, increases in prescription drug copayments tend to increase the share of anti-depressant drug medication costs accounted for by the newest (and more costly) generation of drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  (+info)

Outpatient antidepressant utilization in a Dutch sick fund. (4/3228)

OBJECTIVE: To identify quality improvement opportunities in the management of depression by evaluating patterns of antidepressant use and concurrent use of anxiolytics or sedative/hypnotics among patients who initiated therapy with amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, or paroxetine. DESIGN: A longitudinal, retrospective study using electronic prescription data from a Dutch sick fund, ZAO Zorgverzekeringen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study patients (n = 2,554) initiated therapy between October 1, 1994 and December 31, 1995. Follow-up periods were 6 months (antidepressant use) and 60 days (concurrent anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic use). RESULTS: The three key findings were as follows: (1) the majority of patients received less than 4 months of therapy (more common for patients receiving amitriptyline); (2) the average daily doses for initial prescriptions for all four study drugs were below the recommended therapeutic minimums for depression (overall and final amitriptyline doses also were consistently low); and (3) the incidence of concurrent anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic use during days 2-60 after antidepressant therapy initiation was 18.2%. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that patients in this Dutch sick fund were not likely to receive either adequate antidepressant doses or adequate durations of therapy relative to Dutch guidelines for the treatment of depression. These findings are consistent with findings in other Dutch, European, and US studies and may present opportunities for quality improvement.  (+info)

Amitriptyline and procainamide inhibition of cocaine and cocaethylene degradation in human serum in vitro. (5/3228)

Amitriptyline (AMI) and procainamide (PA) have been reported to inhibit the activity of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme important in the metabolic degradation of cocaine (COC) and its ethyl analogue cocaethylene (CE). Because both AMI and PA may be used in the treatment of COC intoxication and abuse, the effect of high pharmacological concentrations of these compounds on the degradation of COC and CE in pooled human serum was studied. AMI (1.8 micromol/L) modestly inhibited the degradation of COC by 4.2% and of CE by 4.0%. PA (42.5 micromol/L) profoundly inhibited degradation of COC by 42.7% and of CE by 47.2%. In contrast, lithium carbonate (1 mmol/L, control) showed no inhibition of degradation of either COC or CE. These results suggest that AMI and PA may prolong the half-life of COC and CE in human serum.  (+info)

Drug-induced heart failure. (6/3228)

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that is predominantly caused by cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. However, several classes of drugs may induce heart failure in patients without concurrent cardiovascular disease or may precipitate the occurrence of heart failure in patients with preexisting left ventricular impairment. We reviewed the literature on drug-induced heart failure, using the MEDLINE database and lateral references. Successively, we discuss the potential role in the occurrence of heart failure of cytostatics, immunomodulating drugs, antidepressants, calcium channel blocking agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiarrhythmics, beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents, anesthetics and some miscellaneous agents. Drug-induced heart failure may play a role in only a minority of the patients presenting with heart failure. Nevertheless, drug-induced heart failure should be regarded as a potentially preventable cause of heart failure, although sometimes other priorities do not offer therapeutic alternatives (e.g., anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy). The awareness of clinicians of potential adverse effects on cardiac performance by several classes of drugs, particularly in patients with preexisting ventricular dysfunction, may contribute to timely diagnosis and prevention of drug-induced heart failure.  (+info)

The effects of detection and treatment on the outcome of major depression in primary care: a naturalistic study in 15 cities. (7/3228)

BACKGROUND: This study reports the responses of patients with confirmed depressive illnesses to different treatments in the WHO Mental Disorders in General Health Care study, conducted in 15 cities around the world. AIM: To discover how depressions recognized by the doctor compare with unrecognized depressions, both in terms of the initial illnesses and their outcomes, and to compare the outcomes of those depressions treated with antidepressants with those treated with daytime sedatives. METHOD: The design of the study was naturalistic, in that physicians were free to treat patients however they wished. Patients with confirmed depressive illnesses were assigned to four groups: treatment with an antidepressant; treatment with a daytime sedative (usually a benzodiazepine); patients recognized as having depression by the physician but were not offered drug treatment; and patients unrecognized as having depression by their physician. RESULTS: Both groups receiving drugs had illnesses of equal severity, were demographically similar to one another, and had similar previous histories of depression. Those receiving antidepressants had significantly fewer overall symptoms and fewer suicidal thoughts than those treated with sedatives. By the end of one year, differences between the groups had disappeared: patients not given drugs had milder illnesses but did significantly better than those receiving drugs, both in terms of symptoms lost and their diagnostic status. Unrecognized depressions were less severe than recognized depressions, and had a similar course over the year. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving antidepressants were better in terms of overall symptoms and suicidal thoughts than those treated with sedatives at three months, but this advantage does not persist. Depression emerges as a chronic disorder at one-year follow-up--about 60% of those treated with drugs, and 50% of the milder depressions, still meet criteria for caseness. The study does not support the view that failure to recognize depression has serious adverse consequences, but, in view of the poor prognosis of depression, measures to improve compliance with treatment would appear to be indicated.  (+info)

Depressive state with anxiety in repeated cold-stressed mice in forced swimming tests. (8/3228)

The effects of various types of stress and drugs were studied to assess mouse performance in forced swimming tests, following characterization of SART (specific alternation of rhythm in environmental temperature) stress. Immobility time in the test decreased in mice subjected to SART, acute cold and restraint stress. No change was noted due to chronic cold stress or repeated fasting. The shortened time did not recover even 24 hr after the end of SART and chronic restraint stress. The time in SART-stressed mice finally recovered at 5-7 days. Shortening of immobility time in SART-stressed mice was inhibited by diazepam and repeated imipramine but not by lithium carbonate. In chronic restraint-stressed mice, this time was inhibited by repeated lithium carbonate but not diazepam or imipramine. SART stress would thus appear related to anxiety and depression and may be useful for detecting new types of antidepressants.  (+info)

*Imipraminoxide

Lingjaerde O (November 1971). "[Imiprex "Dumex" (imipramine oxide). A new tricyclic antidepressive agent]". Tidsskrift for Den ... preliminary investigation of a new antidepressive drug". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 120: 277-8. PMID 13944543. ...

*Sertraline

"Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006117. doi: ... McMahon CG, Porst H (October 2011). "Oral agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation: review of efficacy and safety in ... While imprecise, comparison of the results of trials of sertraline with separate trials of other anti-panic agents ( ... Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (Sept): 197-204. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030197. PMID 20021354. ...

*Somnolence

"Mirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD006528. doi: ... other agents impacting the central nervous system in sufficient or toxic doses A number of diagnostic tests, including the ... bacterial or other agents) encephalopathy - (hepatic, uremic or other causes) epilepsy - after seizure fibromyalgia ...

*Milnacipran

"Milnacipran versus other antidepressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (3): CD006529. doi: ... acceptability and tolerability when comparing milnacipran with other antidepressant agents. However, compared with TCAs, ...

*Nomifensine

Galbaud du Fort, G. (1988). "Hematologic toxicity of antidepressive agents" [Hematologic Toxicity of Antidepressive Agents]. ... Hoffmann, I; Ehrhart, G; Schmitt, K (1971). "8-amino-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines, a new group of antidepressive ...

*Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic Antidepressive Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... having been replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin, Attentin) and ...

*Escitalopram

"Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7: CD006534. doi:10.1002/14651858. ...

*Second-generation antidepressant

Second-Generation Antidepressive Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Diagrams at ...

*Lortalamine

... a new antidepressive agent, in rats and dogs". Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals. 9 (3): 233-9 ... Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor David J. Triggle (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents. London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... antidepressive agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.700.122.050 --- antidepressive agents, second-generation MeSH D27.505.954.427. ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*Octamoxin

"Dictionary of pharmacological agents - Google Books". "13-06781. Octamoxin [Archived]: The Merck Index". Levy J, Michel-Ber E ( ... 1966). "[Relations between the antidepressive effects of octamoxine revealed by 3 pharmacological tests and inhibition of ...

*Tandamine

... a potential antidepressive drug". Psychopharmacology. 52 (1): 73-7. doi:10.1007/BF00426603. PMID 403562. Pugsley TA, Lippmann W ... a new potential antidepressant agent, on biogenic amine uptake mechanisms and related activities". Biochemical Pharmacology. 25 ...

*Indeloxazine

Hayes AG, Chang T (January 1983). "Determination of indeloxazine, a new antidepressant agent, in human plasma by gas-liquid ... and its derivatives with potential cerebral-activating and antidepressive properties". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 33 ( ... ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. r Ganellin, C; j Triggle, D; MacDonald, F. (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents - Google Books ... Indeloxazine acts as a serotonin releasing agent, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and NMDA receptor antagonist. It has been ...

*Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

PDE4 inhibitors may have antidepressive effects and have also recently been proposed for use as antipsychotics. On October 26, ... The potential for selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors as therapeutic agents was predicted as early as 1977 by Weiss and Hait ... Recent studies have shown Quinazoline type PDE7 inhibitor to be potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents. Papaverine ... Weiss B.; Hait W.N. (1977). "Selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents". Annu. ...

*Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression. ... Venlafaxine was the first compound described in a new class of antidepressive substances called phenylethylamines. These ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent (SNRA), for instance the withdrawn appetite ...

*Opiorphin

Thanawala V, Kadam VJ, Ghosh R (October 2008). "Enkephalinase inhibitors: potential agents for the management of pain". Curr ... In addition, opiorphin may exert anti-depressive and antipanic action. Therapeutic application of opiorphin in humans would ...

*Buprenorphine

The usual reversal agents for opioids, such as naloxone, may be only partially effective and additional efforts to support ... Emrich HM, Vogt P, Herz A (1982). "Possible antidepressive effects of opioids: Action of buprenorphine". Annals of the New York ... Nyhuis PW, Specka M, Gastpar M (2006). "Does the antidepressive response to opiate treatment describe a subtype of depression ... Possible therapeutic applications as animal models show antidepressive, anxiolytic, stress relieving, and anti-addictive ...

*Bifemelane

David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. p. 265. ISBN 0-412-46630-9. ... Moryl E, Danysz W, Quack G (June 1993). "Potential antidepressive properties of amantadine, memantine and bifemelane". ...

*Antidepressant

Further agents (hypericum, rMAO-As, SNRI, NRI, NaSSAs, SARI) showed some positive results, but limitations of the currently ... It is unknown if undergoing psychological therapy at the same time as taking anti-depressants enhances the anti-depressive ... These include lithium and thyroid augmentation, dopamine agonists, sex steroids, NRIs, glucocorticoid-specific agents, or the ... From a 2500-year-old apotropic comes a current antidepressive. The cultural history and mistique of St. John's wort]. Pharmazie ...

*Tranylcypromine

August 2012). "Antidepressive treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and the occurrence of intraoperative hemodynamic ... Compared to amphetamine, tranylcypromine shows low potency as a dopamine releasing agent, with even weaker potency for ... It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. ... alternative agents are recommended. Other studies have come to similar conclusions. Pharmacokinetic interactions with ...

*Management of depression

Response rates to the first agent administered may be as low as 50%. It may take anywhere from three to eight weeks after the ... The Characteristics of an Exercise Program that will Maximize the Anti-depressive Properties Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, ... They are still used only rarely, although newer agents of this class (RIMA), with a better side effect profile, have been ... with medication offered only in conjunction with the former and generally not as a first line agent. The possibility of ...

*Trimipramine

ISBN 978-0-915274-23-9. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... Berger M, Gastpar M (1996). "Trimipramine: a challenge to current concepts on antidepressives". Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin ... Trimipramine should not be given with sympathomimetic agents such as epinephrine (adrenaline), ephedrine, isoprenaline, ...

*Neurobiological effects of physical exercise

Brené S, Bjørnebekk A, Aberg E, Mathé AA, Olson L, Werme M (2007). "Running is rewarding and antidepressive". Physiol. Behav. ... The clinical actions of fluoxetine, like those of many neuropharmacologic agents, reflect drug-induced neural plasticity, which ... The Characteristics of an Exercise Program that will Maximize the Anti-depressive Properties Den Heijer AE, Groen Y, Tucha L, ...
A study of older suicide victims by researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York has found that very few of them - less than a quarter - were taking antidepressants at the time of their death. The study of 255 suicide victims who were all over 65 and who killed themselves between 2001 and 2004 found that only 23% of the sample had been taking antidepressants at the time of their death. Only 16.7% of those over 85 had been taking antidepressants ...
The mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of antidepressants is not known but neuroadaptive processes akin to long-term potentiation have been postulated. Arc (Activity-regulated, cytoskeletal-associated protein) is an effector immediate early gene implicated in LTP and other forms of neuroplasticity. Recent data show that Arc expression is regulated by brain 5-hydroxytryptamine neurones, a target of many antidepressants. Here in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry were used to examine whether Arc expression in rat brain is altered by antidepressant drug treatment. Repeated administration of the monoamine reuptake inhibitors paroxetine, venlafaxine or desipramine induced region-specific increases in Arc mRNA. These increases were greatest in regions of the cortex (frontal and parietal cortex) and hippocampus (CA1 layer) and absent in the caudate putamen. Repeated treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tranylcypromine, increased Arc mRNA in a similar fashion to the monoamine
Antidepressants and Phototherapy. By Marcello Lanares, MD, PhD. Antidepressants are used commonly in medical and psychiatric practice. As a class, antidepressants have in common their ability to treat major depressive illness. Most antidepressants are also effective in the treatment of panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Some antidepressants effectively treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a variety of other conditions (see indications below). The most commonly prescribed antidepressants are listed in Table 12-1. Antidepressants are subdivided into groups based on structure or prominent functional activity: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOls), and other antidepressant compounds with a variety of mechanisms of action. Antidepressants are typically thought to act on either the serotonin or norepinephrine systems, or both. Choice of medications typically depends on diagnosis, history of response (in ...
This study suggested that living alone is associated with the prospective use of antidepressant medication in a nationally representative Finnish working-age sample. Those who lived alone had an 80% higher risk of initiating antidepressant use during the 7-year follow-up compared with participants who did not live alone. Socioeconomic adversity explained part of this relationship, especially in women. Psychosocial factors, including a lack of social support, were important explanatory factors in men. Health behaviors had only a marginal contribution to the association between living alone and antidepressant use among men and women, with the exception of heavy alcohol use in men. This is in agreement with a previous register-based study showing a strong link between living alone and alcohol-related mortality [36]. All the factors included in this study explained 46% of the associations, thus leaving the majority of the association between living alone and antidepressant use unexplained.. Our ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious illness that affects a persons body, mood, and thoughts. The symptoms of MDD can interfere with a persons ability to work, study, sleep, eat, and enjoy activities that were once pleasurable. Antidepressant medications and psychotherapy are among the effective treatments for MDD. Individuals often respond to one type of treatment, but not another. Currently, however, doctors have no way of pre-determining which individuals will most benefit from which treatments. In the absence of practical predictors of MDD treatment response, the potential efficacy of existing MDD treatments is limited. This study will identify factors that may predict MDD treatment response by comparing the effectiveness of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), and cognitive behavioral therapy in people with MDD.. Participants in this 14-week, double-blind study will be randomly assigned to receive duloxetine (SNRI), ...
HPLC Application #15029: Tricyclic Antidepressants at pH7.0. Column used: Gemini® 5 µm C18 110 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4435-E0
Antidepressant initiation was more frequent among persons with Alzheimers disease already 9 years before the diagnosis than among comparison persons not diagnosed with Alzheimers disease. This finding was somewhat surprising. It may be related to more frequent treatment of depressive symptoms because depression has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimers disease in previous studies.. Antidepressant use was investigated in the Finnish nationwide MEDALZ study from 9 years before until 4 years after the diagnosis of Alzheimers disease. The difference in antidepressant initiations persisted during the entire follow-up period. During the 13-year follow-up period, 42% of persons with Alzheimers disease and 22% of persons not diagnosed with the disease initiated antidepressant use. The most commonly used antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs, followed by mirtazapine.. The register-based study was based on 62,104 Finnish persons with Alzheimers ...
University of Adelaide researchers have found that women on antidepressant medication are more successful at breastfeeding their babies if they keep taking the medication, compared with women who quit antidepressants because of concerns about their babies health.. These results have been presented this week at the 18th Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand (PSANZ) Annual Conference in Perth.. Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort in Denmark, researchers in the University of Adelaides Robinson Research Institute studied the outcomes of 368 women who were on antidepressants prior to becoming pregnant.. "We found that two thirds of the women (67%) stopped taking their antidepressant medication either after becoming pregnant or during breastfeeding," says NHMRC Early Career Fellow Dr Luke Grzeskowiak from the Robinson Research Institute.. "A third of the women (33%) continued to take antidepressant medication throughout their pregnancy and while breastfeeding, and these women ...
The problem of interest. Depression is a common serious illness, with great personal suffering and a 10% or more risk of suicide. There are two kinds of depression, bipolar (depression alternating with mood swings) and unipolar (simple depression, or major depressive disorder). In both kinds of depression, antidepressants are commonly used. However, unlike unipolar depression, where a good deal of research supports this use, there is very little research on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Some studies support benefit with antidepressants for bipolar depression; i.e., if one is depressed, antidepressants can help a patient get better in the short-term. However, long-term studies are limited; the few available studies with older antidepressants did not demonstrate long-term preventive benefit. Some clinicians think new generation antidepressants (like Prozac and other serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are safer and more effective than the older antidepressants. Yet there are no rigorous ...
The authors are the first to admit that their data are preliminary, correlational and raise more questions than they answer. Like all good scientists they consider all sorts of alternative explanations for their findings. These include whether using an oral contraceptive, being in a relationship or taking part in high-risk activities might have an effect on depressive scores.. The authors also consider different ways of testing the hypothesis further - all of which would probably require much more work in convincing an ethics committee. In fact, this may well be one of those situations where the intrusive nature of a more conclusive study is just not warranted when balanced against the potential gain in knowledge. ...
BACKGROUND: Conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results for efficacy of second-generation antidepressants. We therefore did a multiple-treatments meta-analysis, which accounts for both direct and indirect comparisons, to assess the effects of 12 new-generation antidepressants on major depression. METHODS: We systematically reviewed 117 randomised controlled trials (25 928 participants) from 1991 up to Nov 30, 2007, which compared any of the following antidepressants at therapeutic dose range for the acute treatment of unipolar major depression in adults: bupropion, citalopram, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. The main outcomes were the proportion of patients who responded to or dropped out of the allocated treatment. Analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. FINDINGS: Mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline were significantly more efficacious than duloxetine (odds ratios
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New research published in the BMJ studies the association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism.. A roundup accompanied this analysis.. Title, Date of Publication & Journal. Antidepressants during pregnancy and autism in offspring: population based cohort study. Published: Wednesday 19 July. BMJ. Studys main claims - and are they supported by the data. The study claims there is a small association between antidepressant use in pregnancy and autism without intellectual disability. This claim is plausible given the evidence presented in the paper. The study finds no link between antidepressant use and autism with intellectual disability.. The study does not claim that antidepressant use causes autism, and there is no evidence in the paper to support such a claim.. Although the association is statistically robust, the number of children this affects is very small - around 1 in every 100 babies born to a mother on antidepressants. Additionally none of the excess cases of autism ...
The precise specification of the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of antidepressant drugs can identify novel candidates involved in the pathophysiology of depression and possible new targets for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we provided direct evidence for a role of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of both the novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 and those of the SSRI and established antidepressant drug fluoxetine. Three selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists, WAY 161503, RO 60-0175, and RO 60-0332, were demonstrated to have antidepressant potential in the modified rat FST paradigm. Although fluoxetine and the three novel 5-HT2C receptor agonists produced qualitatively similar responses in the modified rat FST, the effects of fluoxetine could be attributable either to its direct action at the 5-HT2C receptor or to an indirect consequence of 5-HT transporter blockade. The latter seems more likely because prior depletion of 5-HT ...
While delayed onset of antidepressant action remains a shortcoming of current antidepressants, preliminary clinical data with newer antidepressants, including mirtazapine, show promise for a hastened onset. Several potential mechanisms have been postulated and investigated. Mirtazapine displays serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT3, receptor blocking properties, while its putative earlier onset of action is thought to be related to its 2-adrenoceptor lytic action (at 2-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors), thereby modulating central serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. The current study investigated the role of 2-adrenoceptor antagonism for earlier onset of action in a rat model of depression. First of all, the treatment period necessary to produce antidepressant-like responses with fluoxetine (an antidepressant with a delayed onset of action) was established. Rats were treated for 3, 7, and 11 days with fluoxetine, whereafter the forced swim test (FST) was employed and ...
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist ...
Psychiatrists most commonly prescribe antidepressants for bipolar depression, but mounting evidence shows that the traditional antidepressants that are effective in unipolar depression are not effective in bipolar disorder. At the 2013 meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, researcher Jessica Lynn Warner reported that among 377 patients with Bipolar I Disorder who were discharged from a hospital, those who were prescribed an antidepressant at discharge were just as likely to be remitted for a new depression than those not given an antidepressant.. The average time to readmission also did not differ across the two groups and was 205 +/- 152 days. Those patients prescribed the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) drug venlafaxine (Effexor) were three times more likely to be readmitted than those not prescribed antidepressants.. These naturalistic data (generated from observations of what doctors normally do and information in the hospitals clinical notes) resemble ...
Given that both clinical and preclinical studies suggest that BDNF may be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants, BDNF appears to be a good candidate gene for the pharmacogenetic study of antidepressants. In our 2003 study on 110 MDD outpatients, we examined the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and response to 4-week antidepressant (fluoxetine) treatment.17 A trend (p=0.086) to higher total HAM-D-score percentage change was noted for the Val/Met-heterozygote patients in comparison to those bearing the homozygote (Val/Val or Met/Met). While similar findings have been reported in some of the subsequent studies of this polymorphism and the antidepressant response23,24, other studies demonstrated a better response in subjects with the Met variant25-27 or they found no association at all (Table 1).28,29 The inconsistencies in these findings might be due to the small sample sizes used in some of the studies. They could also have arisen as the result of differences in ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and its origin has been attributed to dysfunction of the monoamine systems, particularly noradrenergic and serotonergic, making them the main targets of the majority of antidepressants currently available. However a number of unmet clinical needs remain, such as a delay of several weeks from the first treatment to manifest antidepressant effects, low remission rates and high rates of relapse and recurrence. Fast acting antidepressant activity and efficacy in treatment-resistant cases has been reported with drugs that inhibit the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor. However, this pharmacological approach is problematic, as it leads to motor and psychotic side effects. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a downstream target of NMDA receptors, produce antidepressant effects in the Porsolt test of antidepressant activity in laboratory rodents, without the adverse effects associated with NMDA ...
I been on antidepressant for over a year was on prozac and was changed to welbutrin 3 months ago. Im worried about being on medication while pregnant. Does anyone take medication and had there baby wi...
From 1999 to 2012 the percentage of Americans on antidepressants increased from 6.8% to 13%, according to a report published this week by the Journal of th
Marina Picciotto - Depression is a debilitating illness that is highly prevalent in the United States and up to 50% of patients with major depression are non:responsive to current antidepressant medications. Based on our basic science studies of the role of acetylcholine in pathways underlying depression:like behavior in rodents, our laboratory has identified nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as a key target for development of novel antidepressant medications. We have established collaborations with a chemist (Dr. Daniela Gundisch, University of Hawaii) who has synthesized a number of new nicotinic partial agonists that target specific subtypes of nAChRs. In collaboration with an electrophysiologist (Dr. Roger Papke, University of Florida) we have characterized the selectivity of these compounds and our lab has shown that they are effective in animal models of antidepressant:efficacy. As a proof of principle, we have shown that nicotinic agents already approved for use in human subjects ...
By contrast, the risk of antidepressant treatment is small. A 2004 review by the Food and Drug Administration, analyzing clinical trials of the drugs, did show an elevated risk of suicidal thinking and nonlethal suicide attempts in young people taking antidepressants - 3.5 percent, compared with 1.7 percent of those taking a placebo. But since the lifetime risk of actual suicide in depressed people ranges from 2.2 to 12 percent, risk from treatment is dwarfed by the risks of the disease itself ...
Knowledge of how different antidepressants are likely to affect parameters of sleep can provide an important basis for selecting an appropriate antidepressant drug among the roughly 2 dozen marketed options to meet the needs of depressed patients. 1
Date Created: about 1998. Preface to old edition. Most of the SNRIs that have been on the market have failed to show antidepressant effect in most trials. This drug is a reminder of that, it was initially developed as an antidepressant before those failed trials and its subsequent resurrection as an anti-obesity drug. It was removed from the market for reasons that were probably somewhat spurious.. Another example is duloxetine which was developed around the same time, failed as an antidepressant, was shelved, was resurrected as incontinence prevention drug, and then eventually recycled successfully as an antidepressant!. Milnacipran was developed by a small French company (in the 1980s I think) and never gained acceptance as an effective antidepressant anywhere else, I do not know what trials were done unsuccessfully, one never does, and it was only after a company takeover that the levo-isomer was successfully marketed in the USA in 2013 as Fetzima. I do not know what kind of strange image ...
Health,A commonly used antidepressant may help women who suffer from premenst...Doctors from the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center in Phil...A total of 15 women were included in this study. They were chosen ...Authors of the study conclude These results from a small number ......,New,therapy,for,PMS,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The duration of untreated illness has been considered a likely predictor of the course of psychotic disorders. However, there is only sparse data concerning the influence of treatment delay on the outcome of mood disorders. The present study aimed to assess the effect of prolonged untreated depression on the outcome of antidepressant treatment ...
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After the risk disclosure and boxed warning by the FDA were released in 2003 and 2004, there was substantial media coverage on the dangers of antidepressants in youth and anecdotal cases of antidepressant-related suicides in children.9 Several studies found major reductions in the diagnosis of depression and prescription of antidepressants to children, adolescents, and adults.11-14 Libby et al14 reported that, among primary care providers, there was a 44% decrease in the diagnosis rate of depression in children and adolescents younger than 18 years, a 37% decrease in young adults, and a 29% decrease in adults after the boxed warning was released. Prescription of antidepressants decreased, while the use of treatment alternatives such as anxiolytics, atypical antipsychotics, and child psychotherapy did not change considerably. According to Gibbons et al,15 rates of antidepressant prescriptions for children decreased by 20% after the warnings were released in 2003 and 2004. These findings ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic condition that affects one in six adults in the US during their lifetime. The current practice of antidepressant medication prescription is a trial-and-error process. Additionally, over a third of patients with MDD fail to respond to two or more antidepressant treatments. There are no valid clinical markers to personalize currently available antidepressant medications, all of which have similar mechanisms targeting monoamine neurotransmission. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent findings of immune dysfunction in patients with MDD, the utility of inflammatory markers to personalize treatment selection, and the potential of targeting inflammation to develop novel antidepressant treatments ...
SSRIs include: Celexa; Prozac; Paxil; Zoloft; Lexapro; Luvox. Here are quotes from other Psychiatric News articles about SSRI use and bleeding...
Autism and the number of women taking antidepressant during pregnancy have increased. Is there a link between autism and maternal antidepressant use?
... are medications that help people to cope with depressive states. They appeared in late 50s of the last century and up to date remain the main remedy to fight depression.. In addition to treatment of depression, common antidepressants can be used for the treatment of other mental disorders. For instance, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia.. Today, people can buy common antidepressants without prescription at any pharmacy. These drugs help to eliminate the anxiety, depression and normalize sleep. Such medical agents affect the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolism in the brain and stimulate the human psyche.. Lately, depression has become a common disorder among teenagers. The cases of mild depression in teens are cured with herbal antidepressants. Effective herbal common antidepressants for teenagers are widely available in large quantities at pharmacies.. Such drugs can effectively cope with anxious and depressive states, ...
Taking antidepressants may raise the risk of heart disease in men by producing a thickening of artery walls, researchers said Saturday. Although a potential mechanism for the action is not obvious,
Depression, or more accurately, un-repaired emotional short-circuiting, can absolutely devastate your health and life. However, using antidepressants as the primary (or only) treatment option is simply not advisable, especially if the one suffering from depression is a child or teenager. Whereas severe depression can indeed progress to suicide if left untreated, antidepressant drugs have been shown to CAUSE both suicidal and homicidal thoughts and behaviors. As mentioned in the featured report, at least 11 tragic school shootings were done by children who were either on antidepressants, or going through withdrawal…. I believe this is an enormous price to pay for what amounts to highly questionable benefits.. Studies have found that up to 75 percent of the benefits of antidepressants could be duplicated by a placebo. So not only do these drugs not work as advertised, but the evidence is quite clear that most of these drugs do in fact increase your risk of suicide and violence. Since depression ...
Some women with depression who become pregnant face a troubling decision: whether to continue taking antidepressant medication to keep the depression at bay even though the medications may harm the
We observed increased risks for psychiatric disorders among children of mothers who used antidepressants before and/or during pregnancy, compared with mothers with no record of antidepressant use. Furthermore, we observed an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in children whose mothers continued antidepressant use during pregnancy, compared with mothers who discontinued. These associations could be attributable to the severity of the underlying maternal disorders in combination with in utero antidepressant exposure.5. We found that children whose mothers discontinued antidepressant use also had an increased risk of psychiatric disorders. This association is most likely driven by the underlying maternal psychiatric disorders, which may be transmitted to offspring via shared genetic susceptibility, environmental stress, and/or parenting practices.383940 We did observe an increased risk of psychiatric disorders among children exposed to antidepressants in utero. We speculated that this ...
The development of a novel antidepressant ground to a halt this week when researchers found it did not make patients feel any better than the pills they were already taking.
Long-term use of antidepressants could be linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Researchers from University College London studied more than 150,000 Finnish adults over an average of five years. 1.1% of the participants who were not using antidepressants were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the course of the study compared to 1.7% of people who had taken between 200-400 daily doses of an antidepressant and 2.3% among those who had taken 400 or more daily doses. This could be because people taking the antidepressants have the poor health and lifestyle that often go hand-in-hand with type 2 diabetes. However, when the researchers looked at the participants who were suffering from severe depression those taking antidepressants were two-three times more likely than non users to be diagnosed with diabetes, even when taking into account the effects of long-term health conditions, high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer ...
When a new antidepressant drug is released, everyone wants to be the first to try it. In most cases, people seem to always believe that newer will equal be
When a new antidepressant drug is released, everyone wants to be the first to try it. In most cases, people seem to always believe that newer will equal be
Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbells Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed ...
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HealthDay News) -- Children whose mothers took antidepressants during pregnancy may be at increased risk for psychiatric disorders themselves, a new study suggests.. Researchers reviewed data from more than 905,000 children born in Denmark between 1998 and 2012. The childrens health was followed for up to 16.5 years. During the follow-up period, 32,400 of the children were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder.. The 15-year risk of psychiatric disorders was 8 percent among children whose mothers didnt take antidepressants during pregnancy. The risk was 11.5 percent among those whose mothers took antidepressants before pregnancy. And the risk was up to 14.5 percent among those whose mothers took antidepressants before and during pregnancy or who began taking antidepressants during pregnancy.. But the researchers said their findings have to be interpreted with caution.. Due to the studys design, the researchers did not prove a cause-and-effect link.. This was an observational study, so the ...
BACKGROUND: Many patients with unipolar depression experience a return of depressive symptoms while taking a constant maintenance dose of an antidepressant. METHOD: All cited studies were found using computerized literature searches of the MEDLINE database since 1966. RESULTS: The return of depressive symptoms during maintenance antidepressant treatment has occurred in 9% to 57% of patients in published trials. Possible explanations include loss of placebo effect, pharmacologic tolerance, increase in disease severity, change in disease pathogenesis, the accumulation of a detrimental metabolite, unrecognized rapid cycling, and prophylactic inefficacy. CONCLUSION: Although several strategies have been proposed to overcome the loss of antidepressant efficacy, double-blind controlled studies are needed to ascertain the optimal strategy for this perplexing clinical problem.
ANTIDEPRESSANT-INDUCED VIOLENCE LEADING US TO GUN CONTROL. ANTIDEPRESSANTS??? Although we have not yet learned what school shooter Adam Lanza was taking we do know he had a diagnosis of Aspergers for which antidepressants are prescribed as a standard treatment by the large majority of physicians. (If you will recall the young man who was involved in the violence with a bow & arrow that left three dead in Casper, WY the week before had also been diagnosed with Aspergers meaning it was also likely he too was taking antidepressants or recently had taken them because this can happen in withdrawal from the drugs if withdrawn too rapidly.) And I stated when this Portland mall shooting happened a week or so ago that this case clearly appeared to be antidepressant-induced as well. But when you consider the outcome in this case as opposed to the shooting at the school last Friday you can see why it is not being mentioned by those wanting to point their fingers at more gun control. There would have been ...
US Food and Drug Administration study seems to confirm suspicions that antidepressant drugs may increase the risk of suicidal behavior in children and teens. Study re-examined nine different antidepressants, finding that young people were more likely to harm themselves on these drugs than on placebos. [3:39 streaming audio broadcast] (August 20, 2004) ...
In-depth look at antidepressants, medications for depression. How antidepressant drugs work, types of antidepressants, interactions, more.
What Ive been saying this whole year. SSRIs can push you into mania, as well as cause people with bipolar d/o to be more unstable, having more mixed phases. My bipolar d/o was unmasked as a result of being put on antidepressants. What if I had not been out on antidepressants, what Id been put…
How antidepressants relieve pain isnt completely understood. It is thought that antidepressants increase the number of neurotransmitters that reduce pain signals. Pain relief, however, isnt necessarily immediate and may take weeks to begin. One-third of patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain report moderate (or better) relief of pain with the use of antidepressants.
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Its important to keep the risks associated with antidepressant use in pregnancy in perspective. All pregnant women have an average 3% risk of having a baby with any type of birth defect in most cases. When researchers say antidepressants may increase the risk of certain birth defects, they are talking about just a slight increase. For example, one study showed that antidepressants increased the risk that the baby would be born with PPHN by 1%. So, even if you take an antidepressant during pregnancy, the overall risk of your baby having a problem is still very low. Other studies showed different levels of risk associated with antidepressants and PPHN, and 1% is on the high end. So the risk may be even lower. ...
Figure 2: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/63/3/332. Different perspectives often provide insight that is not easily seen by researchers. Sharp and Hellings, two practitioners, analyzed both published and unpublished studies regarding this relationship between suicidality and anti-depressant medication. Using various data sources, they found that the SSRIs were safe and efficient in treating depression. Again, the FDA studies, among others, were used in this analysis. The practitioners analyzed the methods used in the previous reports and found them to be valid. They sought to answer the question of what practitioners are to do with this available data. Anti-depressants work in treating major depressive disorder and therefore, cannot be taken off the market without a solid relationship established between suicidality and these medicines. These two conclude that psychiatrists and care-givers should be aware of the risks and watch out for relevant warning signs (Sharp & Hellings, ...
Ten double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (329 participants) were included in the review.. The results showed there was a moderate antidepressant effect of omega-3 PUFAs in comparison with placebo (SMD 0.61, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.01, p=0.003; 10 studies). However, there was evidence of significant heterogeneity (p=0.004). The sensitivity analysis showed that none of the included studies strongly affected the positive effect of the treatment (data not presented).. Subgroup analysis of studies that examined clearly defined depression using HAM-D criteria showed a significant antidepressant effect of omega-3 PUFAs compared with placebo (SMD 0.69, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.13, p=0.002; 8 studies, 222 participants). However, there was again evidence of significant heterogeneity (p=0.03).. Further subgroup analysis showed a significant antidepressant effect of omega-3 PUFAs compared with placebo in participants with bipolar disorder (ES 0.69, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.0, p=0.0009; 2 studies, 67 participants).. Subgroup ...
Children of mothers who take a widely used class of antidepressants during pregnancy are not at increased risk for autism, a large new study finds.
According to recent findings antidepressants may slow fetal development. The study, which was reported in March issue of Pediatrics, found that children whose mothers took antidepressants during pregnancy were more likely to have slightly delayed development milestones during the first 19 months of life. Children exposed to antidepressants in utero were twice as likely to be unable to focus on activities for more than 15 minutes at 19 months old; at six months old the same children were twice as likely to be unable to sit without support. According to Lars Henning Pedersen, MD, PhD, of Aarhus University in Denmark, and colleagues, "The potential delay in development thus might have limited, if any, clinical significance for the children but may suggest that human fetal brain development is susceptible to antidepressant exposure… longer follow-up monitoring of the children, with the use of more developmental endpoints, is needed." Click here to read an article from Modern Medicine that ...
Taking antidepressants during pregnancy may slightly increase a womans risk of developing high blood pressure, new data suggests.
Taking antidepressants during pregnancy may slightly increase a womans risk of developing high blood pressure, new data suggests. Researchers at the Université de Montreal compared 1,216 women who d...
What happened after the federal government warned a decade ago that antidepressants might raise the risk of suicidal thoughts? New research shows that, contrary to intentions, the number of young people who tried to kill themselves actually increased.
Depression is a chronic medical illness that can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. It is also called major depression, clinical...
Sometimes, intelligence can happen in the dirtiest of places. A new study suggests that exposure to certain kinds of bacteria outside could help improve learning. Researchers at The Sage Colleges in New York studied Mycobacterium vaccae, which earlier studies showed might have antidepressant properties. In this new study, it seems that M. vaccae could help…
Charles River conducts contract studies using validated neurobehavioral animal models of depression to assess the efficacy of novel antidepressants.
A recent study reveals that that one out of every six people in the US has taken psychiatric drugs, and the great preponderance of those prescriptions are for antidepressants or anti-anxiety pills. What can you do naturally to get some relief?
The psychiatrist has several options in dealing with a treatment-resistant or refractory depression. First, Marias psychiatrist can optimize the dose of her antidepressant. Maria has been taking low doses of antidepressants. In spite of her lack of response, the medication dosage has not been increased. To obtain a clinical response, her psychiatrist should increase the dose every two to three weeks. The antidepressant can be adjusted up to the maximum allowable dose if no or only partial response is observed ...
When researchers compared kids currently taking antidepressants with those who once took them, they found the ones who continued on these meds nearly doubled their risk of becoming diabetic.
Jason* first went on antidepressants at age 18 when his girlfriend left him. It was his idea: he felt bad and wanted help. His parents agreed. They were concerned, because after the breakup he had sometimes been coming home drunk. Jasons doctor asked if hed felt bad for over two weeks. He had, so the doctor prescribed the antidepressant.
A new study found that antidepressant medications taken during pregnancy may be linked to the development of autism in children - although the effect appears to be limited. In looking at a cohort of children born between 2001 and 2011 in Stockholm, Sweden, Drexel Universitys Brian Lee, PhD, and Craig Newschaffer, PhD, and their co-authors (including lead author Dheeraj Rai, PhD, of the University of Bristol) found that children born to mothers who had taken anti-depressants at any point during their pregnancy were 45 percent more likely to be diagnosed with autism.
We identified 10 studies involving a total of 731 patients. The standardised mean difference for combined therapy over antidepressants alone was -0.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.51 to -0.15) at one week, and -0.29 (95% CI -0.51 to -0.08) at four weeks, but was no longer statistically significant at six to twelve weeks. If one qualitatively outlying study was excluded, patients on the combination therapy were less likely to drop out than those on antidepressant alone (relative risk (RR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.81). The patients allocated to the combination therapy were less likely to drop out from the treatment due to side effects than those receiving antidepressants alone (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91). However, these two groups of patients were equally likely to report at least one side effect (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.23).. ...
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
Individual responses to different antidepressants are quite common. People often develop quite different side effects with different medications. The change in your dreams interesting. Ive had...
Brooker conducted the study in the lab of senior study author Dr. Jack Kessler, a professor of neurology at Feinberg and a Northwestern Medicine neurologist.. The aim of their research is to gain a better understanding of how current antidepressants work in the brain, with the ultimate goal of finding new drug targets that are more effective for people who do not respond to current medications.. During the study, scientists discovered for the first time that antidepressant drugs such as Prozac and tricyclics target a pathway in the hippocampus called the BMP signaling pathway. A signaling pathway is a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or more cell functions.. Like a cascade, after the first molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it activates another molecule and so forth until the cell function is carried out.. The researchers found that Prozac and tricyclics inhibit this pathway and, thereby, trigger stem cells in the brain to produce more neurons responsible for ...
Current Neurobiology 2011; 2 (2): 97-100 Effects of Stress-induced Chronic Depression and Antidepressant Drugs on CA3 Region of 159±13.3 Discussion The present study was undertaken to know the long term effects of Altman J.; Das, G. D. Post-natal origin of microneu-rones in the rat brain. … Retrieve Full Source ...
In the present study, there was a significant increase in the levels of TNF-α after the intervention, possibly as a consequence of the significant decrease in serum cortisol levels in the intervention group, since cortisol inhibits TNF-α production. According to the Metaanalyses done by Dowlati and Liu in 2009 and 2011, depression affects the production of cytokines and increases the production of inflammatory factors, especially TNF-α and IL-620,21. Based on a study done by Shen et al. in 2010, the number of proinflammatory cytokines in the patients suffering from depression was significantly larger than those in non-depressed ones. However, after the patients were treated with antidepressants, there was a decrease in the level of these cytokines, but it was stiller larger than those in the non-depressed subjects4. According to Liu (2011), not only does the administration of Fluoxetine decrease the serum levels of TNF-α, but also it decreases the level of its mRNA22. The difference between ...
So perhaps, before you go spouting how SSRIs interfere with normal brain functioning, why dont you consider what a major depressive disorder brains functioning is. You know, the messed up chemical imbalance that causes people to kill themselves among other things. Take a look at some of the statistics available for what depression causes and consider what the effects of NOT medicating that is. Then there is the SSRIs can cause people, who were not suicidal, to commit suicide, line. Lovely one that. If youve ever know someone who has suffered from MDD and goes untreated, they can get to a place so bad that they lose all interest in doing anything. Anything. Inside they are dying, they may want to, in fact, kill themselves, but may be thinking theres no point, lacking the motivation to do that, much like eating, bathing, cleaning their house, going to work or anything else. Then they get prescribed an anti-depressant. With their mood elevating slowly one of the things that comes up with it is ...
Special report on why people with major depression sometimes switch antidepressant medications, why you should never suddenly stop your antidepressant and how to change antidepressants safely.
Antidepressant withdrawal is both complicated and simple. It was complicated when I first started in holistic psychiatry and didnt know some of the nuances of antidepressant withdrawal, but now that I have gathered enough information to know the most important aspects of antidepressant withdrawal, it has become more straightforward. Well, as straightforward as a complicated process can be, that is. My learning curve, however, was a gradual one, and it stretched over many years. This article is not a comprehensive review of everything about antidepressant withdrawal. The purpose of this article is to alert individuals to key aspects of antidepressant withdrawal that everyone should know, before starting out on their journey. If you dont, then withdrawal symptoms may become an ongoing source of suffering that can exact a large toll over many years. A successful withdrawal, defined by me, is one in which a person will be able to get off an antidepressant smoothly and stay off, even when under ...
Antidepressant use nearly doubles the risk of hip fracture among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimers disease, according to a new study.
A few years ago I was simultaneously working with two middle aged men whose wives had left them. Both of them were completely devastated by the loss of their marriage and family. Both of them showed serious signs of grieving. Both of them went to their doctors, were diagnosed with depression and placed on medication. It was interesting to see side by side two different ways this could play out. For one client this was a major factor in his process of healing while for the other it significally complicated the grieving process. What was the difference? Lets call these...
This same study revealed that, unlike existing antidepressants, ketamine can actually help induce the regeneration of new synapses in the brain. Within just two hours, trial participants who took ketamine were observed to have an increased production of synapse-associated proteins. And within 24 hours, completely new synapses were found to have formed in the brains of those who were previously lacking in these important neural connections.. "The hope is that this new information about ketamine is really going to provide a whole array of new targets that can be developed that ultimately provide a much better way of treating depression," said Ron Duman, a psychiatrist and neurobiologist at Yale University who helped work on the research. The discovery "represents maybe one of the biggest findings in the field over the last 50 years," he added, as quoted by NPR.org.. Human clinical trials involving esketamine are ongoing, and J&Js Janssen Research & Development, LLC is the division sponsoring ...
Well, your FDA complaint cant really be helped unless they change their standards. St. Johns Wort is supposed to be an effective antidepressant, but its not regulated because it is a natural herb. And it does have risky side effects. Herbal medicines never get regulated by the FDA. If marijuana were manufactured by a pharmaceutical company it would be different. Im not saying that is right. I actually think doctors should be more involved in prescribing herbal medicines, especially because we know they can interfere with prescribed meds. I read that you have to get St. Johns Wort prescribed by a physician in different countries in Europe. And that makes total sense to me. Antidepressant is monitored usually, and it is an antidepressant. ...
Antidepressant medicines are commonly used to treat moderate or severe depression. A medicine cannot alter your circumstances. However, symptoms such as low mood, poor sleep, poor concentration, etc, are often eased with an antidepressant. This may then allow you to function more normally and increase your ability to deal with any problems or difficult circumstances.. An antidepressant does not usually work straightaway. It can take 2-4 weeks before the effect builds up fully. A common problem is that some people stop the medicine after a week or so as they feel it is not helping. You need to give it time. Also, if it is helping, follow the course that a doctor recommends. A normal course of an antidepressant lasts for at least six months after symptoms have eased. Some people stop their medication too early and the depression may then quickly return.. There are several types of antidepressants, each with various pros and cons. For example, they differ in their possible side-effects. (The ...
3 Answers - Posted in: sleep, antidepressant, appetite, antidepressants - Answer: Hi Debs- The reason there is optimism when an antidepressant ...
The effects of depression and use of antidepressive medicines during pregnancy on the methylation status of the IGF2 imprinted control regions in the offspring.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Clinical Question: What is the risk of relapse of major depression in women who discontinue their antidepressant medication while pregnant?. Setting: Outpatient (specialty). Study Design: Cohort (prospective). Synopsis: The risk of relapse of major depression in women who continue or discontinue antidepressant medication while pregnant is uncertain. The investigators identified 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression who were seeking care from one of three referral centers with specific expertise in the treatment of psychiatric illness. Patients were self-referred or referred by another heath care provider.. All women had a history of major depression before pregnancy, were at less than 16 weeks gestation, and were currently or recently (less than 12 weeks before last menstrual period) receiving antidepressant treatment. Follow-up occurred for 189 participants (94 percent) for the duration of pregnancy. A total of 86 of the women (43 percent) experienced a relapse of major ...
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of inflammatory processes and cytokines in particular in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD) and resistance to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsiveness to emotional stimuli has been suggested as a predictor of treatment response. This study investigated the association between genetic variants of the interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) gene and amygdala and ACC responsiveness to emotional stimuli and response to antidepressant treatment.. Methods: In this analysis, 256 Caucasian patients with MDD (145 women, 111 men) were genotyped for variants rs16944, rs1143643, and rs1143634 in the IL1B gene (2q14). Response to antidepressant treatment over 6 weeks was defined as remission (≤ 7 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21-question) and response (,50% decrease on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21-question). Brain activity under visual presentation of emotional faces ...
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We all get the blues sometimes, but for the 15.7 million Americans impacted by depression each year, feelings of worthlessness, sadness and hopelessness dont go away. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States, and the number of Americans taking antidepressants is on the rise. A 2013 New York Times article estimates that one in 10 adults are now medicated for depression.. With so many people turning to medication for help with chronic depression, it is more important than ever to figure out exactly what is going on in the brain of those afflicted with this debilitating disorder. The pathophysiology of depression is crucial in fighting it. Though we have long pointed to dopamine and serotonin receptors as the key feature of mood disorders, new evidence is emerging to paint a more complete picture.. Recent studies have found atrophy and the loss of hippocampal neurons in patients suffering from depression. In extreme cases, this region of the brain has been ...
Is inflammation affecting your response to antidepressants? 1 in 5 Americans use at least one psychiatric drug per day. London researchers have developed a
Intervention and follow-up Patients randomized to citalopram will receive oral treatment with 20 mg tablets (10 mg if age ≥65 and/or reduced liver function) for 6 months with telephone contact after 2 weeks and 3 months and follow-up visits at 1 and 6 months. If patients develop depression dosage is initially doubled, followed by an additional control to evaluate effect and, if necessary, shifted to open-label antidepressant treatment. After 6 months, treatment will either stop or switch to open-label antidepressants at the discretion of the investigator ...
I am a 47yr old male. For the last 15 years Ive been on Effexor XR (3x75mg), Amitriptyline (3x25mg @ bedtime), and before then on a various amounts of other antidepressants (Prozac, Zoloft, and 2 othe...
Wondering why you were prescribed an antidepressant for your IBS if you are not depressed? Find out how antidepressants help relieve IBS symptoms.
I was just curious as to the long term safety of antidepressants. Is there anyone here who has taken antidepressants consistently for years, and if so,
Antidepressants are the medications that are used to cure depression. Go through the article and learn about the common types of antidepressants.
This medication was not approved for use in elderly people with psychosis related to dementia-related psychosis due to the risk of death. Antidepressants increase suicidal thoughts or behaviors in some adolescents especially if the dose is changed or during first period of treatment. Abilify was not approved for use in pediatric patients with depression. As Abilify is able to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills do not use is during operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles if you are not sure that Abilify therapy does not affect you adversely. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or breastfeeding before taking this medication. Avoid drinking any alcoholic beverages during treatment. Avoid overheating and dehydration. Hyperglycemia, or elevated blood sugar, may occur when taking Abilify. If you have diabetes mellitus, monitor your blood sugar levels regularly ...
This medication was not approved for use in elderly people with psychosis related to dementia-related psychosis due to the risk of death. Antidepressants increase suicidal thoughts or behaviors in some adolescents especially if the dose is changed or during first period of treatment. Abilify was not approved for use in pediatric patients with depression. As Abilify is able to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills do not use is during operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles if you are not sure that Abilify therapy does not affect you adversely. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or breastfeeding before taking this medication. Avoid drinking any alcoholic beverages during treatment. Avoid overheating and dehydration. Hyperglycemia, or elevated blood sugar, may occur when taking Abilify. If you have diabetes mellitus, monitor your blood sugar levels regularly ...
Even medications cannot be considered as very effective ways to stop smoking. All medications that are used for smoke cessation nowadays, such as buproprion and varenicline, are nothing more than antidepressants. These medications would help smokers to resolve their anxiety pangs that occur when they are giving up smoking, but they do not actively dissuade the person from smoking. Also, they cannot repair the organs already damaged by the smoke. Doctors would not recommend antidepressants to everybody because several conditions of the body may make their use dangerous. Old people and pregnant women, for example, must not take antidepressants at all ...
Clinically effective antidepressants are thought to exert their therapeutic effects by facilitating central monoamine neurotransmission. However, recent data showing that neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have antidepressant properties in both animal and clinical studies raise the possibility that classical antidepressants may also influence NK1R expression in the brain. To test this hypothesis, rats were treated with desipramine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, tranylcypromine or vehicle for 14-42 days. NK1R binding sites and mRNA were determined in a wide variety of brain areas using in situ hybridization and quantitative receptor autoradiography. In all areas examined, the abundance of NK1R binding sites was unchanged after 14 days of treatment. None of the treatments altered the number of NK1R binding sites following 42 days treatment with the exception that an increase was found in the locus coeruleus with tranylcypromine. Taken together, we report that repeated treatment with antidepressants of
TY - JOUR. T1 - St Johns wort and imipramine-induced gene expression profiles identify cellular functions relevant to antidepressant action and novel pharmacogenetic candidates for the phenotype of antidepressant treatment response. AU - Wong, M. L.. AU - OKirwan, F.. AU - Hannestad, J. P.. AU - Irizarry, K. J.L.. AU - Elashoff, D.. AU - Licinio, J.. PY - 2004/3/1. Y1 - 2004/3/1. N2 - Both the prototypic tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (IMI) and the herbal product St Johns wort (SJW) can be effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. We studied hypothalamic gene expression in rats treated with SJW or IMI to test the hypothesis that chronic antidepressant treatment by various classes of drugs results in shared patterns of gene expression that may underlie their therapeutic effects. Individual hypothalami were hybridized to individual Affymetrix chips; we studied three arrays per group treatment. We constructed 95% confidence intervals for expression fold change for genes ...
The action of different classes of clinically effective antidepressants and electroshock on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recognition sites in the frontal cortex was compared to that of other psychotropic agents. After either prolonged (6-18 days) s.c. infusion via osmotic minipumps or repeated i.p. injections of different antidepressants, or a series of electroshocks, treatment was halted and 72 hr later the animals were sacrificed, the brain was dissected and frozen. All major antidepressants (desipramine, amitryptyline or maprotiline), several newer compounds with reported antidepressant activity (viloxazine, zimelidine, fluoxetine, citalopram, progabide, fengabine, sodium valproate, mianserin, trazodone or nomifensine) as well as pargyline and repeated electroshocks, up-regulated GABA B binding in the rat frontal cortex but not hippocampus. This appeared to be a maximum binding effect, but in some instance the kinetics were more complex. Reserpine, diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital ...
Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the „dorsal nexus "(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and ...
Background : With the advent of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRls, the use of antidepressants has increased drastically in Sweden. The use of tricyclic antidepressants TCAs has, however, decreased. Methods : We surveyed a prescription database in the Swedish county of J mtland and compared prescription patterns for patients...
Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) on cerebrovascular events in patients with depression or anxiety.. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a nationwide population. The patients who started to take SSRIs and TCAs with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. We examined the association between the two types of antidepressants and incidence of stroke using a proportional hazard model adjusted for risk factors for stroke.. Results: Among of the 24,662 SSRI and 14,736 TCA initiators, the crude incidence rate for stroke was 10.03 and 13.77 per 100 person-years respectively. SSRI use was associated with a significantly reduced risk as compared with TCAs with the adjusted hazard ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.96) in a dose-dependent ...
Definition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor? Meaning of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor as a legal term. What does selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mean in law?
Women prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) , a common class of antidepressants also used to ease menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats, may face a long-term rise in their risk for bone fracture, a new study suggests. #SSRI #Menopause #HotFlashes #NightSweats #fluoxetine #sertraline #paroxetine #Celexa #Paxil #Prozac #Zoloft #citalopram #escitalopram #fluvoxamine #Luvox. ...
Tricyclic antidepressant drug (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, or nortriptyline) immunogens, antibodies prepared therefrom, labeled conjugates, synthetic intermediates, and the use of such antibodies and labeled conjugates in immunoassays for determining such drug. The immunogens comprise the drug coupled at its 2-position to an immunogenic carrier material. Similarly, the labeled conjugates and synthetic intermediates are 2-derivatives of the drug or a precursor thereof. The antibodies and labeled reagents are particularly useful in certain homogeneous nonradioisotopic immunoassays for measuring tricyclic antidepressant drugs in biological fluids such as serum.

Subiect: Mirtazapine Compared To Celexa - 775210 | FacShoppingSubiect: Mirtazapine Compared To Celexa - 775210 | FacShopping

Mirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for The aim of the present review was to assess the evidence on the efficacy and ... acceptability of mirtazapine compared with other antidepressive agents in the Celexa vs. Lexapro - HealthlineCelexa and Lexapro ...
more infohttp://facshopping.com/forums/topic/mirtazapine-compared-to-celexa-775210/

Antidepressive agents | definition of Antidepressive agents by Medical dictionaryAntidepressive agents | definition of Antidepressive agents by Medical dictionary

What is Antidepressive agents? Meaning of Antidepressive agents medical term. What does Antidepressive agents mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antidepressive agents in the Medical Dictionary? Antidepressive agents explanation free. ... Antidepressive agents , definition of Antidepressive agents by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ... redirected from Antidepressive agents). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. antidepressant. [an″te-, an″ti-de- ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antidepressive+agents

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Antianxiety and Antidepressive Agents for Functional Dyspepsia. | Physicians...A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Antianxiety and Antidepressive Agents for Functional Dyspepsia. | Physician's...

Therefore, psychotropic agents having antianxiety or antidepressive action are expected to alleviate FD. We previously reported ... A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Antianxiety and Antidepressive Agents for Functional Dyspepsia. by Physicians ... Methods Articles were searched for in MEDLINE from 2003 to 2014 using terms related to antianxiety or antidepressive agents. ... A statistical analysis suggested a significant treatment effect of psychotropic agents having antianxiety or antidepressive ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-antianxiety-and-antidepressive-agents-for-functional-dyspepsia/

Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression | CochraneParoxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression | Cochrane

Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. Major depression is a severe mental illness characterised by a ... 1. To determine the efficacy of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents in alleviating the acute symptoms of ... 2. To review acceptability of treatment with paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents. ... 3. To investigate the adverse effects of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents. ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD006531/DEPRESSN_paroxetine-versus-other-anti-depressive-agents-for-depression

Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic | The Chopra LibraryAntidepressive Agents, Tricyclic | The Chopra Library

INTRODUCTION: Nocturnal enuresis affects 15-20% of 5-year-old children, 5% of 10 year-old-children and 1-2% of people aged 15 years and over. Without treatment, 15% of affected children will become dry each year. Nocturnal enuresis is not diagnosed in children younger than 5 years, and treatment may be inappropriate for children younger than 7 years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions for relief of symptoms ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/antidepressive-agents-tricyclic

Escitalopram versus other antidepressive agents for depression. - Oxford NeuroscienceEscitalopram versus other antidepressive agents for depression. - Oxford Neuroscience

Fourteen trials compared escitalopram with another SSRI and eight compared escitalopram with a newer antidepressive agent ( ... Some statistically significant differences favouring escitalopram over other antidepressive agents for the acute phase ... heterocyclics and newer agents in the acute-phase treatment of major depression. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic databases were ... including non-conventional agents such as hypericum) for patients with major depressive disorder (regardless of the diagnostic ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/426013

Clomipramine
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        Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic,  Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors,  ATC:N06AA04Clomipramine - Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors, ATC:N06AA04

Clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is the 3-chloro derivative of Imipramine. It was thought that tricylic antidepressants work exclusively by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. However, this response occurs immediately, yet mood does not lift for around two weeks. It is now thought that changes occur in receptor sensitivity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, a part of the brain involved in emotions. Presynaptic receptors are affected: alpha-1 and beta-1 receptors are sensitized, alpha-2 receptors are desensitized (leading to increased noradrenaline production). Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Clomipramine.html

Mirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for depression. - Department of PsychiatryMirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for depression. - Department of Psychiatry

... allocating participants with major depression to mirtazapine versus any other antidepressive agent. DATA COLLECTION AND ... review was to assess the evidence on the efficacy and acceptability of mirtazapine compared with other antidepressive agents in ... statistically significant and possibly clinically meaningful differences between mirtazapine and other antidepressive agents ... Mirtazapine has a unique mechanism of antidepressive action and is one of the commonly used antidepressants in clinical ...
more infohttps://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/425994

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antidepressive agents}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antidepressive agents}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: New York : Viking, 1993Other title: Psychiatrist explores antidepressant drugs and the remaking of the self.Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: QV 77.5 93KR] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntidepressive%20agents%7D

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antidepressive agents.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antidepressive agents.}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: New York : Viking, 1993Other title: Psychiatrist explores antidepressant drugs and the remaking of the self.Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: QV 77.5 93KR] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntidepressive%20agents.%7D

Amitriprolidine
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        Analgesics, Non-Narcotic,  Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic,  Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors, ...Amitriprolidine - Analgesics, Non-Narcotic, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors, ...

Amitriptyline, a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant, is structurally related to both the skeletal muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine and the thioxanthene antipsychotics such as thiothixene. It is extremely sedating, and thus improvement of sleep patterns can be the first benefit of treatment. Amitriptyline exhibits strong anticholinergic activity, cardiovascular effects including orthostatic hypotension, changes in heart rhythm and conduction, and a lowering of the seizure threshold. As with other antidepressants, several weeks of therapy may be required in order to realize the full clinical benefit of amitriptyline. Although not a labelled indication, amitriptyline is widely used in the management of chronic nonmalignant pain (e.g., post-herpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Amitriprolidine.html

Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. - Oxford NeuroscienceCitalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. - Oxford Neuroscience

Antidepressive Agents, Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation, Citalopram, Cyclohexanols, Depression, Humans, Morpholines, ... Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. Cipriani A., Purgato M., Furukawa TA., Trespidi C., Imperadore G ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/426011

Pycnogenol Pine Bark | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicinePycnogenol Pine Bark | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine

Antidepressive Agents Research. [x] Remove Focus on Antidepressive Agents. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/pycnogenol-pine-bark?ed=5180

Low Sodium Price, China Low Sodium Price Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.comLow Sodium Price, China Low Sodium Price Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

Effective Antidepressive Agents Tianeptine Sodium CAS 30123-17-2 FOB Price: US $ 1-3 / Piece. Min. Order: 10 Pieces ...
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Relapse following successful electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a meta-analysis.  - PubMed - NCBIRelapse following successful electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use*. *Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy. *Depressive Disorder, Major/prevention & ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23774532?dopt=Abstract

The role of antidepressants in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  - PubMed - NCBIThe role of antidepressants in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects. *Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology. *Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use*. * ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452526

Nuedexta in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govNuedexta in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antidepressive Agents. Dextromethorphan. Quinidine. Quinidine gluconate. Psychotropic Drugs. Antitussive Agents. Respiratory ... Adrenergic Agents. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antimalarials. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. ... Excitatory Amino Acid Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01882829

Efficacy and Safety of Brexpiprazole as Adjunctive Treatment in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With an...Efficacy and Safety of Brexpiprazole as Adjunctive Treatment in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With an...

Antidepressive Agents. Brexpiprazole. Psychotropic Drugs. Serotonin Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01837797

A Study of Vilazodone in Pediatric Patients With Major Depressive Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govA Study of Vilazodone in Pediatric Patients With Major Depressive Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antidepressive Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors. Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors. Membrane Transport ... Neurotransmitter Agents. Serotonin Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists. Serotonin ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02436239?cond=NCT02436239&rank=1

Pharmaceuticals  | Free Full-Text | The Impact of Residual Symptoms in Major Depression | HTMLPharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | The Impact of Residual Symptoms in Major Depression | HTML

major depressive disorder, MDD, antidepressive agents, residual symptoms, depression, depression treatment. By following author ... L-Triiodothyronine (T3) has also been best studied as an augmentation agent of the TCAs and MAOIs [74], with few controlled ... The most commonly used combination agent is bupropion [75], and though its frequency of such usage probably exceeds the ... Henderson, D.C.; Doraiswamy, P.M. Prolactin-related and metabolic adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic agents. J. Clin. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/3/8/2426/htm

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

1 result(s) search for keyword(s) Antidepressive Agents - pharmacology Add the result to your basket Refine your search ... Depression - therapy Antidepressive Agents - pharmacology Calcium Channel Blockers Alprazolam - pharmacology Imipramine - ... Depression - therapy Antidepressive Agents - pharmacology Calcium Channel Blockers Alprazolam - pharmacology Imipramine - ...
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Center for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences   » PeopleCenter for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences » People

Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal • Antidepressive Agents • Antioxidants • Ants • Arsenic • Autistic Disorder • ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/math/ctms/faculty/hfn

Gender differences in depression ... preview & related info | MendeleyGender differences in depression ... preview & related info | Mendeley

Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use. *Depressive Disorder/*diagnosis/drug therapy. *Female. *Humans. *Male ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/gender-differences-depression-primary-care/
  • MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen trials compared escitalopram with another SSRI and eight compared escitalopram with a newer antidepressive agent (venlafaxine, bupropion and duloxetine). (ox.ac.uk)
  • We previously reported on the treatment of FD using such agents in a systematic review, wherein the effectiveness of the agents on FD was suggested, although there were several limitations. (physiciansweekly.com)