Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.TriglyceridesCholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Steam Bath: Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.BooksPrimary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).North DakotaAnti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.FluorobenzenesPlatelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.

Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. (1/2109)

The hypocholesterolemic activities of pamaqueside and tiqueside, two structurally similar saponins, were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The pharmacological profiles of the saponins were virtually identical: both dose-dependently decreased the intestinal absorption of labeled cholesterol 25-75%, increased fecal neutral sterol excretion up to 2.5-fold, and decreased hepatic cholesterol content 10-55%. High doses of pamaqueside (>5 mg/kg) or tiqueside (>125 mg/kg) completely prevented hypercholesterolemia. Decreases in plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels were strongly correlated with increased neutral sterol excretion. Ratios of neutral sterol excreted to pamaqueside administered were greater than 1:1 at all doses, in opposition to the formation of a stoichiometric complex previously suggested for tiqueside and other saponins. Ratios in tiqueside-treated rabbits were less than unity, a reflection of its lower potency. Pamaqueside-treated rabbits exhibited a more rapid decline in plasma cholesterol concentrations than control animals fed a cholesterol-free diet, indicating that the compound also inhibited the absorption of biliary cholesterol. Intravenous administration of pamaqueside had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels despite plasma levels twice those observed in rabbits given pamaqueside orally. These data indicate that pamaqueside and tiqueside induce hypocholesterolemia by blocking lumenal cholesterol absorption via a mechanism that apparently differs from the stoichiometric complexation of cholesterol hypothesized for other saponins.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (2/2109)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (3/2109)

BACKGROUND: Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. DESIGN: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone.  (+info)

Effect of long term simvastatin administration as an adjunct to ursodeoxycholic acid: evidence for a synergistic effect on biliary bile acid composition but not on serum lipids in humans. (4/2109)

BACKGROUND: Stimulated bile acid synthesis preferentially utilises newly synthesised cholesterol, raising the possibility that combination of simvastatin (an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; a stimulator of bile acid synthesis) may result in reduced bile acid synthesis and greater enrichment of the pool with UDCA than that achieved with UDCA treatment alone. AIMS: To investigate the effect of simvastatin and UDCA given alone and in combination on serum and biliary lipid and biliary bile acid composition. METHODS: Eighteen patients with primary non-familial hypercholesterolaemia were studied during treatment with simvastatin 20 mg/day, UDCA 10 mg/kg/day, and a combination of the two drugs. Each regimen was given in random order for three months following a three month lead in period. RESULTS: Simvastatin significantly reduced serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol but biliary cholesterol concentration remained unchanged. Combination of the two drugs had no synergistic effect on serum cholesterol concentration, but significantly increased the proportion of UDCA in the bile acid pool from 35% during UDCA to 48% during combination treatment (p<0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that: (1) simvastatin reduces serum LDL cholesterol but has no effect on biliary cholesterol concentration, supporting the concept that newly synthesised cholesterol is not the preferential source for biliary cholesterol; and (2) combination of simvastatin with UDCA has the predicted effect of enhancing the proportion of UDCA in the pool. This effect may be of benefit in the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases.  (+info)

Effect of the hypocholesterolemic agent YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis activity and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 and monkey liver. (5/2109)

YM-16638 ([[5-[[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propyl]thio]-1,3,4-++ +thiadiazol-2-yl] thio] acetic acid) showed a strong hypocholesterolemic effect in humans and monkeys. To clarify the mechanism of this hypocholesterolemic effect, the action of YM-16638 on cholesterol biosynthesis in the cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and cynomolgus monkey liver was examined. Cholesterol biosynthesis activity derived from [14C]acetic acid, [3H/14C]mevalonic acid or [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate substrates was significantly decreased, but not that from [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]squalene substrates in HepG2 cells treated with YM-16638. Simultaneously, treatment of these cells with YM-16638 changed neither the rate of apolipoprotein B synthesis from [35S]methionine nor its secretion. In addition, the activities of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase (MK), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase were measured in monkeys fed a diet supplemented with YM-16638. Among these enzymes, MK, IPPI and FPPS activities in the YM-16638-treated group significantly decreased by 38%, 56% and 30%, respectively, when compared to those from control animals receiving no drug treatment. These results indicate that YM-16638 has the characteristics of a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters. (6/2109)

The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.  (+info)

Lovastatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in C6 glial cells. (7/2109)

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. HMG-CoA reductase converts HMG-CoA to mevalonate, which is then converted into cholesterol or various isoprenoids through multiple enzymatic steps. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of lovastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, in C6 glial cells. Lovastatin at concentrations higher than 10 microM suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death, which were prevented completely by mevalonate (300 microM). The data from lactate dehydrogenase assay and fluorescence microscopic assay using Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide showed that mevalonate at a concentration of 100 microM could prevent lovastatin-induced cell death, whereas it could not prevent lovastatin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. These data suggest that the lovastatin-induced interruption of cell cycle transition was not sufficient to induce cell death in C6 glial cells. In the presence of lovastatin at concentrations higher than 10 microM, DNA laddering, the typical finding of apoptosis, was identified. Lovastatin-induced apoptosis was prevented by mevalonate (100 microM). Both cycloheximide (0.5 microgram/ml) and actinomycin D (0.1 microgram/ml) prevented lovastatin-induced DNA laddering. In this study, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of lovastatin fall into two categories: suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in C6 glial cells.  (+info)

The effects of pravastatin on hospital admission in hypercholesterolemic middle-aged men: West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. (8/2109)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of lipid reduction with pravastatin on hospital admissions in middle-aged men with hypercholesterolemia in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. BACKGROUND: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in primary care centers in the West of Scotland. METHODS: A total of 6,595 participants randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg or placebo daily were followed up for a mean of 4.9 years (range 3.5 to 6.1 years). Analysis of hospital admissions was undertaken according to the "intention to treat" principle both for cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular diseases (including malignant neoplasms, psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and other causes). A secondary analysis of hospitalization in patients who were > or = 75% compliant was performed. RESULTS: During the trial, 2,198 (33%) of the 6,595 men were admitted to hospital on 4,333 occasions, of which 1,234 (28%) were for cardiovascular causes. Pravastatin reduced the number of subjects requiring hospital admission for cardiovascular causes by 21% (95% CI [confidence interval] 9 to 31, p = 0.0008) overall, and by 27% (95% CI 15 to 38) in compliant participants. The number of admissions per 1,000 subject-years for cardiovascular disease was reduced by 10.8 (95% CI 4 to 17.4, p = 0.0013) in all subjects, and by 15.6 (95% CI 8.3 to 23, p < 0.0001) in compliant participants. Pravastatin had no significant influence on hospital admission for any noncardiovascular diagnostic category. There were 13.4 fewer admissions per 1,000 subject-years for all causes in the pravastatin-treated group (95% CI -0.4 to 27.3, p = 0.076). No significant difference in duration of hospital stay was found between the pravastatin and placebo patients in any diagnostic group. CONCLUSIONS: Pravastatin therapy reduced the burden of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease, without any adverse effect on noncardiovascular hospitalization.  (+info)

The article reflects on the cholesterol-lowering treatment in adults with the help of pharmacological interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from atherosclerosis. Topics include reduction of risk of adverse cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations with the help of regimens including a statin, association of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with atherosclerotic events, and association of LDL-C and coronary artery disease in dialysis patients ...
The CDCs National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey results1 highlight recent trends associated with cholesterol-lowering medications. Among adults in the US aged 40 and over during 2003-2012, the percentage using a cholesterol-lowering medication in the past 30 days increased from 20% to 28%. Statin use overall increased from 18% to 26%, and by 2011-2012, 93% of adults who were using a cholesterol-lowering medication used a statin. The use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased with age, with 17% of adults aged 40-59 and 48% of adults aged 75 and over taking them. Cholesterol-lowering medications were used by approximately 71% of adults with cardiovascular disease and 54% of adults with hypercholesterolemia. Use of cholesterol-lowering medications was more prevalent among adults aged 40-64 with health insurance than those without it. Of prescription cholesterol-lowering medications, the most commonly used product was simvastatin, with 42% reporting its use. Following this was ...
Atorvastatin cholesterol-lowering drug. Box containing tablets of the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin on an ECG (electrocardiogram) readout. Statins are used to lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in the bloodstream. High levels of LDL cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) are a major cause of heart disease and strokes. Statins work by blocking the effects of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which normally causes the body to produce LDL cholesterol from foods. - Stock Image C026/3783
In a new study, NYU Langone Medical Center researchers have discovered how cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins promote the breakdown of plaque in the arteries. The study was published online by the journal PLoS One on December 6, 2011.. The findings support a large clinical study that recently showed patients taking high-doses of the cholesterol-lowering medications not only reduced their cholesterol levels but also reduced the amount of plaque in their arteries. However, until now researchers did not fully understand how statins could reduce atherosclerosis, the accumulation of fat and cholesterol that hardens into plaque in arteries, a major cause of mortality in Western countries. High blood cholesterol is a major culprit in atherosclerosis. As a result of narrowing arteries, blood clots can form or plaque can break off causing blockages in vessels. This can lead to a potentially fatal heart attack or stroke.. "Our new research shows statins actually promote the regression of ...
Serum Cholesterol Level and Mortality in U.S. MenandLow Serum Cholesterol and Mortality from Injuries and Suicide. If the 1980s brought a consensus that lowering serum cholesterol reduces ones risk for coronary heart disease, the 1990s have heralded a re-appraisal of the presumed safety of cholesterol-lowering treatments. The possibility that cholesterol reduction may increase mortality from causes other than heart disease began to receive serious attention in 1990 when meta-analyses of cholesterol-lowering trials showed that coronary heart disease benefits may be offset by increased rates of noncoronary heart disease deaths (1, 2). These studies found that cholesterol-lowering treatments were associated, albeit inconsistently, with increased cancer mortality and death from suicides and violence. The absence of preformed hypotheses and biological mechanisms raises suspicion that such findings may be spurious, but the strong design of the clinical trials encourages attribution of increased ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs in Global market, especially...
Nationwide, less than half of stroke patients discharged from the hospital received a prescription for cholesterol-lowering medications called statins, and the likelihood of a prescription varied by patients geographic location, ...
Health, ...Boston Mass. - A cholesterol-lowering drug reduced the enlarged prost... We dont know the mechanism but the results suggest to us that lower...For unknown reasons about half of men older than 50 (and 80 percent o...The study implicates circulating cholesterol in the progression of the...,Cholesterol-lowering,drug,shrinks,enlarged,prostates,in,hamster,model,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
My mind kept going back to the fact that he had been just fine until he went to the doctor. At first, we would say this to each other as a joke. "Gee, sure glad you got yourself to that doctor!", etc. But after a while, the joke didnt seem so funny. I began to wonder if there could be a connection between my husbands issues and the medications he was taking. I looked online and saw many anecdotal accounts of people experiencing muscle weakness with statins, but not with other cholesterol-lowering drugs. However, I remained suspicious. Maybe, I theorized, what constituted a healthy level of cholesterol differed from person to person...just like women have differing levels of hormones. In other words, what was normal for one might not be normal for others. Perhaps there was some kind of individual set-point for cholesterol, and when you got below that set-point for your particular body, nerve health was affected. (This remains just a theory of mine...and has no basis whatsoever in scientific ...
People whose cholesterol improved after one month on cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins reduced their risk of stroke and heart attack...
A cholesterol-lowering drug appears to disrupt sleep patterns of some patients, researchers reported at the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions 2007.
High cholesterol is simply one of several conditions you could encounter as you age. Keeping your cholesterol degrees within a secure range could need medication. Recognizing the possible effects of high cholesterol therapies can help you understand what to get out of your cholesterol-lowering drug. With many different
Rodrigues, M., et al. Proteolytic hydrolysis of cowpea proteins is able to release peptides with hypocholesterolemic activity. Food Research International. 77(1), 43-48. 20/04/2015.. ...
Study examines the impact of cholesterol-lowering medications on breast cancer recurrence for those receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy.
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol lowering with statins reduces the risk of vascular disease, but uncertainty remains as to whether more intensive statin therapy produces worthwhile benefits safely. Blood homocysteine level is an independent marker of vascular risk, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. METHODS AND RESULTS: 12,064 myocardial infarction survivors have been randomized to more versus less intensive cholesterol-lowering treatment using simvastatin 80 mg versus 20 mg daily. Allocation to more intensive treatment has yielded average further low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reductions of 0.5 mmol/L at 2 months and 0.4 mmol/L at 5 years. In addition, using a factorial design, these patients have been randomized to homocysteine lowering with folic acid 2 mg plus vitamin B12 1 mg daily versus matching placebo, yielding an average 3 to 4 mumol/L reduction in homocysteine. After 6 years of median follow-up, the annual overall rate of major vascular events is approximately 3%. Follow-up is
When it comes to nonadherence of prescription medications, it is often senior citizens who are the subject of the discussion, but the findings of the recent CVS Caremark study point to those under the age of 45. The findings are not only alarming but also important as they further demonstrate the need for healthcare reform and for retail pharmacy to rise to the challenge and be part of the solution.. Unless steps are taken to address the problem of non-adherence, these younger adults will further weigh on an already broken healthcare system because they face an increased risk for developing heart disease, which, in the end, will increase their healthcare costs. As it stands, non-adherence currently costs the United States an estimated $177 billion a year.. CVS Caremark has been vocal on its desire to be on the front lines of health care and clearly recognizes that it is in an ideal position to help with the healthcare solution. In fact, much of its focus has been on adherence programs, disease ...
BACKGROUND:. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial and the Coronary Drug Project had shown that morbidity and mortality from ischemic heart disease were reduced by blood cholesterol-lowering therapy. Although blood cholesterol reduction ameliorated experimental atherosclerosis in animal models, the two largest human studies with angiographic observation of arterial lesion change, the NHLBI Type II Coronary Intervention Study and a study by Cohn et al, had not demonstrated significant treatment effects. Favorable, but inconclusive, treatment trends were observed in four unrandomized angiographic trials and one trial too small for evaluation of randomized groups.. The clinical trial was supported by a subproject within a program project grant.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. CLAS-I was randomized and selectively-blinded. Screening for the trial consisted of five clinic visits, at which baseline data, including angiographic data, were obtained and a prerandomization trial of the study ...
These cholesterol-lowering medications might just be the single worst group of drugs for your brain. Memory loss is now required to be listed as a side effect on the label.. One-quarter of your brain is made up of cholesterol. Cholesterol is necessary for memory, learning, and fast thinking. So it is not a total surprise that cholesterol-lowering drugs negatively effect the brain.. 2.Sleeping pills. The sleeping pills can cause long-term memory loss, but also short-term memory loss. In fact, some researchers found that all sleeping pills are producing some level of impaired memory and performance. Sleeping pills suppress the action potentials of a wide variety of brain cells and reduce our alertness, vigilance, and judgment.. Some sleeping pills can cause a state similar to "blacking out" that occurs when some person has too much alcohol in the body and cant remember previous situations due to damaged brain cells.. 3.The "Anti" drugs. The anti-drugs, including antipsychotics, antispasmodics, ...
According to Reuters, a study published in The BMJ suggests that statins and fibrates, popular cholesterol-lowering treatments, may also reduce stroke risk in low-risk patients. Researchers analyzed data gathered from the interviews of 7,500 people who had no risk of vascular disease or stroke. Approximately 27 percent of the people were taking...
Randomized, controlled, single-factor trials of cholesterol-lowering treatment with ≥ 6 months follow-up in which ≥1 death occurred were selected. 35 trials met the selection criteria ...
Health Impact News Comments: While Dr. Peter Osborne does not even address the issue of whether or not it is desireable to lower ones cholesterol, and the
Cholesterol-lowering medication is often the first solution people consider when told that their blood cholesterol level is higher than it should be. However, making smart nutritional choices and
A certain immune reaction is the key, not to slowing atherosclerosis like cholesterol-lowering drugs do, but instead to reversing a disease that gradually blocks arteries to cause heart attacks and strokes. This is the finding of a study in mice led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center., A certain immune reaction is the key, not to slowing atherosclerosis like cholesterol-lowering drugs do, but instead to reversing a disease that gradually blocks arteries to cause heart attacks and strokes. This is the finding of a study in mice led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center.
Statins, Cholesterol- lowering drugs may be taken by healthy people to reduce the risk of developing heart problems according to a new international study by the American College of Cardiology ...
Preliminary findings "did not show that taking the drug reduces the prevalence of significant heart attacks and strokes; at the same time, it did show an increase in side effects to the circulatory and lymph systems, the digestive system, infections, metabolism, the skeletal and muscular systems, the respiratory system and the skin among those taking the prescription medication," the ministry stated ...
This week, the Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve Repatha; several key pieces of housing data will be released; and Mylan shareholders may advance a takeover bid.
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BOSTON, MA -The market for cholesterol-lowering drugs is a multibillion dollar business. With the arrival of new statins, patients are faced with the question…
(HealthDay)-Recovery time after surgery may be reduced for patients taking the cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins, according to a new study.
An important new study suggests that statins, the cholesterol-lowering medications that are the most prescribed drugs in the world, may block some of the fitness benefits of exercise, one of the surest ways to improve health.
Could beef eliminate the need for cholesterol-lowering drugs and reduce the incidence of diabetes? Read this patients testimony to learn more.
Now that most cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) are coming off their patents, it appears that that money train will be ending for those good folks at Big Pharma. As a result it seems that researchers have discovered that the true danger to the heart isnt high cholesterol, after all. Fascinating how these things work, isnt it?
The molecular phenomenon that cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins go through to promote the breakdown of plaque in the arteries has been discovered by researchers.
According to scientists Cholesterol-lowering drugs, known as statins, can reduce the risk of severe infection in patients suffering from heart disease or s
In addition to dramatically reducing the incidence of heart attacks and stroke, the cholesterol-lowering drug Crestor appears to have another important benefit
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Cholesterol-lowering drugs are just as effective at preventing heart problems in men and women who have already had a heart attack...
The Canadian Scientists Have Found One More Cause Of Diabetes 2 Types - Part 1 of 3 The Canadian Scientists Have Found One More Cause Of Diabetes 2 Types. Certain statins - the a great extent used cholesterol-lowering drugs - may enlarge your chances of developing type 2 diabetes, a new study suggests in May…
What are PCSK9 Inhibitors? The Food and Drug Administration recently approved two products in a new class of cholesterol-lowering drugs known as PCSK9
Novartis will take a $266 million charge after the drug maker halted the development of an experimental cholesterol-lowering drug, its second setback this week.
A cholesterol-lowering vaccine has shown promise in mice, said researchers Tuesday who announced they had started early-phase trials to see if it also works in humans. Such a treatment could offer a welcome alternative to statins, the main pharmaceutical choice today for lowering cholesterol in people
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Discussion 1. Golomb cites the following example: "For instance, olive oil and corn oil have been used as the placebo in trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs." Under the assumption that these oils might be beneficial, rather than inert, why does this understate the positive benefit of the treatment? 2. Golomb cites another example where a lactose placebo was used in a gastrointestinal trial. Under the assumption that the lactose was harmful, why does this overstate the positive benefit of the treatment? 3. Why is modern communication, e.g., the internet, facebook, etc., a cause for concern when conducting a randomized control trial (with or without a placebo arm)? 4. Golomb further alleges, "failure to describe placebo ingredients breaches basic scientific standards of rigor." Why would describing the placebo ingredients "disadvantage" the "publication prospects" of the researchers and "disadvantage" the publisher of the particular journal? 5. Medicine is not the only area of endeavor which ...
Those who propagate for a low-fat diet and cholesterol-lowering drugs claim that there is general agreement about the diet-heart idea.
The cholesterol-lowering drug Vytorin did not help people with heart-valve disease avoid further heart problems but did appear to increase their risk of cancer, scientists reported Monday.
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online 12/01/05 in the JCI, including: Battle of the bulge: Why losing weight is easier than keeping it off for good; The heat is on: Why some cholesterol-lowering drugs cause hot flashes; Age and sex effect ghrelins role in diet-induced obesity; Sweet sixth sense: Glucose-sensing glial cells guard against low blood sugar; and others.
A U.S. appeals court has thrown out a ban on the sale of the cholesterol-lowering drug alirocumab (Praluent, Sanofi SA/Regeneron Pharmaceuticals) and ordered a new trial in the case that led to the ban, Reuters reports. The ruling from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Washington ...
This observational study is being conducted in patients receiving statin treatment as secondary prevention of coronary heart disease under the current standard of care in compliance with European guidelines. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the percentage of these patients that reach target LDL levels. Additionally this study will measure the patients compliance to treatment as assessed by counting the returned tablets. Both assessments will be made at visits conducted 6-8 weeks after the first visit and 28-32 weeks after the first visit ...
The Medicines Company will pay $25 million to Alnylam Pharmaceuticals as part of an alliance to develop and commercialize Alnylams therapeutic program for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
To answer that question it is necessary to look at the figures from the trials. To be short I have chosen the figures for coronary death. According to the results from the 4S trial there was a 41% reduction in the risk of coronary death. According to the results from the CARE trial the reduction was 24%, and according to the WOSCOPS trial the reduction was 28%. These figures seem impressive, but let us look at the absolute figures also.. In the treatment group of the 4S trial five percent, or 111 individuals, died from a heart attack; in the control group 8.5 percent, or 189 individuals, died, a difference, or a risk reduction of 3.5%. To prevent these 3.5% of the patients (8.5% - 5%) or 78 individuals, from dying it was necessary to treat 2221 individuals during five years. You could also say that to prevent one death it was necessary to treat 25 individuals for five years. Or said in another way, if you have had a heart attack, the chance to avoid death from a new one during five years is ...
Most people who stop taking cholesterol-lowering statins - because of side effects or for another reason - are able to restart the same drug or a similar one without lasting problems, a new study suggests.
Cholesterol absorption inhibitors are a class of compounds that prevents the uptake of cholesterol from the small intestine into the circulatory system. Most of these molecules are monobactams but show no antibiotic activity. An example is ezetimibe (SCH 58235) Another example is Sch-48461. The "Sch" is for Schering-Plough, where these compounds were developed. Phytosterols are also cholesterol absorption inhibitors. There are two sources of cholesterol in the upper intestine: dietary (from food) and biliary (from bile). Dietary cholesterol, in the form of lipid emulsions, combines with bile salts, to form bile salt micelles from which cholesterol can then be absorbed by the intestinal enterocyte. Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles are then secreted by the liver into the blood as VLDL particles, precursors to ...
Ezetimibe is a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that lowers LDL cholesterol and raises HDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans (4) and is now in phase III clinical trials. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ezetimibe selectively inhibits the transport of radiolabeled cholesterol through the intestinal wall and ultimately into the plasma (1,3). The precise molecular mechanism by which cholesterol is absorbed in the intestine (and how ezetimibe inhibits this absorption) is currently unknown and under intensive investigation.. In the present studies, we demonstrated that feeding high-fat diets containing modest cholesterol to hamsters leads to obesity accompanied by hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which are characteristic of the profile often observed in obese insulin-resistant and/or type 2 diabetic patients (9). In an initial report, we described the potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, which inhibited the rise ...
Cholesterol-lowering drug. 20mg Pills of the cholesterol-lowering drug Simvastatin on a heart shaped background. This drug reduces the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in the bloodstream. High levels of LDL cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) are a major cause of heart disease and strokes. Simvastatin works by blocking the effects of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which normally causes the body to produce LDL cholesterol from foods. - Stock Image C004/4198
Background: Intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe (EZE) added to a statin therapy has demonstrated benefits in the IMPROVE-IT trial by further reducing LDL-cholesterol levels than statin therapy alone. We investigated the mechanisms by which EZE could contribute to cardiovascular events reduction in apolipoprotein E knock-out (apoE ko) mice.. Methods: ApoE ko mice were fed a Paigen diet without (control) or with EZE (7mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. To evaluate the effects of EZE on LDL-cholesterol metabolism and excretion, a first set of mice was injected intravenously with 3H-cholesteryl oleate labeled human LDL. A second set of mice was used for in vivo SPECT/CT imaging of 99mTc-cAbVCAM1-5, a single domain antibody directed against the Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which was used as a marker of inflamed atherosclerotic plaques. The same mice were sacrificed for autoradiography and histology of aortic atherosclerotic plaques.. Results: Compared with control, EZE treatment ...
This study compared the efficacy and pharmacodynamics of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin in hypercholesterolaemic patients with or without the
Background: Dietary cholesterol oxidation products (oxysterols) are known to be absorbed and incorporate into lipoprotein in blood and atherosclerotic lesions and to accelerate the formation of atherosclerosis in animals. However, the mechanism of enhanced atherogenesis induced by dietary oxysterols has not been explored.. Aim: The aims of this study are to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms of atherogenesis induced by dietary oxysterols and to examine therapeutic effects of a cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe.. Methods and Results: ApoE-deficient mice were fed either a control high-fat diet (control-HFD) or HFD containing oxysterols (oxysterol-HFD; 6.8 % of cholesterol was oxidized) for 8 weeks and infused with angiotensin II. Compared to control-HFD, dietary oxysterol-HFD enhanced the formation of aortic atherosclerosis, macrophage infiltration, lipid accumulation, immunoreactive MCP-1, and activated MMPs in atherosclerotic lesions without affecting plasma lipid levels ...
Therapeutic goals for lipid lowering treatment in the prevention of ischemic heart disease are often not reached in clinical practice. Even the highest doses of statins do not guarantee good control of hypercholesterolemia in all patients. Therefore, new lipid lowering drugs are being investigated. One of them is ezetimibe - intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Treatment with ezetimibe results in significant reduction of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. It is hoped that concomitant treatment with ezetimibe and other lipid lowering drugs (particularly statins) will be more effective. In large randomized clinical trials, co-administration of ezetimibe with atorvastatin and simvastatin proved to be more effective in lowering cholesterol levels and reaching target therapeutic levels than treatment with statin alone. In addition, combined treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin was more effective compared to treatment with todays most effectively used statin (rosuvastatin) ...
This trial will compare the efficacy and tolerability of atorvastatin, alone or in combination with ezetimibe, in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
Disclosure: The Harvard Program on the Economic Evaluation of Medical Technology has received funding from Merck (unrestricted funds, unrelated to cholesterol-lowering drugs). Drs. Weinstein and Goldman were co-investigators for the economic substudy of the CARE study of pravastatin funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb.. Grant Support: By grant R01 HS 06258 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, unrestricted funds from the Harvard Program on the Economic Evaluation of Medical Technology (Ms. Prosser), National Library of Medicine Training Grant 5T15LM07092-08 (Ms. Prosser), and a Faculty Development Award in Pharmacoeconomics from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (Dr. Stinnett).. Requests for Single Reprints: Milton C. Weinstein, PhD, Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard School of Public Health, 718 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5924.. Requests To Purchase Bulk Reprints (minimum, 100 copies): the Reprints Coordinator; phone, 215-351-2657; ...
Small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. SI: Small intestine; C: Colon. (PDF)Author ContributionsObtained funding and supervised the study: RAB SR.
The velocity of this wave is V 1:forty eight mm=min, which is more compact by about 40% in comparison to the team velocity predicted by the slope of the dispersion relation at the wavelength of steady-point out wave.MCE Chemical 3PO In both situations we uncover that in the propagating waves the convex activator (w ) is in-stage with the membrane displacement, whilst the concave activator (wz ) is almost in anti-phase (Fig. 4d,h). In Fig. 5 we plot the imply-sq. amplitude of the steady-point out membrane waves as a purpose of the exercise of the convex activators, transferring along the vertical dashed lines in Figs. 3a,c. We locate that the amplitude of the continual-point out waves continuously vanishes as we approach the wave instability changeover line (pink lines in Figs. 3a,c) from previously mentioned (supercritical bifurcation).Experimental evidence presented listed here demonstrates that CDRs include curved membrane proteins of each curvatures which are in addition recognized to be ...
In this predetermined pooled analysis of almost 2000 patients with evidence of atherosclerosis and less than severely elevated lipid levels, pravastatin was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of MI, by nearly two thirds. Participants assigned to the pravastatin groups in the four constituent trials also experienced lower rates of fatal or nonfatal coronary events and all-cause mortality, although the differences were not always statistically significant. Analyses suggested that these results are at least partly related to the average 28% reduction in LDL observed among the pravastatin participants. We observed that after adjustment for LDL cholesterol reduction, the treatment group effect was still statistically significant. This finding suggests that this agent may have an effect beyond simple lipid lowering. Mechanisms such as plaque stabilization,14 restoration of endothelial function,15 and a decrease in platelet activation16 are possible explanations for this additional benefit. It ...
1. Arruzazabala ML, Molina V, Carbajal D et al: Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation in type II hypercholesterolemic patients. Tissue Reactions 1998; 20(4):119-124. 2. Stusser R, Batista J, Padron B et al: Long-term therapy with policosanol improves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 36(9):469-473. 3. Valdes S, Arruzazabala ML, Fernandez L et al: Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1996; 16(2-3):67-72. 4. Batista J, Stusser R, Saez F et al: Effect of policosanol on hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease in middle-aged patients. A 14-month pilot study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 34(3):134-137. 5. Castano G, Tula L, Canetti M et al: Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1996; 57(9):691-695. 6. Canetti M, Moreira M, Mas R et al: A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol ...
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RAYDEL Policosanol, cholesterol management. Taken regularly, it may assist with reducing bad cholesterol and increasing good cholesterol. Cuban Ingredient
Although more potent cholesterol reduction has previously been linked with a reduction in cardiovascular events (the lower is better paradigm), concerns have remained about the safety of using high doses of cholesterol-lowering medications to this end. The Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) aimed to establish more reliably the balance between efficacy and safety of intensive low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering.. Six thousand and thirty-one participants were randomly assigned to 80 mg simvastatin daily and 6033 to 20 mg simvastatin daily. Over an average of 6.7 years of follow-up, simvastatin 80 mg was noted to give an average of 0.35 mmol/l greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol compared with allocation to 20 mg. A 6% further reduction in vascular events was seen due to this reduction in LDL-cholesterol, consistent with what has been noted in other statin trials. Although there were no significant differences in the number of ...
The latest research indicates that taking 2 different types of cholesterol-lowering drugs reduces cholesterol in the blood better than taking either drug independently. Participants who took both atorvastatin and ezetimibe showed a larger decrease in cholesterol with no additional side effects, compared with patients who took either drug alone, according to findings published recently in Circulation. Atorvastatin inhibits the liver?s natural production of cholesterol, whereas ezetimibe works by preventing the intestines from absorbing cholesterol.. The researchers gave 628 patients with high cholesterol 1 of 4 treatments: ezetimibe alone, atorvastatin alone, ezetimibe plus ator-vastatin, or a placebo drug. After 12 weeks, the researchers discovered that participants taking the combination of the 2 cholesterol drugs showed a 12% larger drop in levels of low-density lipoprotein ("bad") cholesterol, compared with patients taking only atorvastatin. Furthermore, the combined treatment reduced levels ...
Reducing triglycerides decreases triglyceride-rich particles that are known to promote the growth of fatty deposits on artery walls. For many people with cholesterol disorders the first choice of therapy is dietary modification. In general, reducing high-glycemic carbohydrates reduces triglycerides, and reducing saturated and trans-fat foods decreases LDL-cholesterol. If LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) is high enough, dietary therapy is often supplemented with cholesterol-lowering drug therapy. Exercise is of tremendous benefit when used in combination with either of these two forms of therapy. For those who maintain a frequent and sufficient level of exercise, it is possible that their physician will reduce their cholesterol-lowering medication and in some cases stop it altogether ...
Indian researchers have for the first time got proof for the association between cholesterol-lowering medications and depressive disorder in people on these drugs to prevent heart attack. They discovered that cholesterol-lowering drug may have an effect on the activity of a brain chemical, which controls mood as well as behavior and thereby trigger nervousness and depression.. Cholesterol, a wax like substance, is the main offender in heart problem. Even though the human body requires it, a high level of serum cholesterol leads to blockage of coronary arteries thereby reducing circulation of blood to the heart muscles resulting in heart failure.. A class of drugs known as statins that lower the cholesterol level -- by inhibiting a key enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis in the body - are the highest selling drugs in the global market and in clinical history with an estimated sale of 25 billion USD annually. They are extensively used as oral drugs to treat hypercholesterolemia.. Although ...
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Patients with type 2 diabetes who take their oral medication only some of the time risk hospitalization. Using data from a managed care organization, researchers examined the link between nonadherence and subsequent hospitalization in 900 adult patients with type 2 diabetes. The results showed that, over a 12-month period, 28.9% of the patients were nonadherent to the antihyperglycemic regimen. The risk of hospitalization increased by >2-fold in patients with type 2 diabetes who had been nonadherent to their oral medications the year before. The investigators noted that hospitalization was a strong possibility even after considering the effect of other illnesses and the patients adherence to hypertension- and cholesterol-lowering medications. The study also showed that nonadherence to high blood pressure? and cholesterol-lowering medication, seen in 18.8% and 26.9% of the patients, respectively, was not significantly connected with an increased risk of hospitalization. (The findings were ...
and expressly disclaims any duty to update information contained in this news release.. No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed and actual results may differ materially from those we project. Discovery or identification of new product candidates or development of new indications for existing products cannot be guaranteed and movement from concept to product is uncertain; consequently, there can be no guarantee that any particular product candidate or development of a new indication for an existing product will be successful and become a commercial product. Further, preclinical results do not guarantee safe and effective performance of product candidates in humans. The complexity of the human body cannot be perfectly, or sometimes, even adequately modeled by computer or cell culture systems or animal models. The length of time that it takes for us to complete clinical trials and obtain regulatory approval for product marketing has in the past varied and we expect similar variability in the ...
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The exposure allele for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with a lower LDL-C level that varied significantly between 2.6 and 16.7 mg/dl. Among the included SNPs, the reduction in risks of CHD ranged between 6% and 28%. All nine polymorphisms were associated with a highly consistent reduction in the risk of CHD per 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C, with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect (I2 = 0.0%). In a meta-analysis combining nonoverlapping data from 312,321 participants, naturally random allocation to long-term exposure to lower LDL-C was associated with a 54.5% (95% confidence interval, 48.8-59.5%) reduction in the risk of CHD for each 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C. This represents a three-fold greater reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C than that observed during treatment with a statin started later in life (p = 8.43 × 10-19).. ...
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In yet another 10-year follow-up study of 5,000 patients and more than 300 events from MESA (4), a 7% rate of upward reclassification was observed in subjects who were considered to carry ,7.5% pooled cohort equation (PCE) 10-year risk by CAC score ,300 (or ,75th percentile); the risk was reclassified to 13% with a relative risk of 4.0 compared with the 3% event rate for those who were not reclassified upward by CAC score. The number needed to scan to reclassify upward was ,15. Similarly, in 10-year follow-up of about 2,500 statin-naive patients in the Framingham Heart Study (5), statin eligibility by the 2013 PCE was compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines; the hazard ratio for statin-eligible patients was 7 by PCE (40%), compared with 3 for the Adult Treatment Panel III statin-eligible (15%) patients. However, one-third of the PCE statin-eligible group had zero CAC, with very low likelihood of 10-year event rate. Comparable overtreatment of low-risk patients was noted in a ...
An experimental drug that lowers LDL bad cholesterol by helping sweep it from the bloodstream appears to be both safe and effective in its first human trial.
by Dr. Mercola A UK Daily Mail headline from May 2012 read: Why EVERYONE over 50 needs to be taking statins.iIf you find the notion that taking medications
Abington, PA (PRWEB) September 06, 2012 -- A new National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored study evaluates the cholesterol drug, Rosuvastatin, (Crestor) as a
Statin drugs inhibit an enzyme that is crucial for the production of cholesterol; they are the most widely taken drugs among adults in the U.S, and th
A recently published study suggests that statin drugs may lessen brain function. The question then becomes, are they more trouble than theyre worth?
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from birth onwards. Treatment of FH patients with cholesterol-lowering medication is mandatory to prevent premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). As a result of a nationwide screening in the Netherlands, a large group of women with FH in the child-bearing age range has been identified. Physicians are faced with a treatment ...
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While there is hardly any doubt left that high cholesterol does no good to any one, a recent research has raised hopes of patients. Though there are drugs like statins which can cut off the risk of death due to the same, it has been found that it cannot save all patients with as many as 10% of the patients suffering from its negative consequences. In addition, there are many who are unable to get the chief benefit of the drug to lower down their LDL-C, or "bad cholesterol".. Perhaps this is what made researchers to develop a new class of cholesterol-busting medication which could change the future course for patients. In the name of REGN727 under PCSK9 inhibitors, the drug could considerably reduce cholesterol by 65% in healthy ones. Another fascinating part of the drug was that it could reduce bad cholesterol by 61% in those who were already taking atorvastatin, a powerful cholesterol-lowering medication. With no side effects identified so far, there is need that this drug is being considered ...
Health,...Cholesterol-lowering meds may actually help patients on rituximab stu...TUESDAY Dec. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol-lowering statin drugs ...Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody often used alone or in conjunction ... That finding raised questions about maintaining or stopping cholester...,Statin,Use,Doesnt,,Inhibit,,Lymphoma,Drug,Therapy,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Mevacor is an efficient medication that is used to treat high triglycerides and high cholesterol. The generic name of this medicine is Lovastatin. Lovastatin is related to the set of drugs called cholesterol-lowering medications.
The risk of muscle damage is low and we do NOT recommend that you stop any of your medications without first talking to your healthcare provider. Simvastatin is an excellent cholesterol-lowering medication and in many instances continuation of the medication is appropriate. However, we are recommending that you contact the provider who prescribed the simvastatin to discuss whether any medication changes should be made. You may have already had a discussion with your healthcare provider about this issue; if so, it is not necessary for you to re-contact him or her. You should immediately contact your healthcare provider if you experience muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, or dark or red colored urine ...
Even though national guidelines on managing cholesterol have shifted away from targeting specific cholesterol levels, tests that measure fats (lipids) in the blood, known as a lipid profile or panel, are still widely used and important. Adults should have a lipid profile done at least every five years. People who have abnormal lipid values or who take cholesterol-lowering medications likely need more frequent tests. The same applies to people with risk factors for heart disease such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart disease. (Locked) More » ...
U.S. regulators have approved a new type of cholesterol-lowering drug aimed at millions of people who dont get enough help from widely used statin pills like...
In February and again in May, Merck sent a cease-and-desist order to Alberto Donzelli, head of education, appropriateness, and evidence-based medicine at Milans public health authority. Donzelli had openly criticized Mercks cholesterol-lowering drug Ezetrol (ezetimibe), which is sold in the U.S. as Zetia. Now the company is doing an about-face.
A team of scientists have shown in cell lines that a key cholesterol synthesis enzyme-squalene monooxygenase (SM) - is controlled by the levels of its target molecule, squalene. The findings, published in international journal PNAS, have implications for the development of cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Cardiologists still are evaluating new guidelines for statin use and subsequent reports that a risk calculator for heart attacks and strokes far overestimates the number of people who might benefit from the cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Heart attack survivors who cant tolerate or get enough help from cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins soon may have an easier time getting insurers to pay for a newer medicine that works in a different way.
Studies of a new class of experimental cholesterol-lowering drugs signal that they can reduce by half the risk of heart attack and other major cardiovascular problems compared to standard treatment alone.
A federal advisory panel has recommended that two powerful new cholesterol-lowering drugs be approved by the Food and Drug Administration, despite concerns that the drugs long-term effects are still being studied.
Sanofi and RegeneronPharmaceuticals said on Tuesday that a study into theirnew cholesterol-lowering drug, Praluent, showed promisingresults.
Increasing evidence suggests that the various components of açaí contribute to cardioprotection via mechanisms that affect cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathway proteins, and the modulation of gene expression [37],. [38], [39], [40] and [41]. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids regulate the activity of the Alisertib nuclear receptor regulators of cellular lipid metabolism [42] and [43]. The present study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí pulp using a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. A 2% açaí pulp dose was chosen because of its relevance to human nutrition. This dosage mimics the addition of a portion of this fruit in food [44] and selleck compound has demonstrated effects in previous studies [10], [15] and [16]. Corroborating our previous results [15], açaí supplementation improved the lipid profile in the rat. Thus, we focused on characterizing the effects that açaí pulp supplementation in the diet would ...
Niacin is a natural solution that rivals cholesterol-lowering drugs for effectiveness. It does not cause the hot, itchy niacin flush.
BARCELONA -- Four studies testing the injectable novel lipid-lowering agent alirocumab found the drug dramatically reduced LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) among high-risk patients who had not achieved LDL tar
The cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor may greatly reduce your risk of heart disease and death, but it also increases your risk for another serious condition.
... antilipemic agents MeSH D27.505.519.186.071.202 --- anticholesteremic agents MeSH D27.505.519.186.071.202.370 --- ... antilipemic agents MeSH D27.505.954.230.202 --- anticholesteremic agents MeSH D27.505.954.230.202.370 --- hydroxymethylglutaryl ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ...
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Clofibrate is an antilipidemic agent similar to gemfibrozil. It acts to lower elevated serum lipids by reducing the very low- ...
Pravastatin, an antilipemic agent, is used to treat primary hypercholesterolemia. Unlike lovastatin and simvastatin, ...
Lovastatin, an antilipemic agent produced by fermentation of Aspergillus terreus, is the first of a class of lipid-lowering ... agents known as the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Lovastatin is used to treat hypercholesterolemia, to slow coronary ...
Simvastatin, the methylated form of lovastatin, is an oral antilipemic agent which inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. simvastatin is ...
Doxazosin is an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent used to treat hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Accordingly, ...
How should I use the EstroGel pump?. It is important that you read and follow these directions on how to use the EstroGel pump properly.. 1. Before using the pump for the first time, it must be primed. Remove the large pump cover and fully depress the pump twice. Discard the unused gel by thoroughly rinsing down the sink or placing it in the household trash in a manner that avoids accidental exposure or ingestion by household members or pets. After priming, the pump is ready to use, and one complete pump depression will dispense the same amount of EstroGel each time.. 2. Apply EstroGel at the same time each day. You should apply your daily dose of gel to clean, dry, unbroken skin. If you take a bath or shower or use a sauna, apply your EstroGel dose after your bath, shower, or sauna. If you go swimming, try to leave as much time as possible between applying your EstroGel dose and going swimming.. 3. Be sure your skin is completely dry before applying EstroGel.. 4. To apply the dose, collect the ...
Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology*. *Coronary Disease/prevention & control*. *Humans. Substance. *Anticholesteremic Agents ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Enzyme ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ... Regulating Agents. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Vasodilator Agents. Vitamin B Complex. ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ... The advent of new antiretroviral agents, in particular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), spectacularly reduced HIV- ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ... Regulating Agents. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter ...
Antilipemic Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. Anticholesteremic Agents. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibitors. Cholesteryl ... Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... Regulating Agents. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Enzyme ...
Anticholesteremic Agents. Hypolipidemic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid ...
  • This study will evaluate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of ezetimibe, a lipid-controlling agent, in combination with ongoing statin therapy in HIV infected people currently on ART. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One of the most effective HDL-raising agents is niacin but the tolerability of niacin has been severely limited by flushing and cutaneous side-effects, which appear to be mediated largely by prostaglandin D. Laropiprant is a selective prostaglandin D receptor antagonist that substantially reduces the frequency and intensity of niacin-induced flushing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • however, despite treatment with these agents, triglyceride levels often remain elevated in HIV infected patients treated with HAART. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Anticholesteremic Agents. (greenmedinfo.com)