Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
An anticonvulsant effective in absence seizures, but generally reserved for refractory cases because of its toxicity. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p378)
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.
A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
A hypnotic and sedative with anticonvulsant effects. However, because of the hazards associated with its administration, its tendency to react with plastic, and the risks associated with its deterioration, it has largely been superseded by other agents. It is still occasionally used to control status epilepticus resistant to conventional treatment. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p608-9)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
The formation of CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES.
A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.
A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/3775)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose. (2/3775)

A method for the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) from equine urine and serum and their quantitation and confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Valium, a formulation of diazepam, was administered at a dose of 10 mg intramuscularly to four standard-bred mares. Diazepam is extensively metabolized in the horse to nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam. Diazepam urinary concentrations were found to be less than 6 ng/mL. Nordiazepam was found to be mainly in its glucuronide-conjugated form and was measured out to a collection time of 53-55 h. Oxazepam and temazepam were entirely conjugated, and their urinary concentrations were measured out to collection times of 121 h and 77-79 h, respectively. Diazepam and nordiazepam were measured in equine postadministration serum out to collection times of 6 and 54 h, respectively. Oxazepam and temazepam were not detected in postadministration serum.  (+info)

Inhibition of transient and persistent Na+ current fractions by the new anticonvulsant topiramate. (3/3775)

The actions of the antiepileptic drug topiramate (TPM) on Na+ currents were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dissociated neocortical neurons and intracellular recordings in neocortical slices. Relatively low TPM concentrations (25-30 microM) slightly inhibited the persistent fraction of Na+ current in dissociated neurons and reduced the Na+-dependent long-lasting action potential shoulders, which can be evoked in layer V pyramidal neurons after Ca++ and K+ current blockade. Conversely, the same drug concentrations were ineffective in reducing the amplitude of the fast Na+-dependent action potentials evoked in slices or the peak of transient Na+ (INaf) current evoked in isolated neurons from a physiological holding potential. Consistent INaf inhibition became, however, evident only when the neuronal membrane was kept depolarized to enhance resting Na+ channel inactivation. TPM (100 microM) was ineffective on the voltage dependence of activation but induced a leftward shift of the steady-state INaf inactivation curve. The drug-induced inhibitory effect increased with the duration of membrane depolarization, and the recovery of INaf after long membrane depolarizations was slightly delayed in comparison with that observed under control conditions. The obtained evidence suggests that the anticonvulsant action of TPM may operate by stabilizing channel inactivation, which can be induced by depolarizing events similar to those occurring in chronic epileptic conditions. Concurrently, the slight but significant inhibition of the persistent fraction of the Na+ current, obtained with the application of relatively low TPM concentrations, may contribute toward its anticonvulsant effectiveness by modulating the near-threshold depolarizing events that are sustained by this small current fraction.  (+info)

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. (4/3775)

The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (5/3775)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (6/3775)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of riluzole on the neurological and neuropathological changes in an animal model of cardiac arrest-induced movement disorder. (7/3775)

Posthypoxic myoclonus and seizures precipitate as secondary neurological consequences in ischemic/hypoxic insults of the central nervous system. Neuronal hyperexcitation may be due to excessive activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, an effect that has been shown to follow ischemic/hypoxic events. Therefore, riluzole, an anticonvulsant that inhibits the release of glutamate by stabilizing the inactivated state of activated voltage-sensitive sodium channels, was tested for its antimyoclonic and neuroprotective properties in the cardiac arrest-induced animal model of posthypoxic myoclonus. Riluzole (4-12 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated the audiogenic seizures and action myoclonus seen in this animal model. Histological examination using Nissl staining and the novel Fluoro-Jade histochemistry in cardiac-arrested animals showed an extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Riluzole treatment almost completely prevented the neuronal degeneration in these brain areas. The neuroprotective effect was more pronounced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. These effects were seen at therapeutically relevant doses of riluzole, and the animals tolerated the treatment well. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of posthypoxic myoclonus and seizure may involve excessive activation of glutamate neurotransmission, and that riluzole may serve as an effective pharmacological agent with neuroprotective potential for the treatment of neurological conditions associated with cardiac arrest in humans.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (8/3775)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

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Because of increasing concern about the systemic and neurologic toxicity of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (1), the question of if and when to withdraw AEDs in epileptic patients whose seizures are well controlled is a common clinical problem. Until recently, many physicians were reluctant to discontinue AED therapy because of the lack of reliable data on the risk for seizure recurrence. Further, no study to date has compared the risk for seizure recurrence on withdrawing medication with the risk for recurrence associated with continuing therapy. This randomized study by the Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group, however, provides the clinician with important prognostic data on AED withdrawal. It is clear that remission of seizures is possible in many epileptic patients whose AEDs are withdrawn slowly. In this study, 59% of patients not taking AEDs remained seizure-free at 2 years. This study helps to identify those for whom drug withdrawal is a ...
Background: Anticonvulsants are employed to treat a variety of disorders. The most common adverse side effects of anticonvulsants are mediated via the central nervous system. Examples include sedation, dizziness, psychomotor slowing, and impairment of attention, memory, and other cognitive functions. Since multiple new anticonvulsants have been introduced in recent years, the question arises as to the frequency and magnitude of their cognitive side effects. Method: Experimental design flaws in assessing the cognitive effects of anticonvulsants were reviewed. A MEDLINE search of the medical literature was conducted, cross-referencing terms related to cognition and anticonvulsants. Research articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic and adherence to methodological criteria. Results: Incomplete information is available on the new anticonvulsants, but the present data suggest that some of the newer anticonvulsants possess favorable cognitive profiles. Also, the importance of dosing ...
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that often requires long-term antiepileptic drug treatment; unfortunately, these drugs can have long-term side effects. Until recently, many physicians were reluctant to discontinue antiepileptic drugs because the risk for seizure recurrence was thought to be dangerously high. The study by Berg and Shinnar suggests that patients may have a better chance of remaining seizure-free than previously thought. By using meta-analysis, the authors evaluated a comprehensive group of primary studies that focused on seizure relapse after discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs. The review was carefully designed with no important methodologic problems. The risk for seizure relapse after antiepileptic drug withdrawal at 1 year was 25%, which represents the lowest risk for recurrence in patients with the most favorable clinical features. Berg and Shinnar assessed 3 clinical features that modified the recurrence risk. The risk was increased for adult- and adolescent-onset compared ...
Title:N-Valproyl-L-Phenylalanine as New Potential Antiepileptic Drug: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Studies on Stability, Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Efficacy. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Viviana De Caro, Anna Lisa Scaturro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Giuseppe Avellone, Gabriella Schiera, Evelina Ferrantelli, Maria Carafa, Valerio Rizzo, Fabio Carletti, Pierangelo Sardo and Libero Italo Giannola. Affiliation:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32-90123, Palermo, Italy.. Keywords:Aminoacidic derivative, astrocytes toxicity, CNS-targeting, enzymatic stability, hippocampal epilepsy, valproic acid.. Abstract:Valproic acid (VPA) is considered first-line drug in treatment of generalized idiopathic seizures such as absence, generalized tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizures. Among major antiepileptic drugs, VPA is also considered effective in childhood epilepsies and infantile spasms. Due to its ...
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22 ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Drug therapy of epilepsy--progress of antiepileptic agents in the last 10 years]. by K-i Miyamoto et al.
Osteoporosis or osteopenia has been reported in patients taking antiepileptic drugs, but the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of these abnormalities are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of antiepileptic drugs on bone mass by analyzing bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: We compared 62 epileptic women on long-term antiepileptic therapy the same number of age and weight matched healthy control subjects. We measured the serum calcium, phosphorus, protein, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin for analyzing factors, that have an influence on bone metabolism and BMD. BMD was measured on the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The serum level of calcium and osteocalcin were not different between the groups. The serum level of phosphorus and protein were significantly lower in the patient group compared to their controls. The serum level of alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in the patient group than in their controls. The BMD was ...
Sodium valproate is an anti-epilepsy drug taken by people to control their seizures. Around 5,000 women with epilepsy become pregnant every year in the UK and antiepilepsy drugs have been linked to an increased risk of birth defects such as heart malformations, dysmorphic features and minor limb deformities. Researchers from Liverpool University, Emory University in the U.S. and Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust tested more than 300 3-year-olds whose mothers had taken anti-epilepsy drugs. They found that those women who took sodium valproate while they were pregnant had children with IQs six to nine points lower than those women taking other anti-epilepsy drugs. The researchers stressed that although anti-epilepsy drugs carry a slightly-increased risk of birth defects the risk is still very small and less than the risks to mothers and children from uncontrolled seizures. They advised women concerned about their anti-epilepsy medication to contact their GP before ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The first open study of zonisamide, a novel anticonvulsant, shows efficacy in mania. AU - Shigenobu, Kanba. AU - Gohei, Yagi. AU - Kunitoshi, Kamijima. AU - Toru, Suzuki. AU - Osamu, Tajima. AU - Jun-Ichi, Otaki. AU - Eiji, Arata. AU - Hiroki, Koshikawa. AU - Masashi, Nibuya. AU - Norihisa, Kinoshita. AU - Masahiro, Asai. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - Shigenobu Kanba, Gohei Yagi, Kunitoshi Kamijima, Toru Suzuki, Osamu Tajima, Jun-ichi Otaki, Eiji Arata, Hiroki Koshikawa, Masashi Nibuya, Norihisa Kinoshita and Masahiro Asai: The First Open Study of Zonisamide, A Novel Anticonvulsant, Shows Efficacy in Mania. Prog. Neuro-Psyhopharmacol. & Biol. Psychiat. 1994, 18:3 707-715. 1 Zonisamide, an anticonvulsant developed in Japan, is structurally similar to serotonin. Zonisamide has been proven to have a pharmacological profile that is very similar to that of carbamazepine. Thus, the effect of zonisamide was examined in 24 psychiatric patients: 15 with bipolar manic state, 6 with ...
(HealthDay)-Women on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy for epilepsy or other indications are at increased risk of giving birth to premature and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, according to a study published ...
Researchers from Vienna, Austria and Sao Paulo, Brazil studied the known effects of anticonvulsant drugs on mitochondria, using a literature search to include only references to epilepsy associated with mitochondrial disease, and a specific anti-convulsant drug (i.e. levetiracetam) with a specific mitochondrial function (i.e. mitochondrial membrane potential). Across 31 different anti-convulsant medications, the authors searched for six mitochondrial functions that anticonvulsant drugs may influence. Some medications, such as valproic acid, were extensively studied across all functions while others, such as rufinamide and stiripentol, had no publications matching the search criteria. For each aspect of mitochondrial biology, the anticonvulsants with either greatest benefit or most toxicity were discussed in greater detail. Subsequently, the overall toxicity and tolerability was assessed. Using these findings, the authors describe an approach to treating mitochondrial epilepsy with drugs ...
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices. OBJECTIVES: To compare the time to withdrawal of allocated treatment, remission and first seizure of 10 AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, phenobarbitone, oxcarbazepine, ...
Background: Treatment of pediatric epilepsy has advanced with the development of new antiepileptic drugs. The European Medicines Agency recommends that more research into pediatric drugs for epilepsy is needed.. Objectives: To characterize utilization of antiepileptic drugs in children with a specific emphasis on newer antiepileptic drugs.. Methods: Data were obtained from the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database for the period 2004-2006, including prescription data of more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany. Descriptive analyses were perfomed to assess prevalence and incidence of antiepileptic drug use stratified by age and sex. Mono- and combination therapy were considered as well as the clinical speciality of the prescribing physician.. Results: We identified 13,197 children who received a total of 226,856 antiepileptic drug dispensations. Of these, 140,992 (62.15%) were conventional and 85,864 (37.85%) were newer antiepileptic drugs. Most commonly prescribed ...
ATLANTA, Nov. 5 /PRNewswire/ -- press release, regulated information: UCB announced today that Keppra XR(TM) offers convenient dosing for people with epilepsy. Keppra XR(TM) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2008 for use as an add-on to other antiepileptic treatments for people with partial-onset seizures who are 16 years of age and older. While many people with epilepsy are successfully treated with one or more of the currently available antiepileptic drugs, a significant percentage still live with uncontrolled seizures or intolerable side effects. A recent online survey of 451 people living with epilepsy showed that almost half missed at least one dose of their epilepsy medication in the last month, and 37 percent who missed a dose reported having a breakthrough seizure. More than 80 percent of these people missed a dose of an antiepileptic drug (AED) that was taken multiple times daily and the most common reason reported for having missed a dose was ...
An overall goal of the proposed research is to establish the relationship between antiepileptic drug exposure and outcomes in the mother and child as well as describe and explain the variability in antiepileptic drug exposure and response.. Anticonvulsant blood levels (ABLs) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curves (AUCs) will be used as direct measures of drug exposure. The results will enable clinicians to prospectively calculate individual dosing regimens for the mother in order to optimize dosing and limit unnecessary drug exposure to the child. In addition, genetic samples will be collected, which will provide a valuable resource for future pharmacogenetics studies to further delineate individual variability across patients. ...
Twenty-five to 40 percent of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Treatment with standard anticonvulsants such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenobarbital is often complicated by side effects and by failure to adequately control seizures. Up to 61 percent of patients with seizures report having side effects with antiepileptic drugs. After a 15-year hiatus since the last new antiepileptic drug was marketed, five new drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the control of seizures. Three of these, gabapentin, lamotrigine and topiramate, are approved for use in adults with partial seizures with or without generalization. Felbamate is approved for the above indication and also for use in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare childhood seizure disorder. Felbamate and lamotrigine have the potential of significant side effects and should be prescribed by physicians experienced in
This FDA said its alert is based on the final results of the Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study showing that children exposed to valproate products while their mothers were pregnant had decreased IQs at age 6 compared to children exposed to other antiepileptic drugs…The difference in average IQ between the children who had been exposed to valproate and the children who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs varied between 8 and 11 points depending on the drug to which valproate was compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anticonvulsant action and long-term effects of gabapentin in the immature brain. AU - Cilio, M. R.. AU - Bolanos, A. R.. AU - Liu, Z.. AU - Schmid, R.. AU - Yang, Y.. AU - Stafstrom, C. E.. AU - Mikati, M. A.. AU - Holmes, G. L.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - The anticonvulsant action and the long-term effects on learning, memory and behavior of the new generation antiepileptic drug gabapentin (GBP) were investigated in immature animals. Kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats on postnatal day (P) 35. Animals were treated with GBP or saline from P36 to P75 and spontaneous seizure frequency was monitored. After tapering the drug, the rats were tested in the water maze and open field test. Brains were then analyzed for histological lesions. Animals treated with GBP following KA-induced status epilepticus had a reduced incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures, a better pathology score, and less aggressiveness compared to saline-treated controls. Effectiveness of GBP on ...
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This study will evaluate the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in measuring cortical excitability. The cortex is the outer part of the brain. Patients with seizures have increased cortical excitability and are often treated with antiepileptic drugs to reduce this excitability. The therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs are usually tracked with blood tests that measure their blood levels. However, these blood tests may not always correctly reflect the effects of the drugs on the brain.. TMS has been used successfully to measure cortical excitability in many neurological diseases, including epilepsy, and may be helpful in measuring drug effects on the brain directly. For this procedure, a wire coil is held over the scalp. A brief electrical current is passed through the coil, creating a magnetic pulse that stimulates the brain. This may cause a pulling sensation on the skin under the coil and twitching in muscles of the face, arm, or leg. During the stimulation, the ...
Efficacy and Tolerability of the New Antiepileptic Drugs, I: Treatment of New Onset Epilepsy Report of the TTA and QSS Subcommittees of the American Academy of ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3bf7f8-MGQzZ
View Notes - Lecture_20-Anticonvulsants from PHB 110 at Moraine Valley Community College. Definition: anticonvulsants - drugs used to prevent or treat convulsions
Chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, and phenylephrine requires locating a prescription and sink as of 2010 is yet sold under the brand whose name Nasohist - dm by bioniche pharma, llc. Sildec - pe dm may be used in combination therapies with other antiepileptic drugs without expressing concern for alteration of the blood concentrations of good product, however best if advised me by a doctor or of other antiepileptic drugs.. Read More. ...
A series of fluorinated enaminones have been synthesized from the condensation of 5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione and various amines via the synergistic effect of p-toluenesulfonic acid/acetic acid. The activity of 3-(4-chlorophenylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclohex-2-enone (ADD 386002) and 3-(benzylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclohex-2-enone (ADD 386001) have been established by our research group as lead compounds with significant anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock (MES) seizure test model. The synthesis of these enaminones will help to advance the chemistry of these compounds as well as provide insight to their structural activity relationships, as potential antiepileptic agents. Using the above procedure, we completed the synthesis of fourteen new fluorinated enaminones containing substituted phenyl and heteroaromatic rings. All 14 compounds were characterized by NMR and GC/MS. The lipophilicity of each compound was calculated in order to determine the membrane
Antiepileptic drugs increase the risk of pneumonia in people living with Alzheimers disease, according to research from the University of Eastern Finland.. People with Alzheimers who used antiepileptics have twice the risk of developing pneumonia compared to those not using the drugs, the study, published in the Journal of Alzheimers Disease says.. Antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and pregabalin were all associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. The sedative effects of antiepileptic drugs may explain the increased risk of pneumonia. Nevertheless, fewer than one in ten of those living with Alzheimers have also been diagnosed with epilepsy.. Further research into whether older persons are more sensitive to the effects of antiepileptic drugs is needed. Persons with Alzheimers disease have a higher risk of pneumonia and pneumonia-related mortality than persons without the disease. For this reason, it is important to carefully assess the risks and benefits of ...
A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been established and validated for the determination of S (-) Enantiomer in Lacosamide drug substance. The chromatographic system used normal phase DAICEL Chiralcel OD-H column with UV-Vis detection at 210 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of n-hexane-ethanol, 74:6 (%, v/v) and this mixture was transferred to isopropyl alcohol-trifluoroacetic acid in the ratio of 72:6:0.08 (%, v/v). The method is validated for its specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity and ruggedness. Regression analysis data for the calibration plots were indicative of good linear relationships between response and concentration over the range 0.0174µg mL-1 - 5.398 µg mL-1. The correlation coefficient, r2, was 0.9994 and 0.9988. The value of slop and intercept of the calibration plot was 79403 and -16673. The limit of detection and quantitation were 0.087 ± 7.18 µg mL-1 and 0.263 ± 3.68 µg mL-1. ...
Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions, since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63]. It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
Epilepsy is common in patients with primary malignant brain tumours, with incidence rates from 20 up to 90%, depending on tumour type, the location of the tumour and its proximity to the cortical gray matter [1]-[3]. The epileptogenicity of a tumour is inversely correlated with its growth rate [4]-[6]. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and particularly slow-growing tumours such as gangliogliomas and dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs), are the most epileptogenic [7]-[9]. A decrease in seizure frequency is known to contribute to less morbidity and improved quality of life [10],[11]. Therefore, achieving sustained seizure control in these patients is an important issue in brain tumour treatment.. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. However, AEDs may cause side effects and may also negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life [12]. Moreover, enzyme-inducing AEDs may interfere with chemotherapeutic drugs and corticosteroids and cause additional ...
article{03d20d0e-3ce2-45a2-b810-0a9003a1a7f4, abstract = {Purpose: To study the effect of AED exposure on head circumference in the newborn. Methods: Data on all Swedish singletons births between 1995 and 2005, over 900,000 births, were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The effects of AEDs on birth-weight-adjusted mean head circumference (bw-adj-HC) were estimated by comparison with data from all births in an analysis which was adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, and maternal body mass index. Results: A significant reduction of mean bw-adj-HC was seen after both carbamazepine (CBZ) (standard deviation scores (SDS) = 0.15, p < 0.001) and valproic acid (VPA) (SDS = 0.10, p = 0.04) in monotherapy. No effect on mean bw-adj-HC was seen for phenytoin, clonazepam, lamotrigine and gabapentin. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of microcephaly (bw-adj-HC smaller than 2 SD below the mean) after any AED polytherapy (OR = 2.85, 95% CI: ...
Objectives: Topiramate (Topamax®) is licensed to be used, either in monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment, for generalized tonic clonic seizures or partial seizures with or without secondary generalization and for prevention of migraine. The safety of topiramate in human pregnancy is largely unknown. Here we report on our experience of pregnancies exposed to topiramate.. Methods: This study is part of a prospective, observational, registration and follow-up study. Suitable cases are women with epilepsy who become pregnant while taking topiramate either singly or along with other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and who are referred before outcome of the pregnancy is known. The main outcome measure is the major congenital malformation (MCM) rate. Secondary outcomes include risk of specific MCM, minor malformation rate, birthweight, and gestational age at delivery.. Results: Full outcome data are available on 203 pregnancies. Of these, 178 resulted in live birth; 16 had an MCM (9.0%; 95% CI 5.6% to ...
BioAssay record AID 621652 submitted by ChEMBL: Protective index, ratio of TD50 for albino Sprague-Dawley rat to ED50 for albino Sprague-Dawley rat by maximal electroshock seizures test.
While there have been studies that examined the link between anti-epileptic drugs and bone density loss in adults older than 65, little evidence exists for the association of individual anti-epileptic drugs with bone loss. Nathalie Jetté, M.D., M.Sc., of the University of Calgary, Foothills Hospital, Alberta, Canada, and colleagues studied medical records of 15,792 individuals who experienced non-traumatic fractures between April 1996 and March 2004. Each person was matched with up to three controls, persons without a history of fracture, for a total of 47,289 controls ...
Our findings indicate that children taking AEDs are at high risk of a pDDI while hospitalized, with more than one-quarter of patients exposed to a severe pDDI. Younger patients and those with associated ICU or operating room procedures are at highest risk of potential severe interactions. The majority of these pDDIs are related to the administration of pain medications, steroids, and antibiotics. Although there was a significant overall decrease in the rate of pDDIs over the study period, this decrease was not directly associated with the implementation of CPOE systems.. An estimated 31% of children have chronic medical conditions, of whom 63% are taking medications that will likely be continued when hospitalized with an acute illness. Physicians prescribing medications to hospitalized patients may not always take into account previously prescribed drugs when making treatment decisions. Antiepileptic drugs pose a particular risk for DDIs given the high rate of interactions associated with many ...
Impact of Oxidative Stress and Newer Antiepileptic Drugs on the Albumin and Cortisol Value in Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities With Epilepsy
Impact of Oxidative Stress and Newer Antiepileptic Drugs on the Albumin and Cortisol Value in Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities With Epilepsy
OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the maximum tolerated dose of intravenous irinotecan when administered weekly for 4 weeks in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. II. Describe the pharmacokinetics of this route of administration, measuring both irinotecan and the active metabolite SN-38, and determine the effects of hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, such as anticonvulsants, on the pharmacokinetics in these patients. III. Determine preliminary response data and activity of irinotecan in this patient population. IV. Correlate response with topoisomerase I levels in brain tumor tissue from patients undergoing treatment. OUTLINE: Patients are stratified based on their use/kind of anticonvulsant drugs. This stratification yields two arms for this study. Arm I consists of patients who use anticonvulsant drugs that induce hepatic metabolic enzymes. Arm II consists of patients who use anticonvulsant drugs that cause modest to no induction of hepatic metabolic enzymes or no anticonvulsant drug. Three patients ...
Brivaracetam (BRV; Briviact) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults. BRV is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) with 15- to 30-fold higher affinity than levetiracetam, the first AED acting on SV2A. It has high lipid solubility and rapid brain penetration, with engagement of the target molecule, SV2A, within minutes of administration. BRV has potent broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity in animal models. Phase I studies indicated BRV was well tolerated and showed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile over a wide dose range following single (10-1,000 mg) and multiple (200-800 mg/day) oral dosing ...
View This PDF. NB: This article is only available as a PDF.. Because this piece has no abstract, we have provided for your benefit the first 3 sentences of the full text.. Sir: Over the past several years, the number of new anticonvulsants has increased considerably. As the number of new agents increases, so too does the reporting of off-label uses in psychiatric disorders. Interestingly enough, of all the anticonvulsants available in the United States, only valproate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use in acute mania.​. Primary Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2001;3(2):82-84 [letter]. https://doi.org/10.4088/PCC.v03n0207. ...
Although mood stabilizers, such as lithium, are the first-line treatment for the prevention of new BD episodes, combination therapy has become the standard of care for BD patients. Besides lithium, the use of a mood stabilizer along with an atypical antipsychotic is recommended in many patients. Recently, atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone and aripiprazole) and antiepileptic agents (valproate, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine) are increasingly used as mood stabilizers. To reduce side effects and optimize treatment it is important to perform accurate monitoring of drug blood levels in these patients, who are often treated with multiple drugs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is in fact a powerful tool that, starting from clinical-chemical correlation data, allows to tailor-cut treatment to the specific needs of individual patients; hence the need to have reliable analytical methods available for the determination of plasma levels of drugs and their metabolites. Analyses of ...
164 89. Finnel RH, Buehler BA, Kerr BM, et al. Clinical and experimental studies linking oxidative metabolism to phenytoin induced teratogenesis. Neurology 1992; 42 Suppl. 5: 25 31. 90. Bittigau P, Sifringer M, Phol D, et al. Apoptotic neurodegeneration following t rauma is markedly enhanced in the immature brain. Ann Neurol 1999; 45: 724 35. 91. Bittigau P, Sifringer M, Ikonomidou C. Antiepileptic drugs and apoptosis in the developing br ain. Ann NY Acad Sci 2003; 993: 103 14. 92. Vajda FJ, OBrien T J, Hitchcock A, et al. Critical relationship between sodium valproate dose and human teratogenicity: results of the Australian register of anti epileptic drugs in pregnancy. J Clin Neurosci 2004;11:854 858. 93. Artama M, Auvinen A, Raudaskoski T, Isojarvi I, Isojarvi J. Antiepilepti c drug use of women with epilepsy and congenital malformations in offspring. Neurology 2005;64:1874 1878. 94. Wide K, Winbladh B, Kallen B. Major malformations in infants exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero, with ...
Extracted from text ... Case report A 36-year-old HIV-infected woman presents for assessment for antiretroviral therapy. As her current CD4+ count is 92 cells/mm3, she needs to commence antiretroviral therapy. She has a history of epilepsy since childhood, for which she receives treatment with carbamazepine. This case raises some important questions: Does this patient still require anticonvulsant therapy? What potential drug interactions could occur with antiretrovirals? Where there is a known primary focus, stopping anticonvulsants has a high rate of relapse. In a patient with idiopathic epilepsy, who has had no seizures for at least 2 years, slow weaning from the anticonvulsants can ..
TY - CHAP. T1 - Antiepileptic drug interactions in the elderly. AU - Conway, Jeannine M.. AU - Cloyd, James C.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Introduction The elderly (≥65 years) are the fastest growing segment of the population in developed countries. In the USA, older adults presently comprise 13% of the population and are projected to increase to 20% within the next 20 years. Similar demographics exist for many European countries. With advancing age comes increasing morbidity, medication use, and adverse drug reactions. Over two-thirds of older adults have one or more chronic medical problems (Hoffman et al., 1996). As a consequence more elderly take medications than others and the elderly take more drugs per person. In the USA, almost 90% of community-dwelling elderly take one or more medications (Guay et al., 2003). Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently prescribed in the elderly due to the high prevalence of AED-treatable neuropsychiatric disorders in this age group. For example, ...
The value of conclusions drawn from the present analysis is inevitably limited by the relatively small numbers of instances of individual malformations that were available for study, and studies of larger populations might produce different outcomes. The difficulty of obtaining well-matched control populations and limitations of size of malformed fetal collections beset much of the published work in the area. There is a peculiarity in the AED-unexposed control data in the present study, in that three of the four male fetuses with malformations had hypospadias. This is a surprisingly high proportion and leads to concern about using these particular data for comparison purposes. Multivariable logistic regression has been used in the present study to increase the number of subjects involved by including fetuses exposed to AED polytherapy as well as AED monotherapy. Only statistically significant (P , 0.05) findings from the investigation are discussed below.. The present analysis has provided ...
* New antiepileptic drug with a novel mechanism of action, , * Vimpat helped people with epilepsy who still had uncontrolled partial onset seizures with current treatment, , * Vimpat will be ava...
To assess the risk of major congenital abnormalities associated with specific antiepileptic drug regimens, a large retrospective cohort study was performed. The study comprised 1,411 children born between 1972 and 1992 in four provinces in The Netherlands who were born to mothers with epilepsy and using antiepileptic drugs during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 2,000 nonepileptic matched controls. We found significantly increased risks of major congenital abnormalities for carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy, with evidence for a significant dose-response relationship for valproate. The risk of major congenital abnormalities was nonsignificantly increased for phenobarbital monotherapy when caffeine comedication was excluded, but a significant increase in risk was found when caffeine was included. Phenytoin monotherapy was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital abnormalities. Regarding polytherapy regimens, increased risks were found for several antiepileptic drug ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topiramate effects on the EEG and alertness in healthy volunteers. T2 - A different profile of antiepileptic drug neurotoxicity. AU - Salinsky, Martin. AU - Storzbach, Daniel. AU - Oken, Barry. AU - Spencer, David. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - Objective: Previous quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and phenytoin (PHT) revealed a pattern of EEG slowing and an increase in drowsiness on the awake maintenance task (AMT). EEG slowing has been shown to correlate with negative effects on cognitive tests. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel AED with relatively large negative effects on cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that TPM would induce significant slowing of EEG background rhythms and an increase in AMT drowsiness. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were randomized to TPM, gabapentin (GBP), or placebo. Doses were escalated as tolerated to a maximum of 400 mg/day for TPM or 3600 mg/day for GBP, over a 10-week period, followed by a ...
When treating epileptic patients, do you prescribe tried-and-true or novel anticonvulsant drugs? Explore this experts perspective on common anticonvulsants.
Anticonvulsants Drug Market is driven by Rising prevalence of epilepsy, Increase in number of migraine, rise in fibromyalgia and increasing sales of existing blockbuster drug Lyrica
Abstract Regarding efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure control, there are three important clinical questions.Download and Read New Antiepileptic Drugs Epilepsy Research Supplement No 3 New Antiepileptic Drugs Epilepsy Research Supplement No 3 It sounds good when knowing the.Several studies show drugs used to treat AEDS reduce bone density, increase risk of fracture, especially for the up to 50% of users unresponsive to AEDS.Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: Treatment of new onset epilepsy. new AEDs with many of the non-AED drugs.AMR has developed set of analyst tools and data models to supplement.. Research identifies protein that could help patients respond more positively to epilepsy drug therapies.Seizures and epilepsy: Hope through research. for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy ...
Definitions and Summary. New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is defined as a condition, not a specific diagnosis, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause in a patient without active epilepsy. Status epilepticus (SE) is a condition of prolonged seizure activity or repeated seizures without full recovery in between. Status epilepticus that persists despite at least two standard anti-seizure medications is termed refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Most of the common causes of RSE can be identified within 24-72 hours of presentation.. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a subcategory of NORSE that requires a prior febrile infection starting between 2 weeks and 24 hours prior to onset of refractory status epilepticus, with or without fever at onset of status epilepticus.. In up to half of the cases of NORSE, a possible or probable cause is ultimately found, most often autoimmune or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant use with outcome of patients with glioblastoma. AU - Jaeckle, Kurt A.. AU - Ballman, Karla. AU - Furth, Alfred. AU - Buckner, Jan C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - BACKGROUND: Clinical trials involving patients with glioblastoma (GBM) distinguish cohorts who are treated with enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants (EIAC). Such anticonvulsants induce hepatic P450 microsomal enzymes, which accelerate the metabolism of certain chemotherapy and molecular targeted agents. However, the resultant effect of such induction on patient outcome has received limited study. METHODS:: We performed a correlative analysis of baseline EIAC use with outcome, using a cross-sectional database of 620 patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated prospectively on North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials. RESULTS: At registration, 72% were receiving treatment with EIAC; 2% were receiving ...
BioAssay record AID 1096268 submitted by ChEMBL: Anticonvulsant activity in Mus musculus Swiss albino (mouse) assessed as protection against maximal electroshock-induced seizure at 300 mg/kg, ip measured at 0.5 hr.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were frequently used as polytherapy until evidence from a series of studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s suggested that patients derive as much benefit from monotherapy as polytherapy.1-3 AED polytherapy is increasingly becoming popular again and as much as 30-40% of prescriptions to children are polytherapy.4 ,5 The availability of new-generation AEDs in the last two decades has encouraged polytherapy. AEDs such as lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine and zonisamide have been approved for paediatric use and are recommended mostly as adjuncts or as second-line agents.6 Despite the availability of more AEDs, the prevalence of poorly controlled epilepsies still remains the same. About 30% of epilepsies are resistant to treatment.7 Drug-resistant epilepsies almost always require polytherapy, but the question of the best treatment approach when an initial monotherapy fails is still debatable. ...
We found no studies that measure, or even estimate, any increase in pregnancy rates in women taking antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs known to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme cause decreased sex hormone levels in women taking oral contraceptives, raising the potential for decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives and increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. (Strength of Recommendation [SOR]: C, based on small cohort studies). Antiepileptic drugs that do not induce this hepatic isoenzyme are not thought to compromise the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. (SOR: C, based on small cohort studies and randomized controlled trials ...
SOUSA, Damião P. de et al. Anticonvulsant activity of thymoquinone and its structural analogues. Rev. bras. farmacogn. [online]. 2011, vol.21, n.3, pp.427-431. Epub Mar 18, 2010. ISSN 0102-695X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000040.. It has been widely reported that the crude oil of Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, seeds and its major chemical component thymoquinone present anticonvulsant activity. These facts led us to verify the pharmacological potential of five structurally related para-benzoquinones on the pentylenotetrazol-induced seizures model, and establish the structural characteristics that influence the anticonvulsant activity of thymoquinone. The unsubstituted para-benzoquinone was the compound that exhibited the highest potency, while 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone was inactive. It was found that the presence of alkyl groups attached to the ring influence the pharmacological activity of the para-benzoquinones. In addition, the number, position, and size of these groups ...
Title:Design, Synthesis, Anticonvulsant Activity, Preclinical Study and Pharmacokinetic Performance of N-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin- 2-yl] methyl}, 2-[(2-isopropyl-5-methyl) 1-cyclo Hexylidene] Hydrazinecarboxamide. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Meena K. Yadav and Laxmi Tripathi *. Affiliation:Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow 227101, Uttar Pradesh, Moradabad Educational Trust Group of Institutions, Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad 244001, Uttar Pradesh. Keywords:Anticonvulsant activity, computational study, neurotoxicity, pharmacokinetic performance, preclinical (in-vivo) studies, quinazolinone derivative.. Abstract:Background: N-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl] methyl}, 2-[(2- isopropyl-5-methyl) 1-cyclohexylidene] hydrazinecarboxamide QS11 was designed by computational study. It possessed essential pharmacophoric features for anticonvulsant activity and showed good docking with iGluRs (Kainate) glutamate receptor. Methods: QSAR and ...
New research published in Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), suggests that an investigational neurological treatment derived from cannabis may alter the blood levels of commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is important for clinicians to consider such drug interactions during treatment of complex conditions.. Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound developed from the cannabis plant, is being studied as a potential anticonvulsant, and it has demonstrated effectiveness in animal models of epilepsy and in humans. An ongoing open label study (Expanded Access Program) conducted by investigators at the University of Alabama at Birmingham is testing the potential of CBD as a therapy for children and adults with difficult to control epilepsy. The study includes 39 adults and 42 children, all of whom receive CBD.. Because all of the participants are also taking other seizure drugs while they are receiving the investigational therapy, investigators checked the blood levels of ...
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The present data indicate the significant effects of anise oil to protect neurons against hypoxia as well as its anticonvulsant properties in in vitro and in vivo animal brain models. Data indicated that pretreatment with anise oil increased the latency and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Anise oil also extended ATN latency, an effect enhanced by blocking of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, our findings revealed a remarkable reduction of dark neuron production and LTP induction in the hippocampus of rats pre-treated with anise oil.. In line with our results, anti-epileptic effects of anise oil were reported in different animal epilepsy models. Pourgholami et al. [10] showed that essential oil of anise exerted anticonvulsant effects induced by PTZ or maximal electroshock in male mice. Anticonvulsant effect of anise oil was also reported in picrotoxin model of epilepsy in mice [9]. In contrary to these data, it is reported that application ...
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People with bipolar disorder are sometimes treated with antiepileptic drugs but there have been worries that these can increase peoples suicide risk. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago studied 47,918 people with bipolar disorder, 13,385 of whom were taking antiepileptics. They found that those taking the antiepileptic drugs had similar rates of suicide attempts as those taking lithium or those people who were taking no medication at all. In fact after people started taking the antiepileptic drugs they had a significantly lower rate of suicide attempts than before they had started taking them. Relative to taking no medication at all taking antiepileptic medication led to a fivefold decrease in risk ...
Eisai announced today that the European Medicines Agencys Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has issued a positive opinion for the use of Fycompa (perampanel) as an adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondarily generalised seizures, in patients with epilepsy aged 12 years and older.
A recent multi-center study has confirmed earlier study results that 400 mg/day of Lacosamide (Vimpat) provides a good balance of efficacy and tolerability for patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures (POS), and doses of 600mg/day may provide additional benefit for some patients.
New Anti-Epileptic Drugs Only American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines evaluating efficacy of new anti-epileptic drugs state only that lamotrigine is effective in children with newly diagnosed absence seizures (level B recommendation). Ethosuximide After ethosuximide was described as effective in absence epilepsy in 1958, a number of open-label, non-comparative studies where ethosuximide was added to… Read More ». ...
The usage of dietary supplements and other natural products to treat neurological diseases has been growing over time, and accumulating evidence suggests that flavonoids possess anticonvulsant properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a flavonoid-rich extract from orange juice (OJe) in some rodent models of epilepsy and to explore its possible mechanism of action. The genetically audiogenic seizures (AGS)-susceptible DBA/2 mouse, the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in ICR-CD1 mice and the WAG/Rij rat as a genetic model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression were used. Our results demonstrate that OJe was able to exert anticonvulsant effects on AGS-sensible DBA/2 mice and to inhibit PTZ-induced tonic seizures, increasing their latency. Conversely, it did not have anti-absence effects on WAG/Rij rats. Our experimental findings suggest that the anti-convulsant effects of OJe are likely mediated by both an inhibition of NMDA receptors at the glycine-binding site
New Anti-Epileptic Drugs Only American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines evaluating efficacy of new anti-epileptic drugs state only that lamotrigine is
The findings, published today in Alzheimers Research & Therapy, reinforce the theory that brain hyperexcitability plays an important role in Alzheimers disease, and that anticonvulsant drugs - drugs that prevent or reduce the severity of seizures - represent a promising treatment that deserve further human studies.. In previous studies, several groups have tested the effects of the widely used anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam in both rodent models as well as two clinical trials in patients with early signs of Alzheimers disease. The findings suggest it may slow some of the symptoms of the disease, including memory loss.. In this newest research, Dr. Haakon Nygaard, the Fipke Professor in Alzheimers Research in UBCs Faculty of Medicine, tested the effects of brivaracetam, an anticonvulsant drug still in clinical development for epilepsy, and closely related to levetiracetam. Since it is 10 times more potent than levetiracetam, it can be used at lower dosages. Nygaard and his colleagues ...
The foetal outcomes of 2,635 pregnancies recorded in the Australian Pregnancy Register were studied. In at least the initial 4 months of 515 pregnancies, there had been no intrauterine exposure to antiepileptic drugs, though the women involved in 264 of these pregnancies took antiepileptic drugs in later pregnancies. Compared with these 515 drug-unexposed pregnancies, foetal malformations risks were increased more than five-fold in association with valproate monotherapy, and more than doubled in association with carbamazepine monotherapy (p , 0.05). There were no statistically significant increases in malformation rates associated with other more commonly used antiepileptic drugs, while the malformation risk in relation to levetiracetam exposure was lower than that in the drug-unexposed pregnancies. The published literature has rather consistently shown raised malformation rates associated with carbamazepine monotherapy, though only once was it statistically significant. There now appears to be ...
Outline Definitions Seizure vs. Epilepsy Antiepileptic drugs History of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) AEDs: Molecular and cellular mechanisms Cellular mechanisms of seizure generation Pharmacokinetic principles Drug metabolism enzymes AED inducers AED inhibitors AED Serum Concentrations Definitions: Therapeutic Index, Steady state Pharmacodynamic interactions Comparative pharmacokinetics of old vs. new AEDs Pharmacokinetics in special populations Metabolic changes of AEDs AEDs and drug interactions Adverse effects Acute vs. chronic Idiosyncratic Case Studies American Epilepsy Society 2011
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Medicinal plants used for the treatment of epilepsy are potentially a valuable source of novel antiepileptic small molecules. To identify anticonvulsant secondary metabolites, we performed an in vivo, zebrafish-based screen of medicinal plants used in Southeast Asia for the treatment of seizures. Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae) was identified as having significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish larvae with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This finding correlates well with the ethnomedical use of this plant in the Philippines, where a water decoction of S. torvum leaves is used to treat epileptic seizures. HPLC microfractionation of the bioactive crude extract, in combination with the in vivo zebrafish seizure assay, enabled the rapid localization of several bioactive compounds that were partially identified online by UHPLC-TOF-MS as steroid glycosides. Targeted isolation of the active constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the complete de novo structure
A series of new benzothiazole derivatives containing dimethylpyrazole were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity, neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity by using the maximal electroshock (MES), rotarod neurotoxicity (TOX) and MTT colorimetric assay. Among the compounds studied, four compounds (6a, 6b, 6g and 6m) showed better anticonvulsant than the others at 300 mg/kg and they also showed anticonvulsant activity at the dose of 100 mg/kg. All the synthetic compounds showed lower neurotoxicity and little cytotoxicity, so that the compounds, which with better activities, also had higher protective index. In particular, the compound 6g, 2-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-((2-fluorobenzyl)oxy)benzo[d]thiazole showed better activity with an ED50 value of 160.4 mg/kg and higher protective index (PI) values of 2.74 in the MES test than the standard drugs sodium valproate, which used as positive controls in this study. After that the compound 6g demonstrated antagonistic activity against seizures
The principal aim of this work was to examine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on vision. Vigabatrin acts by increasing GABA at brain inhibitory synapses by irreversibly binding to GABA-transaminase. Remacemide is a novel non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist and fast sodium channel inhibitor that results in the inhibition of the NMDA receptors located in the neuronal membrane calcium channels increasing glutamate in the brain. Vigabatrin has been shown to cause a specific pattern of visual field loss, as one in three adults taking vigabatrin have shown a bilateral concentric constriction. Remacemide has unknown effects on vision. The majority of studies of the effects of AEDs on vision have not included the paediatric population due to difficulties assessing visual field function using standard perimetry testing. Evidently an alternative test is required to establish and monitor visual field problems associated with AEDs both in children and in adults who cannot comply with ...
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Klonopin is an antiepileptic medication used to treat panic disorder and certain types of seizures. Learn about its uses, side effects, and dosages here.
PURPOSE: Intraventricular cellular delivery of adenosine was recently shown to be transiently efficient in the suppression of seizure activity in the rat kindling model of epilepsy. We tested whether the suppression of seizures by adenosine-releasing grafts was independent of seizure frequency. METHODS: Adenosine-releasing cells were encapsulated and grafted into the lateral brain ventricle of rats kindled in the hippocampus. During 4 weeks after grafting, electric test stimulations were delivered at a frequency of either once a week or 3 times per week. Seizure activity was evaluated by visual scoring of seizure severity and by the recording of EEGs. RESULTS: Adenosine released from encapsulated cells exerted potent antiepileptic activity for |/=2 weeks. One week after grafting, treated rats displayed a complete protection from clonic seizures, and a protection from focal seizures was observed in the majority of animals. Seizure suppression was accompanied by a reduction of afterdischarges in EEG
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Xenon, a monoatomic gas with very high tissue solubility, is a non-competitive inhibitor of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, has antiapoptotic effects and is neuroprotective following hypoxic ischaemic injury in animals. Xenon may be expected to have anticonvulsant effects through glutamate receptor blockade, but this has not previously been demonstrated clinically. We examined seizure activity on the real time and amplitude integrated EEG records of 14 full-term infants with perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy treated within 12 h of birth with 30% inhaled xenon for 24 h combined with 72 h of moderate systemic hypothermia. Seizures were identified on 5 of 14 infants. Seizures stopped during xenon therapy but recurred within a few minutes of withdrawing xenon and stopped again after xenon was restarted. Our data show that subanaesthetic levels of xenon may have an anticonvulsant effect. Inhaled xenon may be a valuable new therapy in this hard-to-treat population.. ...
Atarax (hydroxyzine) is used for treating anxiety and tension, for sedation before and after general anesthesia, and to treat itching due to certain allergic conditions. It also may be used for. ...
The antiepileptic potential of thymoquinone (TQ) was studied in mice by using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES)-induced convulsion models. In this investigation, the combined treatment of TQ and sodium valproate (SVP) was also studied. The aim of this part was to minimize SVPinduced hepatotoxic implications, by reducing its antiepileptic dose. TQ in both PTZ- and MES- models increased SVP potency. The experiments dealing with the effects of TQ on the ED50 of SVP revealed that TQ reduced the ED50 of SVP in both the models. However, this potentiation of SVP antiepileptic response was relatively more significant in PTZ model at both 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of TQ. Although very well tolerated and effective, SVP is well known for its hapatotoxic implications. In the experiment dealing with subacute treatment, SVP (1300-1500mg/kg/day in drinking water) for 21 days, produced hepatotoxicity in mice, characterized by elevated serum ALT and AST, reduced levels of non protein
Eslicarbazepine acetate (trade names Aptiom in North America, Zebinix in Europe, Exalief in Russia), abbreviated as ESL, is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe and the United States as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy (additional therapy) for partial-onset seizures epilepsy. Similarly to oxcarbazepine, ESL behaves as a prodrug to (S)-(+)-licarbazepine. As such, their mechanisms of action are identical. Eslicarbazepine acetate is contraindicated in people with second- or third-degree atrioventricular block, a type of heart block, and in people who are hypersensitive to eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine or carbazepine. Adverse effects are similar to oxcarbazepine. The most common ones (more than 10% of patients) are tiredness and dizziness. Other fairly common side effects (1 to 10%) include impaired coordination, gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, rash (1.1%), and hyponatraemia (low sodium blood levels, 1.2%). There may also be an increased risk ...
Seventeen patients with intractable seizures have been treated with the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet. All had frequent (often daily) seizures despite multiple medications. Age range was 12 months to 13 years. Types of seizures included myoclonic, akinetic, focal motor, atypical absence, generalized tonic, rind tonic-clonic. Five patients achieved total seizure control, and anticonvulsants were decreased or stopped. Five others had some improvement in seizure control. No change was seen in two. In two cases, parents could not deal with the diet, even though total control had been achieved in one case. The diet had to be discontinued in three others because of side effects (diarrhea, vomiting, irritability). Intractable seizure of all types may responld to treatment with the MCT diet. This mode of therapy has few side effects, is tolerated well in most instances, and can result in reduction or discontinuation of anticonvulsant medications.. ...
Do not stop taking DILANTIN without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping DILANTIN suddenly can cause serious problems. Stopping a seizure medicine suddenly in a patient who has epilepsy can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus).. Do not change your dose of DILANTIN without talking to your healthcare provider. Only your doctor can recommend changing your medication. When a change in the dosage form or brand is prescribed, careful monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be carried out by your doctor.. Like other antiepileptic drugs, DILANTIN may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500. Before you take DILANTIN, tell your healthcare provider if you have or have had depression, mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or behavior. Call a healthcare provider right away if you have thoughts about suicide or dying, attempts to commit suicide, new or worse depression, new or worse anxiety, feeling agitated or restless, panic ...
Do not stop taking DILANTIN without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping DILANTIN suddenly can cause serious problems. Stopping a seizure medicine suddenly in a patient who has epilepsy can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus).. Do not change your dose of DILANTIN without talking to your healthcare provider. Only your doctor can recommend changing your medication. When a change in the dosage form or brand is prescribed, careful monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be carried out by your doctor.. Like other antiepileptic drugs, DILANTIN may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500. Before you take DILANTIN, tell your healthcare provider if you have or have had depression, mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or behavior. Call a healthcare provider right away if you have thoughts about suicide or dying, attempts to commit suicide, new or worse depression, new or worse anxiety, feeling agitated or restless, panic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiepileptic drug teratogenicity and de novo genetic variation load. AU - Perucca, Piero. AU - Anderson, Alison. AU - Jazayeri, Dana. AU - Hitchcock, Alison. AU - Graham, Janet. AU - Todaro, Marian. AU - Tomson, Torbjörn. AU - Battino, Dina. AU - Perucca, Emilio. AU - Martinez Ferri, Meritxell. AU - Rochtus, Anne. AU - Lagae, Lieven. AU - Canevini, Maria Paola. AU - Zambrelli, Elena. AU - Campbell, Ellen. AU - Koeleman, Bobby P C. AU - Scheffer, Ingrid E. AU - Berkovic, Samuel F. AU - Kwan, Patrick. AU - Sisodiya, Sanjay M. AU - Goldstein, David B. AU - Petrovski, Slavé. AU - Craig, John. AU - Vajda, Frank J E. AU - OBrien, Terence J. N1 - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/3/25. Y1 - 2020/3/25. N2 - OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) cause birth defects (BDs) are unknown. Data suggest that AED-induced BDs may result from a genome-wide increase of de novo variants in the embryo, a mechanism which we ...
Anticonvulsants[edit]. Pregabalin and gabapentin may reduce pain associated with diabetic neuropathy.[23][21][24][25] The ... Anti-Convulsant/ Anti-Depressant. Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous ... Anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, mirogabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lacosamide, lamotrigine). *Local ... Several guidelines agree that first- and second-line drugs for neuropathic pain include anticonvulsants (gabapentin or ...
Anticonvulsants[edit]. A number of anti-convulsant drugs are used as mood stabilizers, and the suspected mechanism is related ... Each anti-convulsant agent has a unique side-effect profile. Valproic acid can frequently cause sedation or gastrointestinal ... Carbamazepine was the first anti-convulsant shown to be effective for treating bipolar mania. It has not been extensively ... Zonisamide (trade name Zonegran), another anti-convulsant, also may show promise in treating bipolar depression.[17] Various ...
5 Anticonvulsants/antiepileptics. *6 Anti-infective medicines *6.1 Anthelminthics *6.1.1 Intestinal anthelminthics ...
Anticonvulsants and decline. During the 1920s and 1930s, when the only anticonvulsant drugs were the sedative bromides ( ... Like many anticonvulsant drugs, the ketogenic diet has an adverse effect on bone health. Many factors may be involved such as ... However, no anticonvulsant has ever achieved this in a clinical trial in humans. The ketogenic diet has been found to have ... A few anticonvulsants (valproate, levetiracetam and benzodiazepines) have shown antiepileptogenic properties in animal models ...
Anticonvulsant[edit]. Phenobarbital was the first truly effective drug against epilepsy. It was discovered by accident when ... The positive side effects were anticonvulsant properties that reduced seizure number and intensity.[1] ...
... has a similar profile of anticonvulsant activity and toxicity relative to phenacemide. but is less toxic in ... 335-. ISBN 978-94-011-6223-4. Vida J (19 July 2013). Anticonvulsants. Elsevier. pp. 4, 42. ISBN 978-0-323-14395-0. deStevens G ... Pheneturide inhibits the metabolism and thus increases the levels of other anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin. Phenacemide ... is an anticonvulsant of the ureide class. Conceptually, it can be formed in the body as a metabolic degradation product from ...
Anticonvulsants. Possibly reduce the anticonvulsant effect of antiepileptics by lowering the seizure threshold. Antihistamines ...
It has mainly anticonvulsant action with less sedative effects than the closely related compound phenobarbital. It saw ... Smith DB, Goldstein SG, Roomet A (1986). "A comparison of the toxicity effects of the anticonvulsant eterobarb (antilon, DMMP) ... Gallagher BB, Baumel IP, Woodbury SG, Dimicco JA (May 1975). "Clinical evaluation of eterobarb, a new anticonvulsant drug". ... Vida JA, Wilber WR, Reinhard JF (March 1971). "Anticonvulsants. 2. Acyloxymethyl and halomethyl derivatives of barbituric acid ...
Vida J (19 July 2013). Anticonvulsants. Elsevier. pp. 578-. ISBN 978-0-323-14395-0. Haddad LM, Winchester JF (1983). Clinical ... is a drug described as a tranquilizer or sedative which has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties. It is related ...
McLamore WM, P'an SY, Bavley A (1955). "Hypnotics and Anticonvulsants. II. Halogenated Tertiary Acetylenic Carbinols". Journal ...
Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of clonazepam occurs in both animals and humans. In humans, tolerance to the ... The anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines are due to the enhancement of synaptic GABA responses, and the inhibition of ... Battistin L, Varotto M, Berlese G, Roman G (1984). "Effects of some anticonvulsant drugs on brain GABA level and GAD and GABA-T ... Of anticonvulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Doses higher than ...
It is unclear if anticonvulsants are useful for treating tinnitus. Steroid injections into the middle ear also do not seem to ... Hoekstra, Carlijn El; Rynja, Sybren P.; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Rovers, Maroeska M. (2011-07-06). "Anticonvulsants for ...
The anti-convulsant medications gabapentin and pregabalin may be used to reduce pain. There is tentative evidence that ... Üçeyler N, Sommer C, Walitt B, Häuser W (October 2013). Häuser W (ed.). "Anticonvulsants for fibromyalgia". The Cochrane ...
Anticonvulsants are not needed. And those affected do not develop epilepsy when they grow up. Jerome Engel; Timothy A. Pedley; ...
... anticonvulsants) and trimethoprim. Combining lamotrigine with sodium valproate increases the risk of SJS. Nonsteroidal anti- ... "Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features ...
Anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, and topiramate, do not appear to be effective as treatment. ... Minozzi, S; Cinquini, M; Amato, L; Davoli, M; Farrell, MF; Pani, PP; Vecchi, S (April 2015). "Anticonvulsants for cocaine ...
Hammond CJ, Niciu MJ, Drew S, Arias AJ (April 2015). "Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and ... At the current stage of research, evidence supporting the clinical use of anticonvulsants to treat alcohol dependence is ... Results are conditioned by heterogeneity and by the low number and quality of studies comparing anticonvulsants versus other ... Pani PP, Trogu E, Pacini M, Maremmani I (2014). "Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence". Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
Hrib NJ, Martin LL (1989). Chapter 2. Antianxiety Agents and Anticonvulsants. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 24. pp. 11 ... Studies have shown tolufazepam to have anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity in animal subjects, including convulsions ...
Long term anticonvulsant medications are not usually recommended in those who have had prior seizures due to withdrawal. There ... A 2010 Cochrane review similarly reported that the evidence to support the role of anticonvulsants over benzodiazepines in the ... Hammond CJ, Niciu MJ, Drew S, Arias AJ (April 2015). "Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and ... Minozzi S, Amato L, Vecchi S, Davoli M (March 2010). Minozzi S (ed.). "Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal". The Cochrane ...
Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects tends to correlate more with tolerance to physiological effects, however, meaning that ... Nau H; Kuhnz W; Egger HJ; Rating D; Helge H (Nov 1982). "Anticonvulsants during pregnancy and lactation. Transplacental, ... However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., ... Barbiturates are effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants, but have physical and psychological addiction ...
... anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties; also seen in the applied pharmacology of high doses of many shorter-acting ... and anticonvulsant effects. Depressants also act to produce anesthesia. Cannabis may sometimes be considered a depressant due ... Anticonvulsants (Topiramate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.) Antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, etc ...
Seizures are treated with anticonvulsants. Hydrocephalus (obstructed flow of CSF) may require insertion of a temporary or long- ...
The drug was quickly adopted as the first widely effective anti-convulsant, though World War I delayed its introduction in the ... Among anti-convulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Acute ... Direct blockade of excitatory glutamate signaling is also believed to contribute to the hypnotic/anticonvulsant effect that is ... The treatment of simple febrile seizures with anticonvulsant prophylaxis is no longer recommended. Phenobarbital is the INN and ...
... anticonvulsant drugs; nitrate compounds; organic solvents; parental exposure to lead; alcohol; cigarette use; and a number of ...
Like many anticonvulsants, primidone interacts with other anticonvulsants. Clobazam decreases clearance of primidone,Mesuximide ... Primidone is one of the anticonvulsants associated with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome, others being carbamazepine, ... Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class. How it works is not entirely clear. Primidone was approved for medical ... The anticonvulsant users who get this also tend to eat monotonous diets devoid of fruits and vegetables. This antagonistic ...
Anticonvulsants are used to prevent seizures. If brain function is severely affected, interventions like physical therapy and ...
... anticonvulsants such as valproate and phenytoin; cholesterol-lowering statins; steroids such as oral contraceptives and ...
Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) (2002-04-22). "Routine anticonvulsants for treating cerebral malaria". The Cochrane ...
Those with seizures are administered anticonvulsants. If there is a hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure is lowered by 20 ... such as anticonvulsants for seizures. PRES may be complicated by intracranial hemorrhage, but this is relatively rare. The ... a small proportion of people remains at risk of ongoing seizures and the majority can eventually discontinue anticonvulsant ...
For seizures, anticonvulsants may be used. In severe neurological cases, ventilators may be used to support breathing. ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=anticonvulsant&oldid=48103602" ...
Anticonvulsants. Class Summary. These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. ... Prophylactic Anticonvulsants After Neurosurgery. Epilepsy Curr. 2002 Jul. 2(4):105-107. [Medline]. ...
This anticonvulsant is effective for a broad spectrum of seizure types; it is believed to exert its anticonvulsant effect by ... Anticonvulsants. Class Summary. These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. ... The anticonvulsant rufinamide (Banzel) was approved as an adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut ...
Anticonvulsant Screening Program Use of Anticonvulsants in Pharmacotherapy of Bronchial Asthma MDNG: Anticonvulsants and Bone ... Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the ... It is still used as an anticonvulsant for dogs and cats. Felbamate (1993). This effective anticonvulsant has had its usage ... or on the newer anticonvulsants gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine or topiramate. The choice of anticonvulsants depends on ...
Anticonvulsants found to be ineffective for low back pain and can have adverse effects Anticonvulsant drugs are increasingly ... Using popular anticonvulsant drug to thwart inflammation Serious conditions, including sepsis, stem from inflammation in the ... Herbs, including cilantro, have a long history of use as folk medicine anticonvulsants. Until now, many of the underlying ... The University of Utah College of Pharmacys Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program has been awarded a five-year $19.5 million ...
Anticonvulsants are useful for chronic pain states, including fibromyalgia and related syndromes and various types of ... encoded search term (How are anticonvulsants used for the treatment of fibromyalgia?) and How are anticonvulsants used for the ... Anticonvulsants often cause sedation, so they should be started using low doses at night with gradual up-titration and/or use ... Anticonvulsants are useful for chronic pain states, including fibromyalgia and related syndromes and various types of ...
This list of mood stabilizer drugs is organized by mineral, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics, including medications such as ... Anticonvulsants. Also known as antiepileptic medication, anticonvulsant medications were originally developed to treat seizures ... Some anticonvulsants that are used off label - not officially approved for this condition - as mood stabilizers, include:. * ... Anticonvulsants that are often used as mood stabilizers include:. *valproic acid, also called valproate or divalproex sodium ( ...
You are currently visiting Medline.com in Internet Explorer 8 which is not supported. Please upgrade your browser or switch to a supported browser. For a list of supported browsers visit: https://www.medline.com/help/tech-support/. ...
As this syndrome can present secondary to multiple anticonvulsants, the general term "anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome ... Anticonvulsant/sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with ... 2015). "Late-onset Anticonvulsant Hypersensitivity Syndrome Mimicking Lymphoma". Internal Medicine. 54 (24): 3201-3204. doi: ... medications with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital ...
Anticonvulsants. Valproic Acid (Depakote). Possible Benefits. Valproic acid is an epilepsy medication that is now used for the ...
The results of deoxyuridine suppression tests on the bone marrow cells of 14 patients on anticonvulsant drugs, 11 of whom had ... Megaloblastic erythropoiesis and macrocytosis in patients on anticonvulsants. Br Med J 1975; 4 :136 ... Megaloblastic erythropoiesis and macrocytosis in patients on anticonvulsants.. Br Med J 1975; 4 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/ ...
Compare carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Home › Drug Classes › Central Nervous System Agents › Anticonvulsants › Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Anticonvulsants ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. What are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants. Carbonic anhydrase ... List of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants:. Filter by: -- all conditions --. Benign Essential Tremor. Bipolar ...
... anticonvulsants) are commonly used to treat the symptoms caused by brain and spinal cord tumours and their treatment. They may ... Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants). Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are ... Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants *Childhood brain and spinal tumours *The brain and spinal cord ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Brain and spinal cord - childhood / Treatment / Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants ...
Antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants). Antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are used to prevent seizures. Seizures are ... Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants). Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are ... Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants *Brain and spinal tumours *The brain and spinal cord ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Brain and spinal cord / Treatment / Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants ...
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that a class of anti-seizure medications slows the rate of aging in roundworms. The worms, when exposed to drugs used to treat epilepsy in humans, lived longer and retained youthful functions longer than normal.. ...
Anticonvulsants, dermal complications.(Report, Letter to the editor) by Journal of Pakistan Medical Association; Health, ... Madam, Epilepsy is one of the prevalent neurological diseases treated with several drugs especially anticonvulsants.1 Although ... S.v. Anticonvulsants, dermal complications.." Retrieved Mar 24 2019 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Anticonvulsants%2c+ ... Anticonvulsants are of main elements in controlling and preventing from epileptic seizures.4 Different kinds of anticonvulsants ...
... Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017 - 2025 - published on ... Generic and branded anticonvulsants are restraining the growth of novel therapie … Anticonvulsants, also commonly known as ... Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market unprovoked by 2025 Global Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market: Snapshot ... Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain Market Business Strategy & Forecast by 2025 Global Anticonvulsants for Neuropathic Pain ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants. Additional Keywords : Anticonvulsants, epilepsy, Lotus, Natural Substances Versus ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants. Additional Keywords : Drug: Nortriptyline, Superiority of Natural Substances versus ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants, Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts ... Pharmacological Actions : Anticonvulsants, Antioxidants, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation. Additional Keywords : Superiority of ...
Equipment Type: Anticonvulsants, excluding barbiturates and analogs Industry: Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing ... 2019 Global Forecast for Anticonvulsants, excluding barbiturates and analogs (2020-2025 Outlook)-Manufacturing & Markets Report ... The 2019 Global Forecast for Anticonvulsants, excluding barbiturates and analogs (2020-2025 Outlook)-Manufacturing & Markets ... 2019 Global Forecast for Anticonvulsants, excluding barbiturates and analogs (2020-2025 Outlook)-Manufacturing & Markets Report ...
29 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Anticonvulsants. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / year FRIEND USER get ... Oleuropein has anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice.. Click here to read the entire ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Anticonvulsants. ... Some Example Abstracts on Anticonvulsants. T. americana var. mexicana significantly prevented severity of PTZ-induced seizures ...
Selected Anticonvulsants; Barbiturates/Contraceptives Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... Do anticonvulsants reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives?. Epilepsia 1979 Oct;20(5):519-25. ... 15.Haukkamaa M. Contraception by Norplant subdermal capsules is not reliable in epileptic patients on anticonvulsant treatment ... The interaction of phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants with oral contraceptive steroid therapy. Contraception 1980 Nov;22(5 ...
Selected Anticonvulsants/Selected Barbiturates Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific ... Valproic acid: interaction with other anticonvulsant drugs. Neurology 1978 Sep;28(9 Pt 1):892-6. ... a new anticonvulsant drug. Acta Paediatr Scand 1975 Sep;64(5):771-2. ...
Anticonvulsant effect of galnon in antisense PNA-pretreated rats.. We examined the anticonvulsant effects of galnon in SSSE. As ... Anticonvulsant activity of a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist. Külliki Saar, Andrey M. Mazarati, Riina Mahlapuu, Gerd ... Anticonvulsant activity of a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist. Külliki Saar, Andrey M. Mazarati, Riina Mahlapuu, Gerd ... Anticonvulsant Properties of Galnon.. Effects of systemic galnon in mice.. In the first set of experiments, we induced seizures ...
Anticonvulsant activity of a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist.. Saar K1, Mazarati AM, Mahlapuu R, Hallnemo G, Soomets U, ... control (50% DMSO). (b) Anticonvulsant effects of galnon in animal model of SSSE were M35 sensitive. M35 was injected 10 min ... Galanin is a neuropeptide with a wide variety of biological functions, including that of a strong endogenous anticonvulsant. No ... suggesting mediation of its anticonvulsant properties through this receptor subtype. These findings introduce a systemically ...
... that more research is needed at this time to guide the evaluation and treatment of bone disease in patients on anticonvulsant ... Anticonvulsants and Bone Loss. By MGH Center for Womens Mental Health,2015-08-12T16:39:48-04:00May 18th, 2010,General,2 ... Anticonvulsants are not only used for the treatment of epilepsy but are now used with increasing frequency for the treatment of ... A recent review of the literature by Lee and colleagues suggests that anticonvulsants may increase the odds of fracture by 1.2 ...
Anticonvulsant Therapy - Drugs given to control and prevent seizures (fits), is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of ... Anticonvulsant Therapy - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical ... Medical Word - Anticonvulsant Therapy. Ans : Drugs given to control and prevent seizures (fits). ...
Randomized Trial of Three Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus.. Kapur J1, Elm J1, Chamberlain JM1, Barsan W1, ... In the context of benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus, the anticonvulsant drugs levetiracetam, fosphenytoin ... without additional anticonvulsant medication. The posterior probabilities that each drug was the most or least effective were ...
Chronic neuropathic pain from spinal cord injuries was eased significantly by the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic drug Lyrica ( ... The patients were also allowed to remain on their current stable pain therapies or anticonvulsant, including Neurontin ( ... Explain to patients that this study suggests that the anticonvulsant agent Lyrica (pregabalin), currently approved for treating ... 27 -- Patients with chronic neuropathic pain from spinal cord injuries experienced significant relief from the anticonvulsant ...
... was found to possess potent anticonvulsant property in rats and mice and compared favourable with the standard anticonvulsant ... Anticonvulsant Activity of Thiadiazole Derivatives. A series of 3-aryl amino/amino-4-aryl-5-imino-D2-1,2,4-thiadiazole has been ... These derivatives 109(a-e), 110(ia-ie), 110(iia-iie) show good anticonvulsant activity. Among these compounds, chlorobenzyl ... Compounds (111a), (111b), and (111c) showed good anticonvulsant activity in the test models [82]. ...
Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand executive officer Denise Astill said the damage caused by the anti-convulsant ... Anti-convulsant syndrome awareness. You are not permitted to download, save or email this image. Visit image gallery to ... Mrs Carlson-McLaren was quick to say that not all women on anti-convulsant drugs would have a child affected by FACS, but there ... The group believed all anti-convulsant medications carried a risk, but if a woman was on Epilim (sodium valproate) the risk of ...
  • Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anticonvulsant rufinamide (Banzel) was approved as an adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome . (medscape.com)
  • A new British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology review examines the potential of medicinal cannabis--or medical marijuana--for helping patients with intractable epilepsy, in which seizures fail to come under control with standard anticonvulsant treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • Also known as antiepileptic medication , anticonvulsant medications were originally developed to treat seizures . (healthline.com)
  • Antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are used to prevent seizures. (cancer.ca)
  • Anticonvulsants, also known as antiepileptic drugs, were developed primarily for the treatment of epileptic seizures. (openpr.com)
  • Anticonvulsants drug is not only consumed in case of epileptic seizures, but also for pain management in migraine, and fibromyalgia. (openpr.com)
  • Oleuropein has anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The primary outcome was absence of clinically evident seizures and improvement in the level of consciousness by 60 minutes after the start of drug infusion, without additional anticonvulsant medication. (nih.gov)
  • Increase in latency to seizures as well as reduction in duration and frequency of seizures indicated anticonvulsant activity. (hindawi.com)
  • These facts led us to verify the pharmacological potential of five structurally related para -benzoquinones on the pentylenotetrazol-induced seizures model, and establish the structural characteristics that influence the anticonvulsant activity of thymoquinone. (scielo.br)
  • Methsuximide (Celontin) is an anticonvulsant medication that controls absence seizures by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. (sharecare.com)
  • The author also encourages initiation of anticonvulsant therapy if the patient is at high risk for additional seizures but the frequency recommendations are not met. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • UA also revealed anticonvulsant properties in animal models of epilepsy and seizures. (springer.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of established anticonvulsants, such as valproic acid, carbamazepine, gabapentin, diazepam, lacosamide and pregabalin against pentylenetetrazole (6 mM) seizures in adult zebrafish. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The exposure of zebrafish to an increasing concentration of the anticonvulsants alongside 6 mM pentylenetetrazole showed concentration-dependent elevation of seizure latency against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures except for pregabalin, which failed to produce any anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Anticonvulsants are a medication used to control/prevent seizures. (shopmedvet.com)
  • Neurontin (Gabapentin) is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures associated with epilepsy. (medformula.com)
  • There was no evidence to suggest that anticonvulsants prior to development of seizures in asphyxiated term newborns to prevent death, seizures or subsequent severe neurodevelopmental disabilities was successful. (who.int)
  • Hence, routine use of anticonvulsants in asphyxiated term infants, in the absence of seizures, cannot be recommended. (who.int)
  • This review examines the value of early use (prior to the development of seizures) of anticonvulsants to the newborn in preventing death, seizures, or subsequent severe neurodevelopmental disability in asphyxiated term newborns. (who.int)
  • In addition to identifying against generalized tonic-clonic seizures, it has been proposed that the maximal electroshock test predicts anticonvulsant drug effects against partial seizures. (123helpme.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that OJe was able to exert anticonvulsant effects on AGS-sensible DBA/2 mice and to inhibit PTZ-induced tonic seizures, increasing their latency. (mdpi.com)
  • Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O -ethyl S -(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O -isobutyl S -(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Treatment with anticonvulsant medication is usually initiated after a history of two seizures, when further seizures are likely and when the benefit of treatment is anticipated to outweigh the adverse effects of medication. (bpac.org.nz)
  • TMD is an anticonvulsant drug widely used against absences seizures in the early 80's and PHE is an antiepileptic drug with a wide spectrum activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anticonvulsant screening was performed in mice after intraperitoneal administration in the maximal electroshock seizure test (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizures test (scPTZ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Some anticonvulsants have shown antiepileptogenic effects in animal models of epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticonvulsants are more accurately called antiepileptic drugs (abbreviated "AEDs"), and are often referred to as antiseizure drugs because they provide symptomatic treatment only and have not been demonstrated to alter the course of epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticonvulsants are not only used for the treatment of epilepsy but are now used with increasing frequency for the treatment of mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • So, there is an urgent requirement for the dieovery and development of some novel anticonvulsant agents with more selective activity and lower toxicity for the effective treatment of epilepsy. (hindawi.com)
  • The results of two studies, one in Finland and one in the U.S.A., raise the possibility that fetal damage previously attributed to phenytoin and other anticonvulsant drugs, principally phenobarbitone, may be due to epilepsy itself. (nih.gov)
  • The International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force has published guidelines for the initiation of anticonvulsant treatment in dogs 2 that can be extrapolated for cats. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • A 30-year observational study published by Andrew Leon and colleagues in the American Journal of Psychiatry has found that anticonvulsants used in epilepsy and for bipolar depression (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) do not increase suicidal behavior in bipolar patients . (bipolarnews.org)
  • These promising data suggest the new compounds have good potential as new class of anticonvulsant agents with high effectiveness and low toxicity for the treatment of epilepsy. (mdpi.com)
  • Dupuytren's disease in epilepsy: result of prolonged administration of anticonvulsants. (bmj.com)
  • Quality of life, epilepsy advances, and the evolving role of anticonvulsants in women with epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enhanced anticonvulsant activity of neuroactive steroids in a rat model of catamenial epilepsy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we sought to determine whether the anticonvulsant potencies of neuroactive steroids, benzodiazepines, phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) are altered during the heightened seizure susceptibility accompanying neurosteroid withdrawal in a rat model of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The anticonvulsant activity of neuroactive steroids is potentiated after neurosteroid withdrawal, supporting the use of such agents in the treatment of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anticonvulsant medications are primarily used for the treatment of epilepsy, but may also have a place in the treatment of neuropathic pain, bipolar affective disorder and migraine prophylaxis. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Anticonvulsant/sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with medications with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine), sulfonamides, or other medications with an aromatic amine (e.g., procainamide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the major anticonvulsant drugs currently marketed, Lyrica (pregabalin), Neurontin (gabapentin), Topamax (topiramate), Depakote (divalproex), and Carbatrol/Tegretol (carbamazepine) are indicated for management of various types of pain. (openpr.com)
  • Zonisamide (Zonegranl((R))) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic agent that shares some pharmacological properties with other anticonvulsants, including phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid, but is differentiated from these agents by the ability to significantly block T-type calcium channels. (rti.org)
  • Diazepam (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg −1 ), carbamazepine (3, 10, and 30 mg kg −1 ), and sodium valproate (100-400 mg kg −1 ) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for various models. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbamazepine is in a group of drugs called anticonvulsants. (medicinesmexico.com)
  • RESULTS Thirty four (60%) were exposed in utero to valproate alone, four (7%) to carbamazepine alone, four (7%) to phenytoin alone, and 15 (26%) to more than one anticonvulsant. (bmj.com)
  • Spina bifida is associated particularly with exposure to valproate or carbamazepine in utero, 17-19 hypoplastic nails with phenytoin and carbamazepine, 10 11 and cardiac malformations can result from exposure to any of these three anticonvulsants. (bmj.com)
  • The anticonvulsants, phenytoin and carbamazepine, have been shown to induce apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells at high concentrations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus, the anticonvulsant drugs levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate each led to seizure cessation and improved alertness by 60 minutes in approximately half the patients, and the three drugs were associated with similar incidences of adverse events. (nih.gov)
  • Investigators at the University of Reading, School of Pharmacy, in the United Kingdom assessed the anticonvulsant activity of CBD (administered in 1, 10, and 100mg/kg doses) in two established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. (norml.org)
  • Preliminary screening of the aqueous extract of Antiaris toxicaria revealed significant anticonvulsant effect in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure test [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • however, individual differences (eg, metabolic state, severe adverse effects experienced during or after the seizure) may drive earlier initiation of anticonvulsant therapy than outlined. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • For example, anticonvulsant therapy may be considered for a young dog with clinical hydrocephalus in which one seizure has already been observed. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • Starting one anticonvulsant drug and assessing the clinical response-including clinical adverse effects, effect on seizure control, and, if applicable, serum drug concentrations-is recommended long enough for attainment of steady state and an observation period. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • UA displays only a weak anticonvulsant potential which is dependent on the used seizure model. (springer.com)
  • It is unknown if any particular anticonvulsants modify the likelihood of seizure reduction when used in combination with the ketogenic diet (KD). (nih.gov)
  • A novel series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing 4-aminobenzenesul-fonamide and α-amides branched valproic acid or 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid moieties were synthesized and screened for their anticonvulsant activities in mice maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test. (mdpi.com)
  • In intravenous metrazol seizure threshold test compounds 1-3 did not show pro-convulsive effect but proved anticonvulsant potential. (wingsforlife.com)
  • 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There is some evidence that initiating anticonvulsants after a single seizure may not result in improvement in the long term prognosis and may not reduce the risk of injury or mortality. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Selection of an anticonvulsant is generally guided by the type of epileptic seizure, the risk of adverse effects and the presence of co-morbidities. (bpac.org.nz)
  • The following are classified as anticonvulsants: Phenobarbital (1912). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital was the main anticonvulsant from 1912 until the development of phenytoin in 1938. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Phenobarbital and bromide are the oldest reported anticonvulsants used in veterinary medicine and remain commonly used by veterinary specialists despite the development of many novel anticonvulsants. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • 2,4 The anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital is likely due to increased intracellular chloride secondary to prolonged opening of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • Valproic acid: interaction with other anticonvulsant drugs. (webmd.com)
  • There have long been concerns regarding the safety of the anticonvulsant valproic acid (Depakote) during pregnancy. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • We review current information about the role of anticonvulsants in cognition, with particular emphasis on newer compounds (such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, and topiramate), the cognitive dimensions of affective illness, and the clinical approach to evaluating cognition in psychiatric patients taking anticonvulsant drugs over time. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The anticonvulsant drug topiramate (Topamax) has shown some promise as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. (bipolarnews.org)
  • An existing anticonvulsant medication called Topiramate has already proven to be a helpful aid for people looking to reduce heavy drinking problems. (thewatershed.com)
  • Anticonvulsant drugs are increasingly being used to treat low back pain, but a new study in CMAJ finds they are ineffective and can have adverse effects. (news-medical.net)
  • The results of deoxyuridine suppression tests on the bone marrow cells of 14 patients on anticonvulsant drugs, 11 of whom had evidence of megaloblastic erythropoiesis, indicated that the megaloblastic changes and macrocytosis encountered in treated epileptics are often not caused either by folate deficiency or by drug-induced impairment of the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate-dependent methylation of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate. (bmj.com)
  • However, leading anticonvulsant drugs such as Lyrica (pregabalin) and Neurontin (gabapentin) have also been approved for the management of various pain indications including fibromyalgia, migraine and neuropathic pain. (openpr.com)
  • however, the market for anticonvulsants for pain management application is dominated by Lyrica, the only branded pharmaceutical among the currently marketed drugs. (openpr.com)
  • Hence, competition in the market from other improved pain management methods, devices, and other drugs can also hamper the anticonvulsants drug market. (openpr.com)
  • The increasing use of anticonvulsant drugs in psychiatry has prompted greater awareness of their effects on a range of psychiatric domains, including cognition. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Protein binding is significantly altered during pregnancy for all 3 drugs studied and appears to account for much of the decline in anticonvulsant concentrations seen in this condition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The study findings are based on high and moderate-quality evidence from 9 placebo-controlled randomized trials that found a lack of evidence of benefit from anticonvulsants and more adverse events from some of these drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • occurrence of fever, rash, and hepatitis secondary to therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Global Antiepileptic and Anticonvulsant Drugs Market research study is a highly diligent study on competitive landscape analysis, prime manufacturers, marketing strategies analysis, Market Effect Factor Analysis and Consumer Needs by major regions, types, applications in Global market considering the past, current and future state of the Global Antiepileptic and Anticonvulsant Drugs industry. (beforeitsnews.com)
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  • The basis for the use of anticonvulsant drugs in treating anxiety disorders can be found in the main cerebral structures involved in fear circuits. (depressionforums.org)
  • Several drugs have been reported to alter thyroid function tests in dogs, e.g. glucocorticoids, potentiated sulfonamides and anticonvulsants. (vetcontact.com)
  • A form of human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P450hA7) with subunit Mr 50,400 has been purified from an epileptic who had been receiving long-term treatment with anticonvulsant drugs. (portlandpress.com)
  • It is concluded that P450hA7 is a member of the cytochrome P450III family which is induced by anticonvulsant drugs in man. (portlandpress.com)
  • One option for improving tolerability and efficacy of anticonvulsants is by combining them with antidepressants. (medscape.com)
  • [ 148 ] and the author's personal experience has shown that other combinations of anticonvulsants and antidepressants can result in augmentation. (medscape.com)
  • The first line of treatment in pain management usually involves the use of pharmaceuticals from various therapeutic classes such as antidepressants, opioids, NSAIDs, anticonvulsants, anesthetics, and other non-narcotic analgesics. (openpr.com)
  • The patients were also allowed to remain on their current stable pain therapies or anticonvulsant, including Neurontin (gabapentin), opioids, and tricyclic antidepressants. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Out of the numerous classes of adjuvant analgesics, Dr. Ward focused on antidepressants and anticonvulsants. (empr.com)
  • however, the data regarding lamotrigine and other newer anticonvulsants is much more limited. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • Alert your staff about this problem so that they promptly report any patient on lamotrigine (Lamictal) who complains of fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy--the hallmarks of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome , Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lamotrigine and other antiepileptics (Table 1) (8) have been associated with morbilliform eruptions, anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome , erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), a severe form of SJS with a 20% to 30% mortality rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lamotrigine, another anticonvulsant, has modest efficacy in trigeminal neuralgia with inconsistent results in other neuropathies. (empr.com)
  • Unlike all other anticonvulsants tested, lamotrigine provided a significant and dose-dependent neuroprotection in these experimental conditions. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly enough, of all the anticonvulsants available in the United States, only valproate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use in acute mania. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Anticonvulsants are useful for chronic pain states, including fibromyalgia and related syndromes and various types of neuropathic pain, and serve as adjunctive medications for disturbed sleep and anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • It is clear that more research is needed at this time to guide the evaluation and treatment of bone disease in patients on anticonvulsant medications. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • Thank you for offering ways a clinician could counsel patients on the effects of bone loss due to anticonvulsant medications. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • Randomized Trial of Three Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus. (nih.gov)
  • Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants, Barbiturates are used in the treatment of Meningitis? (medscape.com)
  • Anticonvulsant levels decline as pregnancy progresses, even in the face of constant and, in some cases, increased dosages of medications. (biomedsearch.com)
  • What medications interact with anticonvulsants? (sharecare.com)
  • Management of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome includes avoidance of all aromatic anticonvulsants or other causative medications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All anticonvulsant medications are associated with adverse effects which in rare circumstances can be potentially life-threatening. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Special issues apply for women of child bearing potential taking anticonvulsant medications. (bpac.org.nz)
  • 5 Table 1 summarises the prescribing issues associated with common anticonvulsant medications. (bpac.org.nz)
  • 15.Haukkamaa M. Contraception by Norplant subdermal capsules is not reliable in epileptic patients on anticonvulsant treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Anticonvulsants in the treatment of low back pain and lumbar radicular pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis" is published July 3, 2018. (eurekalert.org)
  • Babu J, Sireesha TSM, KVLSN AMC, Swathi V, Balaiah S, Subba Reddy D (2018) Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Gomphrena serrata by using Swiss albino mice. (springer.com)
  • Other barbiturates only have an anticonvulsant effect at anaesthetic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2019 Global Forecast for Anticonvulsants, excluding barbiturates and analogs (2020-2025 Outlook)-Manufacturing & Markets Report, published by Barnes Reports, contains timely and accurate market statistics and forecasts on the market for over 140 countries. (bccresearch.com)
  • A ketogenic diet has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The administration of an anticonvulsant, particularly phenobarbitone, as a neuroprotective agent following severe perinatal asphyxia is an attractive option in poorer settings. (who.int)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity of Cocculus laurifolius D.C leaves in albino wistar rats against strychnine induced convulsions. (springer.com)
  • The results obtained from the present study indicate that ethanolic extract of Cocculus laurifolius leaves possess potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect against strychnine induced convulsions. (springer.com)
  • Zonisamide (ZON), a broad spectrum anticonvulsant, has proven to be more effective than a placebo in reducing alcohol intake in individuals with alcohol dependence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hong, X. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives as Potential Anticonvulsant Agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang Z, Li J, Zeng X-D, Hu X-M, Zhou X, Hong X. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives as Potential Anticonvulsant Agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explain to patients that this study suggests that the anticonvulsant agent Lyrica (pregabalin), currently approved for treating neuropathic pain associated with diabetes and herpes infections, also appears to relieve central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injuries. (medpagetoday.com)
  • SYDNEY, Australia, Nov. 27 -- Patients with chronic neuropathic pain from spinal cord injuries experienced significant relief from the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic drug Lyrica (pregabalin), investigators here reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Gabapentin, the first anticonvulsant indicated in neuropathic pain, is now used in both nonmalignant and cancer-related neuropathic pain. (empr.com)
  • Do anticonvulsants reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives? (webmd.com)
  • Efficacy data at 3 months on the KD were analyzed with respect to the six most frequently used anticonvulsants in this cohort. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants for the prevention of migraine in children and adolescents. (york.ac.uk)
  • The anticonvulsants drug market has been segmented based on therapeutic class, disease indication, formulation, distribution channel, and region. (openpr.com)
  • As this syndrome can present secondary to multiple anticonvulsants, the general term "anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome" (AHS) is favored over the original descriptive term "dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yilmaz et al reported a patient with erythroderma and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome who developed pseudomonal intertrigo in the inguinal region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 8) Knowles et al (3) suggests warning close relatives of a patient with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome about the risk of using potentially cross-reactive anticonvulsants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If a patient presents with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome , as it is often called in the literature, check the medication's chemical structure before switching him or her to a different agent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I am setting this group up to enable families of children with Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome to link up and feel supported by each other. (circleofmoms.com)
  • To evaluate the pattern of abnormalities associated with prenatal anticonvulsant exposure further, we undertook a clinical study of 57 children with fetal anticonvulsant syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS Fifty two children were ascertained through the Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome Association and five were referred to the Aberdeen Medical Genetics Service. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Speech delay, joint laxity, glue ear, and myopia are common in the fetal anticonvulsant syndromes and autistic features and hyperactivity form part of the behavioural phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • A wide spectrum of malformations has been reported in association with all the fetal anticonvulsant syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to further understanding of the clinical and behavioural phenotype of the fetal anticonvulsant syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • The retrospective study by researchers D. Matthews and G. Matthews included 91 children and adolescents who were prescribed the anticonvulsant oxcarbazepine and the dopamine agonist amantadine following hospitalization for severe aggression, mood instability, and impulsivity. (bipolarnews.org)
  • The reviewers' task was complicated by the paucity of suitable studies and the different anticonvulsants and controls being compared. (who.int)
  • 6 9-16 Although distinctive phenotypes are described for the different anticonvulsants, there is an overlap in both facial dysmorphic features and malformations. (bmj.com)
  • Cannabis strains with high levels of cannabidiol (CBD) typically have higher levels of cannabidivarin as well, but accurate quantitation of both compounds for potency and strain ID is a must, especially as interest in using CBDV as an anticonvulsant and anti-nausea treatment continues to rise. (news-medical.net)
  • On the basis of the reported literature, we study here thiadiazole compounds and their synthetic methods chemistry and anticonvulsant activity. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the number, position, and size of these groups change the anticonvulsant potency of the compounds. (scielo.br)
  • In corneal kindled mice model the tested compounds showed beneficial anticonvulsant properties with ED 50 of 36.8 mg/kg for 1, 25.7 mg/kg for 2, and 51.1 mg/kg for 3. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. (dovepress.com)
  • The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability. (dovepress.com)
  • Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae) was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in rodents. (hindawi.com)
  • Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract therefore possesses anticonvulsant activity. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been widely reported that the crude oil of Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, seeds and its major chemical component thymoquinone present anticonvulsant activity. (scielo.br)
  • The anticonvulsant activity of allopregnanolone (5 mg/kg, s.c.), pregnanolone (5 mg/kg, s.c.), allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (15 mg/kg, s.c.), and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) were enhanced by 34-127% after neurosteroid withdrawal. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The anticonvulsant activity of PB (65 mg/kg, i.p.) was also enhanced by 24% in neurosteroid-withdrawn animals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast, the anticonvulsant activity of diazepam (4 mg/kg, i.p.), bretazenil (0.106 mg/kg, i.p.), and VPA (560 mg/kg, i.p.) were reduced or unchanged in neurosteroid-withdrawn animals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Four N-(E)-cinnamoyl (cinnamamide) derivatives of aminoalkanols with promising anticonvulsant and analgesic activity. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Reported here four N -( E )- cinnamoyl derivatives of aminoalkanols possess promising activity as anticonvulsant and/or analgesic agents. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The actual phytoconstituents(s) responsible for anticonvulsant activity were needed to be determined. (123helpme.com)
  • Anticonvulsants are used to help control or prevent abnormal increases in brain electrical activity. (genesishcs.org)
  • Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of bioisosteres of trimethadione, N-derivative-1,2,3-oxathiazolidine-4-one-2,2-dioxides from α-hydroxyamides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel heterocycles N-derivative-1,2,3-oxathiazolidine-4-one-2,2-dioxides, bioisosteres of trimethadione (TMD, oxazolidine-2,4-dione) and phenytoin (PHE), are described. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For anticonvulsant activity, the ethanolic extract was evaluated at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. against strychnine induced convulsions model, at 1, 7, 15 and 30th day of treatment. (springer.com)
  • Cocculus laurifolius (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. ) exhibited anticonvulsant activity as indicated by significant delay in the onset of convulsions and time to death after strychnine induced convulsions. (springer.com)
  • A new study by researchers at the A & A Pain Institute in St Louis, Missouri(A & A stands for Analgesia: pain reduction & Algology: the study of pain), have found that an anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam brings dramatic relief to nerve pain caused by cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clinical practice guidelines usually recommend nonpharmacologic treatments and nonopioid pain relievers rather than stronger analgesics such as anticonvulsants. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the anticonvulsant class, there are several major agents used as adjuvant analgesics. (empr.com)
  • Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are commonly used to treat the symptoms caused by brain and spinal cord tumours and their treatment. (cancer.ca)
  • Corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines (anticonvulsants) are commonly used for people with brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • We have shown, with mostly high- and moderate-quality evidence, that common anticonvulsants are ineffective for chronic low back pain and lumbar radicular pain, and are accompanied by increased risk of adverse events," write the authors. (eurekalert.org)
  • The rates did not vary significantly according to maternal anticonvulsants therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The scores showed only random variation according to maternal anticonvulsant therapy. (nih.gov)
  • 24 hours) is a secondary reason to consider anticonvulsant therapy. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • This case raises some important questions: Does this patient still require anticonvulsant therapy? (journals.co.za)
  • How are anticonvulsants used for the treatment of fibromyalgia? (medscape.com)
  • The hepatic microsomal concentration of P450hA7 was higher in five individuals who had been receiving long-term anticonvulsant treatment than in any of 21 individuals who had not been similarly treated. (portlandpress.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants in pregnancy: alterations in plasma protein binding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Changes in plasma protein binding may explain the declines in anticonvulsant concentrations during pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The free fraction for all anticonvulsants studied rose significantly throughout pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND Anticonvulsants taken in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of malformations and developmental delay in the children. (bmj.com)
  • A series of 1,2,4-dithiazole were synthesized from 1,2,4-thiadiazoles in the presence of CS 2 and evaluated for their antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, analgesic and neurotoxicity potential. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Anticonvulsant medicine may relieve chronic pain for some people but not others. (genesishcs.org)
  • When prescribed for chronic pain control, anticonvulsants are used at doses low enough to avoid side effects, and the dosage is usually increased very gradually, if needed. (genesishcs.org)
  • by Drug Types anticonvulsants, antidepressant and other. (medgadget.com)
  • By Drug Types (anticonvulsants, antidepressant, anaesthesia, steroids and other), the study also provides a comprehensive review of restraints. (medgadget.com)
  • Anticonvulsants (mainly phenobarbitone) are widely used in under-resourced settings. (who.int)
  • Recent evidence suggests that galanin is also a potent endogenous anticonvulsant ( 7 - 9 , 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • A recent review of the literature by Lee and colleagues suggests that anticonvulsants may increase the odds of fracture by 1.2 to 2.4 times. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • The usage of dietary supplements and other natural products to treat neurological diseases has been growing over time, and accumulating evidence suggests that flavonoids possess anticonvulsant properties. (mdpi.com)