Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Convulsants: Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.SemicarbazonesClonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsDiazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)PhenylenediaminesAmines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Trimethadione: An anticonvulsant effective in absence seizures, but generally reserved for refractory cases because of its toxicity. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p378)Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nipecotic Acidsgamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Receptor, Galanin, Type 1: The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Epilepsy, Generalized: Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Piracetam: A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Receptor, Galanin, Type 2: A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Chlormethiazole: A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.Dibenzocycloheptenes: A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Benzyl CompoundsFinasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Paraldehyde: A hypnotic and sedative with anticonvulsant effects. However, because of the hazards associated with its administration, its tendency to react with plastic, and the risks associated with its deterioration, it has largely been superseded by other agents. It is still occasionally used to control status epilepticus resistant to conventional treatment. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p608-9)Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Teratogenesis: The formation of CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Epilepsy, Absence: A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.BenzodiazepinonesMephenytoin: An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.IndazolesKCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.FIGLU Test: A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.Ointment Bases: Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.Spasms, Infantile: An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Epilepsies, Myoclonic: A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Doxepin: A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Bemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Polygalaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Millettia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/3775)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose. (2/3775)

A method for the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) from equine urine and serum and their quantitation and confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Valium, a formulation of diazepam, was administered at a dose of 10 mg intramuscularly to four standard-bred mares. Diazepam is extensively metabolized in the horse to nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam. Diazepam urinary concentrations were found to be less than 6 ng/mL. Nordiazepam was found to be mainly in its glucuronide-conjugated form and was measured out to a collection time of 53-55 h. Oxazepam and temazepam were entirely conjugated, and their urinary concentrations were measured out to collection times of 121 h and 77-79 h, respectively. Diazepam and nordiazepam were measured in equine postadministration serum out to collection times of 6 and 54 h, respectively. Oxazepam and temazepam were not detected in postadministration serum.  (+info)

Inhibition of transient and persistent Na+ current fractions by the new anticonvulsant topiramate. (3/3775)

The actions of the antiepileptic drug topiramate (TPM) on Na+ currents were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dissociated neocortical neurons and intracellular recordings in neocortical slices. Relatively low TPM concentrations (25-30 microM) slightly inhibited the persistent fraction of Na+ current in dissociated neurons and reduced the Na+-dependent long-lasting action potential shoulders, which can be evoked in layer V pyramidal neurons after Ca++ and K+ current blockade. Conversely, the same drug concentrations were ineffective in reducing the amplitude of the fast Na+-dependent action potentials evoked in slices or the peak of transient Na+ (INaf) current evoked in isolated neurons from a physiological holding potential. Consistent INaf inhibition became, however, evident only when the neuronal membrane was kept depolarized to enhance resting Na+ channel inactivation. TPM (100 microM) was ineffective on the voltage dependence of activation but induced a leftward shift of the steady-state INaf inactivation curve. The drug-induced inhibitory effect increased with the duration of membrane depolarization, and the recovery of INaf after long membrane depolarizations was slightly delayed in comparison with that observed under control conditions. The obtained evidence suggests that the anticonvulsant action of TPM may operate by stabilizing channel inactivation, which can be induced by depolarizing events similar to those occurring in chronic epileptic conditions. Concurrently, the slight but significant inhibition of the persistent fraction of the Na+ current, obtained with the application of relatively low TPM concentrations, may contribute toward its anticonvulsant effectiveness by modulating the near-threshold depolarizing events that are sustained by this small current fraction.  (+info)

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. (4/3775)

The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (5/3775)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (6/3775)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of riluzole on the neurological and neuropathological changes in an animal model of cardiac arrest-induced movement disorder. (7/3775)

Posthypoxic myoclonus and seizures precipitate as secondary neurological consequences in ischemic/hypoxic insults of the central nervous system. Neuronal hyperexcitation may be due to excessive activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, an effect that has been shown to follow ischemic/hypoxic events. Therefore, riluzole, an anticonvulsant that inhibits the release of glutamate by stabilizing the inactivated state of activated voltage-sensitive sodium channels, was tested for its antimyoclonic and neuroprotective properties in the cardiac arrest-induced animal model of posthypoxic myoclonus. Riluzole (4-12 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated the audiogenic seizures and action myoclonus seen in this animal model. Histological examination using Nissl staining and the novel Fluoro-Jade histochemistry in cardiac-arrested animals showed an extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Riluzole treatment almost completely prevented the neuronal degeneration in these brain areas. The neuroprotective effect was more pronounced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. These effects were seen at therapeutically relevant doses of riluzole, and the animals tolerated the treatment well. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of posthypoxic myoclonus and seizure may involve excessive activation of glutamate neurotransmission, and that riluzole may serve as an effective pharmacological agent with neuroprotective potential for the treatment of neurological conditions associated with cardiac arrest in humans.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (8/3775)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

*Ganaxolone

"Characterization of the anticonvulsant properties of ganaxolone (CCD 1042; 3alpha-hydroxy-3beta-methyl-5alpha-pregnan-20-one), ... "Chronic treatment with the neuroactive steroid ganaxolone in the rat induces anticonvulsant tolerance to diazepam but not to ... CNS-selective GABAA modulator that is under development by Marinus Pharmaceuticals as an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant agent. ...

*Catamenial epilepsy

Women progressing through peri- and post-menopause using HRT may be in greater need of anticonvulsant medication monitoring to ... "anticonvulsant" by virtue of its conversion to the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. Estrogen can be found in the female body in ...

*Tiagabine

... (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon ... other anticonvulsants, or opioids for neuropathic pain. The most common side effect of tiagabine is dizziness. Other side ... as an anticonvulsant drug candidate". J. Med. Chem. 36 (12): 1716-25. doi:10.1021/jm00064a005. PMID 8510100. Orange Book index ...

*Anticonvulsant

... Screening Program Use of Anticonvulsants in Pharmacotherapy of Bronchial Asthma MDNG: Anticonvulsants and Bone ... Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the ... It is still used as an anticonvulsant for dogs and cats. Felbamate (1993). This effective anticonvulsant has had its usage ... "anticonvulsant" therapies as well. However they do not work as well as the anticonvulsant drugs According to guidelines by the ...

*Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome

As this syndrome can present secondary to multiple anticonvulsants, the general term "anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome ... Anticonvulsant/sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with ... drugs with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, ...

*Pheneturide

... has a similar profile of anticonvulsant activity and toxicity relative to phenacemide, but is less toxic in ... Pheneturide inhibits the metabolism and thus increases the levels of other anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin. Phenacemide ... 335-. ISBN 978-94-011-6223-4. Julius Vida (19 July 2013). Anticonvulsants. Elsevier. pp. 4,42. ISBN 978-0-323-14395-0. ... is an anticonvulsant of the ureide class. Conceptually, it can be formed in the body as a metabolic degradation product from [[ ...

*Eterobarb

It has mainly anticonvulsant action with less sedative effects than the closely related compound phenobarbital. It saw ... Smith, DB; Goldstein, SG; Roomet, A (1986). "A comparison of the toxicity effects of the anticonvulsant eterobarb (antilon, ... Gallagher, BB; Baumel, IP; Woodbury, SG; Dimicco, JA (1975). "Clinical evaluation of eterobarb, a new anticonvulsant drug". ... Vida, Julius A. (1971). "Anticonvulsants. 1. Alkoxymethyl derivatives of barbiturates and diphenylhydantoin". Journal of ...

*Phenaglycodol

Julius Vida (19 July 2013). Anticonvulsants. Elsevier. pp. 578-. ISBN 978-0-323-14395-0. Lester M. Haddad; James F. Winchester ... is a drug described as a tranquilizer or sedative which has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties. It is related ...

*Hydantoin

"Hydantoin anticonvulsants". drugs.com. Drauz, Karlheinz; Grayson, Ian; Kleemann, Axel; Krimmer, Hans-Peter; Leuchtenberger, ... In pharmaceuticals, hydantoin derivatives form a class of anticonvulsants; phenytoin and fosphenytoin both contain hydantoin ... moieties and are both used as anticonvulsants in the treatment of seizure disorders. The hydantoin derivative dantrolene is ...

*Ethchlorvynol

McLamore, W. M.; P'an, S. Y.; Bavley, A. (1955). "Hypnotics and Anticonvulsants. Ii. Halogenated Tertiary Acetylenic Carbinols ...

*Clonazepam

Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of clonazepam occurs in both animals and humans. In humans, tolerance to the ... The anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines are due to the enhancement of synaptic GABA responses, and the inhibition of ... Battistin L, Varotto M, Berlese G, Roman G (1984). "Effects of some anticonvulsant drugs on brain GABA level and GAD and GABA-T ... Of anticonvulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Doses higher than ...

*Fibromyalgia

The anti-convulsant drugs gabapentin and pregabalin may be used to reduce pain. Gabapentin may be of significant benefit for ... Üçeyler N, Sommer C, Walitt B, Häuser W (2013). "Anticonvulsants for fibromyalgia". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 10: CD010782. ...

*Benign neonatal seizures

Anticonvulsants are not needed. And those affected do not develop epilepsy when they grow up. Jerome Engel; Timothy A. Pedley; ...

*Stevens-Johnson syndrome

... anticonvulsants) and trimethoprim. Combining lamotrigine with sodium valproate increases the risk of SJS. Nonsteroidal anti- ... "Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features ...

*Cocaine dependence

Anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, and topiramate, do not appear to be effective as treatment. ... Minozzi, S; Cinquini, M; Amato, L; Davoli, M; Farrell, MF; Pani, PP; Vecchi, S (April 2015). "Anticonvulsants for cocaine ...

*Tolufazepam

Hrib, Nicholas J.; Martin, Lawrence L. Chapter 2. Antianxiety Agents and Anticonvulsants. pp. 11-20. doi:10.1016/s0065-7743(08) ... Studies have shown tolufazepam to have anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity in animal subjects, including convulsions ...

*Barbiturate

Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects tends to correlate more with tolerance to physiological effects, however, meaning that ... Nau H; Kuhnz W; Egger HJ; Rating D; Helge H (Nov 1982). "Anticonvulsants during pregnancy and lactation. Transplacental, ... However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., ... They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates have addiction potential, both physical ...

*Depressant

... and anticonvulsant effects, and even complete anesthesia or death at high doses. Depressants exert their effects through a ... anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties; also seen in the applied pharmacology of high doses of many shorter-acting ... Anticonvulsants (Pregabalin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.) Antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, etc ...

*Meningitis

Seizures are treated with anticonvulsants. Hydrocephalus (obstructed flow of CSF) may require insertion of a temporary or long- ...

*Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

"Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal" (PDF). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3 (3): CD005064. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005064.pub3 ... A 2010 Cochrane review similarly reported that the evidence to support the role of anticonvulsants over benzodiazepines in the ... Hammond, CJ; Niciu, MJ; Drew, S; Arias, AJ (April 2015). "Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and ...

*Phenobarbital

The drug was quickly adopted as the first widely effective anticonvulsant, though World War I delayed its introduction in the U ... Of anticonvulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Acute intermittent ... "Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004218. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Direct blockade of excitatory glutamate signaling is also believed to contribute to the hypnotic/anticonvulsant effect that is ...

*Primidone

Like many anticonvulsants, primidone interacts with other anticonvulsants. Clobazam decreases clearance of primidone, ... Primidone is one of the anticonvulsants associated with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome, others being carbamazepine, ... The anticonvulsant users who get this also tend to eat monotonous diets devoid of fruits and vegetables. This antagonistic ... 25 mg/day (low-dose therapy) is just as good as 75 mg/day (high-dose therapy). Primidone is not the only anticonvulsant used ...

*California encephalitis virus

Anticonvulsants are used to prevent seizures. If brain function is severely affected, interventions like physical therapy and ...

*Hepatitis

... anticonvulsants such as valproate and phenytoin; cholesterol-lowering statins; steroids such as oral contraceptives and ...

*Chlordiazepoxide

... is anticonvulsant. There is preferential storage of chlordiazepoxide in some organs including the heart of the ... Miller JA; Richter JA (January 1985). "Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse ... This may play a role in chlordiazepoxide's anticonvulsant properties. Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine drug. ... Chlordiazepoxide is similar to phenobarbital in its anticonvulsant properties. However, it lacks the hypnotic effects of ...
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Because of increasing concern about the systemic and neurologic toxicity of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (1), the question of if and when to withdraw AEDs in epileptic patients whose seizures are well controlled is a common clinical problem. Until recently, many physicians were reluctant to discontinue AED therapy because of the lack of reliable data on the risk for seizure recurrence. Further, no study to date has compared the risk for seizure recurrence on withdrawing medication with the risk for recurrence associated with continuing therapy. This randomized study by the Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group, however, provides the clinician with important prognostic data on AED withdrawal. It is clear that remission of seizures is possible in many epileptic patients whose AEDs are withdrawn slowly. In this study, 59% of patients not taking AEDs remained seizure-free at 2 years. This study helps to identify those for whom drug withdrawal is a ...
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that often requires long-term antiepileptic drug treatment; unfortunately, these drugs can have long-term side effects. Until recently, many physicians were reluctant to discontinue antiepileptic drugs because the risk for seizure recurrence was thought to be dangerously high. The study by Berg and Shinnar suggests that patients may have a better chance of remaining seizure-free than previously thought. By using meta-analysis, the authors evaluated a comprehensive group of primary studies that focused on seizure relapse after discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs. The review was carefully designed with no important methodologic problems. The risk for seizure relapse after antiepileptic drug withdrawal at 1 year was 25%, which represents the lowest risk for recurrence in patients with the most favorable clinical features. Berg and Shinnar assessed 3 clinical features that modified the recurrence risk. The risk was increased for adult- and adolescent-onset compared ...
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22 ...
Sodium valproate is an anti-epilepsy drug taken by people to control their seizures. Around 5,000 women with epilepsy become pregnant every year in the UK and antiepilepsy drugs have been linked to an increased risk of birth defects such as heart malformations, dysmorphic features and minor limb deformities. Researchers from Liverpool University, Emory University in the U.S. and Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust tested more than 300 3-year-olds whose mothers had taken anti-epilepsy drugs. They found that those women who took sodium valproate while they were pregnant had children with IQs six to nine points lower than those women taking other anti-epilepsy drugs. The researchers stressed that although anti-epilepsy drugs carry a slightly-increased risk of birth defects the risk is still very small and less than the risks to mothers and children from uncontrolled seizures. They advised women concerned about their anti-epilepsy medication to contact their GP before ...
(HealthDay)-Women on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy for epilepsy or other indications are at increased risk of giving birth to premature and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, according to a study published ...
Researchers from Vienna, Austria and Sao Paulo, Brazil studied the known effects of anticonvulsant drugs on mitochondria, using a literature search to include only references to epilepsy associated with mitochondrial disease, and a specific anti-convulsant drug (i.e. levetiracetam) with a specific mitochondrial function (i.e. mitochondrial membrane potential). Across 31 different anti-convulsant medications, the authors searched for six mitochondrial functions that anticonvulsant drugs may influence. Some medications, such as valproic acid, were extensively studied across all functions while others, such as rufinamide and stiripentol, had no publications matching the search criteria. For each aspect of mitochondrial biology, the anticonvulsants with either greatest benefit or most toxicity were discussed in greater detail. Subsequently, the overall toxicity and tolerability was assessed. Using these findings, the authors describe an approach to treating mitochondrial epilepsy with drugs ...
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ATLANTA, Nov. 5 /PRNewswire/ -- press release, regulated information: UCB announced today that Keppra XR(TM) offers convenient dosing for people with epilepsy. Keppra XR(TM) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2008 for use as an add-on to other antiepileptic treatments for people with partial-onset seizures who are 16 years of age and older. While many people with epilepsy are successfully treated with one or more of the currently available antiepileptic drugs, a significant percentage still live with uncontrolled seizures or intolerable side effects. A recent online survey of 451 people living with epilepsy showed that almost half missed at least one dose of their epilepsy medication in the last month, and 37 percent who missed a dose reported having a breakthrough seizure. More than 80 percent of these people missed a dose of an antiepileptic drug (AED) that was taken multiple times daily and the most common reason reported for having missed a dose was ...
An overall goal of the proposed research is to establish the relationship between antiepileptic drug exposure and outcomes in the mother and child as well as describe and explain the variability in antiepileptic drug exposure and response.. Anticonvulsant blood levels (ABLs) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curves (AUCs) will be used as direct measures of drug exposure. The results will enable clinicians to prospectively calculate individual dosing regimens for the mother in order to optimize dosing and limit unnecessary drug exposure to the child. In addition, genetic samples will be collected, which will provide a valuable resource for future pharmacogenetics studies to further delineate individual variability across patients. ...
Twenty-five to 40 percent of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Treatment with standard anticonvulsants such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenobarbital is often complicated by side effects and by failure to adequately control seizures. Up to 61 percent of patients with seizures report having side effects with antiepileptic drugs. After a 15-year hiatus since the last new antiepileptic drug was marketed, five new drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the control of seizures. Three of these, gabapentin, lamotrigine and topiramate, are approved for use in adults with partial seizures with or without generalization. Felbamate is approved for the above indication and also for use in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare childhood seizure disorder. Felbamate and lamotrigine have the potential of significant side effects and should be prescribed by physicians experienced in
This FDA said its alert is based on the final results of the Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study "showing that children exposed to valproate products while their mothers were pregnant had decreased IQs at age 6 compared to children exposed to other antiepileptic drugs…The difference in average IQ between the children who had been exposed to valproate and the children who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs varied between 8 and 11 points depending on the drug to which valproate was compared ...
Define anticonvulsants. anticonvulsants synonyms, anticonvulsants pronunciation, anticonvulsants translation, English dictionary definition of anticonvulsants. Used to reduce or prevent convulsive seizures, such as those caused by epilepsy
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This study will evaluate the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in measuring cortical excitability. The cortex is the outer part of the brain. Patients with seizures have increased cortical excitability and are often treated with antiepileptic drugs to reduce this excitability. The therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs are usually tracked with blood tests that measure their blood levels. However, these blood tests may not always correctly reflect the effects of the drugs on the brain.. TMS has been used successfully to measure cortical excitability in many neurological diseases, including epilepsy, and may be helpful in measuring drug effects on the brain directly. For this procedure, a wire coil is held over the scalp. A brief electrical current is passed through the coil, creating a magnetic pulse that stimulates the brain. This may cause a pulling sensation on the skin under the coil and twitching in muscles of the face, arm, or leg. During the stimulation, the ...
Efficacy and Tolerability of the New Antiepileptic Drugs, I: Treatment of New Onset Epilepsy Report of the TTA and QSS Subcommittees of the American Academy of ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3bf7f8-MGQzZ
View Notes - Lecture_20-Anticonvulsants from PHB 110 at Moraine Valley Community College. Definition: anticonvulsants - drugs used to prevent or treat convulsions
Chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, and phenylephrine requires locating a prescription and sink as of 2010 is yet sold under the brand whose name Nasohist - dm by bioniche pharma, llc. Sildec - pe dm may be used in combination therapies with other antiepileptic drugs without expressing concern for alteration of the blood concentrations of good product, however best if advised me by a doctor or of other antiepileptic drugs.. Read More. ...
A series of fluorinated enaminones have been synthesized from the condensation of 5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione and various amines via the synergistic effect of p-toluenesulfonic acid/acetic acid. The activity of 3-(4-chlorophenylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclohex-2-enone (ADD 386002) and 3-(benzylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclohex-2-enone (ADD 386001) have been established by our research group as lead compounds with significant anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock (MES) seizure test model. The synthesis of these enaminones will help to advance the chemistry of these compounds as well as provide insight to their structural activity relationships, as potential antiepileptic agents. Using the above procedure, we completed the synthesis of fourteen new fluorinated enaminones containing substituted phenyl and heteroaromatic rings. All 14 compounds were characterized by NMR and GC/MS. The lipophilicity of each compound was calculated in order to determine the membrane
Antiepileptic drugs increase the risk of pneumonia in people living with Alzheimers disease, according to research from the University of Eastern Finland.. People with Alzheimers who used antiepileptics have twice the risk of developing pneumonia compared to those not using the drugs, the study, published in the Journal of Alzheimers Disease says.. Antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and pregabalin were all associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. The sedative effects of antiepileptic drugs may explain the increased risk of pneumonia. Nevertheless, fewer than one in ten of those living with Alzheimers have also been diagnosed with epilepsy.. "Further research into whether older persons are more sensitive to the effects of antiepileptic drugs is needed. Persons with Alzheimers disease have a higher risk of pneumonia and pneumonia-related mortality than persons without the disease. For this reason, it is important to carefully assess the risks and benefits of ...
Epilepsy is common in patients with primary malignant brain tumours, with incidence rates from 20 up to 90%, depending on tumour type, the location of the tumour and its proximity to the cortical gray matter [1]-[3]. The epileptogenicity of a tumour is inversely correlated with its growth rate [4]-[6]. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and particularly slow-growing tumours such as gangliogliomas and dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs), are the most epileptogenic [7]-[9]. A decrease in seizure frequency is known to contribute to less morbidity and improved quality of life [10],[11]. Therefore, achieving sustained seizure control in these patients is an important issue in brain tumour treatment.. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. However, AEDs may cause side effects and may also negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life [12]. Moreover, enzyme-inducing AEDs may interfere with chemotherapeutic drugs and corticosteroids and cause additional ...
article{03d20d0e-3ce2-45a2-b810-0a9003a1a7f4, abstract = {Purpose: To study the effect of AED exposure on head circumference in the newborn. Methods: Data on all Swedish singletons births between 1995 and 2005, over 900,000 births, were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The effects of AEDs on birth-weight-adjusted mean head circumference (bw-adj-HC) were estimated by comparison with data from all births in an analysis which was adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, and maternal body mass index. Results: A significant reduction of mean bw-adj-HC was seen after both carbamazepine (CBZ) (standard deviation scores (SDS) = 0.15, p < 0.001) and valproic acid (VPA) (SDS = 0.10, p = 0.04) in monotherapy. No effect on mean bw-adj-HC was seen for phenytoin, clonazepam, lamotrigine and gabapentin. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of microcephaly (bw-adj-HC smaller than 2 SD below the mean) after any AED polytherapy (OR = 2.85, 95% CI: ...
BioAssay record AID 621652 submitted by ChEMBL: Protective index, ratio of TD50 for albino Sprague-Dawley rat to ED50 for albino Sprague-Dawley rat by maximal electroshock seizures test.
While there have been studies that examined the link between anti-epileptic drugs and bone density loss in adults older than 65, little evidence exists for the association of individual anti-epileptic drugs with bone loss. Nathalie Jetté, M.D., M.Sc., of the University of Calgary, Foothills Hospital, Alberta, Canada, and colleagues studied medical records of 15,792 individuals who experienced non-traumatic fractures between April 1996 and March 2004. Each person was matched with up to three controls, persons without a history of fracture, for a total of 47,289 controls ...
Our findings indicate that children taking AEDs are at high risk of a pDDI while hospitalized, with more than one-quarter of patients exposed to a severe pDDI. Younger patients and those with associated ICU or operating room procedures are at highest risk of potential severe interactions. The majority of these pDDIs are related to the administration of pain medications, steroids, and antibiotics. Although there was a significant overall decrease in the rate of pDDIs over the study period, this decrease was not directly associated with the implementation of CPOE systems.. An estimated 31% of children have chronic medical conditions, of whom 63% are taking medications that will likely be continued when hospitalized with an acute illness. Physicians prescribing medications to hospitalized patients may not always take into account previously prescribed drugs when making treatment decisions. Antiepileptic drugs pose a particular risk for DDIs given the high rate of interactions associated with many ...
Impact of Oxidative Stress and Newer Antiepileptic Drugs on the Albumin and Cortisol Value in Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities With Epilepsy
Impact of Oxidative Stress and Newer Antiepileptic Drugs on the Albumin and Cortisol Value in Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities With Epilepsy
Brivaracetam (BRV; Briviact) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults. BRV is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) with 15- to 30-fold higher affinity than levetiracetam, the first AED acting on SV2A. It has high lipid solubility and rapid brain penetration, with engagement of the target molecule, SV2A, within minutes of administration. BRV has potent broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity in animal models. Phase I studies indicated BRV was well tolerated and showed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile over a wide dose range following single (10-1,000 mg) and multiple (200-800 mg/day) oral dosing ...
Extracted from text ... Case report A 36-year-old HIV-infected woman presents for assessment for antiretroviral therapy. As her current CD4+ count is 92 cells/mm3, she needs to commence antiretroviral therapy. She has a history of epilepsy since childhood, for which she receives treatment with carbamazepine. This case raises some important questions: Does this patient still require anticonvulsant therapy? What potential drug interactions could occur with antiretrovirals? Where there is a known primary focus, stopping anticonvulsants has a high rate of relapse. In a patient with idiopathic epilepsy, who has had no seizures for at least 2 years, slow weaning from the anticonvulsants can ..
The value of conclusions drawn from the present analysis is inevitably limited by the relatively small numbers of instances of individual malformations that were available for study, and studies of larger populations might produce different outcomes. The difficulty of obtaining well-matched control populations and limitations of size of malformed fetal collections beset much of the published work in the area. There is a peculiarity in the AED-unexposed control data in the present study, in that three of the four male fetuses with malformations had hypospadias. This is a surprisingly high proportion and leads to concern about using these particular data for comparison purposes. Multivariable logistic regression has been used in the present study to increase the number of subjects involved by including fetuses exposed to AED polytherapy as well as AED monotherapy. Only statistically significant (P , 0.05) findings from the investigation are discussed below.. The present analysis has provided ...
BioAssay record AID 112303 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for anticonvulsant activity in male mice using maximal electric shock seizure test..
This concise handbook provides practical, up-to-date clinical guidance on effective selection, prescription, and usage of antiepileptic drugs for patients with epilepsy in various medical conditions and in a variety of clinical contexts. This text discusses choosing drugs when faced with various medical comorbidities; how to correctly prescribe, titrate, and taper drugs; how to monitor drug efficacy and side effects; how to diagnose and manage toxicity; how antiepileptic drugs interact with other medications; and comprehensive coverage of current treatment options. Key Feature of this Manual Include… • A brief formal discussion of the basic pharmacology of each antiepileptic drug, with an emphasis on how to select and use anti-epileptic drugs in a variety of clinical contexts. • Discussions of antiepileptic drugs approved for epilepsy since 2009. • New research about already existing antiepileptic drugs. • References for further reading that are oriented toward utility in clinical ...
* New antiepileptic drug with a novel mechanism of action, , * Vimpat helped people with epilepsy who still had uncontrolled partial onset seizures with current treatment, , * Vimpat will be ava...
Anticonvulsants Drug Market is driven by Rising prevalence of epilepsy, Increase in number of migraine, rise in fibromyalgia and increasing sales of existing blockbuster drug Lyrica
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Topiramate is a novel anticonvulsant known to modulate the activity of several ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels in neurons. The mechanism of action of topiramate, at a molecular level, is still unclear, but the phosphorylation state of the channel/receptor seems to be a factor that is able to influence its activity. We investigated the consequences of phosphorylation of the sodium channel on the effect of topiramate on tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive transient Na(+) current (I(NaT)). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: I(NaT) was recorded in dissociated neurons of rat sensorimotor cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. KEY RESULTS: We found that topiramate (100 microM) significantly shifted the steady-state I(NaT) inactivation curve in a hyperpolarized direction. In neurons pre-treated with a PKC-activator, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 2 microM), the net effect of topiramate on steady-state I(NaT) inactivation was significantly decreased. In addition, OAG also ...
Background: Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are a major impediment to optimal dosing for seizure control. Better understanding of clinical properties of AEs is a prerequisite for systematic research of their neurobiological underpinnings. This study aimed to define specific patterns of AE occurrence and determine their clinical relevance based on their association with subjective health status.. Methods: Two hundred subjects with epilepsy completed validated self-report health assessments, including the Adverse Event Profile (AEP) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE)-89. Factor analysis was performed on the 19 AEP items to identify distinct classes of AEs. Correlations between AE class scores and QOLIE-89 scores were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to assess contributions of AE class scores to QOLIE-89 scores after controlling for depression and seizure frequency. Relationships between changes in AE class scores and changes in QOLIE-89 scores were also ...
Anticonvulsants are more accurately called antiepileptic drugs (abbreviated "AEDs"), and are often referred to as antiseizure drugs because they provide symptomatic treatment only and have not been demonstrated to alter the course of epilepsy.. Gabapentin (Neurontin) has been approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization . Begin with 300 mg daily; increase to 900 to 1,800 mg daily given every 6 to 8 hours. Side Effects maybe: Somnolence, fatigue, ataxia, dizziness, gastrointestinal upset, dyspnea.. A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, gabapentin does not interact with GABA receptors. Its mechanism of action is unknown.. Gabapentin is well absorbed orally, circulates mostly unbound in the plasma and is excreted unchanged in the kidneys without appreciable metabolism in the body. Oral bioavailability is approximately 60 percent and is not affected by food. The half-life is five to seven hours and is related to the creatinine clearance. ...
Gabapentin - Mechanism: possibly due to its structural similarity to GABA, but precise mechanism remains unknown. - Currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures, but also used in off label indications eg neuropathic pain, muscle spasm. - Gabapentin as monotherapy for partial seizures: Two large monotherapy trials have looked at this. This first compared…
Investigators reported that in nearly 50 percent of cases, epileptic women of childbearing age were not counseled about antiepileptic drug treatment effects on contraception and pregnancy nor counseled about the benefits of taking folic acid, according to available electronic medical records.. Doctors caring for epilepsy patients during the childbearing years are aware of the serious risks that many of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have on the developing fetus. Epilepsy and pregnancy registries have offered researchers and doctors a critical window into the risks of individual medicines, and the information is now used to guide decisions for birth control and use of safer antiepileptic drugs in patients wanting children.. But is the information being documented in the electronic medical record (EMR), and would that information (and documentation) help in reducing the risk of malformations and other adverse events? A team of scientists studied EMRs to see whether there was documentation that ...
Pfizer announced top-line results for its Phase 3 study which showed Lyrica (pregabalin; Pfizer) capsules CV were as effective as levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in adult epilepsy patients experiencing refractory partial onset seizures.
Provides a rational basis for treatment decisions involving antiepileptic drug use during pregnancy and in those wishing to become pregnant Offers an
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used extensively to treat multiple non-epilepsy disorders, both in neurology and psychiatry. This article provides a review of the clinical efficacy of AEDs in...
This review studied the outcome of cats treated with either phenobarbital or a combination of other antiepileptic drugs with respect to the number of seizures per year and quality of life.
ROCKVILLE, Md., Dec. 16, 2008-The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced it will require the manufacturers of antiepileptic drugs to add to these pro
Simultaneous toxicities in a child on multiple anticonvulsants.: It is rare to develop simultaneous toxicities while on anticonvulsants. This article presents a
Different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) vary considerably in their characteristics, which influences the risk of whether switching between different manufacturers products of a particular drug may cause adverse effects or loss of seizure control. AEDs have been divided into three risk-based categories to help healthcare professionals decide whether it is necessary to maintain continuity of supply of a specific manufacturers product
Eight epileptic patients receiving anticonvulsants had recurrent visual disturbances in the form of diplopia and oscillopsia in the horizontal or vertical planes. The symptoms could be ascribed to impaired vergence mechanisms, vertical nystagmus, or
Researchers have identified genetic variants that are associated with severe adverse skin reactions to the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, according to a study in the August 6 issue of JAMA.
Definition of anticonvulsant - (chiefly of a drug) used to prevent or reduce the severity of epileptic fits or other convulsions.
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Mums of children with Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome - I am setting this group up to enable families of children with Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome...
Increased out-of-pocket costs for antiepileptic drugs were associated with decreased adherence, higher healthcare utilization, and higher spending among US commercial health plan beneficiaries with epilepsy.
Researchers are also learning that effects of AEDs in offspring may not be so instant. "We are recognizing that we need to not only be concerned about birth defects from the AEDs, but also about cognitive effects later in the child s life," says Dr. Pennell. "At two years of age, we are realizing some of these children are experiencing speech delays, delays in walking and difficulties with fine motor skills. This study should help us notice the subtle differences in a child s ability to learn, and it should help us understand how to best care for pregnant women and their children." The NEAD study looks at the child s actual IQ vs. its predicted IQ based on parental testing ...
Safe drugstore To Buy Topamax Over The Counter. Topamax (Topiramate) is a neuronal stabilizing agent, also known as an anticonvulsant medication. It affects several chemicals in the brain that help to reduce seizure activity and prevent migraine headaches from occurring. Topamax may also be marketed as:Epitomax, Tipiramate, Tipiramato, Topamac, Topiramate ...
Valnoctamide (MI-181) is a chiral constitutional isomer of valproic acid. It is a mild tranquilizer endowed with anticonvulsant properties, suggesting it may be an alternative treatment for epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Valnoctamide does not show any teratogenic effect, even when used in relatively high dosages.
Impaired cardiac myocardial function may contribute to the risk for sudden unexpected death of a patient with epilepsy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) on cardiac function in pediatric epileptic patients using
Lamotrigine belongs to the group of anticonvulsant drugs. This medication is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine can be also applied for other purposes. 25/50/100/200/mg.
Ralitoline is an anticonvulsant. Ralitoline has sodium channel blocking activities. The efficacy of this compound seems to be comparable or even better than that of conventional antiepileptics.
Older patients are more likely to experience fractures of the wrist, hip and vertebrea if they are taking antiepileptic drugs, a population-based analysis has shown.
Om att få Billig Topamax Läkemedel. Topamax (Topiramate) is a neuronal stabilizing agent, also known as an anticonvulsant medication. It affects several chemicals in the brain that help to reduce seizure activity and prevent migraine headaches from occurring. ...
by Tiffany Collins , Jan 2, 2013 , Family, Health, Medicine. Topamax is a medication that has been shown to significantly improve symptoms for individuals with epilepsy. Unfortunately, recent research has shown that mothers who take this medication while pregnant are at a significantly higher risk of having a child with a birth defect than those who were on other anticonvulsant medications or those not taking medications at all. These birth defects can have a remarkably negative impact on the lives of both the child and their parents.. Until recently, the impact of Topamax on pregnant women and their children was not widely known. However, the FDA has now placed Topamax in Category D for pregnant users, indicating that these effects are now acknowledged and that the use of Topamax may be inadvisable for pregnant women. For women who have already suffered the birth of a child with a birth defect, however, this stands as little consolation for the pain and suffering theyve undergone.. Birth ...
the last IFCC-HbA1c is 64 mmol/mol (equivalent The percentage of women under the age of 55 years who are to HbA1c of 8% in DCCT values) or less (or taking antiepileptic drugs who have a record of information and equivalent test/reference range depending on local counselling about contraception, conception and pregnancy in the The percentage of patients with diabetes in whom Percentage of patients on the Learning Disability register with the last IFCC-HbA1c is 75 mmol/mol (equivalent Downs Syndrome aged 18 years and over who have a record of to HbA1c of 9% in DCCT values) or less (or blood TSH in the preceding 15 months (excluding those who are on equivalent test/reference range depending on local The percentage of patients with a new diagnosis of dementia from The percentage of patients with diabetes with a April 2011 to have FBC, calcium, glucose, renal and liver function, record of a foot examination and risk classification: thyroid function tests, serum vitamin B12 and folate levels 1) low ...
Progabide is an analog and prodrug of gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy. It has agonistic activity for both the GABAA and GABAB receptors. Progabide has been investigated for many diseases besides epilepsy, including Parkinsons disease, schizophrenia, clinical depression and anxiety disorder with varying success.
Best Place To Order Topamax Generic Now. Topamax (Topiramate) is a neuronal stabilizing agent, also known as an anticonvulsant medication. It affects several chemicals in the brain that help to reduce seizure activity and prevent migraine headaches from occurring. Topamax may also be marketed as:Epitomax, Tipiramate, Tipiramato, Topamac, Topiramate ...
Depending on the patient, Inova may use a single anti epileptic medication or a combination of anti epileptic medications to control seizures
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Do prophylactic anticonvulsants decrease the risk of seizure in patients with metastatic brain tumors compared with no treatment? Target population These recommendations apply to adults with solid brain metastases who have not experienced a seizure due to their metastatic brain disease. Recommendation
CO Topiramate: Topiramate belongs to a group of medications that are used to treat epilepsy. It works by affecting chemicals in the brain that are involved in sending signals to nerves. Topiramate is a medication that is used to treat epilepsy and to prevent migraine headaches.
Topiramate by Sivem: Topiramate belongs to a group of medications that are used to treat epilepsy. It works by affecting chemicals in the brain that are involved in sending signals to nerves. Topiramate is a medication that is used to treat epilepsy and to prevent migraine headaches.
Lamotrigine belongs to the group of anticonvulsant drugs. This medication is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine can be also applied for other purposes.
Shtull-Leber E, Silbergleit R, Meurer WJ (2017) Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173539. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173539 ...
Shtull-Leber E, Silbergleit R, Meurer WJ (2017) Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173539. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173539 ...
The report presents a definitive analysis of market drivers, market restraints, and trends that will impact progression of the global anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain market until the end of 2025.
Anesthetics, NMB, Narcotics, Sedatives & Anticonvulsants. Georgia Baptist College of Nursing Kathy Plitnick RN PhD CCRN. Anesthetics. Anesthesia - loss of sensation with/without loss of consciousness Analgesia - loss of pain sensation Types of Anesthesia Slideshow 6692926 by...
Health,A new study by researchers at the A & A Pain Institute in St Louis Mi...Researchers said they witnessed dramatic results in all seven pati...,Relief,from,cancer,pain,with,anticonvulsants,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic anticonvulsants, antihypoxics, and liver monooxygenase system inducers based on amides and urea. XI. Synthesis of alkyl- and arylalkylureas and their effects on the liver monooxygenase system. AU - Bakibaev, S. S.. AU - Akhmedzhanov, R. R.. AU - Filimonov, V. D.. AU - Novocheeva, T. P.. AU - Saratikov, A. S.. AU - Tignibidina, L. G.. AU - Pustovoitov, A. V.. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14744281917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=14744281917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00780583. DO - 10.1007/BF00780583. M3 - Article. VL - 27. SP - 631. EP - 634. JO - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. JF - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. SN - 0091-150X. IS - 9. ER - ...
Self help for health problems. You can get all the info you need about health problems solutions Anticonvulsants problem solutionAnticoagulant citrate dextrose solution - definition of ....
Read "Design and synthesis of certain substituted cycloalkanecarboxamides structurally related to safinamide with anticonvulsant potential, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
B92 Purpose: To evaluate the safety and toxicity of gefitinib and rapamycin, while secondarily determining time to tumor progression, overall survival and quality of life in recurrent GBM. GBMs overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and gefitinib inhibits EGFR tyrosine kinase. The protein mTOR also promotes GBM growth and rapamycin blocks the interaction of mTOR with its target proteins. Therefore, the combination of gefitinib and rapamycin should have a synergistic effect in treating GBM because a possible mechanism of EGFR TKI resistance may be targeted by mTOR antagonists. Patients and Methods: Patients aged 18 years or older with recurrent progressive GBM treated previously with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy and KPS , 40% are eligible. Gefitinib is dosed at 500 mg/day for patients, who are not taking enzyme inducing anti-epileptic drugs (-EIAED) and patients with enzyme inducing anti-epileptic drugs (EIAED) the dose is escalated to 1000 mg/day. ...
A Norwegian study showed signs that a drug commonly used to prevent seizures also can reduce blood pressure (BP) as well as body weight in obese patients with hypertension. The drug topiramate (Topamax) is usually given to epileptic patients whose seizures are uncontrolled by other antiseizure medications. The study involved 531 obese patients who were given either a placebo, one dose of topiramate, or 2 doses. The patients were instructed to follow a standardized diet along with an exercise plan and behavioral modification. At the end of 28 weeks, the average weight loss for the placebo group, the lower-dose topiramate group, and the higher-dose topiramate group was 1.9%, 5.9%, and 6.5%, respectively. Decreases in BP readings also were significantly higher for the topiramate groups. Researchers noted that the number of patients who lost at least 5% of their total body weight was significantly higher in the 2 topiramate groups than in the placebo group. No difference in results was noted between ...
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... Lamictal is an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. It is used to treat seizures or to delay mood episodes in adults with bipolar disorder.
To surprise you, the keto diet wasnt created for weight loss at all.. It was originally developed back in the 1920s to treat epilepsy.. Dr. Wilder of the Mayo Clinic at that time was on a quest to find a way to treat epilepsy through a diet alone. He theorized the concept of a keto diet when he made a connection between carb depletion and fasting (2).. By keeping carbs low, the diet can mimic the effects of fasting, a method that controls seizures.. The carb depletion starves the bodys main energy source, glucose.. This is then supplemented by the intake of fat. The result is the induction of ketosis and production of ketones out of fat to be used as fuel.. With this method, Wilder saw a reduction in seizures by half. It was a far more effective treatment than medications at that time.. All while this Keto diet was taking a root in the medical field, it recently gained popularity as a way to burn fat. In 2018, it even became one of the most searched diets. a. The effectiveness of the diet as a ...
The first part of this study examined the ability of the three antiepileptic drugs to inhibit responses in the hot-plate test, which evaluates acute nociceptive function. Only systemically administered TGB was effective in this test. Systemically administered LTG or GBP had no effect, as did i.t. administered TGB, LTG, and GBP. Our results agree with previous acute nociceptive studies on normal rodents in which LTG had no effect in hot-plate or tail-flick tests (Nakamura-Craig and Follenfant, 1995), and GBP had no effect in paw pinch (Field et al., 1997), heat-evoked paw withdrawal (Field et al., 1997), or tail-flick tests (Hunter et al., 1997; Shimoyama et al., 1997). However, in agreement with our study, both 3 and 10 mg/kg TGB produced antinociception in the hot-plate test after systemic administration in mice (Giardina et al., 1998; Ipponi et al., 1999). These results suggest that antiepileptic drugs have little or no effect on most measures of normal transient nociceptive signaling, but ...
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Topamax - generic topiramate - is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy, migraine headaches, and is often prescribed off-label for bipolar disorder.
Ava-Topiramate: Topiramate belongs to a group of medications that are used to treat epilepsy. It works by affecting chemicals in the brain that are involved in sending signals to nerves. Topiramate is a medication that is used to treat epilepsy and to prevent migraine headaches.
Scientists at the University of York have discovered that a drug used widely to combat epilepsy has the potential to reduce the growth and spread of breast cancer.
Lamictal, whose generic name is lamotrigine, is an anticonvulsant drug used alone or with other drugs to treat seizures in adults and children with...
Lamictal is an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. It is used to treat seizures or to delay mood episodes in adults with bipolar disorder. | Ph24h.com
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Hepatic hydroxylation with highly individual variation in dosing. Obeys first-order kinetics in the therapeutic range, and zero-order kinetics just above the therapeutic range. Metabolised by CYP450. Induces warfarin, benzodiazepines, OCP metabolism. Inhibited by metronidazole, chloramphenicol, isoniazid. Genetic polymorphism results in reduced metabolism in 5-15% of patients ...
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A therapeutic agent containing as active ingredient anhydro-2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolium hydroxide and/or anhydro-2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium hydroxi
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Looking for online definition of Anticonvulsant medication in the Medical Dictionary? Anticonvulsant medication explanation free. What is Anticonvulsant medication? Meaning of Anticonvulsant medication medical term. What does Anticonvulsant medication mean?
The precise mechanism(s) by which levetiracetam exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown. The antiepileptic activity of levetiracetam was assessed in a number of animal models of epileptic seizures. Levetiracetam did not inhibit single seizures induced by maximal stimulation with electrical current or different chemoconvulsants and showed only minimal activity in submaximal stimulation and in threshold tests. Protection was observed, however, against secondarily generalized activity from focal seizures induced by pilocarpine and kainic acid, two chemoconvulsants that induce seizures that mimic some features of human complex partial seizures with secondary generalization. Levetiracetam also displayed inhibitory properties in the kindling model in rats, another model of human complex partial seizures, both during kindling development and in the fully kindled state. The predictive value of these animal models for specific types of human epilepsy is uncertain.. In vitro and in vivo recordings of ...
Primidone is a barbiturate with anticonvulsant properties. Primidone, either alone or used concomitantly with other anticonvulsants, is indicated in the control of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures. It may control grand mal seizures refractory to other anticonvulsant therapy. Primidone raises electro- or chemoshock seizure thresholds or alters seizure patterns in experimental animals. Primidone per se has anticonvulsant activity as do its two metabolites, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). In addition to its anticonvulsant activity, Primidone potentiates that of phenobarbital in experimental animals ...
DRIXORAL® NASAL SOLUTION Schering Oxymetazoline HCl Nasal Decongestant Indications And Clinical Uses: The relief of congestion of the nasopharyngeal mucous membranes in a variety of allergic and infectious disorders of the upper respiratory tract, including acute rhinitis and nasopharyngitis; acute and chronic sinusitis; acute and chronic vasomotor rhinitis; perennial allergic rhinitis and seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever).. Contra-Indications: Narrow angle glaucoma, rhinitis sicca. Concurrent therapy with MAO inhibitors. Hypersensitivity to any component. Sensitivity to even small doses of adrenergic substances as manifested by sleeplessness, dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, tremulousness, or cardiac arrhythmias. Do not use for irrigation or displacement after sinus operations in which the dura may have been entered.. Precautions: To be used only in adults and children over 6 years of age. Do not exceed the recommended dose.. Systemic effects from the use of topical decongestants can ...
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptins anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited ...
Looking for online definition of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure in the Medical Dictionary? secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure explanation free. What is secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure? Meaning of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure medical term. What does secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure mean?
Cases of epilepsy may be organized into epilepsy syndromes by the specific features that are present. These features include the age at which seizures begin, the seizure types, and EEG findings, among others. Identifying an epilepsy syndrome is useful as it helps determine the underlying causes as well as what anti-seizure medication should be tried. The ability to categorize a case of epilepsy into a specific syndrome occurs more often with children since the onset of seizures is commonly early. Less serious examples are benign rolandic epilepsy (2.8 per 100,000), childhood absence epilepsy (0.8 per 100,000) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (0.7 per 100,000). Severe syndromes with diffuse brain dysfunction caused, at least partly, by some aspect of epilepsy, are also referred to as epileptic encephalopathies. These are associated with frequent seizures that are resistant to treatment and severe cognitive dysfunction, for instance Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and West syndrome. Epilepsies with onset ...
In this cohort of 519 patients, 60 (11.6%) had epileptic seizures associated with SLE disease activity. The frequency of epileptic seizures in previous studies ranged between 8.3 and 28%.1,5-10,21⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓ Epileptic seizures at disease onset were identified in 19 (31.7%) of these 60 patients. Epileptic seizures occurred after the onset of the disease in 41 (68.3%) patients. Fifty-three (88.3%) patients had a single epileptic seizure episode, and 7 (11.7%) had recurrent epileptic seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures were the most common epileptic seizures observed in this study. At disease onset, epileptic seizures were associated with stroke and the presence of moderate to higher titers of IgG antiphospholipid antibodies. The association between higher titers of antiphospholipid antibodies and seizures has been demonstrated previously.2,4,9,22-26⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓. Epileptic seizures may occur in isolation or accompany other neurologic ...
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy, or JME, is a generalized epilepsy that presents in adolescence. It is a generalized epilepsy because the onset of seizures occurs throughout the surface of the brain. This is indicated by abnormal discharges on EEG, often with strobe light stimulation.. JME often presents with episodic myoclonus, which are involuntary, brief muscle jerking symptoms. These may be prominent in the morning. Sometimes this causes small accidents, such as flinging a toothbrush or spoon, apparently by accident. Patients with JME may also have absence seizures or generalized tonic clonic seizures, although these are less common. Sleep deprivation may provoke seizures in JME.. People with JME have a risk of seizures throughout their life. Neurologists recommend to continue treatment to prevent seizures indefinitely.. JME is a fairly common form of epilepsy, accounting for about 5-10 % of all epilepsy cases.. JME is often treated effectively with medication, especially valproate, ...

How to Survive Stevens‐Johnson Syndrome: 10 StepsHow to Survive Stevens‐Johnson Syndrome: 10 Steps

Medications to treat seizures or mental illness (anticonvulsants and antipsychotics). * Therapy. *Radiation Therapy ...
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Stevens Johnson Syndrome  | Content with PicturesStevens Johnson Syndrome | Content with Pictures

Anticonvulsants. *Anti-inflammatory drugs. *Diuretics. *Sedatives. *COX-2 inhibitors. Symptoms of Stevens Johnson Syndrome ...
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Steven Johnson Syndrome: Treatment, Causes, Symptoms, Homeopathic TreatmentSteven Johnson Syndrome: Treatment, Causes, Symptoms, Homeopathic Treatment

Steven Johnson Syndrome Treatment - Stevens - Johnson syndrome is a rare but serious disorder of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane leading to the red or purplish rash. Read causes, symptoms and homeopathic treatment for Steven Johnson Syndrome.
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Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Lawsuit Attorney Archives - Rappaport LawStevens-Johnson Syndrome Lawsuit Attorney Archives - Rappaport Law

There are a number of approaches one can take when filing a Stevens-Johnson lawsuit.. If you are looking for a Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Lawsuit Attorney, they may either assist you with filing an individual Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Lawsuit; or a Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Class Action Lawsuit.. Individual Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Lawsuits are filed by one individual, and involve one claim against the manufacturer of a medication that may have caused Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.. This means, all the information filed, is filed solely on your behalf. Your Stevens-Johnson Syndrome case file will contain all relevant medical records and other information related to the onset and treatment of your Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.. Another type of Stevens-Johnson Lawsuit is a Class Action Lawsuit. A Stevens-Johnson Class Action Lawsuit is filed with a larger group of people. While the same information regarding the symptoms, treatment and cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome are still ...
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Stevens Johnson Syndrome | Med-Health.netStevens Johnson Syndrome | Med-Health.net

... pain killers and anticonvulsants. Furthermore, infection, vaccinations or other diseases may also lead to Stevens Johnson ...
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About: ParaldehydeAbout: Paraldehyde

Anticonvulsant. *. Acetic acid. *. Placebo effect. *. Anticonvulsants. *. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators. *. ...
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Anticonvulsant - WikipediaAnticonvulsant - Wikipedia

Anticonvulsant Screening Program Use of Anticonvulsants in Pharmacotherapy of Bronchial Asthma MDNG: Anticonvulsants and Bone ... Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the ... It is still used as an anticonvulsant for dogs and cats. Felbamate (1993). This effective anticonvulsant has had its usage ... "anticonvulsant" therapies as well. However they do not work as well as the anticonvulsant drugs According to guidelines by the ...
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Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome - WikipediaAnticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome - Wikipedia

As this syndrome can present secondary to multiple anticonvulsants, the general term "anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome ... Anticonvulsant/sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with ... drugs with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, ...
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anticonvulsant - Wiktionaryanticonvulsant - Wiktionary

Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=anticonvulsant&oldid=48103602" ...
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Posttraumatic Epilepsy Medication: AnticonvulsantsPosttraumatic Epilepsy Medication: Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants. Class Summary. These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. ... Prophylactic Anticonvulsants After Neurosurgery. Epilepsy Curr. 2002 Jul. 2(4):105-107. [Medline]. ...
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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Medication: AnticonvulsantsTemporal Lobe Epilepsy Medication: Anticonvulsants

This anticonvulsant is effective for a broad spectrum of seizure types; it is believed to exert its anticonvulsant effect by ... Anticonvulsants. Class Summary. These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. ... The anticonvulsant rufinamide (Banzel) was approved as an adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut ...
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Anxieties.com | AnticonvulsantsAnxieties.com | Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants. Valproic Acid (Depakote). Possible Benefits. Valproic acid is an epilepsy medication that is now used for the ...
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Anticonvulsants Products | Medline Industries, Inc.Anticonvulsants Products | Medline Industries, Inc.

You are currently visiting Medline.com in Internet Explorer 8 which is not supported. Please upgrade your browser or switch to a supported browser. For a list of supported browsers visit: https://www.medline.com/help/tech-support/. ...
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Anticonvulsant News, ResearchAnticonvulsant News, Research

Anticonvulsants found to be ineffective for low back pain and can have adverse effects Anticonvulsant drugs are increasingly ... Using popular anticonvulsant drug to thwart inflammation Serious conditions, including sepsis, stem from inflammation in the ... Herbs, including cilantro, have a long history of use as folk medicine anticonvulsants. Until now, many of the underlying ... The University of Utah College of Pharmacys Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program has been awarded a five-year $19.5 million ...
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Anticonvulsants, dermal complications. - Free Online LibraryAnticonvulsants, dermal complications. - Free Online Library

Anticonvulsants, dermal complications.(Report, Letter to the editor) by Journal of Pakistan Medical Association; Health, ... Madam, Epilepsy is one of the prevalent neurological diseases treated with several drugs especially anticonvulsants.1 Although ... S.v. Anticonvulsants, dermal complications.." Retrieved Mar 24 2019 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Anticonvulsants%2c+ ... Anticonvulsants are of main elements in controlling and preventing from epileptic seizures.4 Different kinds of anticonvulsants ...
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Anticonvulsants | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | NaturalAnticonvulsants | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural

Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants. Additional Keywords : Anticonvulsants, epilepsy, Lotus, Natural Substances Versus ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants. Additional Keywords : Drug: Nortriptyline, Superiority of Natural Substances versus ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants, Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants, Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation. Additional Keywords : Superiority of ...
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Downloadable Document - Anticonvulsants | GreenMedInfo | NaturalDownloadable Document - Anticonvulsants | GreenMedInfo | Natural

29 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Anticonvulsants. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / year FRIEND USER get ... Oleuropein has anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice.. Click here to read the entire ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Anticonvulsants. ... Some Example Abstracts on Anticonvulsants. T. americana var. mexicana significantly prevented severity of PTZ-induced seizures ...
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Anticonvulsants and Bone LossAnticonvulsants and Bone Loss

... that more research is needed at this time to guide the evaluation and treatment of bone disease in patients on anticonvulsant ... Anticonvulsants and Bone Loss. By MGH Center for Womens Mental Health,2015-08-12T16:39:48-04:00May 18th, 2010,General,2 ... Anticonvulsants are not only used for the treatment of epilepsy but are now used with increasing frequency for the treatment of ... A recent review of the literature by Lee and colleagues suggests that anticonvulsants may increase the odds of fracture by 1.2 ...
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List of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants - Drugs.comList of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants - Drugs.com

Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... List of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants:. Filter by: -- all conditions --. Benign Essential Tremor. Bipolar ...
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Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) - Canadian Cancer SocietyCorticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) - Canadian Cancer Society

... anticonvulsants) are commonly used to treat the symptoms caused by brain and spinal cord tumours and their treatment. They may ... Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants). Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are ... Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants *Childhood brain and spinal tumours *The brain and spinal cord ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Brain and spinal cord - childhood / Treatment / Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants ...
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How are anticonvulsants used for the treatment of fibromyalgia?How are anticonvulsants used for the treatment of fibromyalgia?

Anticonvulsants are useful for chronic pain states, including fibromyalgia and related syndromes and various types of ... encoded search term (How are anticonvulsants used for the treatment of fibromyalgia?) and How are anticonvulsants used for the ... Anticonvulsants often cause sedation, so they should be started using low doses at night with gradual up-titration and/or use ... Anticonvulsants are useful for chronic pain states, including fibromyalgia and related syndromes and various types of ...
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Anticonvulsant News, Research - Page 8Anticonvulsant News, Research - Page 8

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that a class of anti-seizure medications slows the rate of aging in roundworms. The worms, when exposed to drugs used to treat epilepsy in humans, lived longer and retained youthful functions longer than normal.. ...
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Anticonvulsants Drug Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size,Anticonvulsants Drug Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size,

... Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017 - 2025 - published on ... Generic and branded anticonvulsants are restraining the growth of novel therapie … Anticonvulsants, also commonly known as ... Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market unprovoked by 2025 Global Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market: Snapshot ... Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market Business Strategy & Forecast by 2025 Global Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain ...
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Essential Drugs): Section 5: Anticonvulsants/AntiepilepticsEssential Drugs): Section 5: Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics

"Essential Drugs) / Section 5: Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics. ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???? :. BB ??? ??? ???????:. [url= ... Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics[/url]. HTML ???:. ,a target="_blank" href="http://www.medlinks.ru/sections.php?op=viewarticle& ...
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  • The retrospective study by researchers D. Matthews and G. Matthews included 91 children and adolescents who were prescribed the anticonvulsant oxcarbazepine and the dopamine agonist amantadine following hospitalization for severe aggression, mood instability, and impulsivity. (bipolarnews.org)
  • Pretreatment of rats with antisense peptide nucleic acid targeted to galanin receptor type 1 mRNA abolished the effect of galnon, suggesting mediation of its anticonvulsant properties through this receptor subtype. (pnas.org)
  • b ) Anticonvulsant effects of galnon in animal model of SSSE were M35 sensitive. (nih.gov)
  • Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are commonly used to treat the symptoms caused by brain and spinal cord tumours and their treatment. (cancer.ca)
  • Anticonvulsants often cause sedation, so they should be started using low doses at night with gradual up-titration and/or use during the day. (medscape.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants in pregnancy: alterations in plasma protein binding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anticonvulsant levels decline as pregnancy progresses, even in the face of constant and, in some cases, increased dosages of medications. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Changes in plasma protein binding may explain the declines in anticonvulsant concentrations during pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The free fraction for all anticonvulsants studied rose significantly throughout pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Anticonvulsants. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Anticonvulsants. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Recent studies have indicated that anticonvulsants may negatively affect bone mineral density, as well as increase fracture risk. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • It is clear, however, that healthy pre-menopausal women may also experience bone loss when treated with anticonvulsants. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • On the basis of the reported literature, we study here thiadiazole compounds and their synthetic methods chemistry and anticonvulsant activity. (hindawi.com)
  • used more powerful longitudinal methods to compare the risk of suicidal ideation in individuals taking and not taking anticonvulsants and found no such increase in suicidal behavior. (bipolarnews.org)
  • Megaloblastic erythropoiesis and macrocytosis in patients on anticonvulsants. (bmj.com)
  • Wickramasinghe S N , Williams G , Saunders J , Durston J H . Megaloblastic erythropoiesis and macrocytosis in patients on anticonvulsants. (bmj.com)