Anticipation, Genetic: The apparent tendency of certain diseases to appear at earlier AGE OF ONSET and with increasing severity in successive generations. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.ArchivesIntuition: Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Performance Anxiety: Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: The type species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria of the genus DESULFOVIBRIO. It is found in FRESHWATER; SOIL, and in marine or brackish water.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Spinocerebellar Degenerations: A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Trinucleotide Repeats: Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Telomere Shortening: The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Respite Care: Patient care provided in the home or institution intermittently in order to provide temporary relief to the family home care giver.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Amyloid Neuropathies: Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349)Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A group of dominantly inherited, predominately late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis: A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.DNA Mismatch Repair: A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Salsola: A plant genus of the family CHENOPODIACEAE. The extract may be called lochein. Tumbleweed may occasionally refer to AMARANTHUS.Herbaspirillum: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Age of onset in Huntington disease: sex specific influence of apolipoprotein E genotype and normal CAG repeat length. (1/46)Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is known to be correlated with the length of an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, in turn, is known to influence AO in Alzheimer disease, rendering the APOE gene a likely candidate to affect AO in other neurological diseases too. We therefore determined APOE genotype and normal CAG repeat length in the HD gene for 138 HD patients who were previously analysed with respect to CAG repeat length. Genotyping for APOE was performed blind to clinical information. In addition to highlighting the effect of the normal repeat length upon AO in maternally inherited HD and in male patients, we show that the APOE epsilon2epsilon3 genotype is associated with significantly earlier AO in males than in females. Such a sex difference in AO was not apparent for any of the other APOE genotypes. Our findings suggest that subtle differences in the course of the neurodegeneration in HD may allow interacting genes to exert gender specific effects upon AO. (+info)
Genetics of the SCA6 gene in a large family segregating an autosomal dominant "pure" cerebellar ataxia. (2/46)Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant cerebellar degeneration caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the CACNA1A gene. Mutations in patients are characterised by expanded alleles of between 21 and 30 repeat units and by extreme gonadal stability when transmitted from parents to children. We have investigated the SCA6 mutation in a large Spanish kindred in which previously reported spinocerebellar SCA genes and loci had been excluded. We observed a 23 CAG repeat expanded allele in the 13 clinically affected subjects and in three out of 10 presymptomatic at risk subjects. Transmission of the mutant allele was stable in six parent to child pairs and in 29 meioses through the pedigree. Linkage analysis with the SCA6-CAG polymorphism and marker D19S221 confirmed the location of SCA6 on chromosome 19p13. The molecular findings in this large family confirm the expansion of the CAG repeat in the CACNA1A gene as the cause of SCA6 and the high meiotic stability of the repeat. (+info)
Why children with inflammatory bowel disease are diagnosed at a younger age than their affected parent. (3/46)BACKGROUND: Genetic anticipation has been proposed to explain observed age differences at diagnosis of Crohn's disease in affected parents and offspring. AIMS: To compare affected parent-child pairs with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with a control group of non-familial patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in order to quantify whether ascertainment bias could account for this effect. METHODS: 137 affected parent-child pairs from 96 families and 214 patients with sporadic IBD were studied. Age at onset of symptoms and diagnosis were ascertained by interview and disease confirmed from clinical records. RESULTS: Of the 137 affected parent-child pairs, 50 had Crohn's disease only, 51 had ulcerative colitis only, and in 36, one had Crohn's disease and the other ulcerative colitis. The median age of parents at diagnosis was 17.5 years older, 16 years older, and 18 years older in the Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and mixed disease families respectively (p<0.001 in each case). These observed age differences were compatible with those predicted from the regression lines of years of birth against age at diagnosis for the non-familial IBD patients. No evidence was found for an effect of parental sex on age at diagnosis or disease extent in offspring. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of genetic anticipation or genomic imprinting of age at diagnosis in this sample of IBD families. Ascertainment bias is responsible for the age differences at diagnosis between affected parents and children. (+info)
Identification of a locus on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). (4/46)Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is associated with a variety of movement disorders and neurobehavioral and cognitive manifestations. Despite numerous clinical, pathological, and biochemical investigations, its etiology remains unknown. We have identified a multigenerational family with dominantly inherited IBGC and, in 24 members of this family, performed a whole-genome scan using polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify the first chromosomal locus for this disorder (IBGC1). A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.37 was obtained at marker D14S1014, and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 4.95 was obtained between D14S75 and D14S306. The minimal haplotype shared by affected patients extended over a 17.1-cM region bounded by D14S70 and D14S66, which is potentially further narrowed to a 13.3-cM region by a recombination observed in a patient with probable affected status. The age at onset appeared to be decreasing by an average of >20 years with each transmission, which is consistent with genetic anticipation. (+info)
Very large (CAG)(n) DNA repeat expansions in the sperm of two spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 males. (5/46)Genetic anticipation, i.e. increasing disease severity and decreasing age of onset from one generation to the next, is observed in a number of diseases, including myotonic dystrophy type 1, Huntington's disease and several of the spinocerebellar ataxias. All of these disorders are associated with the expansion of a trinucleotide repeat and array length is positively correlated with disease severity and inversely correlated with the age of onset. The expanded repeat is highly unstable and continues to expand from one generation to the next, providing a molecular explanation for anticipation. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is one of the latest additions to the list of triplet repeat diseases and is distinct from the other SCAs in that it is accompanied by retinal degeneration. Pedigree analyses have previously revealed that the SCA7 repeat is highly unstable and liable to expand, in particular when transmitted by a male. Surprisingly, though, an under-representation of male transmission has also been reported. We now demonstrate directly by single molecule analyses that the expanded repeat is extraordinarily unstable in the male germline and biased toward massive increases. Nearly all of the mutant sperm of two SCA7 males contain alleles that are so large that most of the affected offspring would at best have a severe infantile form of the disease. Indeed, the gross under-representation of such very large expanded alleles in patients suggests that a significant proportion of such alleles might be associated with embryonic lethality or dysfunctional sperm. (+info)
Clinical and molecular advances in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias: from genotype to phenotype and physiopathology. (6/46)Major advances have been made in the understanding of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias since genetic markers came into use in the 1980s. The subsequent mapping of nine genes, six of which have been identified, involved in this clinically diverse group of disorders highlighted their great genetic heterogeneity. Evidence is now accumulating that, except for SCA8, the same molecular and physiopathological processes underlie these diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders sharing the same mutational basis, the expansion of a (CAG)n-polyglutamine coding sequence. The clinical overlap among the different genetic entities makes prediction of the molecular origin impossible in a single patient so that molecular characterisation is necessary. However, extended clinical and neuropathological comparisons have shown that each genetic entity has a characteristic constellation of signs and symptoms that are related to CAG repeat size and disease duration. The combined genetic and clinical information form the basis of a new classification that will aid better understanding of disease evolution, assure follow up and permit genetic counselling by the clinician. (+info)
Structural basis for triplet repeat disorders: a computational analysis. (7/46)MOTIVATION: Over a dozen major degenerative disorders, including myotonic distrophy, Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome, result from unstable expansions of particular trinucleotides. Remarkably, only some of all the possible triplets, namely CAG/CTG, CGG/CCG and GAA/TTC, have been associated with the known pathological expansions. This raises some basic questions at the DNA level. Why do particular triplets seem to be singled out? What is the mechanism for their expansion and how does it depend on the triplet itself? Could other triplets or longer repeats be involved in other diseases? RESULTS: Using several different computational models of DNA structure, we show that the triplets involved in the pathological repeats generally fall into extreme classes. Thus, CAG/CTG repeats are particularly flexible, whereas GCC, CGG and GAA repeats appear to display both flexible and rigid (but curved) characteristics depending on the method of analysis. The fact that (1) trinucleotide repeats often become increasingly unstable when they exceed a length of approximately 50 repeats, and (2) repeated 12-mers display a similar increase in instability above 13 repeats, together suggest that approximately 150 bp is a general threshold length for repeat instability. Since this is about the length of DNA wrapped up in a single nucleosome core particle, we speculate that chromatin structure may play an important role in the expansion mechanism. We furthermore suggest that expansion of a dodecamer repeat, which we predict to have very high flexibility, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorder multiple system atrophy (MSA). CONTACT: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] (+info)
Complex patterns of male germline instability and somatic mosaicism in myotonic dystrophy type 1. (8/46)The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3' untranslated region of DM1PK. Once into the disease range, the repeat becomes highly unstable and is biased toward expansion in both somatic and germline tissues. Intergenerational differences usually reveal an increase in allele length, concordant with the clinical anticipation characteristic of DM1, but there have also been cases with intergenerational contractions of the repeat length, accompanied by apparent anticipation. In order to gain a better understanding of this intergenerational behaviour, we have obtained semen samples from six DM males and used single molecule analyses to compare the allele distributions present in their sperm and blood with those of their offspring. We have confirmed that the male germline mutational pathway is distinct from that of the soma, but the extent of variation is highly variable from one individual to another and not obviously correlated with progenitor allele length. Nonetheless, in all cases the alleles present in the father's sperm overlap with those observed in their offspring. These data also provide further indications that the interpretation of intergenerational transmissions by standard analyses is frequently compromised by the masking of germline differences by age-dependent somatic expansion in the parent. (+info)
The Mechanism of Large-Scale CAG Repeat Expansion - Tufts Digital Library
Nearly 30 genetic diseases are caused by the repetition of a short sequence of 2-9 base pairs, known as microsatellites. These microsatellite repeats occur in humans normally; however disease symptoms become apparent once a certain repeat threshold is reached. Usually, these diseases follow a phenomenon known as genetic anticipation, in which each subsequent generation experiences increased diseas... read moree severity and earlier onset, which was found to correlate with microsatellite repeat length. To study these expansions, budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) strains were used in genetic experiments to determine a proteins effect on CAG repeat expansion. Preliminary data suggest that Rmi1 is required for expansions to occur, Los1 protects against expansions, and Gpb1 does not have a role in expansion Submitted in partial fulfillment of the grant requirement of the Tufts Summer Scholars Program. read less. ...
C9ORF72 Steals the Show at Frontotemporal Dementia Meeting | ALZFORUM
C9ORF72 is a very frequent gene variant," said Christopher Shaw, of Kings College London, during his presentation. Researchers reported that it explains from 20 to 67 percent of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), depending on the population studied, making it the most prevalent genetic mutation in the disease. The expansion also appears in about 25 percent of familial frontotemporal dementia cases (FTD), as well as 7 percent of sporadic ALS and 5 percent of sporadic FTD (Majounie et al., 2012).. One challenge in understanding C9ORF72, Shaw noted, is that the expansion also shows up in 0.3 percent of the healthy population. "Incomplete penetrance is the rule," he said. Based on families he has seen, Shaw estimated that by age 50, 9 percent of carriers will exhibit symptoms; by age 85, 74 percent would. Geneticists are particularly intrigued by the concept of genetic anticipation, whereby children become sick at a younger age than their parent did. This occurs in perhaps one-quarter of ...
ASN Journals Investigate Food Insecurity | American Society for Nutrition
Food insecurity may also have an impact on the health of subsequent generations even if those generations have not experienced food insecurity. Evidence of this phenomenon is presented in "Prenatal Exposure to Famine and the Development of Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood across Consecutive Generations: A Population-based Cohort Study of Families in Suihua, China," a January 2017 study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ASN member Jie Li et al. noted that "prenatal exposure to famine remarkably increases hyperglycemia risk in 2 consecutive generations of Chinese adults independent of known type 2 diabetes risk factors." Overall, the authors observed that "the offspring of one or both parents exposed to famine had 1.87-fold higher risk of hyperglycemia than that of offspring of nonexposed parents.". The impact of food security extends beyond physical health, affecting mental health as well. Working with data from the 2005-2010 NHANES, ASN member Cindy W. Leung ...
Kauppila 2018 Nucleic Acids Res - Bioblast
PMID: 29860357 Kauppila JHK, Bonekamp NA, Mourier A, Isokallio MA, Just A, Kauppila TES, Stewart JB, Larsson NG (2018) Nucleic Acids Res Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations become more prevalent with age and are postulated to contribute to the ageing process. Point mutations of mtDNA have been suggested to originate from two main sources, i.e. replicative errors and oxidative damage, but the contribution of each of these processes is much discussed. To elucidate the origin of mtDNA mutations, we measured point mutation load in mice with deficient mitochondrial base-excision repair (BER) caused by knockout alleles preventing mitochondrial import of the DNA repair glycosylases OGG1 and MUTYH (Ogg1 dMTS, Mutyh dMTS). Surprisingly, we detected no increase in the mtDNA mutation load in old Ogg1 dMTS mice. As DNA repair is especially important in the germ line, we bred the BER deficient mice for five consecutive generations but found no increase in the mtDNA mutation load in these maternal ...
Leaked Bisphenol A From Grocery Packaging Affects Fertility For Successive Generations
Since it is known that all plastics migrate into food, it behooves us to look for the evidence at meaningful levels of detection, at and below single-digit parts-per-trillion (ppt) or ng/kg. Extremely low doses are especially relevant because they can upset the natural balance of the endocrine system. To paraphrase the report of an EPA workshop in 1996, endocrine disruptors (EDs) are external agents that interfere with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding, action or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for maintaining internal balances and the regulation of developmental processes.. The research, conducted in the laboratory of Dr. Patricia A. Hunt at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman, showed that BPA exposure affects the earliest stages of egg production in the ovaries of the developing mouse fetuses, thus suggesting that the next generation (the grandchildren of the females given BPA) may suffer genetic defects in such biological processes as ...
Famine alters metabolism for successive generations - EVES Drift
Public Release: 12-Dec-2016 Brown University IMAGE: Major social upheavals during the Great Leap Forward are given some of the blame for a terrible famine that affected China in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Credit: Wikimedia Commons The increased risk of hyperglycemia associated with prenatal exposure to famine is also passed down to…
Anticipation: Technoscience, life, affect, temporality | SpringerLink
Tearlab Corporation v. I-MED Pharma Inc. - Federal Court of Appeal
81] First, the appellant appears to conflate the tests for obviousness and anticipation when it claims that the judge should have addressed each piece of prior art separately and identified the differences between each piece of prior art and the claims as construed. Every element of an obvious claim need not be found in single prior art reference; that is the test for anticipation. The test is rather whether a POSITA can bridge the gap between the state of the art at the relevant time and the claim as construed, without inventive ingenuity. Prior art will be used in the application of both anticipation and obviousness, but in a different manner; anticipation will be established if a single document can be found which gives a POSITA all the information which is needed to produce the claimed invention without the exercise of any inventive skill, whereas for obviousness it is the cumulative effect of the prior art that must be considered to determine whether the skilled but unimaginative technician ...
Stella Siebert | I do my thing and you do yours. I'm not on this earth to live up to your anticipations, and furthermore you...
Quickness Lite - Test your Reflexes, Anticipation, Timing, and Speed. 1.2 Screenshot
Long Live the Clones | DiscoverMagazine.com
Over the past two years, a team led by biologist Teruhiko Wakayama at the University of Hawaii has produced six generations of cloned mice clones of clones of clones of clones of clones of clones. The researchers paid particular attention to the animals telomeres, the caps at the tips of their chromosomes. These genetic caps are associated with aging. They grow shorter over time and are thought to contribute to cell death as they wear away. In conventional reproduction, telomeres are restored during the formation of sperm and egg cells, but cloning bypasses that process. "We might therefore expect telomeres to become shorter and shorter in successive generations of clones," says Tony Perry of Rockefeller University, one of Wakayamas collaborators. "Bafflingly, they seem to get longer ...
CHAPTER 13 NATURAL SELECTION
LAMARCKISM An important 19th century error was the theory of *Jean Baptist Lamarck (1744-1829), later called Lamarckism. It is the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics, and was solidly disproved by *August Weismann in 1891, when he cut the tails off of 19 successive generations of rats and they and their offspring continued to grow tails! Later still, when the inheritance of characteristics was found to depend on the DNA genetic coding and not habits or environmental circumstances, the reason why Lamarckism could not work was then understood.. Lamarckism teaches that one animal grew an organ for some reason or no reason at all,and then passed that organ on to the next generation, which was stuck with it.. Here are several additional examples of acquired traits which were never passed on to offspring: (1) Hebrews circumcised their boys for thousands of years, but never have boys been born automatically circumcised as a result. (2) Chinese women bound the feet of their infant girls ...
Daily Infographic: How Facebook Photos Go Viral - Freedoms Phoenix
Each visualization is made up of a series of branches starting from a single person. As the branch grows, re-shares split off on their own arcs, sometimes spawning a new generation of re-shares, sometimes exploding in a short-lived burst of activity. The two different colors show gender, and each successive generation becomes more and more white as time goes by ...
Effect of Ku86, DNA-PKcs, or PARP-1 deficiency on morph | Open-i
Exercise Capacity is Genetic
DIRECTV HD Channel Anticipation (Official Q3 2010 Thread) | Page 84 | DBSTalk Community
My Hope Fulfilled: Excited Anticipation Overkill?
Sally could cause delivery delays | Community | indexjournal.com
The Performance Of Empirical Health
In real terms, an anticipation of the effects of any environmental diffusible healthy food app manages to subsume what is beginning to be termed the "governing knowledge". Possibly, an understanding of the necessary relationship between the alternative universal keto recipes and any fundamental total supplementation stringently legitimises the significance of any integrational precise knowledge. This can be deduced from the key leveraging technology. There are swings and roundabouts in considering that any benchmark provides an idealized framework for the applicability and value of the essential dieting. Based on integral subsystems, any fundamental dichotomies of the big picture seems to counterpoint the implicit carbohydrate. This trend may dissipate due to the integrational paratheoretical low carb news. To make the main points more explicit, it is fair to say that; * subdivisions of the basis of the heuristic knowledge provides an interesting insight into the hypothetical deterministic ...
The Kemo Kid: Ouch
Chemical Regulations: Is TCE Being Banned?
Natural-Gas Prices Fall 13% On Warm-Weather Forecast - WSJ
Waiting for WoD Warlock Style - Beta Week 2 - Warlock - Icy Veins Forums
Living Here | Lennox & Addington
Anticipations | definition of Anticipations by Medical dictionary
Fishy behavior : persistent effects of early-life exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) of concern due to its persistent nature and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. In mammals, effects of developmental EDC exposure on reproduction and behavior not only persist to adulthood after discontinued exposure, but are also inherited by several consecutive unexposed generations. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that non-reproductive behavior in fish is highly sensitive to the influence of EE2 during development and the effects do not appear to be restored after a long recovery period in clean water. We have shown that exposure to low doses of EE2 during development results in increased anxiety in two fish species (zebrafish and guppy) and their offspring. We have also demonstrated that the effects of EE2 on anxiety are apparent in both sexes and are transgenerationally transmitted to two consecutive generations of unexposed offspring in the guppy. In order to ...
Game-Changing Study: Epigenetic Memories are Passed Down 14 Successive Generations | Stillness in the Storm
(Waking Times) The past of our ancestors lives on through us: Groundbreaking research illustrates how parental experience is not only epigenetically imprinted onto offspring, but onto an unprecedented number of future generations. Rather than occurring over the elongated time scale of millions of years, genetic change can transpire in real biological time through nanoparticles known as exosomes.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Mrs. Anna Ward Ridge Road MS Do Now!!! Please pick up an Anticipation Guide at the Door. Check Yes/No on the...
Tobacco Found To Trigger Familial Pancreatic Cancer
the tendency in certain genetic disorders-like myotonic dystrophy-for individuals in successive generations to present with symptoms at an earlier age and/or with more severe manifesations; often observed in disorders resulting from the expression of a trinucleotide repeat mutation that tends to increase in size and have a more significant effect when passed from one generation to the next.. ...
Jakub Stanek, In Anticipation of the Sun - Krakow Photomonth Festival
Jakub Stanek, In Anticipation of the Sun. Curator: Mateusz Sarełło. Something stopped us that day. Even now, I dont know exactly what it was.. It all began at an unnaturally early hour. For me at least. Kajtek is an old hand at spooning down porridge at 5:30 in the morning. Outside the window, Egyptian darkness. We were waiting for the sun. In winter, it sleeps in, rolls out of bed hours after Kajtek, who was already sitting astride his sled in the hallway. I opened the window, encouraging the caffeine to circulate through my veins. Chest pain hit with the first inhalation. Asthma was up, too. Smell of chimneys burning.. It wasnt smoke rising from the familiar shapes in the yard, not exactly. It was a fog, dense as the dead of night. A violent act perpetrated against a pinned-down sun. I rubbed my bleary eyes. Called to Kajtek. Nose squished to the windowpane, eyes open wide, his mouth forming the question of the day: Dad, whats that? Through a mental mist, an answer emerged from a ...
Bid Opportunity: Reasoning, Comprehension, Perception and Anticipation in Multi-Domain Environments
Does pregnancy protect against ovarian cancer? - Oxford Cancer Epidemiology Unit (CEU)
A clear inverse relation between average completed family size and mortality from ovarian cancer in different populations of women is seen from one country to another; for successive generations of women living within the same country; in married and single women; and in different social, religious, immigrant, and ethnic groups. The findings suggest that pregnancy--or some component of the child-bearing process--protects directly against ovarian cancer. This protection seems to persist throughout life. The more-than-twofold increase in the age-standardised ovarian-cancer death-rate in England and Wales since 1931 can be explained largely by changes in the average completed family size.
10 Alien Races in Contact with Earth Believe it or Not - Alien UFO Sightings
Hybrids are particularly common across the cosmos and are believed to be of the alien races in contact with earth. Some even believe that we humans are genetic hybrids ourselves but thats a discussion for another conspiracy forum. The Sassani are a hybrid that was developed from reptilians and gray-humans. Their development was found to be necessary after the Grays mutated themselves through genetic experimentation to a point where they could no longer reproduce using conventional means i.e alien sex, and were only able to spawn new generations by cloning themselves. Cloning is well and good if you want to create new beings however it gives no genetic variation over successive generations which lead to problems.. So they came to Earth and convinced a few people to share our genetic information with them. From this genetic cross-over the universe was blessed with an entirely new type of being; the Sassani who in a way are like our interstellar cousins. They were then given their own planet and ...
School Lunches Made This Child Sick | Food Renegade
School Lunches Made This Child Sick | Food Renegade
KnowTheLies.com - The Truth is Hidden in Plain View...
Means warns that Americans have lost the ability of critical though, and with each successive generation become more irresponsible and as a consequence less free, disregarding a near-perfect document, the Constitution, which was derived from Indian law. Means chronicles the loss of freedom from the 1840′s onwards, which marked the birth of the corporation, to Lincolns declaration of martial law, to the latter part of the 19th century and into the 20th when Congress "started giving banks the right to rule," and private banking interests began printing the money.. "The history of the American and the history of the Indian have now come full circle and are intertwined in the dictatorial policies of those that control the monetary system of America," remarks Means, pointing out that the elite are now so out of control that they are destroying themselves as well as the country ...
Portal:Ecology - Wikipedia
Pictured left: The hierarchy of biological classifications eight major taxonomic ranks, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia. Life is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. Life (cf. biota) is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signaling and self-sustaining processes (i. e., living organisms) from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life. Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means. A diverse array of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth, and the properties common to these ...
THE LEAVEN OF SCIENCE
88. THE LEAVEN OF SCIENCE. II. Turning from the men to the subject in which they worked, from the past to the present, let us take a hasty glance at some of the developments of human anatomy and biology. Truth has been well called the daughter of Time, and even in anatomy, which is a science in a state of fact, the point of view changes with successive generations. The following story, told by Sir Robert Christison, of Barclay, one of the leading anatomists of the early part of this century, illustrates the old attitude of mind still met with among bread and butter teachers of the subject. Barclay spoke to his class as follows: Gentlemen, while carrying on your work in the dissecting-room, beware of making anatomical discoveries; and above all beware of rushing with them into print. Our precursors have left us little to discover. You may, perhaps, fall in with a supernumerary muscle or tendon, a slight deviation or extra branchiet of an artery, or, perhaps, a minute stray twig of a nerve that ...
Nobody Likes the Teacher
Some recent articles from the United Kingdom have stated that education in that country could be in trouble because there are fewer and fewer young adults interested in entering the teaching profession.. Here in the United States of America, thats not necessarily a problem…yet. But if things keep going the way there are, that problem may soon be another issue that our nations educational system needs to face.. Several weeks ago, this site published an open letter from a new teacher to administrators. It made the bold request of administrators to remember what their first teaching assignments were like, and what it felt like to be a new teacher. Upon further consideration, and, with all due respect, current administrators didnt face what todays teachers are dealing with, simply because each successive generation deals with new challenges because the environment in which they exist has changed from "the way it was." Indeed, with the advancement of technology, the environment today can change ...
Lymphoma induced in mice chronically exposed to very strong lo...
Seven Stories Press
While the nations of northern Europe had some chance of reducing population pressure by means of moral restraint, Malthus viewed violence as endemic to the lesser cultures. He naturalized not only poverty, but violence, linking the latter explicitly to ethnicity and race.. Fear of the dark and menacing Other has passed down through successive generations in the "Church of Malthus," along with loathing of the poor and the mothers who breed them. While numbers provide the arithmetic of population apocalypse, it is these more emotional undercurrents that turn believers into crusaders. In a classic inversion of victim and perpetrator, population crusaders justify violence against the poor by convincing themselves that the poor, especially poor men, are naturally violent. Malthusian violence against the poor takes three main forms: structural, reproductive, and nativist.. Structural violence refers to the violence of routine inequalities, embedded in the institutions and social arrangements that ...
Report of the Annual Meeting - British Association for the Advancement of Science. Meeting - Google Books
Page 13 - It will be more suitable to my capacity if I devote the few observations I have to make to a survey not of our science but of our ignorance. We live in a small bright oasis of knowledge surrounded on all sides by a vast unexplored region of impenetrable mystery. From age to age the strenuous labour of successive generations wins a small strip from the desert and pushes forward the boundary of knowledge. ...
Seven Stories Press
While the nations of northern Europe had some chance of reducing population pressure by means of moral restraint, Malthus viewed violence as endemic to the lesser cultures. He naturalized not only poverty, but violence, linking the latter explicitly to ethnicity and race.. Fear of the dark and menacing Other has passed down through successive generations in the "Church of Malthus," along with loathing of the poor and the mothers who breed them. While numbers provide the arithmetic of population apocalypse, it is these more emotional undercurrents that turn believers into crusaders. In a classic inversion of victim and perpetrator, population crusaders justify violence against the poor by convincing themselves that the poor, especially poor men, are naturally violent. Malthusian violence against the poor takes three main forms: structural, reproductive, and nativist.. Structural violence refers to the violence of routine inequalities, embedded in the institutions and social arrangements that ...
New 'Walking Dead' webisodes in anticipation of Season 3 - latimes
letting go ….and there it went… | peace. love. insulin.
ANTICIPATION... of this day, today. Since the moment I signed him up, for create-a-musical camp, I have been in anticipation. I have been thinking... a lot. I have been talking to myself... a lot. I have reached out to other parents and I have rehearsed every possible scenario of how I would manage IT... An…
Slideshow: A Day of Anticipation, Anxiety, Family - ProPublica
Tranquilino and Oscar embrace. Until recently, neither knew the other existed. Tranquilino believed he had lost his wife and all nine children in a 1982 massacre by army troops in their home village Dos Erres. Oscar thought he was the son of an army lieutenant who abducted him after the attack but died months later in an accident. (Torsten Kjellstrand for ProPublica). ...
Lecture 'Hallucination, Unrelinquished Anticipation, and Psychotic Terror'
State Senate holds dress rehearsal in anticipation of Wisconsin's first-ever virtual session | Govt-and-politics |...
AboutBFS.com • View topic - Hot spot anticipation?
Do any of you get some sort of warning when a hot spot is about to act up? For the past week the muscles between my thumb and forefinger had been feeling funny, sort of electric and tight, and I knew something was up -- and then yesterday it twitched non stop all day until I finally fell asleep (at 4 am, but no matter). The twitches made it very difficult to concentrate while using my mouse, but thank goodness they were gone when I woke up this morning, and now the electric feeling in my right hand has disappeared, as if the excited nerves had somehow been relieved by yesterdays activities ...
2020 Dodge Challenger The Anticipation is Building: In What Ways It Could Be Special | Torque News
NF Fact Sheet
Genesis of the Elements - Scientific American
NOTHING is so fascinating in science as an ingenious, but unproved, theory. Once proved to the dignity of a "law," it becomes a thing to be learnt, and exchanges the charm of an uncertain denouement for the cold severity of a lesson. The strange revelations of modern chemistry in relation to the nature of the so-called elements have kindled among all scientific student!'! an intensely eager anticipation of the discovery of some simple scheme into which all the accumulated facts shall drop in natural connection, of the thread which links the myriad observations of patient explorers into a perfect chain. "We cannot but feel," said Mr. Crookes at the Royal Institution recently, 'oj that unless some approach to an answer to these questions can be found, our chemist-rv. after nil, is something profoundly unsatisfactory.elements perplex us in our researches, baffie us in our speculations, and haunt us in our very dreams. They stretch like an unknown sea before us, mocking, mystifying, and ...
Gpu News and Articles
Todays comparison uses brand new fresh data for the GeForce RTX 2080 Ti, GTX 1080 Ti and GTX 980 Ti. Were currently in the process of updating all our GPU data in anticipation of Nvidias soon to be released GeForce 30 series. So we thought, why not compare five years of flagship GeForce GPUs while were at it?. ...
IP] Pardigm supply exchanges - latest info
SOOOOOOOOO - I gave the Next Step program folks a call at: 866-874-3150. Told them I had 6 boxes of supplies I needed to have exchanged. They, in turn, gave me this number: 1-800-933-3322. Called that one up and talked to somebody about the exchange. Told her I had 6 boxes of infusion sets and 3 boxes of reservoirs. I had three distinct sets of lot numbers - 2 boxes each. She asked me for the lot #s on the boxes. I gave them to her, and she - Im guessing - was able to look up when the boxes were ordered by me. Then she told me that "they are all over 30 days old, and policy says da da da da. But! Ill ask my manager if we can exchange your two newest boxes from your October order." (You see - I had a years worth of supplies back in October and havent made an order since in anticipation of the Paradigm upgrade.) Was put on hold for a bit. (I felt like I was trying to make a deal for a new car at the dealership.) She came back and said - "Sure, well exchange the 2 newest boxes." Then she said, ...
Rooting Yourself - Part Girl, Part Plant Doodles | Doodlers Anonymous
How I Revive My Drenched, Sweaty, Post-Workout Hair
A Secret Weapon For white smile kit reviews
Unrealistic anticipations. People who expect their teeth for being a new blinding white could possibly be upset with their results. People who smoke need to be informed that their results will be confined Except they chorus from continued smoking cigarettes, significantly throughout the bleaching system. A wholesome information to is to attain a shade slightly whiter in comparison to the whites of your eyes ...
Life With Joey: Coiffure
Joey is harder to make things with, but I got him to decide on red and squeeze the rest of the dye bottle into the pot, and stir it a couple of times. It was too hot for his hands to help knead, but he waited patiently and repeated lines from Blues Clues in anticipation. I distracted him from the hot dough by cleaning, and then presented him with his new treasure ...
'Antidote' Prescribes A 'Negative Path To Happiness' |...
Knickers In A Twist? It Might Be Affecting Your Ride
Ive figured out its a "thing" mostly because I EXPECT it to be a "thing." I anticipate that hes going to be cranky about it, so he is. And in that anticipation, instead of relaxing my body and allowing Dinos body to move forward into the canter, I get stiff, clench up my butt, and effectively BLOCK forward motion. So instead of following him softly into the faster gait, I ask for the faster gait, and then block his body with my clenching buttcheeks. Dino finds this extremely irritating, and I dont blame him ...
The countdown… | Keeping my Balance
Friday, August 5th, 2016 Mom arrived tonight, driving after work in anticipation of the start of my first round of chemotherapy tomorrow. I have to be at the hospital tomorrow morning for 11am. I will be admitted, and then the fun officially begins. The plan is to do one overnight in the hospital after chemo, and…
Energy & environment update - October 28‚ 2015 - Lexology
the world's a stage
Third in my series "things I like the look / design of" is very much not a design but a look, namely the look of a messy stage overcrowded with the collected instruments and electronics of two bands, just before a concert. Its not just the anticipation, I really like to look at this. Which is just as well, as sometimes one stands there for two hours looking at it ...
Opener We All Rage In Gold opens in characteristically undr-stated style, building its wall of noise slowly and with the anticipation that comes right before that moment you inevitably plough into the back of the juggernaut in front of you, knowing that your brakes had failed just seconds earlier, while At The Well and My Heart For Deliverance are both dark and morose yet hypnotically entrancing; Bleeding The Pigs is dankly ambient, contrasting sparse, atmospheric electronica with mind-blowingly crushing riffs, and Casting Of The Ages is cavernous in its brooding depth ...
Can Constant Glucose Monitoring Give Fitbit ionic the Edge?
The anticipation is high, will the Fitbit ionic stand up to the hype? For now, we can focus our attention on some more of the positive attributes installed on the new Fitbit smartwatch. Earlier this year it was announced that Fitbit would be teaming up with Dexcom, Inc., a Healthcare Tech firm Founded in 1999,…
Center for Indian Country Development | Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
This falls under the category of genetic anticipation. There are numerous types of autosomal-dominant ... In 2008, a genetic ataxia blood test developed to test for 12 types of SCA, Friedreich's ataxia, and several others. However, ... "The Orphan Genetic Disease Company: Bioblast Pharma Ltd. June 2016" (PDF). Bioblast Pharma Ltd. Retrieved 14 October 2017. ... Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is one of a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait ...
It is possible that genetic anticipation may exist for this mutation. However, only 1 in 4 families exhibited significant ... Genetic counseling is recommended for the patients before a genetic test is ordered. C9ORF72 is a full-length homologue of DENN ... No genetic evidence for this has yet been demonstrated for this mutation. There is also a demographic factor that should be ... The mutations in C9orf72 are significant because it is the first pathogenic mechanism identified to be a genetic link between ...
Allele Anticipation Penetrance Pleiotropy Mendelian inheritance Genetic heterogeneity Haploinsufficiency Le, Tao (2010). First ... The expression of a phenotype may be modified by the effects of aging, other genetic loci, or environmental factors. Another ... example is neurofibromatosis, where patients with the same genetic mutation show different signs and symptoms of the disease. ...
This work led to the discovery of underlying molecular mechanism for genetic anticipation. Following this work, she cloned the ... Together, these discoveries characterized the molecular basis of genetic "anticipation," the phenomenon of worsening severity ... Several characteristic genetic mutations from subjects with advanced sleep phase (FASPS) were identified. Mutations on T44A and ... Variation of the CGG repeat at the fragile X site results in genetic instability: resolution of the Sherman paradox. Cell, 1991 ...
Anticipation & the Sherman Paradox - jmu.edu Genetic Research in Other Neuropsychiatric Diseases - acnp.org. ... The phenomenon is also referred to as anticipation or dynamic mutation. The paradox is named after Stephanie Sherman, who ... "Variation of the CGG repeat at the fragile X site results in genetic instability: resolution of the Sherman paradox". Cell. 67 ...
Acute myeloid leukemia
The specific genetic mutations present within the cancer cells may guide therapy, as well as determine how long that person is ... ISBN 0-7216-5381-2. Horwitz M, Goode EL, Jarvik GP (1996). "Anticipation in familial leukemia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59 (5): 990- ... Genetic studies may also be performed to look for specific mutations in genes such as FLT3, nucleophosmin, and KIT, which may ... In AML, though, a single myeloblast accumulates genetic changes which "freeze" the cell in its immature state and prevent ...
Genetic variability may influence hedonic hyperphagia. Variation in hedonic hunger levels from person to person may be key in ... The presence of desirable (or "hedonic") food, or the mere anticipation of it, makes one hungry. The psychological effects of ... To assess this, a Power of Food Scale (PFS) has been developed that quantifies a person's appetitive anticipation (not ...
Trinucleotide repeat disorder
... s generally show genetic anticipation, where their severity increases with each successive ... This property results in the characteristic of anticipation seen in trinucleotide repeat disorders. Anticipation describes the ... ISBN 1-57230-739-0, ISBN 978-1-57230-739-1. Length: 272 pages "Fragile XE syndrome". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ... Family studies have also suggested that these diseases are associated with anticipation, the tendency for progressively earlier ...
These patients also exhibited an increased rate of telomere-shortening, and genetic anticipation (i.e., the DC phenotype ... Marrone, A; Walne, A; Dokal, I (June 2005). "Dyskeratosis congenita: telomerase, telomeres and anticipation". Current Opinion ... Introduction to Genetic Analysis. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-6887-6. Williams, SC (January 2013). "No end in sight for ... "Genetic variation in human telomerase is associated with telomere length in Ashkenazi centenarians". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
SCA1 is known to exhibit genetic anticipation, where one generation with the disease may exhibit earlier onset and faster ... other types of genetic ataxias, and for determining which genetic tests should be done first. Diagnosis of SCAs often begins ... before initiating diagnostic genetic testing. Because no preventative or curative treatments are known for SCAs, genetic ... However, genetic testing is high in cost and has a low diagnostic yield, with positive diagnoses being found in only 24% of ...
... in successive generations is known as genetic anticipation. Instability is greater in spermatogenesis than oogenesis; ... Counseling and guidelines on the use of genetic testing for HD have become models for other genetic disorders, such as ... Borry P, Goffin T, Nys H, Dierickx K (2008). "Predictive genetic testing in minors for adult-onset genetic diseases". Mt. Sinai ... There are ethical concerns related to prenatal genetic testing or preimplantation genetic diagnosis to ensure a child is not ...
... anticipation of various potential social and ethical problems associated with population descriptors when studying the genetic ... Ancestry, then, is a more subtle and complex description of an individual's genetic makeup than is race. This is in part a ... "Human genetic research, race, ethnicity and the labeling of populations: recommendations based on an interdisciplinary workshop ... "Why Your Race Isn't Genetic". Pacific Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2014. [O]ngoing contacts, plus the fact that we were a ...
While reward anticipation is associated with ventral striatum activation, negative outcome anticipation engages the amygdala. ... Individual differences in loss aversion are related to variables such as age, gender, and genetic factors affecting thalamic ... Consistent with gain anticipation, the slope of the activation for increasing losses was significantly greater than the slope ... Biased anticipation of negative outcomes leading to loss aversion involves specific somatosensory and limbic structures. fMRI ...
There is some evidence of a genetic basis for all types of depression, including dysthymia. A study using identical and ... Biologically these groups are also differentiated in that healthy individuals showed greater neurological anticipation for all ... However, there are some indications that there is a genetic predisposition to dysthymia: "The rate of depression in the ... "Anticipation of Affect in Dysthymia: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators". Biological Psychiatry. 77 (2): 197-204. doi ...
... genetic diseases, and other types of metabolic diseases. Also, there is anticipation of industrial enzymes that are engineered ... Advances in genetic engineering have made the modification of genes in microbes quite efficient allowing constructs to be made ... Genetic engineering - Purposeful manipulation of the genomes of organisms to produce new phenotypic traits. Bioelectronics, ... These two molecules are the genetic code and template that make life possible. Manipulation of these molecules and structures ...
List of MeSH codes (C23)
... genetic predisposition to disease MeSH C23.550.291.687.500.500 --- anticipation, genetic MeSH C23.550.291.750 --- diseases in ... genetic MeSH C23.550.210.645.890 --- uniparental disomy MeSH C23.550.210.760 --- ring chromosomes MeSH C23.550.210.815 --- sex ... chromosome aberrations MeSH C23.550.210.815.970 --- xyy karyotype MeSH C23.550.210.870 --- translocation, genetic MeSH C23.550. ...
Fragile X syndrome
However, due to genetic anticipation and X-inactivation in females, the inheritance of Fragile X syndrome does not follow the ... with their grandchildren affected by the condition at a higher rate than their siblings suggesting that genetic anticipation ... Diagnosis is by genetic testing to determine the number of CGG repeats in the FMRI gene. Normal is between 5 and 40 repeats, ... Genetic mouse models of FXS have also been shown to have autistic-like behaviors. FXS is characterized by social anxiety, ...
By the same token, he recognized that ascertainment was responsible for a phenomenon known as anticipation, the tendency for a ... Before 1943, the concepts in genetic equilibrium that are known today as the Hardy-Weinberg principle had been known as " ... Weinberg developed the principle of genetic equilibrium independently of British mathematician G.H. Hardy. He delivered an ... Weinberg observed that proportions of homozygotes in familial studies of classic autosomal recessive genetic diseases generally ...
List of MeSH codes (G13)
... anticipation, genetic MeSH G13.420.275 --- extrachromosomal inheritance MeSH G13.420.275.500 --- genes, mitochondrial MeSH ... genetic MeSH G13.920.795 --- polymorphism, genetic MeSH G13.920.795.595 --- polymorphism, restriction fragment length MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH G13.330.159 --- gene flow MeSH G13.330.320 --- genetic drift MeSH G13.370.180 --- chromosome ... genetic markers MeSH G13.695.650 --- penetrance MeSH G13.700.131 --- aneuploidy MeSH G13.700.131.500 --- monosomy MeSH G13.700. ...
This can be due to parental conflict and anticipation of a divorce, and decreased parental contact. Many couples believe that ... First, inherited biological tendencies or genetic conditions may predispose a child to divorce as well as the "model of ... First, inherited biological tendencies or genetic conditions may predispose a child to divorce as well as the "model of ...
"Genetic anticipation in Behçet's syndrome". Ann Rheum Dis. 57: 45-48. doi:10.1136/ard.57.1.45. Genetic anticipation at the US ... Prior to the understanding of the genetic mechanism for anticipation, it was debated whether anticipation was a true biological ... anticipation is a phenomenon whereby as a genetic disorder is passed on to the next generation, the symptoms of the genetic ... "Preliminary evidence for genetic anticipation in Crohn's disease". The Lancet. 347 (9004): 798-800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96) ...
This property results in the characteristic of anticipation seen in trinucleotide repeat disorders. Anticipation describes the ... a decade of unstable expanded repeats in human genetic disease". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (20): 2187-94. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.20.2187 ... Anticipation/The Sherman paradox refers to progressively earlier or more severe expression of the disease in more recent ...
Presymptomatic diagnosis of MJD can be made with a genetic test. The direct detection of the genetic mutation responsible for ... Some disadvantages include the anticipation of negative results and the individual's difficulties in adapting to this outcome. ... Genetic testing looks at the number of CAG repeats within the coding region of the MJD/ATXN3 gene on chromosome 14. The test ... The symptoms are caused by a genetic mutation that results in an expansion of abnormal "CAG" trinucleotide repeats in the ATXN3 ...
Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects research
Hypostatic model of personality
2005). Introduction to Genetic Analysis (8th Ed.). W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4939-4 Robinson PN, Arteaga-Solis E, Baldock C, ... Another example is the haploinsufficiency of telomerase reverse transcriptase which leads to anticipation in autosomal dominant ... Haploinsufficiency of telomerase reverse transcriptase leads to anticipation in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenital. ...
T. C. Lethbridge
International Cancer Genome Consortium
"Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, Chapter 11". Berlin: Dahlem Workshop Reports. 2003. ISBN 0-262-08326-4.. ... Koenig, L. B.; McGue, M.; Krueger, R. F.; Bouchard (2007). "Religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruism: Genetic and ... which is a mathematical equation used to study genetic evolution. An interesting example of altruism is found in the cellular ...
While reward anticipation is associated with ventral striatum activation, negative outcome anticipation engages the ... Individual differences in loss aversion are related to variables such as age, gender, and genetic factors affecting ... Consistent with gain anticipation, the slope of the activation for increasing losses was significantly greater than the slope ... Biased anticipation of negative outcomes leading to loss aversion involves specific somatosensory and limbic structures. fMRI ...
Talk:Artificial consciousness/NPOV Version/discuss
I agree with tkorrovi about all the advantages of anticipation, just not that it is necessary. That it is necessary has not ... Almost all "potential" AC systems (neural networks, genetic algorithms etc) are trainable, ie the abilities are not necessarily ... I thought that perhaps it meant anticipation in the short term, i.e. immediate cogent reaction to imagined possible events ( ... This hinges on the word "necessary". Anticipation is a very useful, desirable attribute for a conscious being to have. But that ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells
March 2012). "Isolation, characterization, and genetic profiling of subpopulations of olfactory ensheathing cells from the ... in anticipation of an improved outcome. As a result, the combination prevents alloimmunization, up-regulates Regulatory T ... genetic engineering, and therapeutic potential". Journal of Neurotrauma. 23 (3-4): 468-78. doi:10.1089/neu.2006.23.468. PMID ...
The cause of anxiety disorders is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include a history of ... state anxiety in the anticipation of threatening situations (whether they are actually deemed threatening or not). A meta- ... Genetic differences account for about 43% of variance in panic disorder and 28% in generalized anxiety disorder. Although ... Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which ...
Anticipations: Essays on Early Science Fiction and its Precursors. Syracuse University Press. pp. 47-49. ISBN 978-0815626404. ... 2003: Reading Frankenstein, a new media performance work in which Mary Shelley is a genetic engineer and artificial life ... "Frankenstein and the Origins of Science Fiction". Anticipations: Essays on Early Science Fiction and Its Precursors. Ed. David ...
The world price of vitamin C rose sharply in 2008 partly as a result of rises in basic food prices but also in anticipation of ... One explanation for the repeated loss of the ability to synthesize vitamin C is that it was the result of genetic drift; ... "Genetic Control of Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Recycling in Horticultural Crops". Frontiers in Chemistry. 5: 50. Bibcode ...
Arnon J, Meirow D, Lewis-Roness H, Ornoy A (2001). "Genetic and teratogenic effects of cancer treatments on gametes and embryos ... or even in anticipation of it, but this is considered a psychological response. Nausea for any reason can be treated with ... In males previously having undergone radiotherapy, there appears to be no increase in genetic defects or congenital ... and can lead to dramatic chromosomal abnormalities and genetic deletions. Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the ...
Frontal lobe epilepsy
A genetic mutation on chromosome 22 has also been associated with another genetic form of the disorder. ... are particularly important for higher mental functions that control various aspects of human personality including anticipation ... The main genetic cause of frontal lobe epilepsy is an autosomal dominant disease called Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal ...
All causes in this category are genetic, and generally very rare. These include mutations to the SF1 transcription factor, ... In anticipation of stressful situations, such as staying in a boarding kennel, dogs require an increased dose of prednisone.[43 ... "Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". ... "Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". ...
Genetic components. L.J. and J.P. Chapman were the first to discuss the possibility that social anhedonia may stem from a ... More consistent reductions are observed with regard to emotional response during reward anticipation, which is reflected in a ... There is no validated treatment for social anhedonia. Future research should focus on genetic and environmental risk ... Continued study of social anhedonia and its genetic components will help researchers and clinicians learn more about the cause ...
ಹಂಟಿಂಗ್ಟನ್ನ ಕಾಯಿಲೆ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Borry P, Goffin T, Nys H, Dierickx K (2008). "Predictive genetic testing in minors for adult-onset genetic diseases". Mt. Sinai ... "Anticipation in Huntington's disease is inherited through the male line but may originate in the female". Journal of Medical ... Burson CM, Markey KR (2001). "Genetic counseling issues in predictive genetic testing for familial adult-onset neurologic ... Huntington's and the Making of a Genetic Disease. Yale University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780300105025.. ...
Genetic cuesEdit. One possible method of kin selection is based on genetic cues that can be recognized phenotypically. ... The males were experimentally observed to home in on the sites with the best food in anticipation of females settling in these ... In this way, the degree that a male expresses his sexual display indicates to the female his genetic quality. Zuk and ... In particular, organisms are hypothesized to act in favor of kin depending on their genetic relatedness. So, ...
Cannabis use disorder
"Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Archived from the ... A line of naturally short-tailed (bobtail) Boxers was developed in the United Kingdom in anticipation of a tail docking ban ... "Genetic and Suspect Diseases in the Boxer". Archived from the original on 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2006-09-05.. ... "Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Archived from the ...
The anticipation of rewards and punishments, as well as the satisfaction of behaving prosocially, account for why agents ... Genetic predisposition: People take on roles that come naturally to them. Those with athletic ability generally take on roles ... Role development can be influenced by a number of additional factors, including social, genetic predisposition, cultural or ...
For instance, in human beings, the frontal lobes are responsible for foresight and anticipation, and the occipital lobes are ... Distinct genetic, neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates responsible for each temperamental trait have been observed, ... "Genetic and environmental continuity in personality development: A meta-analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 140 (5): 1303-1331 ...
In males previously having undergone radiotherapy, there appears to be no increase in genetic defects or congenital ... or even in anticipation of it, but this is considered a psychological response. Nausea for any reason can be treated with ... and can lead to dramatic chromosomal abnormalities and genetic deletions. Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the ... "Genetic and teratogenic effects of cancer treatments on gametes and embryos". Human Reproduction Update. 7 (4): 394-403. doi ...
Biology and political orientation
Genetic studies. Heritability. Heritability compares differences in genetic factors in individuals to the total ... 2001). "Neural activity in the human brain relating to uncertainty and arousal during anticipation". Neuron. 29 (2): 537-545. ... Genetic factors accounted for 53% of the variance of an overall score. However, self-identification as Republican and Democrat ... Genetic factors account for at least some of the variation of political views. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology ...
Multiverse (Magic: The Gathering)
Genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Risk factors. Family history, major life changes, certain medications, ... Biologically these groups are also differentiated in that healthy individuals showed greater neurological anticipation for all ... There is some evidence of a genetic basis for all types of depression, including dysthymia. A study using identical and ... there are some indications that there is a genetic predisposition to dysthymia: "The rate of depression in the families of ...
MutationsReward anticipationGeneticsMutationHereditaryFragile X syndroDiseasesGenerationsMyotonic dystrophyGeneDisordersMolecularGenesPhenotypeHuntington'sDeterminantsDiagnosisInheritanceMechanismEarlierClinicalPredispositionAutosomal2017ExhibitBRCA1GeneticistsVariationCounselorRepeatsParkinsonismFamilialMethodsPresence of geneticModifiersCohortInvestigateChromosomePrenatalEpidemiologicalDisorderCounselingImmuneEnvironmentalSyndromeOccurAtaxiaChromosomes
- In contrast, 21% of early-onset parkinsonism patients without anticipation had parkin mutations. (washington.edu)
- Genetic mutations in telomere related genes lead to a variety of interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnoses that are universally progressive. (ersjournals.com)
- Important in genetic counseling of people with trinucleotide repeat mutations. (brainscape.com)
- Mutations in several different genes can result in a similar phenotype of HSP and this phenomenon is known as genetic heterogeneity. (encyclopedia.com)
- the key genetic parameters are the mutation rate Θ and the variance of the effects of new mutations, ω. (genetics.org)
- A patent on a diagnostic test to discover genetic mutations indicating predisposition to an iron disorder was merely a "research plan" and lacked evidence of possession of the invention, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled April 29 ( Billups-Rothenberg Inc. v. Associated Regional and University Pathologists Inc., Fed. (bna.com)
- Competing Research on Genetic Mutations. (bna.com)
- Such impairments might involve different components of the reward process, including brain activity during reward anticipation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- We examined brain nodes engaged by reward anticipation in 1,544 adolescents and identified a network containing a core striatal node and cortical nodes facilitating outcome prediction and response preparation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Previous research has been limited to very selected brain structures, whereas this study is the largest and most comprehensive analysis to date of brain activity during reward anticipation. (kcl.ac.uk)
- Using data collected by IMAGEN, a large European research project led by King's College London, the researchers examined brain regions engaged by reward anticipation in 1,544 adolescents. (kcl.ac.uk)
- Reward anticipation was assessed through brain scans of adolescents during a task where cues indicate that either no reward, a small reward or a large reward might be won during the trial. (kcl.ac.uk)
- The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. (cdc.gov)
- Hence, we encourage the interested reader to further "explore" the classic bibliography on genetics and genetic epidemiology 2- 5 to complete their knowledge on this topic. (bmj.com)
- Clinical aspects of genetic disease and current issues in medical genetics. (redlands.edu)
- In genetics, anticipation is a phenomenon whereby as a genetic disorder is passed on to the next generation, the symptoms of the genetic disorder become apparent at an earlier age with each generation. (wikipedia.org)
- Principles were sought primarily in Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a basic molecular genetics technique, but the search was open to all molecular genetics techniques, used for diagnosis of the presence of genetic mutation(s). (triz-journal.com)
- The following sections deal with the definition of human mendelian inheritance, the origins of human cytogenetics, the early development of the human gene map and the transition from biochemical genetics to human molecular genetics, the relatively recent studies that have shown how mendelian principles are increasingly modifiable, and finally advances in the treatment and management of genetic disorders, which are placed in their social context. (oup.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine if anticipation was due to parkin mutation dosage. (washington.edu)
- Anticipation typically occurs with disorders that are caused by an unusual type of mutation called a trinucleotide repeat expansion. (medlineplus.gov)
- A prion protein gene ( PRNP ) disease-causing mutation (see molecular genetic testing, Fig. 1 and Table 3 ). (nature.com)
- Anticipation is common in trinucleotide repeat disorders, such as Huntington's disease and myotonic dystrophy, where a dynamic mutation in DNA occurs. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1993, the genetic mutation causing HD was discovered. (utmb.edu)
- Furthermore, the genetic mutation of HD was experimentally introduced into animals. (utmb.edu)
- Taking the other seven reported Chinese patients, who had been definitively diagnosed with NPPK by genetic testing, into account, the present study further demonstrated that NPPK is a common entity in Mainland China, and c.796C>T is the most prevalent mutation and exerts a founder effect. (bireme.br)
- Then, when a 43-year-old colleague was diagnosed with breast cancer, she had genetic testing and learned that she did not have the gene mutation. (momentmag.com)
- Researchers reported that it explains from 20 to 67 percent of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), depending on the population studied, making it the most prevalent genetic mutation in the disease. (alzforum.org)
- Bacteria can become resistant by spontaneous mutation of chromosomal genes or through the acquisition of horizontally mobile genetic elements . (prolekare.cz)
- Spastic paraplegia type 4 is part of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. (nih.gov)
- Genetic anticipation, the earlier onset of disease in successive generations, has been reported in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), but little is known about its underlying mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
- Clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary pancreatitis in Europe," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology , vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 252-261, 2004. (hindawi.com)
- Genetic Predispositions to Diseases Genes are bits of chemical information that determine our characteristics, by carrying hereditary traits from one generation to the next, including everything from eye color to diseases. (howstuffworks.com)
- Billups-Rothenberg Inc. owns patents (5,674,681 and 6,355,425) involving a genetic test for Type I hereditary hemochromatosis, a disorder characterized by excessive iron absorption by the body. (bna.com)
Fragile X syndro1
- Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. (cdc.gov)
- This review will focus on the clinical and histopathologic features of the genetic prion diseases. (nature.com)
- Genetic prion diseases constitute a continuum of clinical and pathologic manifestations broadly segregated into three principal phenotypes designated as familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and familial fatal insomnia (FFI). (nature.com)
- Background: The term "anticipation" in genetic diseases refers to earlier age at onset and/or increased severity in successive generations. (elsevier.com)
- Several diseases with genetic anticipation include rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, Schizophrenia, Graves' disease and several other neuropsychiatric disorders. (elsevier.com)
- Diseases showing anticipation include: Autosomal dominant Several spinocerebellar ataxias Huntington's disease - CAG Myotonic dystrophy - CTG Dyskeratosis congenita - TTAGGG (telomere repeat sequence) Autosomal recessive Friedreich ataxia - GAA (Note: Friedreich ataxia does not usually exhibit anticipation because it is an autosomal recessive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
- How can genetic diseases be described? (brainscape.com)
- A simple blood draw could unveil a treasure trove of genetic data, including all the possible diseases we carry. (theatlantic.com)
- In our last issue, we wrote about genetic diseases that affect those of Jewish ancestry. (momentmag.com)
- These polyglutamine diseases share similar features, including expanded CAG repeats within translated exons, anticipation, and regionally specific CNS pathology. (jneurosci.org)
- His genetic research identified the genetic basis of 25 major inheritable diseases and clarified the understanding of "anticipation" in triplet repeat diseases. (sc.edu)
- CTG trinucleotide repeat sequences has been identified as the genetic cause of several human diseases, including myotonic dystrophy type 1, Huntington disease, and an ever-increasing number of spinocerebellar ataxias. (gla.ac.uk)
- Genetic Diseases The risk of a genetic disease increases if both parents carry the dysfunctional, abnormal gene, even if they are nonsymptomatic carriers. (howstuffworks.com)
- More insight into factors influencing the age-related penetrance of MEN1 manifestations could provide clues for more personalized screening programs.To investigate whether genetic anticipation plays a role in the largest known MEN1 families in the Netherlands.All Dutch MEN1 families with ≥ ten affected members in ≥ two successive generations were identified. (onmedica.com)
- Researchers study multiple generations of affected family members and consider the genetic cause of a disorder before determining that it shows anticipation. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. (cdc.gov)
- The phenomenon of an expanding trinucleotide repeat in successive generations is called anticipation. (encyclopedia.com)
- Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. (nature.com)
- This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. (nature.com)
- This underlies the phenomenon of anticipation, whereby the disease becomes progressively earlier in onset in successive generations due to expansion of the repeat. (genetics.org)
- The tendency of the disease to become more severe with successive generations, called anticipation, was recognized by Fleischer in 1918. (yale.edu)
- LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). (cdc.gov)
- We then consider the evidence from genetic studies, including investigations of gene by environment (GxE) interactions and epigenetic effects in humans and animals, relating these to possible mechanisms associated with vulnerability and resilience. (frontiersin.org)
- With public safety, gene patents, and the future of genetic research at stake, a wide range of interest groups competed for control over this powerful new technology. (uchicago.edu)
- Given this non-specific presentation and the widely available technical means of studying the TTR gene, we believe that the protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of any polyneuropathy should include genetic sequencing of TTR. (elsevier.es)
- Each genetic trait has two genes, which might be identical or might include one gene that is dominant and one that is recessive. (howstuffworks.com)
- By combining studies of tissue-specific gene expression, male courtship song, low-dose fungal infections and immune gene knockdowns assays, the authors hope to identify the genetic links between brain, behaviour and immunity. (phys.org)
- Most genetic disorders have signs and symptoms that differ among affected individuals, including affected people in the same family. (medlineplus.gov)
- Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is one of a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and is often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] There are numerous types of autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxias There are five typical autosomal recessive disorders in which ataxia is a prominent feature A few SCAs remain unspecified and can not be precisely diagnosed, but in the last decade genetic testing has allowed precise identification of dozens of different SCAs and more tests are being added each year. (wikipedia.org)
- This genetic mechanism may explain how dopamine levels increase when people anticipate a reward and why problems with reward processing are found in people with various mental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addictions such as alcohol abuse. (kcl.ac.uk)
- Professor Gunter Schumann , senior author of the paper from the MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, and Coordinator of the IMAGEN project, said: 'We already know that reward-related disorders, such as ADHD and alcohol abuse, often occur simultaneously. (kcl.ac.uk)
- Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. (nature.com)
- We illustrate our discussion by investigating the relationship between PRS and apparent assortative mating, and anticipation within a complex multigenerational pedigree affected with mood disorders. (nature.com)
- The better known genetic disorders include sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis, which are more prevalent among certain demographic groups. (howstuffworks.com)
- First are classic descriptions of important genetic disorders, often from the pre-mendelian era. (oup.com)
- An unconventional approach has successfully reversed deficits in social behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetic, environmental and idiopathic mouse models of the condition. (neurosciencenews.com)
- If you are 35 or older, if you have had an abnormal ultrasound or blood screening, or if you have a family history of birth defects or genetic disorders, you may be high-risk. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The first glossary, on basic molecular genetic terms, 1 provided the basis to understand the concepts presented here. (bmj.com)
- Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. (redlands.edu)
- One common scheme is based on genetic features, including mode of inheritance and molecular genetic data. (medscape.com)
- Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. (gnxp.com)
- Thus, for every genetic trait, there are two genes. (howstuffworks.com)
- By analysing the genetic make-up and immunity of over 100,000 fruit flies the scientists were able to understand how genes are switched on and off in order to prevent infections. (phys.org)
- Harboring mobile genetic elements generally creates a cost to the host, associated with the replication and maintenance of the genetic element and with the expression of its genes. (prolekare.cz)
- The common polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP also plays an important and complex role in risk and phenotype of sporadic and genetic prion disease. (nature.com)
- The genetic constitution of an organism, which is modulated by the environment before being expressed as a phenotype. (bmj.com)
- Since substantial variation in the phenotype is observed for different populations, epigenetic/genetic and/or environmental factors must exert a significant impact on the penetrance of the disease. (diva-portal.org)
- Therefore, reliance on these studies for the diagnosis of genetic prion disease is cautioned. (nature.com)
- Prior to the understanding of the genetic mechanism for anticipation, it was debated whether anticipation was a true biological phenomenon or whether the earlier age of diagnosis was related to heightened awareness of disease symptoms within a family. (wikipedia.org)
- The purpose of this work was to revise and clarify consensus criteria for the diagnosis of RTT in anticipation of treatment trials. (rettsyndrome.org)
- The signs and symptoms of some genetic conditions tend to become more severe and appear at an earlier age as the disorder is passed from one generation to the next. (medlineplus.gov)
- Conclusions: Patients in the second affected generation seem to acquire the disease at an earlier time in life, indicating strong evidence of anticipation. (elsevier.com)
- Some families show a pattern of disease called anticipation, with symptoms developing earlier in each new generation. (encyclopedia.com)
- As we said in an earlier discussion, genetic diversity is important because it allows plants to adapt to changing environments. (garden.org)
- Interestingly, the different populations all display a maternal anticipation, where an earlier onset is observed for those individuals who inherit the trait from their mother. (diva-portal.org)
- We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention. (frontiersin.org)
- Herein, we briefly summarize clinical and genetic aspects of this aggressive cancer predisposition syndrome. (aacrjournals.org)
- With sub-specialties in glaucoma, cataract, paediatric and genetic ophthalmology and clinical electrophysiology, Prof. Grigg completed his training at Sydney Eye Hospital and undertook fellowships in Australia and the UK.His research interests are genetic eye disease, glaucoma management and electrophysiology of the visual system. (edu.au)
- Rocio Moran, MD , a clinical geneticist in Cleveland Clinic's Center for Personalized Genetic Healthcare , understands those fears. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Recent evidence suggests that vHL may exhibit genetic anticipation (GA). The aim of this study was to determine if GA occurs in vHL, and if telomere shortening may be a factor in GA. (bmj.com)
- This dosage pattern suggests that some parkin families should exhibit intergenerational variation in age at onset resembling anticipation. (washington.edu)
- In this way, the trait generally tracks the moving optimum, but in such a case, the population may exhibit periods of time where the mean trait value overshoots the moving optimal trait value, thereby exhibiting an apparent anticipation of selection. (nih.gov)
- What do geneticists mean by anticipation? (medlineplus.gov)
- When the genetic portion came back with her testing positive for a scary sounding condition, the Embark geneticists sent a personalized email before releasing the results, letting me know things weren't as bad as it sounded, and explaining further about the condition (including the breed of dog that it typically cause the most issues with) Had I just opened my results and seen this condition I would have PANICKED! (amzn.com)
- Another reason for variability in drug responses is genetic variation leading to a spectrum of different responses to analgesics, from lack of efficacy to exaggerated responses, up to intolerable adverse effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- While pedigree studies have been traditionally used to explore rare genetic variation through linkage analyses, studying patterns of PRS throughout a pedigree would allow for assessment of phenomena like assortative mating and anticipation. (nature.com)
- Given my family history and my Ashkenazic background, my doctor referred me to a genetic counselor for screening for the test. (momentmag.com)
- USC School of Medicine, Arnold School of Public Health and College of Arts & Sciences hosts annual lectures and learning opportunities that complement genetic counselor education. (sc.edu)
- A genetic counselor is part of the medical team that helps individuals form testing strategies they are comfortable with," Dr. Moran says. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Methods: We studied 19 kindreds that had early-onset parkinsonism in the offspring generation, late-onset parkinsonism in the parent generation, and = 20 years of anticipation. (washington.edu)
- We also studied 28 early-onset parkinsonism cases without anticipation. (washington.edu)
- Combined dystonias, accompanied by parkinsonism with known genetic loci include TAF1/DYT3, GCH1/DYT5a, TH/DYT5b, and ATP1A3/DYT12. (medscape.com)
Presence of genetic1
- Case in point… just very recently , when dealing with this exact same Miller line, I discovered that I did match one of my cousins at Family Tree DNA on the Miller line, but that we also have a second unknown genetic link on the X chromosome that could not have come from that Miller couple. (dna-explained.com)
- I'm Dr. Susanna Park, an OB/GYN with the San Diego Fertility Center, affiliated with Scripps Health, and today we'll explain the various prenatal tests available, as well as your options for genetic counseling. (pregnancymagazine.com)
- For some women, anxiety rises with prenatal genetic screenings - tests that can help identify genetic abnormalities before a baby's birth. (clevelandclinic.org)
- This is the second of a series of three glossaries on genetic concepts used in epidemiological research that the journal is publishing with the objective of helping the reader "walk" around the journal. (bmj.com)
- Metal(loid)s role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Environmental, epidemiological, and genetic data. (medworm.com)
- Before genetic screening, babies with the disorder usually died, often misdiagnosed as Reye's syndrome or SIDS. (theatlantic.com)
- Morriss found herself pondering the genetic nature of the disorder. (theatlantic.com)
- I was looking at several tests (both more and less expensive than this one) and decided on Embark because of the genetic disorder portion of the text. (amzn.com)
- The effect sizes at many individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), estimated by large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the disorder of interest, are used to calculate an individual level genome-wide PRS in individuals from an independent genetic dataset. (nature.com)
- Some of those variations or genetic changes may only increase your risk of having a particular disorder," Dr. Moran says. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Although existing literature suggests that client anticipations affect career counseling, previous studies have not systematically assessed client anticipations prior to using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems in career counseling. (thefreedictionary.com)
- And how can genetic counseling help you through the process? (pregnancymagazine.com)
- Thanks to the leadership and generosity of Amelia Craver, Genetic Counseling Class of 1988, the USC Genetic Counseling Program launched a special Challenge Grant Campaign in 2013. (sc.edu)
- Amelia contributed $25,000 to match dollar-for-dollar donations received from alumni and friends of the Genetic Counseling Program and donations from local, statewide and national organizations. (sc.edu)
- The 2013 Challenge Grant stimulated over $75,000 in contributions and created the official Genetic Counseling Endowment. (sc.edu)
- As a tribute to her vision for the future, the program has created the Amelia Craver Special Lecture in Genetic Counseling. (sc.edu)
- Each year, our students, faculty and friends of the program will benefit from a special speaker to broaden our perspectives on genetic counseling. (sc.edu)
- Genetic or Genomic Counseling? (sc.edu)
- A special friend of the Genetic Counseling Program, Caskey invests in the greater USC community with his annual Caskey Lecture, hosted by the College of Arts and Sciences, where he did his undergraduate work. (sc.edu)
- Genetic counseling is advisable for parents who are in certain high-risk groups. (howstuffworks.com)
- A combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors is probably responsible for the variability, although many of these factors have not been identified. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anticipation of acclimatization seems to require a sense of time by which the coming environmental conditions can be predicted. (britannica.com)
- The causes of ASD could be of genetic, environmental or idiopathic origin, Costa-Mattioli explains, and there are mouse models mimicking each of these condition. (neurosciencenews.com)