Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred BALB CLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mice, Inbred C57BLElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred ICRGallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
"Tissue distribution of cytochrome c oxidase isoforms in mammals. Characterization with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies". ... In addition to polypeptide 2, subunit VIIa includes polypeptide 1 (muscle isoform), which is present only in muscle tissues, ... "Tissue-specific expression and chromosome assignment of genes specifying two isoforms of subunit VIIa of human cytochrome c ... and a related protein, present in all tissues. This gene may have several pseudogenes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Tissue distribution of keratin 7 as monitored by a monoclonal antibody". Experimental Cell Research. 170 (1): 235-49. doi: ... Because the keratin-7 antigen is found in both healthy and neoplastic cells, antibodies to CK7 can be used in ... arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues ...
Human Protein Atlas
... the Tissue Atlas showing the distribution of the proteins across all major tissues and organs in the human body, the Cell Atlas ... Dec 2005). "A human protein atlas for normal and cancer tissues based on antibody proteomics". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics ... tissues and organs using integration of various omics technologies, including antibody-based imaging, mass spectrometry-based ... The subcellular distribution of proteins is investigated in a subset of the cell lines, and classified into 32 different ...
Spatiotemporal gene expression
This distribution of this antibody can then be visualized by a technique such as fluorescent labeling. Immunohistochemistry has ... Poor penetrance of the antibody into the target tissue can lead to false negative results. Furthermore, since ... The expression distribution of the reporter gene can be determined by visualizing it. For example, the reporter gene green ... This pattern is lost by the time the organism develops into a larva, but wingless is still expressed in a variety of tissues ...
... analysis of glutathione transferase A4 distribution in several human tissues using a specific polyclonal antibody". J. ... Gardner JL, Gallagher EP (2001). "Development of a peptide antibody specific to human glutathione S-transferase alpha 4-4 ( ... "Comparative expression of two alpha class glutathione S-transferases in human adult and prenatal liver tissues". Biochem. ... important product of peroxidative degradation of arachidonic acid and a commonly used biomarker for oxidative damage in tissue ...
These size differences greatly affect the tissue distribution and rates of elimination. Antivenoms may also have some cross ... Whole antibody products consist of the entire antibody molecule, often immunoglobulin G (IgG), whereas antibody fragments are ... An antibody can also be digested by pepsin to produce two fragments: a F(ab')2 fragment and a pFc' fragment. The fragment ... An antibody, such as IgG, can be digested by papain to produce three fragments: two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment. ...
... it was used an antibody called anti-ATAT1 antibody). In this study, ATAT1 was observed in many tissues and scientifics ... This last study allowed to reveal the intracellular distribution of ATAT1 in ciliated cells of some tissues. ATAT1 is known to ... which occasioned mice with a lack of acetylation in many tissues. However, its intracellular distribution was still unclear. In ... In testis, the antibody was observed in spermatocytes and spermatids, but not in sperm. In spermatocytes, it was also seen that ...
... in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. The secondary antibody is ...
Transferrin receptor 2
Simply, a very thin slice of tissue is fixed onto glass, incubated with antibody or a series of antibodies, the last of which ... After developing the stain by adding the chemical substrate, the distribution of the stain can be examined by microscopy. ... Now, many are monoclonal, i.e. produced in tissue culture. Monoclonal antibodies that consist of only one type of antibody tend ... Example 3. An untagged primary antibody is detected using a general secondary antibody that recognises all antibodies ...
"Antibody-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for vectorization of hydrophobic drugs". Adv Healthc Mater. 2 (5): 718-27 ... Couvreur P. (2001). "Drug vectorization or how to modulate tissular and cellular distribution of biologically active compounds ... Drug nanocarriers are expected to play a major role in delivering multiple drugs to tumor tissues by overcoming biological ...
Maurice M. Rapport
Specifically, he isolated cytolipin H from human cancer tissue in 1958. This led to a better understanding of our immune system ... In 1954, Betty Twarog discovered the distribution of serotonin in the brain. Further research illustrated how serotonin plays a ... There he isolated two glysosphingolipids and studied antibodies to gangliosides. These findings were useful to further ... After his work with serotonin, Rapport did important research with cancer, cardiovascular disease, connective-tissue disease ...
... which indicates minimal distribution in the tissue. Anti-abituzumab antibodies were observed in 19% of patients, however, ... Cetixumab, a monoclonal antibody, that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and irinotecan, a topoisomerase I ... Abituzumab is a humanized IgG2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeted at CD51 (an integrin) currently in development by Merck KGaA ... Volume of distribution remained constant between 4.1 - 5.9 L at all doses of Abituzumab, ...
... the use of the antibody-antigen relationship in tissues). This technique primarily makes use of fluorophores to visualise the ... and may be used to analyze the distribution of proteins, glycans, and small biological and non-biological molecules. This ... recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This ... All these antibodies may therefore be recognized by a single secondary antibody. This saves the cost of modifying the primary ...
Immuno-EM allows the detection of specific proteins in ultrathin tissue sections. Antibodies labelled with heavy metal ... its tissue distribution, its sub-cellular localisation, and of changes in protein expression or degradation. Cutaneous ... The primary antibody can be directly labeled using an enzyme or fluorophore. The primary antibody can be labeled using a small ... The primary antibody can be probed for using a broader species-specific secondary antibody that is labeled using an enzyme, or ...
Bokeloh Bat lyssavirus
... the complex tissue distribution of the disease (heart, joint, skin, basal ganglia) argues against a cardiac specific antigen. ... Idiotype Network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... In the later 19th century it was believed that the immune system was unable to react against the body's own tissues. Paul ...
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Muto T, Muramatsu M, Taniwaki M, Kinoshita K, Honjo T (2001). "Isolation, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of ... in which the antibody genes are minimally mutated to generate a library of antibody variants, some of which with higher ... In B cells in the lymph nodes, AID causes mutations that produce antibody diversity, but that same mutation process leads to B ... AID is currently thought to be the master regulator of secondary antibody diversification. It is involved in the initiation of ...
Further, distribution, translocation, co-localization of the N-terminal fragment (NTF) and N-terminal fragment (CTF) of EMR2 ... The interaction between EMR2 and chondroitin sulfate B in inflamed rheumatoid synovial tissue suggests a role of the receptors ... Additionally, ligation of EMR2 by antibody promotes neutrophil and macrophage effector functions suggesting a role in ... In breast cancer, robust expression and different distribution of EMR2 is inversely correlated with survival. Gain of function ...
പന്നിപ്പനി - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Age distribution of the antibody to type C influenza virus. Microbiol. Immunol. 26:639-642 ... The detection and multiplication of influenza C virus in tissue culture. J. Gen. Virol. 25:421-425 ... 3. Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to type B and C influenza viruses in the sera of Jamaicans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 87:440- ... Prevalence of the antibody to influenza C virus in a northern Luzon Highland village, Philippines. Microbiol. Immunol. 31:1137- ...
... in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.[ ... the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue ... Antibody types. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ...
Acquired generalized lipodystrophy
In AGL patients, adipose tissues are insufficient and leads to fat deposition in non-adipose tissues, such as muscle or liver, ... In a few patients with AGL, the presence of antibodies against adipocyte has been identified. The clinical presentation is ... the only difference is that AGL patients are born with normal fat distribution and symptoms develop in childhood and ... Both acquired or inherited lipodystrophy present as loss of adipose tissues. The near-total loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
... antibodies), into inflamed tissue. Upon contact with PAMPs, tissue macrophages and mastocytes release vasoactive amines such as ... which results in the net distribution of blood plasma from the vessel into the tissue space. The increased collection of fluid ... Plasma derived complement C3b and antibodies that exude into the inflamed tissue during the vascular phase bind to and coat the ... Fibrosis Large amounts of tissue destruction, or damage in tissues unable to regenerate, cannot be regenerated completely by ...
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
This different distribution of the adaptive organs in the different groups of vertebrates suggests GALT as the very first part ... The adaptive immunity, mediated by antibodies and T cells, is only found in vertebrates. Whereas all of them have a gut- ... Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a component of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which works in the immune ... The GALT is made up of several types of lymphoid tissue that store immune cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, that carry out ...
... physiology and adipose tissue distribution". Am. J. Physiol. 270 (5 Pt 1): E768-75. PMID 8967464. News Staff. "Disabling AdPLA ... "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi:10.1002 ... more so in white adipose tissue (WAT) than brown adipose tissue (BAT). Its primary enzymatic function is to catalyze the ... Unlike other PLA2 enzymes, AdPLA is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue at higher levels than in the rest of the body, ...
... where an ELISA test indicated the antibodies present in the tissue were a response to Ebola virus and not SHFV. An ... although the uneven distribution of cases was causing serious shortfalls in some areas. On 28 January 2015, the WHO ... IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ...
... and is produced in a tissue-selective manner based on expression of 5α-reductase. Tissues in which DHT forms at a high ... feminine changes in fat mass and distribution, and reduced penile length and testicular size. In addition, antiandrogens ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... stimulating cell division and tissue growth. In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... This is because the virus has an affinity for the placenta and other highly vascular tissues. The fetus has only a one in ten ... as Lassa fever may affect spatial clustering of the disease by limiting the understanding of the incidence and distribution of ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... First, an infected tissue sample is taken from the patient. Then an oligonucleotide complementary to the suspected pathogen's ... Preparing DNA probes for one species and performing FISH with this probe allows one to visualize the distribution of this ... The probe is tagged directly with fluorophores, with targets for antibodies or with biotin. Tagging can be done in various ways ...
"JC Polyomavirus Abundance and Distribution in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Brain Tissue Implicates Myelin ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... Agostini, H.T.; Ryschkewitsch, C.F.; Mory, R.; Singer, E.J.; Stoner, G.L. (1997). "JC Virus (JCV) genotypes in brain tissue ... "Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: evidence for site of initial viral infection". J. Virol. 72 (12): 9918-23. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ... For the abnormal occurrence of gas within tissue, see pneumatosis. For the long-term productive cough, see Bronchitis § Chronic ... A high-resolution CT scan of the chest may show the distribution of emphysema throughout the lungs and can also be useful to ... The destruction of the connective tissue of the lungs leads to emphysema, which then contributes to the poor airflow, and ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging. Studies ... distributions, and chromosomal localizations". Genomics. 10 (3): 558-68. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90436-I. PMID 1889806.. ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... The Val66Met mutation results in a reduction of hippocampal tissue and has since been reported in a high number of individuals ...
Targeting can also be achieved by attaching the radioisotope to another molecule or antibody to guide it to the target tissue. ... which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions on target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues. The specificity ... Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as ... where soft-tissue structures are often difficult to assess and normal tissues difficult to protect. ...
Though most attention is focused on PrP's presence in the nervous system, it is also abundant in immune system tissue. PrP ... Modulation of signal transduction pathways has been demonstrated in cross-linking with antibodies and ligand-binding (hop/STI1 ... or copper). Given the diversity of interactions, effects, and distribution, PrP has been proposed as dynamic surface ... Kardos J, Kovács I, Hajós F, Kálmán M, Simonyi M (August 1989). "Nerve endings from rat brain tissue release copper upon ...
Properties of lysylalanyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis: inhibition by cations, distribution in tissues, and subcellular ... Antibodies that recognize puromycylated nascent chains can also be used to purify newly synthesized polypeptides and to ... visualize the distribution of actively translating ribosomes by immunofluorescence. Peptidase Inhibitor. Puromycin is ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... The difference between the influenza mortality age distributions of the 1918 epidemic and normal epidemics. Deaths per 100,000 ... influenza does cause tissue damage, so symptoms are not entirely due to the inflammatory response. This massive immune ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses. The ...
Minimal residual disease
These can measure minute levels of cancer cells in tissue samples, sometimes as low as one cancer cell in a million normal ... These proteins can be stained with fluorescent dye labeled antibodies and detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection ... Jun 2006). "The bcl-2/IgH rearrangement in a population of 204 healthy individuals: occurrence, age and gender distribution, ...
Distribution and habitat. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ... This is in contrast to domesticated ostriches, who in captivity develop high concentration of immunoglobulin antibodies in ... The deep branches of the coronary arteries found within the heart tissue are small and supply the interventricular and right ...
In a mouse model, viral RNA was detected specifically in joint-associated tissue for at least 16 weeks after inoculation, and ... A. albopictus distribution as of December 2007. Dark blue: Native range. Teal: introduced ... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ... Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus. The symptoms can be mistaken for ...
Tissue distribution. The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other tissues and organs, including the ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies. ... Ritchie RF, Palomaki GE, Neveux LM, Navolotskaia O, Ledue TB, Craig WY (1999). "Reference distributions for the negative acute- ... role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues ...
Single cell sequencing
Although LCM preserves the knowledge of the spatial location of a sampled cell within a tissue, it is hard to capture a whole ... under the assumption of the Poisson distribution. For a typical mammalian cell containing 200,000 mRNA, sequencing data from at ... were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through oligonucleotide-labeled antibodies ... For example, heterogeneous samples, rare cell types, cell lineage relationships, mosaicism of somatic tissues, analyses of ...
When imaging tissues which are differentially refractive, such as the spongy mesophyll of plant leaves or other air-space ... Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ... Example of a stack of confocal microscope images showing the distribution of actin filaments throughout a cell. ... It used epi-Illumination-reflection microscopy for the observation of nerve tissue. A 5 mW Helium-Neon-Laser with 633 nm light ...
The age distribution of invasive cases among humans is clearly skewed towards the elderly, whereas the healthy carrier state ... The first pivotal step in infectious pathogenesis is the attachment to the host tissues. The M-protein, the most extensively ... and thus interfering with the host antibody response. DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides ... The clinical presentation among invasive disease is also dominated by skin and soft tissue infections, including a small subset ...
... detailed immunoelectron microscopic studies with rat tissues sections employing cytochrome c-specific antibodies provide ... Species distribution. Cytochrome c is a highly conserved protein across the spectrum of species, found in plants, animals ... Koppenol WH, Margoliash E (Apr 1982). "The asymmetric distribution of charges on the surface of horse cytochrome c. Functional ... a specific stain for mitochondria in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissues". The Journal of Histochemistry and ...
Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR. A rapid ... The presence of parasitic worms burrowed in the neural tissue of the human central nervous system (CNS) causes obvious ... with notes on snail and parasite biology and distribution on Kadena AB, Okinawa Japan. Consultative Letter, IERA-DO-BR-CL-2001- ... The parasites subsequently invade deeper into the brain tissue, causing specific localizing neurological symptoms depending on ...
اکسیژن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
3) is usually known as ozone and is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is damaging to lung tissue. Ozone is produced ... An orbital is a concept from quantum mechanics that models an electron as a wave-like particle that has a spatial distribution ... December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... peripheral tissues, and venous system, respectively. Partial pressure is the pressure that oxygen would have if it alone ...
Amitosis in ciliates and in animal placental tissues results in a random distribution of parental alleles. ... Mitotic cells can be visualized microscopically by staining them with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. ... In animal tissue, most cells round up to a near-spherical shape during mitosis. In epithelia and epidermis, an ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ...
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma
Roughly 10-35% of people who have NSCLC will have drug sensitizing mutations of the EGFR. The distribution of these ... This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy ... For advanced NSCLC, a combined chemotherapy treatment approach that includes cetuximab, an antibody that targets the EGFR ... This means less radiation affects nearby healthy tissues. New methods include Cyberknife and stereotactic body radiation ...
Trozak D, Gould W (1984). "Cocaine abuse and connective tissue disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 10 (3): 525. doi:10.1016/S0190- ... Ramón Peces; Navascués, RA; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J (1999). "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated ... distribution, sale, and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or illegal in many other countries due to its placement in ... and pathological restricting of lung tissue. Cocaine may also increase risk for autoimmune disease and damage ...
That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue ... Individuals who keep up physical fitness levels generally regulate their distribution of body fat and stay away from obesity. ... antibodies and T cytotoxic cells. However, the mechanism linking physical activity to immune system is not fully ... For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue. To continue improvements, this ...
"Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments from a bacteriophage antibody display library". Experimental ... Protist Diversity and Geographical Distribution. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009. *Fontaneto, D. Biogeography of Microscopic ... "organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues".[b] ... do not show differentiation into tissues (but vegetative cell differentiation may occur restricted to sexual reproduction, ...
Loa loa filariasis
Human loiasis geographical distribution is restricted to the rain forest and swamp forest areas of West Africa, being ... In the human host, Loa loa larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissue where they mature to adult worms in approximately one year ... Seropositivity for antifilarial IgG antibody was also much higher in the placebo group. The recommended prophylactic dose is ... When chronic, they can form cyst-like enlargements of the connective tissue around the sheaths of muscle tendons, becoming very ...
For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of ... When that happens, a pathogen that had been confined to a remote habitat has a wider distribution and possibly a new host ... Microorganisms can cause tissue damage by releasing a variety of toxins or destructive enzymes. For example, Clostridium tetani ...
New Insights in Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [3H]-Labeled Antibody Maytansinoid Conjugates in Female Tumor...
... the tissue distribution as determined by QWBA was comparably low in all tissues analyzed with the exception of tumor tissue, ... New Insights in Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [3H]-Labeled Antibody Maytansinoid Conjugates in Female Tumor ... New Insights in Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [3H]-Labeled Antibody Maytansinoid Conjugates in Female Tumor ... to study the tissue distribution in depth. We were particular interested in investigating the extent of distribution between ...
Researchers develop new way of visualizing distribution of cholesterol in cells, tissues
Researchers from UCLA and the University of Western Australia have developed a new way of visualizing the distribution of ... Karolina Szczesna, discussing the tell-tale signs of a good antibody and how Proteintech are working to improve experimental ... Researchers develop new way of visualizing distribution of cholesterol in cells, tissues. *Download PDF Copy ... We would like to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of cholesterol movement in cells and tissues, said Jiang, a ...
Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of Metuzumab, a Novel CD147 Human-Mouse Chimeric and...
Rat tissue distribution and excretion studies. For rat tissue distribution studies, four groups of rats (n = 6 per group, 3 ... A nonfucosylated anti-HER2 antibody augments antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer ... Tissue distribution and excretion of 125I-metuzumab in rats. The individual tissue distribution in TCA-precipitated peptide of ... tissue sections from a selected panel of cynomolgus monkey, Rhesus monkey, rat, and human tissues. Human lung cancer tissue ...
Identification and tissue distribution of rabbit leucocyte antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies. - Nuffield Department...
A fourth antibody, RPN3/57, recognizes an antigen expressed strongly on T cells, thymocytes and neutrophils and at lower levels ... The evidence obtained suggests that these antibodies recognize the rabbit equivalents of the CD58/LFA-3 (VC21), CD43/ ... Three monoclonal antibodies which recognize rabbit leucocytes have been characterized by immunofluorescence staining of a ... Identification and tissue distribution of rabbit leucocyte antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies. Share Share Share ...
Collagenase Increases the Transcapillary Pressure Gradient and Improves the Uptake and Distribution of Monoclonal Antibodies in...
Tissue interstitial collagen type I was colocalized with blood vessels in tumor sections from mice sacrificed 1 h after ... Effect of Collagenase on Antibody Distribution.. Collagenase improved the distribution of the monoclonal antibody TP-3 ... Distribution of unspecific antibody (green) and blood vessels (red) in the periphery (A) and central part (B) of one ... Distribution of TP3 antibody (green) and blood vessels (red) in two representative tumors treated with 0.1% collagenase (A) and ...
GATE‐16, a membrane transport modulator, interacts with NSF and the Golgi v‐SNARE GOS‐28 | The EMBO Journal
Tissue distribution. To prepare rat tissue extracts, frozen organs were washed in cold phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS) and ... Although in most tissues the anti‐GATE‐16 antibodies recognized predominantly the 16 kDa polypeptide (GATE‐16), in tissues such ... GS15 antibodies; B.Balch for anti‐Sec22 antibodies; J.Hay for GST‐syntaxin 5; and F.Wieland for anti‐p23 antibodies. We also ... Antibody production. His6GATE‐16 was purified as described above and used to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits by the ...
Symmetric and asymmetric mitotic segregation patterns influence Wolbachia distribution in host somatic tissue | Journal of Cell...
... we treated living embryos with Colcemid and assayed Wolbachia distribution. Propidium Iodide and anti-aPKC antibody were used ... However, the uneven distribution in adult tissues suggests that this distribution pattern changes during development. To ... This is likely to alter the tissue distribution of WPop relative to other Wolbachia strains. It is tempting to speculate that ... To address the second issue of how uneven Wolbachia distribution in various tissues is achieved later in development, we ...
Immunocytokines: a novel class of potent armed antibodies
Tissue Distribution Substances * Antibodies, Monoclonal * Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized * Antigens, Neoplasm * ... The use of recombinant antibodies or antibody fragments as delivery vehicles promises to enhance greatly the therapeutic index ... Immunocytokines: a novel class of potent armed antibodies Drug Discov Today. 2012 Jun;17(11-12):583-90. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis. ... This review surveys preclinical and clinical data published in the field of antibody-cytokine fusions (immunocytokines). ...
Preparation, phototoxicity and biodistribution studies of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody-phthalocyanine...
Immunophototherapy of cancer combines the specificity of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to an overexpressed tumor marker with the ... Tissue Distribution * Transplantation, Heterologous * Tumor Cells, Cultured Substances * Antibodies, Monoclonal * ... In each experimental group, the tumor-to-normal tissue ratios obtained with the conjugates were almost identical to those ... Immunophototherapy of cancer combines the specificity of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to an overexpressed tumor marker with the ...
JCI Insight - Enhancing IgG distribution to lung mucosal tissue improves protective effect of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
Enhancing IgG distribution to lung mucosal tissue improves protective effect of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies. ... Enhancing IgG distribution to lung mucosal tissue improves protective effect of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies. ... IgG antibodies are abundantly present in the vasculature but to a much lesser extent in mucosal tissues. This contrasts with ... As therapeutic IgG antibodies targeting the luminal side of mucosal tissue lack an active transport delivery mechanism, we ...
Keratin 7 - Wikipedia
"Tissue distribution of keratin 7 as monitored by a monoclonal antibody". Experimental Cell Research. 170 (1): 235-49. doi: ... Because the keratin-7 antigen is found in both healthy and neoplastic cells, antibodies to CK7 can be used in ... arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues ...
Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. - PubMed...
The rat tissue distribution and/or the relative level of ER alpha and ER beta expression seems to be quite different, i.e. ... Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta.. Kuiper ... The described differences between the ER subtypes in relative ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution could contribute ... In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand ...
Structural, functional, and tissue distribution analysis of human transferrin receptor-2 by murine monoclonal antibodies and a...
Structural, functional, and tissue distribution analysis of human transferrin receptor-2 by murine monoclonal antibodies and a ... Structural, functional, and tissue distribution analysis of human transferrin receptor-2 by murine monoclonal antibodies and a ... Structural, functional, and tissue distribution analysis of human transferrin receptor-2 by murine monoclonal antibodies and a ... Structural, functional, and tissue distribution analysis of human transferrin receptor-2 by murine monoclonal antibodies and a ...
Subcellular Localization and Distribution of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Transporter in Normal Human Tissues | Cancer...
... we used the recently described monoclonal antibody BXP-34 and another independently developed monoclonal antibody directed ... we characterized the tissue distribution and cellular localization of BCRP in frozen sections of normal human tissues. For this ... Subcellular Localization and Distribution of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Transporter in Normal Human Tissues. Marc ... We have analyzed the normal human tissue distribution of BCRP using a recently developed Mab BXP34 (10) and a newly developed ...
Schoepfer R[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Using Unfixed, Frozen Tissues to Study Natural Mucin Distribution | Protocol
... can be used to study natural distribution and... ... Unfixed frozen tissue samples embedded in Optimal Cutting ... Antibody. Siaa2-3Galβ1-3(Fuca1-4)GlcNAc (SLex). Abbreviations: Ab, antibody; Sia, Sialic acid; Gal, Galactose; GalNAc, N- ... Harvest the tissue, and gently damp on a tissue paper to dry excess liquid. If using snap-frozen tissue (tissue that was frozen ... these tissues can be readily used to study mucins, glycolipids and glycan distribution eliminating the need to collect tissues ...
Qiagen, BGI Tech Ink Database Distribution Agreement | GenomeWeb
Qiagen and BGI Tech Solutions said today that they have signed a distribution and service agreement that allows BGI Tech to ... NGS is Accelerating Therapeutic Antibody Discovery - What Lies Beyond? By LI-COR Tissue Section Imaging ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Qiagen and BGI Tech Solutions said today that they have signed a distribution and service agreement that ...
Anti-PLTP antibody (ab85562) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal PLTP antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic ... Wide tissue distribution. Placenta , pancreas , lung , kidney , heart , liver , skeletal muscle , brain. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Custom antibody development. We offer world-leading antibody development platforms based on a proprietary RabMAb® rabbit ...
'tissue distribution' Protocols and Video...
Initial Evaluation of Antibody-conjugates Modified with Viral-derived Peptides for Increasing Cellular Accumulation and ... tissue distribution include Synthesis and Bioconjugation of Thiol-Reactive Reagents for the Creation of Site-Selectively ... The Use of Ex Vivo Whole-organ Imaging and Quantitative Tissue Histology to Determine the Bio-distribution of Fluorescently ... Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in ...
Pharmacokinetic (PK) Study | Charles River
Progesterone receptor distribution in the human endometrium. Analysis using monoclonal antibodies to the human progesterone...
These antibodies recognized PR, as demonstrated by a downfield shift in the radiolabeled progestin binding peak when KD68 or ... The specificity of both antibodies for PR was confirmed with Western immunoblots and competition studies performed with ... Progesterone receptor was identified with these antibodies and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique in the nuclei of ... were used in determining the immunohistochemical distribution of PR in the human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and ...
CD29 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 786, Clone: MAR4., BD 100 Tests; | Fisher Scientific
Engineered mRNA-expressed antibodies prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection | Nature Communications
Finally, we express an anchored or secreted high-affinity, anti-RSV F, camelid antibody (RSV aVHH and sVHH). We demonstrate ... Engineered neutralizing antibodies are potential therapeutics for numerous viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ... Here, we develop a modular, synthetic mRNA-based approach to express neutralizing antibodies directly in the lung via aerosol, ... Overall, our data suggests that expressing membrane-anchored broadly neutralizing antibodies in the lungs could potentially be ...
Ectopic Expression Induces Abnormal Somatodendritic Distribution of Tau in the Mouse Brain | Journal of Neuroscience
To investigate the tissue distribution of tau, we recently raised anti-tau antibodies, which can distinguish endogenous mouse ... Axonal localization of endogenous tau revealed by our antibodies. A, The overall tissue distribution of endogenous tau in the ... The antibodies used in this study can label tau regardless of phosphorylation in human and animal tissues. Therefore, it would ... Although several previous studies have shown the overall distribution of tau in normal brain tissues (Binder et al., 1985; ...
... its distribution in mouse tissues and subcellular localization in cultured cells was examined. A rabbit polyclonal antibody ... D, Tissue distribution of SCYL proteins. Protein extracts prepared from various mouse tissues were resolved by SDS-PAGE and ... Tissue expression of SCYL proteins.. For Western blotting of mouse tissues, tissues were lysed in RIPA buffer [50 mm Tris-HCl, ... Antibodies.. The following antibodies were used: anti-SCYL1 antibody (7645; Pelletier et al., 2012); anti-SCYL2 (7649; Gingras ...
Frontiers | The Role of Connexin and Pannexin Channels in Perinatal Brain Injury and Inflammation | Physiology
Tissue distribution of P2X4 receptors studied with an ectodomain antibody. Cell Tissue Res. 313, 159-165. doi: 10.1007/s00441- ... The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) ... No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. ... Subcellular distribution of calcium and ultrastructural changes after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats. Brain Res. ...
Chicken cystatin stimulates nitric oxide release from interferon-γ-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages via cytokine...
... they differ in their tissue distributions and regulation. Neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1) and endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3) types ... All these antibodies were used at 10 µg·mL−1. Isotype-matched control antibodies were also used but were without effect (data ... Table 2. Effects of the addition of cytokines or neutralizing antibodies on NO production by MPM. For cytokines, MPM (1.5 × 105 ... For antibodies, MPM (see above) were incubated for 48 h with CC (10−7 m) and IFN-γ (100 IU·mL−1) in the presence of anti-(TNF-α ...
Arthritis: Flashcards by Lili Kafee | Brainscape
RNP antibody is positive Mixed connective tissue disease 52 Proximal distribution and premature fusion of growth plates. ... 6. proximal distribution (Hands). The femoral head migrates axially where as in OA it migrates superiolaterally. ... This condition has identical distribution for primary OA and is associated with osteoporosis of the hands, as well as erosion. ... In scleroderma, Soft tissue calcification is subcutaneous where as in dermatomyositis it is intramuscular. ...
Alexa Fluor 488 anti-ATG5 Antibody, ATG5, 177.19
Distribution Tissue distribution: Ubiquitous.. Cellular distribution: Vacuole, lysosome, and to a lesser extent mitochondria. ... Antibody Type Monoclonal Host Species Mouse Immunogen ATG5 peptide conjugated to KLH. Formulation Phosphate-buffered solution, ... The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not ... The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and conjugated with Alexa Fluor® 488 under optimal conditions. ...
Purified anti-Loricrin Antibody anti-Loricrin - Poly19051
Purified anti-Loricrin Antibody - Loricrin is a major protein component of the cornified cell envelope found in terminally ... Distribution Tissue distribution: skin.. Cellular distribution: nucleus and plasma membrane.. Biology Area Cell Biology, Cell ... Antibody Type Polyclonal Host Species Rabbit Immunogen This antibody was raised against a peptide sequence derived from the C- ... Following antigen retrieval using Sodium Citrate H.I.E.R., the tissue was incubated with 1 µg/mL of the primary antibody for 60 ...
SpecificityFlow CytometryImmunogenIgG1ClonePolyclonal antibodiesIncubated with the primary antibodyProteinsRecombinantReactivitySpecific antibodyPeptideMonoclonal antibody directedDilutionNormal tissuesToxicityPrimaryPeptidesSecondaryDatasheetTherapeuticsFusionsHumanAntigen retrievalTherapeutic antibodiesGeneSodium azideADCsTumor cellsMAbsSelectivityAnti-collagenConcentrationLungPresent in all tissuesLiverLymphoid tissueLocalizationMiceAlexa FluorExtracellular domainIncubationSmall-moleculePlasma membraneInfectionMouse
- Immunophototherapy of cancer combines the specificity of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to an overexpressed tumor marker with the phototoxic properties of a conjugated dye. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. (nih.gov)
- In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand binding specificity of the ER subtypes. (nih.gov)
- Intestinal anti-TG2 antibody production does not show absolute specificity for CD. (mdpi.com)
- Western blot of purified anti-α-Synuclein, 80-96 antibody (clone A15115A), and isotype-matched IgG1 control, demonstrating the binding specificity of clone A15115A to endogenous and recombinant human α-synuclein. (biolegend.com)
- The antibody specificity was confirmed by inhibiting its staining by pre-incubating the mAb with a 10-fold molar excess of pS262 tau peptide-BSA. (biolegend.com)
- The advantages of using recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies include: better specificity and sensitivity, lot-to-lot consistency, animal origin-free formulations, and broader immunoreactivity to diverse targets due to larger rabbit immune repertoire. (thermofisher.com)
- Bicycle Therapeutics develops bicyclic peptides that provide antibody-like target specificity and high affinity. (genengnews.com)
- Using multiple HS antibodies that recognize subtle differences in HS patterning can be useful in applications such as flow cytometry allowing multiple cell types to be directly compared. (labmanager.com)
- Flow Cytometry: SULT1C2 Antibody (4H4) [NBP2-- Analysis of Jurkat cells, using anti-SULT1C2 antibody, (Red), compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (Blue). (novusbio.com)
- Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
- Metuzumab is an affinity-optimized and nonfucosylated anti-CD147 human-mouse chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (aacrjournals.org)
- The blots were incubated with 1.0 µg/mL of clone A15115A or mouse IgG1, κ at room temperature for two hours, followed by incubation with horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. (biolegend.com)
- Western blot of anti-Tau Phospho (Thr181) (clone M7004D06), anti-Tau Phospho (Ser396) (clone PHF-13) antibodies, and isotype-matched control IgG1 and IgG2b. (biolegend.com)
- ICC staining of Alexa Fluor® 488 anti-ATG5 antibody (clone 177.19) on HeLa cells. (biolegend.com)
- Western blot of purified anti-Loricrin antibody (clone Poly19051). (biolegend.com)
- Direct ELISA of purified anti-α-Synuclein Phospho (Tyr39) antibody (clone A15119B) binding to plate-immobilized recombinant human unmodified and pY39 and pY125 α-synuclein proteins. (biolegend.com)
- Direct ELISA of purified anti-α-Synuclein, C-Terminal Truncated antibody (clone A15127A) binding to plate-immobilized recombinant human full-length (1-140) and C-terminally fragmented (1-122) α-synuclein. (biolegend.com)
- Western blot of anti-α-Synuclein antibody (clone A15126D) and isotype-matched IgG2b control, binding to endogenous and recombinant human α-synuclein. (biolegend.com)
- The report provides value, in millions of US dollars within market segments - Flow Cytometers, Monoclonal Antibodies, Polyclonal Antibodies, Tissue Typing Reagents and Immunmodulators. (sbwire.com)
- Histology and Cytology market includes Flow Cytometers, Monoclonal Antibodies, Polyclonal Antibodies, Tissue Typing Reagents and Immunmodulators. (sbwire.com)
- Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes . (wikipedia.org)
Incubated with the primary antibody3
- The wells were then incubated with the primary antibody at 37°C for one hour, followed by incubation with horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. (biolegend.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using 70% formic acid, the tissue was incubated with the primary antibody at 5 µg/mL overnight at 4°C. BioLegend's Ultra-Streptavidin (USA) HRP kit was used for detection followed by hematoxylin counterstaining, according to the protocol provided. (biolegend.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using Sodium Citrate, the tissues were incubated with the primary antibody at 10 µg/ml for 2 hours at room temperature. (biolegend.com)
- The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins were visualized using chemiluminescence detection by incubation with HRP Donkey anti-Rabbit secondary antibody (Cat. (biolegend.com)
- Fibrosis, attributed to excessive deposition of ECM proteins, is a ubiquitous tissue response to an unresolved chronic inflammation ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
- Tyrosine nitrated proteins can be detected in plant cells electrophoretically and their distribution can be monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. (springer.com)
- One-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) followed by Western blotting using polyclonal antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues enables detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant cells. (springer.com)
- Total soluble proteins obtained from tissue homogenates are resolved using vertical gel electrophoresis followed by their electrophoretic transfer on to a microporous membrane support for immunodetection. (springer.com)
- Spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins can be visualized using an antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues. (springer.com)
- Modulation in the abundance and spatial localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant tissues can be monitored using these techniques. (springer.com)
- A. Western blots of membrane proteins from tissue extracts. (xenbase.org)
- Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
- Non-specific cross-reaction of anti-collagen antibodies with other human serum proteins or non-collagen extracellular matrix proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
- Immunohistochemistry is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Although antibodies show preferential avidity for specific epitopes, they may partially or weakly bind to sites on nonspecific proteins (also called reactive sites) that are similar to the cognate binding sites on the target antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of recombinant antibodies or antibody fragments as delivery vehicles promises to enhance greatly the therapeutic index of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (nih.gov)
- The following product was used in this experiment: FGFR3 Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (JM110-33) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-32620, RRID AB_2809897. (thermofisher.com)
- Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies are produced using in vitro expression systems. (thermofisher.com)
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that hens immunized with the recombinant N terminus of Gallibacterium toxin A (GtxA-N) had significantly increased antibody titers against GtxA-N in serum and egg yolk IgY. (asm.org)
- Greatly diminished reactivity and selectivity of these antibodies will result if denaturing and reducing conditions are used for SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. (rockland-inc.com)
- This antibody reacts with most mammalian Type IV collagens and has negligible cross-reactivity with Type I, II, III, V or VI collagens. (rockland-inc.com)
- Binding of C-terminal peptide antibody fusions to pIgR was determined by ELISA. (jci.org)
- Western Blot: Sin1/MAPKAP1 Antibody [ABIN- Analysis of Mip1 in human heart lysate in the 1) absence and 2) presence of immunizing peptide and in human skeletal muscle lysate in the 3) absence and 4) presence of immunizing peptide using this antibody. (antibodies-online.com)
Monoclonal antibody directed2
- For this purpose, we used the recently described monoclonal antibody BXP-34 and another independently developed monoclonal antibody directed against BCRP, BXP-21. (aacrjournals.org)
- Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of pre-B and mature B-lymphocytes. (drugs.com)
- ab85562 at a 1/100 dilution staining PLTP in human placenta tissue section by IHC-P. (abcam.com)
- 5. Incubate with primary antibody (dilution see datasheet) for 1h in a humid chamber. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Immunofluorescent localization is performed by cutting 7 μm thick wax sections of tissue followed by incubation in primary anti-nitrotyrosine antibody (dilution 1:200) and secondary Cy-3 labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibody (dilution 1:1500). (springer.com)
- Methods to eliminate background staining include dilution of the primary or secondary antibodies, changing the time or temperature of incubation, and using a different detection system or different primary antibody. (wikipedia.org)
- Targeted delivery of therapeutics to the organ of interest has the potential to minimize systemic toxicity, anti-antibody immune responses, and reduce the amount of drug required to achieve therapeutic levels. (nature.com)
- and to human Fc receptors, mediating cell killing through an antibody-dependent cellular toxicity. (drugs.com)
- These characteristics are useful for drugs requiring a high concentration within diseased tissue and low systemic toxicity. (genengnews.com)
- This condition has identical distribution for primary OA and is associated with osteoporosis of the hands, as well as erosion. (brainscape.com)
- The cells were then incubated with 0.5 µg/ml of the primary antibody overnight at 4°C. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI, and the slides were mounted with ProLong™ Gold Antifade Mountant. (biolegend.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using Sodium Citrate H.I.E.R., the tissue was incubated with 1 µg/mL of the primary antibody for 60 minutes at room temperature. (biolegend.com)
- The blot was incubated with 1 µg/mL of the primary antibody overnight at 4°C, followed by incubation with HRP donkey anti-rabbit IgG antibody (Cat. (biolegend.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using 70% formic acid for 20 minutes at room temperature, the tissue was incubated with 1 µg/ml of the primary antibody overnight at 4°C. BioLegend´s Ultra-Streptavidin (USA) HRP kit (Multi-Species, DAB, Cat. (biolegend.com)
- Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (novusbio.com)
- The blots were incubated overnight at 4°C with 10 µg/ml of the primary antibody, followed by incubation with horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. (biolegend.com)
- To reduce background staining in IHC, ICC and other immunostaining methods, samples are incubated with a buffer that blocks the reactive sites to which the primary or secondary antibodies may otherwise bind. (wikipedia.org)
- Quality control should as a minimum include a tissue known to express the antigen as a positive control and negative controls of tissue known not to express the antigen, as well as the test tissue probed in the same way with omission of the primary antibody (or better, absorption of the primary antibody). (wikipedia.org)
- Several issues on distribution and function of the receptor were answered by raising a panel of 9 monoclonal antibodies specific for TFR-2 by immunizing mice with murine fibroblasts transfected with the human TFR-2 cDNA. (elsevier.com)
- Therefore, we characterized the tissue distribution and cellular localization of BCRP in frozen sections of normal human tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Qiagen and BGI Tech Solutions said today that they have signed a distribution and service agreement that allows BGI Tech to provide services and support around Qiagen's Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) to customers in China. (genomeweb.com)
- Progesterone receptor distribution in the human endometrium. (semanticscholar.org)
- Analysis using monoclonal antibodies to the human progesterone receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
- Two monoclonal antibodies to the human progesterone receptor (PR), JZB39 and KD68, were used in determining the immunohistochemical distribution of PR in the human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and after menopause. (semanticscholar.org)
- To investigate how this mislocalization occurs, we recently developed immunohistochemical tools that can separately detect endogenous mouse and exogenous human tau with high sensitivity, which allows us to visualize not only the pathological but also the pre-aggregated tau in mouse brain tissues of both sexes. (jneurosci.org)
- Using these antibodies, we found that in tau-transgenic mouse brains, exogenous human tau was abundant in dendrites and somata even in the presymptomatic period, whereas the axonal localization of endogenous mouse tau was unaffected. (jneurosci.org)
- OBJECTIVE Fibrosis is a newly appreciated hallmark of the pathological alteration of human white adipose tissue (WAT). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 1 µg/ml (1/400) freshly prepared for Mouse tissue and 4 µg/ml (1/100) on Human/Porcine tissue. (acris-antibodies.com)
- They also characterize the molecular mechanisms responsible for vasodilatory effects of exenatide in vitro in human aortic endothelial cells and ex vivo in human subcutaneous adipose tissue arterioles. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The incorporation of humanized monoclonal antibodies or single chain human antibodies, instead of rodent antibodies into immunoliposomes has resulted in better clinical applicability. (portlandpress.com)
- Drawing upon a huge and comprehensive biorepository, AMSBIO is widely recognized as a leading provider of high-quality tissue specimens (including custom procurement) from both human and animal tissues. (labmanager.com)
- With Dr. Weissman, he developed a humanized anti-CD47 antibody, initiated first-in-human clinical trials. (stanford.edu)
- Here, we demonstrate that a TH59 derivative, HPTH59-b, along with immunostaining for specifying cell types in the tissues, visualizes telomeres in mouse and human tissue sections. (nig.ac.jp)
- Different telomere lengths between human tumor and non-tumor tissue sections. (nig.ac.jp)
- The Tau Antibody Sampler Kit provides flexibility for sampling and detection of phosho-specific species of tau and total tau in human tissue. (biolegend.com)
- Human, Mouse colon tissue in IHC, IF. (avivasysbio.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using Sodium Citrate, the tissues were incubated with anti-Tau or rat IgG2b at 0.2 µg/ml for 1 hour at room temperature. (biolegend.com)
- Following antigen retrieval using Sodium Citrate, the tissues were incubated with 5.0 µg/ml of anti-Tau or rat IgG2a overnight at 4°C. Biotinylated anti-rat IgG, HRP Streptavidin, and DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine) substrate were used as the detection system. (biolegend.com)
- Through Fab or Fc engineering, IgG-FcRn interaction can be used to generate a variety of therapeutic antibodies with significantly enhanced half-life or ability to remove unwanted antigen from circulation. (springer.com)
- As with other cancers the development of biologics including therapeutic antibodies represents an important future area of the prostate cancer market. (pharmiweb.com)
- Tumor-selective macromolecules such as monoclonal antibodies and DNA vectors for gene therapy generally show low uptake in solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Anti-TG2 antibodies are produced primarily at an intestinal level by specific B lymphocytes and, using phage display library technology, it has been proven that these antibodies are synthesized in CD patients with preferential use of IGVH5-51 gene family [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Polypeptide 1 (liver isoform) of subunit VIa is encoded by a different gene, COX6A1, and is found in all non-muscle tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 2 (liver isoform) of subunit VIIa and the polypeptide 2 is present in both muscle and nonmuscle tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- We describe a new experimental technique that allows for a tissue-specific reduction of gene activity in the Drosophila nervous system. (genetics.org)
- In this review, we discuss clinical and translational strategies to improve the therapeutic index of ADCs that are based on the latest clinical efficacy and safety data with next-generation antibodies and warheads currently in development. (aacrjournals.org)
- While technology plays a crucial role in expanding the therapeutic index of ADCs, we refer readers to several excellent reviews that cover novel advancements in antibody, linker, and warhead technologies in significant depth ( 2, 3, 8, 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We have used the BXP-21 and BXP-34 Mabs to characterize the tissue distribution and subcellular localization of BCRP. (aacrjournals.org)
- The original obstacles of immunogenicity of murine mAbs in humans was overcome by the revolution in molecular biology in the 1980s, which enabled humanization of murine antibodies and, eventually, the successful development of fully humanized antibodies. (springer.com)
- Such advances in antibody technologies have resulted in an explosion in the development of therapeutic mAbs over the last decade. (springer.com)
- Particularly exciting is antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology which employs monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to deliver conjugated chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor environment. (pharmiweb.com)
- Although much research has focused on Wolbachia germline concentration and transmission, a number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that Wolbachia are present in a broad array of larval and adult somatic tissues. (biologists.org)
- This contrasts with antibodies of the IgA and IgM isotype that are present at high concentration in mucosal secretions due to active delivery by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). (jci.org)
- 2. Add the antibody to a final concentration 1:20 and mix. (acris-antibodies.com)
Present in all tissues1
- Complimentary liquid extraction surface analysis coupled to micro-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data proved that the lysine (LYS)-4(maleimidylmethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate-DM1 (LYS-MCC-DM1) catabolite was the only detectable component distributed evenly in the tumor and liver tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
- Role of CXC chemokine ligand 13, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 19, and CCL21 in the organization and function of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Every 2-3 weeks, kits had been shipped in groups of perplasia of bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue. (cdc.gov)
- T cell area DCs are not readily isolated from lymphoid tissue, particularly lymph nodes, thus hampering efforts to characterize antigen-presenting and costimulatory functions directly. (rupress.org)
- Consistent with these results, pIgR-binding IgG antibodies exhibit enhanced localization to the bronchoalveolar space when compared with the parental IgG antibody. (jci.org)
- The mRNA expression of BCRP has been assessed in tissue extracts, but it has not yet been determined in which cell types BCRP is expressed and what the subcellular localization of BCRP is. (aacrjournals.org)
- RESULTS Fibrosis amount, distribution and collagen types (I, III, and VI) present distinct characteristics in lean and obese subjects and with WAT depots localization (subcutaneous or omental). (diabetesjournals.org)
- B, real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis of mMagT1 RNA in tissues harvested from mice maintained on normal magnesium diet. (xenbase.org)
- Splenocytes from C3H mice were stained with Anti-RT1B antibodies or with the corresponding REA Control antibodies (left image) as well as with CD45R (B220) antibodies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Dr. Haibo Jiang, a study co-author, noted that NanoSIMS imaging provides unique insights into cholesterol distribution on the plasma membrane and future studies will make it possible to assess mechanisms by which cells dispose of excess cholesterol. (news-medical.net)
- Both monoclonal antibodies show specific BCRP plasma membrane staining on cytospins obtained from topotecan- or mitoxantrone-selected cell lines, as well as from BCRP -transfected cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Of particular interest is the segregation of intracellular pathogens in mitotically active host cells, as this might be an important mechanism to spread infection to specific tissue types during host development. (biologists.org)
- Sensitive viral diagnostic assays to study virus spread after infection, monitor viral tissue distribution, and assess antiviral antibodies. (ohsu.edu)
- Persistent infection led to a disruption of the normal immunodominance hierarchy of CD8 T-cell responses seen following acute infection and dramatically altered the tissue distribution of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (asm.org)
- The Armstrong strain of LCMV is cleared by 8 days postinfection (p.i.), while LCMV Cl-13 infection results in viremia that can last up to 3 months, with virus persisting in some tissues indefinitely. (asm.org)
- During Toxoplasma gondii infection, a fraction of the multiplying parasites, the tachyzoites, converts into bradyzoites, a dormant stage, which form tissue cysts localized mainly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscles that persist for several years after infection. (asm.org)
- Reactivation of tissue cysts in these individuals leads to the recrudescence of T. gondii infection ( 15 ), a life-threatening condition that in the long term responds poorly to therapy and often develops into encephalitis ( 16 , 19 , 26 , 28 , 30 , 42 ). (asm.org)
- 7. Development of antibody-based therapies to treat and prevent infection. (buffalo.edu)
- The objective of this study was to produce a specific chicken egg yolk antibody and evaluate its protective response against a G. anatis infection model in 4-week-old chicks. (asm.org)
- The addition of neutralizing anti-(tumor necrosis factor α) antibodies reduced sharply NO production by chicken cystatin/interferon-γ-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. (wiley.com)
- Based on Northern analysis of mouse tissues, a 2.4 kilobase transcript is present in many tissues. (xenbase.org)
- A, Northern blot analysis of mMagT1 mRNA in MDCT cells or mouse tissues. (xenbase.org)
- The non-immunogenic character of HS makes this type of antibody difficult to raise, so the few hybridoma-derived mouse anti-HS antibodies such as JM403, 10E4, and 3G10 are valuable tools for HS research. (labmanager.com)
- Most significantly, we determined that blocking monoclonal antibodies directed against CD47 targeted LSC and depleted leukemia in mouse pre-clinical models. (stanford.edu)