Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Quinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Kuru: A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Insomnia, Fatal Familial: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by degeneration of the THALAMUS and progressive insomnia. It is caused by a mutation in the prion protein (PRIONS).Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.AcridinesGiardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Quinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.United StatesProfessional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.

Serum cytokine detection in the clinical follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis. (1/71)

The relation of serum cytokine levels and outcome of chemotherapy was evaluated in 15 patients with cystic echinococcosis. Serum IL-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentrations were determined by ELISA before and after a 3-month course of albendazole treatment: at least one serum sample per patient from 13 patients (87%) contained measurable amounts of IL-4; samples from five patients (33%) measurable amounts of IL-10 and samples from only two patients (13%) measurable amounts of IFN-gamma. Clinical assessment at 1 year after the end of therapy showed that 11 of the 15 patients had responded clinically. Seven of these patients had lower IL-4 serum concentrations, two had unchanged and two undetectable amounts (pre- versus post-therapy, n = 11, P = 0.008). Conversely, of the patients who did not respond, three had higher and one patient unchanged serum IL-4 concentrations. Serum IL-10 10 levels also decreased in all patients who responded (3/5) and increased in all patients who did not (2/5). No association was found between cytokine concentrations and cyst characteristics or antibody levels. Overall these data suggest that serum IL-4 detection may be useful in the follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis.  (+info)

Treating neurocysticercosis medically: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. (2/71)

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of cysticidal therapy used for treating human cysticercosis. METHODS: Published and unpublished studies in any language identified through MEDLINE (1966 - June 1999) specialized databases, abstracts, proceedings and contact with experts were analysed. Those which compared, using randomized or quasi-randomized methods, any cysticidal drug with placebo or symptomatic therapy were entered in the study. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and trial quality assessed. Meta-analysis using fixed effects models calculated provided there was no significant heterogeneity, expressed as relative risk. RESULTS: Four trials met the inclusion criteria, treating intraparenchymatous neurocysticercosis with either albendazole or praziquantel compared to placebo or no treatment. In the two trials reporting clinical outcomes, treatment was not associated with a reduction in the risk of seizures, although numbers were small (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.51). Four trials reported radiological outcomes, and cysticidal treatment was associated with a lower risk of cyst persistence of scans taken within six months of start of treatment (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Subsidiary analysis assuming different outcomes in patients lost to follow-up did not alter the findings of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether cysticidal therapy is of any clinical benefit to patients with neurocysticercosis. The review does not exclude the possibility that more patients remain seizure-free when treated with cysticidal drugs. Further testing through placebo-controlled trials is required.  (+info)

Cysticidal therapy: impact on seizure control in epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis. (3/71)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features and seizure control of epilepsy related to neurocysticercosis. METHOD: 18 patients with partial epilepsy and neurocysticercosis were treated with albendazol or praziquantel and followed from 3 months to 12 years. We analyzed results from the CSF exam, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), head computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 36.4 years. The mean duration of epilepsy was 16 years. 83% patients had simple partial seizures; 17% had complex partial seizures. All patients underwent routine EEGs: 62% had abnormalities and 38% were normal. A relationship was observed between focal EEG abnormality and the location of cyst in 28% of the patients. The CSF exams showed pleocytosis in 33% of the patients, and 28% had elevated protein levels. Only 22% of patients had positive titer for cysticercosis in the CSF. In all patients who had somatosensory and special sensory seizures there was a relationship between location of the cysts and seizure semiology (n=11). After cysticidal therapy, 83% patients had a significant improvement in controlling seizures. CONCLUSION: In this group, we found a predominance of simple partial seizures and a relationship between somatosensory and special sensory seizures and the location of the cysts. Cysticidal therapy was effective in controlling seizures in these patients and should be considered for patients with partial seizures and semiology related to cyst location.  (+info)

Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts. (4/71)

BACKGROUND: Infection with the larval form of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, can lead to the development of cysts in the brain. Surgical removal of cysts has been the accepted treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant cysts when there is associated intracranial hypertension. METHODS: We describe 33 patients whom we treated medically for malignant forms of neurocysticercosis. All patients had evidence of intracranial hypertension and subarachnoid cysts at least 50 mm in diameter. All patients received 15 mg of albendazole per kilogram of body weight per day for four weeks. Ten patients were also treated with 100 mg of praziquantel per kilogram per day for four weeks. Seventeen patients received a second course of albendazole, three received a third course, and one received a fourth course. During the first cycle of treatment, all patients also received dexamethasone. Five patients had previously undergone neurosurgery for giant cysts. RESULTS: After a median of 59 months of follow-up (range, 7 to 102), the condition of all 33 patients had improved, and the cysts had disappeared or become calcified. Of the 22 patients with a history of seizures, only 11 continued to receive antiseizure medications. The median quality-of-life score on the Karnofsky scale improved from 40 to 100. Fifteen patients received a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of hydrocephalus. Four patients had persistent sequelae (bilateral partial optic atrophy, stroke, or diplopia) of the cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive medical treatment can be effective in patients with neurocysticercosis characterized by giant cysts. Neurosurgery may be required only when there is an imminent risk of death.  (+info)

Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity. (5/71)

A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.  (+info)

Continuous long-term albendazole therapy in intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis. (6/71)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic effects of long-term albendazole therapy in intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis. METHODS: Fifteen patients with a total of 45 cysts were treated with albendazole with dosage regimen of 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 for an average of 2.5 years. Repeated CT and ultrasound scannings (US) were performed after the end of therapy. The duration of follow-up was 3.6 years on average. The number, size and morphology of cysts were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: The hydatid cysts were classified according to location and CT patterns into hepatic simple cysts, hepatic cysts with daughter cysts, hepatic/abdominal cysts and splenic cysts. The hepatic simple cysts responded most favorably to albendazole therapy, with an overall cure rate of 88.7%. The disappearance of cysts was observed in 43.0% of cases (15/35). Sixteen cysts (45.7%) became solidified or calcified, among which 8 cysts were completely calcified, 6 showed egg shell-like calcification of the cystic walls, and 2 showed solidification and calcification of cyst contents. Four patients had large hepatic cysts containing daughter cysts; the daughter cysts all disappeared after treatment, but one patient relapsed with the reappearance of daughter cysts at 4-year follow-up. Two splenic cysts also calcified. Two patients had peritoneal cysts; one calcified and the other one reduced in size. Among 15 patients treated, 9 were cured and 6 were improved. There was no serious toxic reactions with continuous long-term therapy in a small series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous long-term albendazole treatment of intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis is safe and effective in the treatment of hepatic simple cysts, and some daughter cysts, peritoneal secondary cysts and splenic cysts. No serious toxic reactions were found.  (+info)

A combined medical and surgical approach to hydatid disease: 12 years' experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. (7/71)

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus as to the most appropriate treatment for the varied and often complicated presentations of hydatid disease in Britain. We looked at our own results over a 12-year period to see if a consistent and logical plan had emerged. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 70 patients presenting between 1986 and 1998 were analysed retrospectively, with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, with particular reference to the use of chemotherapy, and to the difficulties of post-treatment assessment by serology and imaging. RESULTS: 37 patients had been treated previously. 35 had hepatic cysts and 26 multiple cysts. 4 patients were treated by surgery alone, 44 by chemotherapy and surgery, and 14 by chemotherapy alone. The combined use of albendazole and praziquantel pre-operatively reduced significantly the number of cysts that contained viable protoscolices: 1/25 versus 5/8 that received albendazole alone (P = 0.00013). During the 12-year period, it became our policy to aim for 3 months drug treatment (albendazole throughout with praziquantel for 2 weeks), re-assess and proceed either to surgery or to continue with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct an algorithm for the management of patients with hydatid disease by chemotherapy and surgery, but the assessment of results by indirect techniques remains difficult.  (+info)

Long-term serological evaluation of patients with cystic echinococcosis treated with benzimidazole carbamates. (8/71)

Seeking better immunological markers indicating the long-term outcome of cystic echinococcosis (CE) after chemotherapy we studied 23 patients receiving albendazole, clinically followed for 8 years, and grouped ultrasonographically according to therapeutic outcome. Antibody responses against a partially purified fraction of hydatid fluid (HFF) and antigen B (AgB) were evaluated by indirect haemagglutination (IHA), ELISA and immunoblotting (IB). Although IHA titres varied over the course of treatment, differences in mean antibody titres to HFF between groups were significant only at 4 years (P = 0.031). IgG isotype expression remained unchanged during follow-up whereas IgE expression decreased in patients with cured or stable disease. AgB disclosed higher IgG4 expression (P < 10(-4); P = 0.025) and lower IgG1 expression than HFF (P < 10(-4); P = 0.022). IHA antibody titres were higher in patients with progressive than in those with cured or stable disease, even in those with the same cyst type. ELISA isotype profiles differed between groups, particularly for type CE 3, 4 and 5 cysts: higher serum IgG1 and IgG3, lower IgG4 and IgE in patients with cured or stable disease. Although combined serological testing provides scarce information on the long-term outcome of CE after chemotherapy it may be useful for reviewing in a retrospective study the outcome of a cyst and for assessing the host-parasite relationship.  (+info)

*Anticestodal agent

Anticestodal agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82000923 ... An anticestodal agent is a drug used to combat tapeworm infection. It derives its name from Cestoda. Examples include: ...

*Dichlorophen

... is an anticestodal agent, fungicide, germicide, and antimicrobial agent. It is used in combination with toluene ...

*Taeniacide

Anticestodal agent. ... This makes it a class of antihelminthic agent. It gets its name ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... antiplatyhelmintic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.075.100.040 --- anticestodal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.075.100.750 ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...
Brain abscess, another differential considered by the authors, seems unlikely in the absence of fever. Malignant glioma was another consideration but the lesion was so well demarcated it was dismissed by the authors. In such a case of a young male who was resident in a cysticercosis-endemic area and who had characteristic neuroimaging findings, therapy for NCC in the form of steroids and cysticidal therapy was warranted. There seems to have been no indication for proceeding with craniotomy to excise the lesion. In addition, the patient had no seizures, precluding refractory epilepsy as a justification for surgical intervention. If the entire lesion with firm capsule was excised as stated, and in the absence of any other documented NCC lesion or cysticercosis at any other site such as soft tissue or muscle, there would have been no reason to prescribe cysticidal therapy ...
When large portions of a cats renal parenchyma are displaced by multiple cysts, the medical condition is referred to as polycystic kidney disease. Learn more about the symptoms and treatment of kidney disease caused by multiple cysts in cats on PetMD.com.
Are you looking for disease information or support? Simply type in the name of a disease or condition and Disease InfoSearch will locate quality information from a database of more than 13,000 diseases and thousands of support groups and foundations.
Simple Kidney Cysts are very common, especially among the elderly above 50 years old. If the cysts are small (below 3 cm) and you do not have any discomforts or symptoms, you need not receive treatment temporarily. You should take B-ultrasound test once in every three months to observe if the cysts are growing or have the tendency of canceration. If the cysts keep enlarging very rapidly, you should receive treatment at once ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Amar Bir Singh Sidhu, Qingan Sun, Louis J Nkrumah, Michael W Dunne, James C Sacchettini, David A Fidock].
Echinococcus is endemic in some parts of the world but cardiac involvement with hydatid cyst is rare. Here, we report a 55-year-old man who developed right ulnar fracture and was scheduled for surgery. During routine preoperative evaluation abnormal findings in ECG were found. In echocardiography, a large mass was detected in the inferior wall of the left ventricle. Coronary angiography showed normal findings. The patient underwent cardiac surgery to excise the mass which later on identified as a hydatid cyst.Iran J Med Sci 2006; 31(4): 232-234. Keywords ● Echinococcus, cardiac, hydatid cyst
An experiment was conducted on the survival rate of protoscoleces derived from hydatid cyst brought from infected camels in Tambool area (North Eastern Sudan). The survival rate was studied in vivo and in vitro through exposure to different constant temperatures to measure their viability. The results revealed that the protoscoleces remained viable in vitro for 20 days at 4°C, 7 and 5 days at 25°C and 37°C, respectively, while at 45°C the protoscoleces were immediately dead. This means that the infection rate of hydatid cyst becomes high in relatively cold seasons (winter and autumn). In the in vivo study, each mouse (five groups, four mice in each) was inoculated intraperitoneally with 2000 protoscoleces exposed to the same different constant temperature, as previously used. 6 months later, the mice in different groups were sacrificed and necropsied to study the development of hydatid cyst inside. The results showed that the rate of development inside the mice was clear in the first and the second
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Abstract Rostellar hooks of protoscolices from known larval stages of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) and E. vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 were compared to determine whether morphologic differences could be defined. The large and small hooks, respectively, of the two species were found to differ significantly in length (P = <0.0001) as well as in relative proportions. Host-related variation in lengths of hooks was not observed. Dimensions of the rostellar hooks were found to provide means for the discrimination of the larval stages of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli, of which the latter is the cause of polycystic hydatid disease in man in South and Central America. The defined criteria were used in the identification of larvae from wild rodents and man.
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Treatment of hydatid cyst of the liver ranges from surgical intervention (conventional or laparoscopic approach) to percutaneous drainage and to medical therapy. The aim of this systematic review was to provide "evidence-based" answers to the following questions: Should chemotherapy be used alone or in association with surgery? What is the best surgical technique? When is the percutaneous aspiration injection and reaspiration technique (PAIR) indicated? An extensive electronic search of the relevant literature without limiting it to the English language was carried out using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Key words used for the final search were "hydatid cyst," "liver," "treatment," "meta analysis," "randomized controlled trial," "prospective study," "retrospective study." All relevant studies reporting the assessment of one modality of treatment or a comparison of two or several therapeutic methods to treat hydatid cyst of the liver and published in a peer-reviewed journal were considered ...
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Looking for Echinococcus Granulosus? Find out information about Echinococcus Granulosus. a tapeworm that in the adult stage parasitizes the intestines of dogs, wolves, jackals, and occasionally cats. The body measures 3-5 mm in length and... Explanation of Echinococcus Granulosus
For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus ...
This research is a study on the molecular level of Echinococcus granulosus (larval stage) on, where 7 samples of hydatid cysts were collected from parasite intermediate hosts: Human (liver, spleen, lung) and liver of sheep, goat, cattle and buffaloes. DNA was extracted from germinal layer cells of hydatid cysts which were isolated shortly or preserved for various periods in 70% ethanol. Genetic analysis of isolated DNA from hydatid cysts collected from human and animals was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine genetic variation depending on random amplified polymorphic DNA. In the present study, 10 primers were used during which the genetic variations were revealed among isolated (extracted DNA) hydatid cysts which was collected from human and other intermediate hoists except cows and buffaloes. The results of this study showed the following: 1. One primer (OPA – 01) was able to diagnose sample 1 which represent the isolated DNA of liver hydatid cyst obtained from
Immunoprecipitation of antigens translated in vitro from Echinococcus granulosus RNA revealed that albendazole treatment of human hydatidosis induced antibodies to previously undetectable antigens and that the response to most antigens was specific, although cross-reactivity was observed between Schistosoma mansoni and E. granulosus antisera for two proteins ...
Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.
Light micrograph of the larval form of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, taken from a hydatid cyst in a sheeps lung. The larval form, which also infects humans, causes the disease known as hydatidosis. Large cysts, cont- aining numerous larvae, form in the liver, lung or brain impairing their functioning & damaging surrounding tissue. Their presence in the brain may cause blindness & epilepsy. When infected tissue is consumed the cyst walls are digested, releasing the larvae into the small intestines. The crown of hooks or rostellum secure it to the wall of the intestines & feeding commences. The worm reaches adulthood here. Mag: X80 (35mm). - Stock Image Z165/0012
Background & Objectives: Echinococcus granulosus causes a common disease between humans and animals that called hydatid cyst or hydatidosis. The recombinant EG95 vaccine based on cloning of the 25 KD oncospheral antigen-Eg95- in pGEX stimulated significant humoral and cellular immunity in sheep, but regarding the effect of TH1cell immunity against this ...
The microtriches in different regions of the scolex and strobila of sexually mature Echinococcus granulosus were examined using the scanning electron microscope. E. granulosus was found to possess two morphologically distinct types of microthrix. A cylindrical, slender filamentous type of microthrix which appeared to be flexible was restricted to the scolex. On the strobila, the only type of microthrix observed was a flattened blade-like form which appeared to be rigid for most of its length. The occurrence of two distinct types of microthrix in separate regions of the body of E. granulosus suggests that they may be involved in different functional activities.. ...
Multivesicular, pulmonary and cardiac hydatidosis are rarely observed and can give rise to serious complications. Cysts can remain asymptomatic for a long time, until they reveal themselves perforating into cardiac chambers and/or pulmonary arteries or the systemic circulation. A rare case of multivesicular interatrial septum hydatid cyst with multiple pulmonary involvement in a native Italian farm labourer is reported. Clinical, radiological, serological and histological findings are described. MR imaging showed the exact anatomic location and the multivesicular nature of the cardiac cyst and was useful in planning surgical treatment. A successful outcome was achieved with a combination of pre- and post-operative albendazole therapy and a three-step surgery procedure. The patient made a rapid recovery and his post-operative period was totally uneventful. This case highlights the importance of an early multidisciplinary surgical approach and long-term chemotherapy treatment of this serious and rare
IntroductionHydatid disease is a ubiquitous parasitic zoonotic disease, which causes different medical, economic and serious public health problems in some parts of the world. The causal organism is a multi-stage parasite named Echinococcus granulosus whose life cycle is dependent on two types of mammalian hosts viz definitive and intermediate hosts.MethodsIn this study, enolase, as a key functional enzyme in the metabolism of E. granulosus (EgEnolase), was targeted through a comprehensive in silico modeling analysis and designing a host-specific multi-epitope vaccine. Three-dimensional (3D) structure of enolase was modeled using MODELLER v9.18 software. The B-cell epitopes (BEs) were predicted based on the multi-method approach and via some authentic online predictors. ClusPro v2.0 server was used for docking-based T-helper epitope prediction. The 3D structure of the vaccine was modeled using the RaptorX server. The designed vaccine was evaluated for its immunogenicity, physicochemical properties, and
ICD-10 B67.2 is echinococcus granulosus infection of bone (B672). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
Studies on the speciation of Echinococcus granulosus in Great Britain have demonstrated the value of considering epidemiological, developmental and biochemical criteria. The significance of these criteria beyond pure taxonomic considerations is stressed, and the particular potential of isoelectric focusing in such studies is emphasized.. ...
A expressão "proteínas moonlighting" refere-se a um subgrupo de proteínas multifuncionais, onde duas ou mais funções são realizadas por uma mesma cadeia polipeptídica. Dentre as proteínas com funções moonlighting estão diversas enzimas glicolíticas que podem desempenhar papeis importantes em processos-chave na biologia de organismos parasitas, como os de motilidade, adesão, invasão e diferenciação. A aldolase, a enolase e a lactato-desidrogenase (LDH) estão entre as enzimas que foram detectadas nos produtos de excreção-secreção (ES) e em tecidos de interface com o hospedeiro de Echinococcus granulosus, o cestódeo causador da hidatidose cística em seres humanos e ungulados domésticos. Neste contexto, a caracterização destas enzimas pode revelar possíveis funções moonligthing por elas desempenhadas e contribuir para a compreensão de aspectos básicos do desenvolvimento do parasito e de possíveis mecanismos de interação com os hospedeiros. Inicialmente, as ...
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Hydatid Cyst of the Lung A 12-year-old girl presented with cough and fever. PA chest X-ray shows a large air filled cyst in the left lung base (A). Contrast ...
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Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
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Define hydatid disease. hydatid disease synonyms, hydatid disease pronunciation, hydatid disease translation, English dictionary definition of hydatid disease. Noun 1. hydatid disease - infestation with larval echinococci echinococcosis, hydatidosis infestation - the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites
We describe the preparation of Echinococcus granulosus metacestode protein extracts for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Protoscoleces and hydatid fluid were prepared by precipitation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to remove nonprotein contaminants. Compared to the untreated control, TCA precipitation improved the 2-DE gel profile of the protoscoleces proteins. Comparison of 2-DE gels from insoluble and soluble fractions of the protoscoleces protein extract showed that most proteins are insoluble after lysis by sonication. Host serum proteins, especially albumin and globulins, caused horizontal streaking problems on the hydatid fluid 2-DE gels due to their high content in this sample. Even after the preparation of a hydatid fluid parasite enriched fraction, the high amount of bovine serum albumin and globulins made parasite-specific proteins difficult to detect by 2-DE. Despite the absence of an E. granulosus genome sequencing or expressed sequence tag (EST) projects, it was possible to ...
Primary Large Hydatid Cyst of The Neck. Vertebro-Spinal Hydatidosis: Case Report. Articles related to Echinococcus granulosus are open access to read here.
Cystic hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a zoonotic disease principally transmitted between dogs and domestic livestock, particularly sheep. Humans are infected when they ingest tapeworm eggs, with disease occuring in most parts of the world where sheep are raised and dogs are used to herd livestock....
WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: a Public Health Problem of Global Concern. From the Centers for Disease Control: "Cystic echinocccosis (CE), also known as hydatid disease, is caused by an infection with Echinococcus granulosus, an ~2-7 millimeter long tapeworm found most commonly in dogs (definitive host), in addition to sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs (intermediate hosts). Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic, CE causes harmful, slowly enlarging cysts in the liver, lungs, and other organs that often grow unnoticed and neglected for years.". The intention of these pages is to provide a resource for anyone interested in research and education on the echinococcus granulosus tapeworm and hydatid disease. A lot of searching has taken place by myself and several other researchers, scientists, doctors, parasitologists, etc. to gather this information. I felt it important enough to compile information in one location to make research easier. I intend to divide this ...
Investigations were undertaken to determine the genotypes of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus that were present in livestock animals on the island of Sardinia. Liver, lung, and spleen samples were obtained from 770 sheep, 229 cattle, and 277 pigs slaughtered in Sardinia between January 2003 and April 2005, and the number and fertility of hydatid cysts were determined. Protoscoleces and/or germinal layer were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted from 91 samples, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods were used for identification of the strain genotype for each sample (G1, G5, G6/ G7). Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase I were sequenced. Hydatid disease prevalence of 75.3, 41.5, and 9.4% were found in the organs collected from sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Molecular analysis showed that 89 of 91 ovine, bovine, and swine cysts belonged to the G1 genotype (common ...
A 62-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for removal of hydatid cyst from the liver. Intraoperatively, the patient suddenly became hypotensive with tachycardia and ST segment elevation. There was no erythema, bronchospasm or desaturation. Anaesthetic agents were stopped and oxygen fraction was increased. In view of the recurrence of hypotension, she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) without completion of surgery. She was successfully resuscitated and acute myocardial infarction was ruled out. She was managed for the possibility of anaphylaxis with hydration, dopamine, antihistamin and hydrocortisone. After stabilisation, she was taken back to the theatre and the cyst was then removed. Histopathology confirmed hydatid disease of the liver. The patient was discharged from the ICU and then from the hospital in 6 days. Anaphylaxis secondary to hydatid disease is uncommon; however, the possibility of such a diagnosis in all patients with non-ruptured hydatid disease in the endemic ...
... , which is often times referred to as hydatid disease or echinococcal disease, is a parasitic disease that affects both humans and other mammals, such as sheep, dogs, rodents and horses.[1] There are three different forms of echinococcosis found in humans, each of which is caused by the larval stages of different species of the tapeworm of genus Echinococcus. The first of the three and also the most common form found in humans is cystic echinococcosis (also known as unilocular echinococcosis), which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The second is alveolar echinococcosis (also known as alveolar colloid of the liver, alveolar hydatid disease, alveolococcosis, multilocular echinococcosis, "small fox tapeworm"), which is caused by Echinococcus multilocularis and the third is polycystic echinococcosis (also known as human polycystic hydatid disease, neotropical echinococcosis), which is caused by Echinococcus vogeli and very rarely, Echinococcus oligarthus. Alveolar and polycystic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts. T2 - Pars intermedia tumor?. AU - Nishioka, Hiroshi. AU - Hirano, Asao. AU - Asa, Sylvia L.. PY - 1992/3. Y1 - 1992/3. N2 - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the adenoma cells contained reactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin; a few cells stained for beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone. The cysts, interspersed within the tumor, were lined by cuboidal epithelium with foci of stratified squamous epithelium. The lining cells contained immunoreactive keratin; some cells were positive for S-100 protein or glial fibrillary acidic protein, and a few cells were also immuno-stained for adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin. It is suggested that this tumor may represent a neoplasm of pars intermedia derivation.. AB - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, ...
The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes human alveolar echinococcosis, commonly affecting the liver. However, in ∼1% of cases, systematic spread of the disease involves the brain as well. A patient had a 6-year history of liver and lung alveolar echinococcosis that was considered not suitable for surgery, and treatment with albendazole was introduced. After the appearance of neurologic disturbances, an intracranial mass lesion was demonstrated by radiologic imaging. The lesion was surgically removed, and histologic analysis revealed metacestode tissue of E. multilocularis. Despite the surgical resection of the lesion, the patient died of progression of systemic alveolar echinococcosis. The authors highly recommend implementing neurologic monitoring to the follow-up algorithm for patients with systemically disseminated alveolar echinococcosis. When neurologic symptoms occur, radiologic imaging of the brain should be obtained immediately. Surgery should be considered for all ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hungary. AU - Tolnai, Z.. AU - Széll, Z.. AU - Sréter, T.. PY - 2013/12/6. Y1 - 2013/12/6. N2 - Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most pathogenic zoonoses in the temperate and arctic region of the Northern Hemisphere. To investigate the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis and the factors influencing this distribution in the recently identified endemic area of Hungary, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory from November 2008 to February 2009 and from November 2012 to February 2013. The topographic positions of foxes were recorded in geographic information system database. The digitized home ranges and the vector data were used to calculate the altitude, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, soil water retention, soil permeability, areas of land ...

Anticestodal agent - WikipediaAnticestodal agent - Wikipedia

Anticestodal agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82000923 ... An anticestodal agent is a drug used to combat tapeworm infection. It derives its name from Cestoda. Examples include: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anticestodal_agent

Albendazole
        -
        Anthelmintics,  Anticestodal Agents,  Antiprotozoal Agents,  ATC:P02CA03Albendazole - Anthelmintics, Anticestodal Agents, Antiprotozoal Agents, ATC:P02CA03

For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Albendazole.html

Atebrine
        -
        Antihelmintics,  Antiprotozoals,  Antineoplastic Agents,  Antinematodal Agents,  Antimalarials, ...Atebrine - Antihelmintics, Antiprotozoals, Antineoplastic Agents, Antinematodal Agents, Antimalarials, ...

Antinematodal Agents. * Antimalarials. * Anticestodal Agents. * Enzyme Inhibitors. Atebrine Brand names, Atebrine Analogs * ...
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Safety of the Co-administration of Three Drugs for Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination - Full Text View -...Safety of the Co-administration of Three Drugs for Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination - Full Text View -...

Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anthelmintics. Anticestodal Agents. Antiplatyhelmintic Agents. To Top ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01586169

CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) Quinacrine Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govCJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) Quinacrine Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anticestodal Agents. Antiplatyhelmintic Agents. Anthelmintics. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antimalarials. ... Antiprotozoal Agents. Antinematodal Agents. Antineoplastic Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ...
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Prevalence Studies After Triple Drug Therapy for Lymphatic Filariasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govPrevalence Studies After Triple Drug Therapy for Lymphatic Filariasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anticestodal Agents. Antiplatyhelmintic Agents. Antiprotozoal Agents. Tubulin ... Antimitotic Agents. Mitosis Modulators. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Antineoplastic Agents. Filaricides. ...
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Dichlorophen - WikipediaDichlorophen - Wikipedia

Dichlorophen is an anticestodal agent, fungicide, germicide, and antimicrobial agent. It is used in combination with toluene ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorophen

BIOCIDES -- Non-Oxidizing - Sodium Pentachloro Phenate Exporter from PuneBIOCIDES -- Non-Oxidizing - Sodium Pentachloro Phenate Exporter from Pune

Dichlorophen is an anticestodal agent, fungicide, germicide, and antimicrobial agent. It is used in combination with toluene ... Type: Anesthetic Agents, Anti-Allergic Agents. Purity: 99.0% appearance: White crystalline powder molecular weight: 199.99 ... It is Used as a disinfectant, corrosion inhibitor, coagulant, vulcanizing agent, chelating agent, fungicide, and biocide ( ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate 20% Solution USP is a broad spectrum bacteriostatis antiseptic agent, oral care agent, disinfectant, ...
more infohttp://www.radocarb.com/biocides-non-oxidizing.html

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Anticarcinogenic Effect (0) see Anticarcinogenic Agents. Anticestodal Agents (5) • Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ... Antithrombotic Agents (0) see Fibrinolytic Agents. Antithyroid Agents (10) • Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by ... Antifibrillatory Agents (0) see Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antifibrinolytic Agents (7) • Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Anticarcinogenic Effect (0) see Anticarcinogenic Agents. Anticestodal Agents (5) • Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ... Antithrombotic Agents (0) see Fibrinolytic Agents. Antithyroid Agents (10) • Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by ... Antifibrillatory Agents (0) see Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antifibrinolytic Agents (7) • Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/drugNamesAndCategories.jsp

Quinacrine - DrugBankQuinacrine - DrugBank

Anti-Infective Agents. *Anticestodal Agents. *Antimalarials. *Antinematodal Agents. *Antineoplastic Agents. *Antiparasitic ... P01AX - Other agents against amoebiasis and other protozoal diseases. *P01A - AGENTS AGAINST AMOEBIASIS AND OTHER PROTOZOAL ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01103

Dichlorophen - Biology-Online DictionaryDichlorophen - Biology-Online Dictionary

Pharmacological action: anticestodal agents, antifungal agents, antiprotozoal agents, cathartic. chemical name: phenol, 2,2- ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Dichlorophen

November 2017 - When do the ALBENZA patents expire, and when will generic ALBENZA enter the market?November 2017 - When do the ALBENZA patents expire, and when will generic ALBENZA enter the market?

Anticestodal Agents Antiprotozoal Agents Tubulin Modulators ADD ALERT Glossary. Applicant. Tradename. Generic Name. Dosage. NDA ...
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Albenza / albendazole FDA New drug application 207844 global drug patent coverage, generic alternatives and manufacturersAlbenza / albendazole FDA New drug application 207844 global drug patent coverage, generic alternatives and manufacturers

Anticestodal Agents Antiprotozoal Agents Tubulin Modulators Profile for product number 001. Active Rx/OTC/Discontinued:. DISCN ...
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Anticestodal | definition of anticestodal by Medical dictionaryAnticestodal | definition of anticestodal by Medical dictionary

... anticestodal explanation free. What is anticestodal? Meaning of anticestodal medical term. What does anticestodal mean? ... Looking for online definition of anticestodal in the Medical Dictionary? ... 2. an agent destructive to tapeworms.. anticestodal drugs. include the natural organic compound arecoline and the synthetic ... Anticestodal , definition of anticestodal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anticestodal ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anticestodal

Protein Kinase Inhibitors | ISHAR OnlineProtein Kinase Inhibitors | ISHAR Online

... a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/protein-kinase-inhibitors

Goldpharma Com - david drake productionsGoldpharma Com - david drake productions

Lipid modifying agents, combinati. Anticestodals Salicylic acid derivatives. Allergens Allergens Allergen extracts. Skin ... Technetium 99mtc , particles and.. Other agents for local oral treat.. Anabolic agents for systemic use Anabolic steroids ... Other drugs for obstructive airwa.. Anti-parkinson drugs Anticholinergic agents Tertiary amines. Alpha and beta blocking agents ... Other antihistamines for systemic.. Detoxifying agents for antineopla.. Anti-parathyroid agents Calcitonin preparations. ...
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Antiinflammatory agents | Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticalsAntiinflammatory agents | Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

Antiinflammatory agents , Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ...
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Ethylene imines | Alkylating agents | Antineoplastic agentsEthylene imines | Alkylating agents | Antineoplastic agents

Antineoplastic agents Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors.. ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ...
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Parasitic Diseases | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural MedicineParasitic Diseases | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine

Antiprotozoal Agents. Additional Keywords : Andrographolide, Antiparasitic Agents, Antiprotozoal Agents, Parasitic Diseases, ... H. rosa-sinesis leaf extract possesses concentration-dependent anticestodal effect against H. diminuta.Nov 30, 2016. ... Pharmacological Actions : Antimutagenic Agents, Antiparasitic Agents, Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, NF-kappaB Inhibitor ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiparasitic Agents. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts, Superiority of Natural Substances versus ...
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Potassium-sparing agents | DiureticsPotassium-sparing agents | Diuretics

Potassium-sparing agents , Diuretics Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ...
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Immunostimulants | Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agentsImmunostimulants | Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents

Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ...
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Antinematodals ToxicityAntinematodals Toxicity

AVOID PERIVASCULAR injections ANTICESTODAL -- TABLE Refs:. *Lynn95 *Raynaud92 , Drug Groups , , top , Gordon L. Coppoc, DVM, ... Chelating agent *Hastens elimination *If perivascular injection -- *Topical DMSO *DMSO-dexamethasone tid for several days ... An important source of exposure is routine use of these agents around the owners premises. Dichlorvos should not be used ... Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.. Contrast to piperazine -- antagonistic?(!) *Inhibits cholinesterases *Slowly ...
more infohttp://www.cyto.purdue.edu/cdroms/cyto2/17/chmrx/nemathd2.htm

Evidence Central | By Topic AEvidence Central | By Topic A

Anticarcinogenic Agents. *Anticestodal Agents. *Anticholesteremic Agents. *Anticoagulants. *Anticonvulsants. *Antidepressive ...
more infohttps://evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/index/Cochrane/By_Topic/A
  • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage. (nih.gov)