The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: a clinical test of monocyte function. (1/9631)

The lack of a simple, rapid, and quantitative test of the functional activity of the monocyte has hampered studies of the contribution of this cell type to host defense and human disease. This report describes an assay of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which depends exclusively upon the monocyte as the effector cell and therefore provides a convenient test of monocyte function. In this system, mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque separation of whole blood are cytotoxic for 51Cr-labeled human erythrocyte targets coated with anti-blood group antibody. Removal of phagocytic monocytes from the MNL by iron ingestion, followed by exposure to a magnetic field, completely abolishes all cytotoxic activity from the remaining MNL population. Similarly, in severely mono-cytopenic patients with aplastic anemia, cytotoxic effector activity is absent. In normals and less severely monocytopenic aplastic anemia patients, cytotoxicity correlates significantly (p less than 0.001) with monocyte number. Application of this monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay to the study of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome has revealed defective monocyte cytotoxic activity in spite of normal monocyte numbers, suggesting that this test may be useful for the assessment of monocyte function in a variety of clinical situations.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/9631)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (3/9631)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (4/9631)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (5/9631)

The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full-  (+info)

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (6/9631)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (7/9631)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. (8/9631)

We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA.  (+info)

Fine specificity of anti-V3 antibodies induced in chimpanzees by HIV candidate vaccines.: The fine specificity of the anti-V3 antibody responses induced in chim
These stimuli may arise from internal as well as external alterations. The specific reaction elicited by a stimulus is termed a ...
A medicine is any substance that is designed to prevent or treat diseases and a drug is designed to produce a specific reaction inside the body. While there is considerable overlap between the two...
Polyclonal antibodies are a pool of antibodies originating from different B cells in a host animal that recognize more than one epitope on the same protein or antigen. In contrast, a monoclonal antibody is an antibody originating from a single B cell in a host animal that recognizes only one epitope or binding site on a protein or other antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are usually purified from the serum of an immunized host animal such as a rabbit, chicken or goat. Whereas monoclonal antibodies are usually purified from cell culture media supernatant from the growth of a hybridoma cell line. Monoclonal antibodies are divalent but monospecific. Polyclonal antibodies are also divalent but consist of a pool of antibodies with multiple epitope specificities.. ...
Discover singular and custom rat monoclonal antibodies of higher sensitivity and higher affinity! Rat monoclonal antibodies against hormones, peptides, steroids, toxins, DNA, RNA.
Lab Reagents Human Antibody Laboratories manufactures the human monoclonal antibody prophylactics reagents distributed by Genprice. The Human Monoclonal Antibody Prophylactics reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact human Antibody. Other Human products are available in stock. Specificity: Human Category: Monoclonal Group: Antibody Prophylactics. Antibody Prophylactics information ...
Monoclonal antibodies, shown here binding to a cell, are monospecific antibodies (these are antibodies that have an affinity for the same antigen) - mAB or moAb, as they are abbreviated, are the same because they are created by identical immune cells that are clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies are created to specifically bind to a substance so they can detect or purify that particular substance. In medications the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse and recently, as a result of advances, from rabbit B-cells. Monoclonals can be used as therapies for various serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and - Stock Image C009/4806
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody (Acetyl-Lys9), Rabbit Anti Rat Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF, IP, Flo (ALS17772), Abgent
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ER-beta1 (Estrogen Receptor beta-1)Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone ERb455], Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in IF, FC (AH10370-05), Abgent
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal, most commonly a colour change in a chemical substrate.. If an immunogen is injected into an animal, a number of cells will bind that antigen, so the antibody which appears in the bloodstream. The antibodies will have arisen from several clones of cells and are different, so the antibody in bloodstream is a polyclonal antibody. Polyclonal antibody contain different antibodies bind to different antigen. ...
The monoclonal Anti-His antibody facilitates the fast and convenient detection of His-tagged fusion proteins, expressed in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The conjugated antibody allows fast and convenient analysis of His-tagged fusion proteins. Conjugation of the Anti-His antibody to HRP simplifies Western blot or ELISA analysis as the incubation with secondary antibodies becomes dispensable. Fluorochorme-conjugated Anti-His antibodies enable direct flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy analyses, while indirect fluorescent labeling of His fusion protein expressing cells is possible with the biotin-conjugated antibody. After incubation the Anti-His-HRP antibody can be directly detected using commercially available chemiluminescent reagents. The monoclonal Anti-His antibody specifically recognizes proteins that contain a polyhistidine tag at their N- and C-terminus. However, the Anti-His-HRP (C-term.) antibody shows higher sensitivity and specificity for C-terminal His-tagged proteins. -
The Antibody Resource Page ( is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), produced in the laboratory, are derived from the antibodies that the human body produces in the natural course to fight intruders that threaten health. The discovery of these antibodies have radically transformed our understanding of how diseases progress, and how they can be more quickly, accurately, and cheaply diagnosed, and thus substantially expanded the horizons of treatment for more than 50 major ailments. The importance of Mabs can be estimated from the fact that today a majority of the most commercially-successful drugs are Mab-derived, and Mab-drugs are projected to clock sales of US$125 billion annually by 2020.. Mabs in Cancer Treatment Cancer is unarguably one of the fields where monoclonal antibodies have had the strongest impact. The biggest advantage of Mabs is that they are able to avoid the healthy cells while specifically targeting the cancer cells. This translates to the patient experiencing fewer side effects than conventional radiotherapy or ...
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Abstract All therapeutic antibodies and most vaccines critically depend on the ability of antibodies to specifically recognize particular antigens consequently detailed characterization of antibody antigen binding can provide invaluable information to understand and guide development Unfortunately due to the time and expense required atomic resolution structure determination is typically used sparingly late in a development process or for a small number of different antibodies or antigen variants We seek to enable earlier and larger scale but still detailed characterization and modeling of antibody antigen binding applicable to panels of antibodies that could result from screening polyclonal samples or engineered libraries along with panels of antigens that could result from attempts to understand and account for diversity across populations While not at atomic resolution our approach will still allow residue level localization of specific epitopes for specific antibodies as well as group level ...
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Development: IHC Positive Guaranteed; Antibody Type: Mouse Monoclonal antibody; Quality Control: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive to endogenous target protein.
OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
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A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against Human DAB2IP. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2015 Aug;34(4):251-6 Authors: Xu H, Wei D, Xue J, Hu L Abstract DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP), also known as ASK1-interacting protein-1 (AIP1), a novel member of the RasGTPase-activating protein family, plays a key role in tumor suppression during cancer progression and is highly expre...
IL22RA1 Antibody (monoclonal) (M03), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant IL22RA1. validated in WB, E (AT2516a), Abcepta
JUP Antibody (monoclonal) (M01), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant JUP. validated in WB, IHC, IF, E (AT2587a), Abcepta
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Wuhan, China - 14th May, 2017 - DDDDK antibody is a new antibody produced by Abbkine Scientific Company Limited and the launch is set to revolutionize the science world especially in the area of research and investigation. Announcing the launch of the product, Abbkine Scientific reiterated the features and benefits of the Anti-DDDDK Tag Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (1B10), otherwise known as Flag antibody.. The monoclonal antibody is designed to be used for affinity chromatography and the subsequent separation of recombinant, over expressed protein from wild-type protein expressed by the host organism. This is in addition to being a polypeptide protein tag that can be added to a protein by using recombinant DNA technology.. Hosted in mouse, the antibody can also be used in the isolation of protein complexes that have multiple subunits.. Available in a liquid solution, the antibody was affinity-purified from mouse ascites by affinity-chromatography using specific immunogen, which is one of the ...
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With the development of molecular cloning technology and the deep understanding of antibody engineering, there are diverse bispecific antibody formats from which to choose to pursue the optimal biological activity and clinical purpose. The single-chain-based bispecific antibodies usually bridge tumor cells with immune cells and form an immunological synapse because of their relatively small size. Bispecific antibodies in the IgG format include asymmetric bispecific antibodies and homodimerized bispecific antibodies, all of which have an extended blood half-life and their own crystalline fragment (Fc)-mediated functions. Besides retargeting effector cells to the site of cancer, new applications were established for bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies that can simultaneously bind to cell surface antigens and payloads are a very ideal delivery system for therapeutic use. Bispecific antibodies that can inhibit two correlated signaling molecules at the same time can be developed to overcome inherent
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel monoclonal antibody to CD40 prolongs islet allograft survival. AU - Lowe, M.. AU - Badell, I. R.. AU - Thompson, P.. AU - Martin, B.. AU - Leopardi, F.. AU - Strobert, E.. AU - Price, A. A.. AU - Abdulkerim, H. S.. AU - Wang, R.. AU - Iwakoshi, N. N.. AU - Adams, A. B.. AU - Kirk, A. D.. AU - Larsen, C. P.. AU - Reimann, K. A.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - The importance of CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway blockade in immunosuppression strategies is well-documented. Efforts are currently focused on monoclonal antibodies specific for CD40 because of thromboembolic complications associated with monoclonal antibodies directed towards CD154. Here we present the rational development and characterization of a novel antagonistic monoclonal antibody to CD40. Rhesus macaques were treated with the recombinant anti-CD40 mAb, 2C10, or vehicle before immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Treatment with 2C10 successfully inhibited T cell-dependent antibody responses to ...
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c met related tyrosine kinase antibody; CD136 antibody; CD136 antigen antibody; CDw136 antibody; Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c met related tyrosine kinase) antibody; Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor antibody; Macrophage stimulating protein receptor alpha chain antibody; MACROPHAGE STIMULATING PROTEIN RECEPTOR antibody; Macrophage stimulating protein receptor beta chain antibody; Macrophage-Stimulating 1 Receptor (MST1R) antibody; Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor beta chain antibody; MSP receptor antibody; Mst1r antibody; MST1R variant RON30 antibody; MST1R variant RON62 antibody; NPCA3 antibody; p185 RON antibody; p185-Ron antibody; Protein-tyrosine kinase 8 antibody; PTK 8 antibody; ptk8 antibody; PTK8 protein tyrosine kinase 8 antibody; Recepteur dorigine nantais (RON) antibody; RON antibody; RON protein tyrosine kinase antibody; RON variant E2E3 antibody; RON_HUMAN antibody; Soluble RON variant 1 antibody; Soluble RON variant 2 antibody; Soluble RON variant 3 antibody; Soluble ...
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Monoclonal antibodies are a unique class of biological agents that have been developed for autoimmune disease, antitumor and antiplatelet therapy to name a few. Antibodies produced by the body in response to an infection are polyclonal antibodies, meaning the antibodies produced are not identical. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins that are identical and bind to the same antigenic surface marker, thus the term targeted therapy. The naming of monoclonal antibodies is based on the target of the antibody (e.g. tumor, viral) and the source from which the antibody was produced (e.g. murine, human), followed by the mab suffix. While monoclonal antibodies have a wide therapeutic benefit, they have limitations including inability to cross the blood brain barrier and cost.. This presentation will review the history, types and immunogenicity of each type of monoclonal antibody. The nurse will understand the naming nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies and will be able to recognize the action of ...
Horse anti-human thoracic duct lymphocyte globulin (ATDLG) has been used successfully for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, although not all lots have comparable efficacy. We have characterized the antibody specificities contained in one lot of Swiss ATDLG found to provide a response rate of 69% and another lot that provided only a 31% response rate. Antibody specificities were analyzed quantitatively by competitive inhibition assays with the use of a panel of fluorescein-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies that recognize T cell antigens, common leukocyte antigens, and la-like antigens. Although there was wide variation in the amounts of individual antibody specificities within each lot, the effective lot of ATDLG contained an average of 2 1/2 times as much of each antibody specificity as the less effective lot. There were only two antibody specificities that differed remarkably from this pattern; and these deviations did not appear sufficient to account for the variation in ATDLG efficacy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A human monoclonal antibody against HLA-Cw1 and a human monoclonal antibody against an HLA-A locus determinant derived from a single uniparous female. AU - Mulder, A. AU - Kardol, M J. AU - Uit het Broek, C M. AU - Tanke-Visser, J. AU - Young, Neil Thomas. AU - Claas, F H. PY - 1998/10/1. Y1 - 1998/10/1. N2 - Two human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with widely different HLA specificities were raised from a uniparous HLA-seropositive female. Screening against a large panel of serologically HLA-typed lymphocytes in the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test showed that one of these HuMAbs, VP6G3, was specific for HLA-Cw1, thereby constituting the first HuMAb against an HLA-C locus product. The second HuMAb, VP5G3, was directed against an HLA-A-encoded determinant shared by HLA-A11, -A25, -A26 and -A66. The epitopes responsible for binding were determined by comparing the aminoacid sequences and were pinpointed to the 6K/9F combination for HuMAb VP6G3, and 163R with a critical ...
Many monoclonal antibodies that react with the lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNF III) antigenic determinant, Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc, have been described recently. The terminal trisaccharide of this determinant, fucosyllactosamine, is present on glycolipids and glycoproteins and on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, and other cells. To study the structural and genetic diversity of these antibodies, syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies were produced in BALB/c mice against PMN 6, a monoclonal antibody directed against this sequence. Anti-idiotypic antibodies 6B1 and 6C4 reacted with 50% of a panel of 20 anti-LNF III monoclonal antibodies, whereas 6A3 reacted strongly only with PMN 6. This indicates that the determinants recognized by 6C4 and 6B1 represent major cross-reactive idiotopes of this family of antibodies. The binding of idiotypic antibodies to a glycolipid bearing this antigenic determinant was completely inhibited by the three anti-idiotypic ...
October 10, 2019-New York, US Antibodies are crucial tools in scientific researches, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Designing antibodies with desired functions targeting specific epitopes now becomes a powerful prompter in the field of medical research and medicine development. Creative Biolabs, equipped with the first-level technology support and knowledgeable scientists, has launched the one-stop services regarding antibody design, aiming to help clients obtain ideal, highly developable and stable epitope-specific mAbs.. The neo epitope-specific mAbs design services are comprehensive and systematic, mainly made up of antibody structure modelling, antibody-antigen complex analysis, computer-aided affinity maturation, antibody structure determination, and experimental validation.. For the first step antibody structure design modeling, Creative Biolabs provides two approaches: homology modeling and antibody initio (or de novo) modeling. The homology modeling method takes advantage of ...
BROOKWOOD BIOMEDICAL is a full service antibody development company in Birmingham, Alabama. We offer a range of services including custom peptide design, custom monoclonal antibody and hybridoma development, custom polyclonal antibody development, antibody production, purification, conjugation, and assay design.. In addition to our custom services, we have a wide selection of high quality primary and secondary antibodies. Our primary antibodies include anti-collagen, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies, fluorescent amplification, transcription factor antibodies, and anti-leptin antibodies. We offer a number of different secondary antibodies including anti-monkey and anti-hamster. All of our secondaries are affinity purified and are sold either unlabeled or labeled with Biotin, HRP, Alkaline Phosphatase, Phycoerytherin, Texas Red, FITC, TRITC, APC, or Agarose. Also, F(ab) and F(ab)2 digests of all antibodies are available.. To place an order, please fill out an order form and email to ...
0073] In such embodiments, the AIC antibody typically is not recognized by the Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G. For example, the AIC antibody can be an antibody fragment or variant that lacks the Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G binding site on the Fc region of the AIC. The AIC can also be of an isotype that is not recognized (specifically bound) by Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G, or the AIC can be an antibody derived from a species that is not recognized by Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G. For example, Protein A, Protein G, and Protein A/G do not show significant binding to chicken antibodies, so the AIC antibody for an immune complex comprising a primary antibody and Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G can be derived from a chicken. Protein A does not show significant binding to antibodies from horse, human IgG3, human IgD, mouse IgG1, rat or sheep. Thus, where the immune complex comprises a primary antibody and Protein A, the AIC antibody can be derived from an antibody ...
We have identified a set of natural IgM antibodies in human serum that are reactive with protamines, a class of low molecular weight basic nucleoproteins that are synthesized de novo in the postpubertal testis and are unique to sperm. Those antibodies were detected by ELISA in significant titer in all of 100 sera of normal adult males and females and in 26 of 28 sera of normal pediatrics aged 7 d to 2 yr. Commonality between the protamine-reactive IgM antibodies of pediatric and adult sera was established by the demonstration of similarity in antigen recognition and reaction kinetics. Therefore, the role of protamines as either immunogenic stimulus or antigenic target of that set of natural antibodies is not likely. The antigenic site recognized by the protein-reactive serum IgM antibodies was characterized by comparison with the pattern of antigen recognition by a monoclonal antibody to human sperm protamines (HPmAb). By the use of synthetic peptides simulating the amino acid sequences of ...
Polyclonal or monoclonal antibody to detect IL-2 in sandwich Elisa? - posted in ELISA and Immunoassay: I can only either use: - polyclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody - monoclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody Im thinking the first since monoclonal capture would be too specific? But the polyclonal and polyclonal one sounds too general and would have lots of non specific binding or binding to other molecules... Thank you so much in advan...
Compositions and methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease in a patient sample are provided. The compositions include novel monoclonal antibodies, and variants and fragments thereof, that specifically bind to MCM6 or MCM7. Monoclonal antibodies having the binding characteristics of an MCM6 or MCM7 antibody of the invention are further provided. Hybridoma cell lines that produce an MCM6 or MCM7 monoclonal antibody of the invention are also disclosed herein. The compositions find use in practicing methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease comprising detecting overexpression of MCM6, MCM7, or both MCM6 and MCM7 in a cervical sample from a patient. Kits for practicing the methods of the invention are further provided. Polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence for an MCM6 or an MCM7 epitope and methods of using these polypeptides in the production of antibodies are also encompassed by the present invention.
The Anti-Histone H3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (2D10) is otherwise known as Hist1h3a antibody getting its name from Histone H3, one of the five major histone proteins. Histone H3 is involved in the structuring of chromatin in eukaryotic cells and a major component of nucleosome. Nucleosome wrap and compact DNA limit DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries requiring DNA as a template. Therefore, histones play a pivotal role in the transcription, regulation, DNA replication, repair and chromosomal stability.. The Histone H3 antibody has a human, mouse, rat and yeast reactivity with recombinant protein immunogen and the mouse as host. The monoclonal antibody has Mouse IgG1 isotype with IF, IP, WB applications. The team at Abbkine has suggested starting dilutions of WB 1:2000-5000, IF:1:100-500, IP 1:200, while reiterating that investigators should determine the optimal working dilutions experimentally.. The product is available in liquid solution and has been affinity-purified from mouse ...
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are made by identical immune cells and target one particular epitope by monovalent or monospecific affinity. The high affinity and selective binding of MAbs to epitopes in target antigens makes them highly potent tools for use in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. The first working method described for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies was hybridoma technology, based on forming hybrid cell lines (hybridomas) by fusing an antibody-producing B-cell with a myeloma cell [1]. The antibodies produced by a particular hybridoma clone share the same specificity. Thus, individual clones can be screened for the production of an antibody with the desired affinity. However, hybridoma technology has shortcomings: it takes a relatively long time (on the order of months) and has not been widely applied to organisms other than mice. Moreover, antibody sequence information is unavailable by this method. Thus, when a hybridoma-screened antibody is selected for further ...
Antibodies named TcCRA Trypanosoma cruzi Combination Reactive Antibodies were detected in 47% of bloodstream donors from France population unexposed towards the parasite. in 4 out of 24 patients who received hematopoietic stem cells from positive donors. Here, we are discussing possible scenarios to explain TcCRA-immune status in recipient after transplantation. Introduction In the course of biomarker evaluation of a neglected disease (Chagas disease), we made a remarkable observation of a highly prevalent antibody specificity in unexposed European serum samples. These specific antibodies were named Cross Reactive Antibodies (TcCRA) to stress out the fact that they were induced by another antigen than the one from al 2013 [1]. All the collected samples were tested in duplicate at least one time, if necessary twice, for validation. For some patients we tested serum for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-CMV IgGs. Those assessments were performed by using the corresponding Enzygnost kit from ...
10-plate (plates NOT included). Monoclonal antibody to marmoset interleukin 13 (IL-13); Mouse IgG|sub|1. Biotinylated polyclonal antibody to marmoset interleukin 13 (IL-13); Rabbit IgG. The usefulness of sandwich ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) in cytokine biology is evident from the many reports published on this subject. The assay requires two antibodies (either mono- or polyclonal antibodies) that bind with high affinity to different sites on the cytokine molecule. One of the antibodies is immobilized to the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This so-called capture or coating antibody functions to selectively immobilize the cytokine from crude protein preparations. The second antibody (detection antibody) is labeled with biotin and binds to a different site on the cytokine molecule. Biotin allows the antibody to interact with streptavidin molecules. By using HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled streptavidin, the cytokine can now quantitatively be determined by enzymatic conversion of a
Background: There are two subclasses of human IgA (IgA1 and IgA2) that differ in antigenic properties and in chemical composition. The constant domains of α1 and α2 heavy chains have |95% sequence homology though major structural differences exist in the hinge region. Quantitation of IgA subclass levels depends on the availability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for conserved conformational or linear epitopes restricted to each subclass. Objective: To produce, select and characterize monoclonal antibodies specific for human IgA2. Methods: Splenocytes from BALB/C mice immunized with a human IgA2 myeloma protein were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Fused cells were grown in hypoxanthine, aminopterine and thymidine (HAT) selective medium and cloned by limiting dilution assay. Antibody (Ab) secreting cells were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the specificity of secreted MAbs was further analyzed, using a panel of purified myeloma proteins and some animal sera by ELISA
Rockland Immunochemicals specializing in Akt Signaling Antibodies Antibody, Custom Assay Development, Custom Antibody Production, Loading Control Antibodies, DyLight Dye Conjugated Antibodies, Secondary Antibody Conjugates, Custom Monoclonal Antibody Production, Anti-GFP Green Fluorescent Protein, Multiplex Fluorescent Western Blotting Assay, Akt PI3 Kinase Signaling Antibodies, Western Blot Blocking Buffer, Streptavidin Peroxidase HRP ELISA, DyLight Dye Immuno fluorescence microscopy, NFkB p65 Antibody, High Content Screen Assay. Rockland Immunochemicals has supported the life science industry for over 40 years with a full range of the highest quality primary and secondary antibodies, fusion proteins, substrates, standards, and controls for basic research, assay development, and preclinical studies.
Western control BGAL11-C Antibody BGAL11-M Antibody BGAL12-A Antibody conjugate BGAL12-BTN Antibody conjugate BGAL12-FITC Antibody conjugate BGAL12-HRP antiserum BGAL12-S Affinity support BGAL15-AS Rec. protein BGAL15-R Rec. protein EGFP16-R Rec. protein EGFP16-R-100 Kit EK-800-100-GST Kit EW-90110 Affinity support FETB11-AS Western control FETB11-C antibodies FETB11-S Mouse-Monoclonal FITC11-HRP Western control FLAG12-C Rec. protein FLAG15-R Antibody GFP11-A Antibody conjugate GFP11-AP Antibody conjugate GFP11-BTN Western control GFP11-C Antibody conjugate GFP11-FITC Antibody conjugate GFP11-HRP Antibody GFP12-M Rec. protein GFP15-R Rec. protein GFP15-R-100 Affinity support GSSH15-AS Antibody GST11-A Antibody conjugate GST11-AP Western control GST11-C Rec. protein GST11-R antiserum GST11-S Western control GST12-C Antibody GST12-M Antibody GST13-A Affinity support GST13-AS Antibody conjugate GST13-BTN Antibody conjugate GST13-FITC Antibody conjugate GST13-HRP Rec. protein GST13-R Rec. protein GST14-R
Monoclonal antibodies to prostatic cells, are produced by a hybridoma formed by fusing mouse lymphocytes and mouse myeloma cells. The monoclonal antibodies show specificity for a non-soluble, membrane associated, organ specific antigenic determinant limited in its distribution to normal and neoplastic, human prostate epithelial cells. The monoclonal antibodies, specifically 7E11-C5 monoclonal antibodies, may be suitable for diagnostic uses.
KBPA-101 is a human monoclonal antibody from the immunoglobulin M isotype, which is directed against the O-polysaccharide moiety of serotype O11. mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. The mean eradication XAV 939 half-life was between 70 and 95 h. The mean level of distribution was between 4.76 and 5.47 liters. Clearance ranged between 0.039 and 0.120 liters/h. At the best dosage of 4.0 mg/kg, plasma KBPA-101 amounts were higher than 5,000 ng/ml for two weeks. KBPA-101 exhibited linear kinetics across all dosages. No anti-KBPA-101 antibodies had been recognized after dosing in virtually any subject. General, the human being monoclonal antibody KBPA-101 was well tolerated over the complete dosage range in healthful volunteers, no significant adverse events have already been reported. Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) attacks are in charge of an increasing amount of significant secondary ailments in a healthcare facility environment. Immunocompromised people including burn off victims, incubated ...
The immune system makes an abundance of proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are made by white blood cells (B cells). The antibodies recognize and combat infectious organisms (germs) in the body. Antibodies develop in our immune system to help the body fight infectious organisms. When an antibody recognizes the foreign proteins of an infectious organism, it recruits other proteins and cells to fight off the infection. This cascade of attack is called inflammation.. Sometimes these antibodies make a mistake, identifying normal, naturally-occurring proteins in our bodies as being foreign and dangerous. When these antibodies make incorrect calls, identifying a naturally-occurring protein (or self protein) as foreign, they are called autoantibodies. Autoantibodies start the cascade of inflammation, causing the body to attack itself. The antibodies that target normal proteins within the nucleus of a cell are called antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Most of us have autoantibodies, but typically in ...
Anti-CARS antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution; Synonyms: Anti-Cysteine--tRNA ligase antibody produced in rabbit,Anti-CysRS antibody produced in rabbit,Anti-Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic antibody produced in rabbit; find Sigma-Aldrich-HPA002384 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the rabbit monoclonal antibody in the us reagents distributed by Genprice. The Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody In The Us reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact rabbit Antibody. Other Rabbit products are available in stock. Specificity: Rabbit Category: Monoclonal Group: Antibody In. Antibody In information ...
Antibodies are known to be a primary correlate of protection in almost all current vaccines, and thus evaluating the antibody response is of critical importance in attempting to predict the efficacy of novel vaccine candidates. Historically antibody responses have generally been detected by measuring the titer (amount of antibody present against a specific antigen) using measurements such as an ELISA or aggluttination assay. In this simple case a high enough level of antibody against the vaccine antigen is sufficient to predict protection. However antibody titer only evaluates one half of the function of antibody, which is dependent on both the variable region (Fv) to bind the antigen target, and the constant region (Fc) to elicit an effector response from other arms of the immune system. In the case of some diseases for which an effective vaccine has so far proven elusive, such as HIV, effector function has been shown to be an important driver of viral control in infected patients, and of ...
One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibodys antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions, and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop
Anti-glucagon antibodies have shown some efficacy in animal models (Brand et al., 1994, 1996; Sørensen et al., 2006a); however, daily injections of high doses of antibodies were required (Sørensen et al., 2006). The lack of long-term efficacy of the antibody on blood glucose lowering is probably due to a compensatory mechanism involving oversecretion of endogenous glucagon in response to the reduction of glucagon receptor signaling. Increases in circulating glucagon levels have been reported with all modalities blocking the glucagon signaling pathway, which presents technical challenges for both small-molecule GCGR inhibitors and glucagon-neutralizing mAb approaches.. Despite rising glucagon levels, treatment with neutralizing hGCGR mAbs maintained glucose-lowering efficacy. These anti-GCGR mAbs have several desirable attributes as potential therapeutic agents compared with previously pursued approaches. First, mAb B showed a higher affinity than glucagon to the GCGR (Kd = 36 pM versus Kd = ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody to CYR61 (cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61)IgGy Antibody Selector - Quickly search hundreds of thousands of antibodies available for purchase from VWR by selecting common antibody features like antigen symbol and name, reactivity, clonality, conjugation, host, and other key factors. Antibodies used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins in common applications such as Western Blot, ELISA, ImmunoChemistry and Flow Cytometry are all available for your research.
Following exposure to HIV and HCV, there is a window period where a person is infected with the virus but does not produce antibodies at a high enough level so they can be detected by antibody detection test methods. During this time, the person is capable of unknowingly transmitting the virus to others. SMARTstim (SMARTube)is a blood sample additive which pre-treats blood, stimulating antibody production in vitro so as to bring it to detectable levels using ELISA (or any other antibody test method). Accelerated antibody production allows antibody detection in specimens that would otherwise be below the detectable limit of antibody test kits. Plasma samples from blood pretreated with SMARTstim are referred to as SMARTplasma.. A total of 1,600 blood samples will be collected and tested using an ELISA for HIV and HCV using FDA-approved test kits. The populations include:. ...
Looking for online definition of polyclonal antibody in the Medical Dictionary? polyclonal antibody explanation free. What is polyclonal antibody? Meaning of polyclonal antibody medical term. What does polyclonal antibody mean?
Chanh, T C.; Chen, C H.; and Cooper, M D., Mouse monoclonal antibodies to chicken vh idiotypic determinants reactivity with b and t cells. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1333 ...
The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to be involved in neuroimmune disorders, we measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against various neural antigens. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 400 donors to wheat and milk proteins, GAD-65, cerebellar, MBP, and MOG. Statistical analysis showed significant clustering when certain wheat and milk protein antibodies were cross-referenced with neural antibodies. Approximately half of the sera with antibody elevation against gliadin reacted significantly with GAD-65 and cerebellar peptides; about half of the sera with elevated antibodies against α + β-casein and milk butyrophilin also showed antibody elevation against MBP and MOG. Inhibition studies showed that only two out of four of the samples with elevated cerebellar or MOG antibodies could be inhibited by
Browse our MACS® Antibodies perfectly suited for the identification and enumeration of human, mouse, rat, or non-human primate cells by flow cytometry or microscopy. Our REAfinity™ Antibodies are recombinantly engineered to provide highly specific antibodies that no longer need a Fcγ receptor blocking step and require only one isotype control, saving you time and effort. The Vio® Dye family of fluorochromes are ideal for your multicolor flow analysis due to their high fluorescence intensities and low spillover. Working with a dim antigen or rare cells? VioBright™FITC gives you greater flexibility in your multicolor panel design with brightness similar to PE.. Cant find the marker and dye combination you need? Use our Custom Antibody Design Service. ...
The typical method for producing these antibodies is to first induce their production in a model organism, such as a mouse, then extract cells from the mouses spleen, fuse them with a myeloma (a benign cancer cell that divides rapidly) and then use this hybrid cell (known as a hybridoma) to produce many copies of the antibody. Following this the antibodies must be carefully purified before they can be used.. This is a complicated process and fraught with difficulties, getting mice to make the right antibodies and producing the hybridoma is difficult enough for a start. A better approach is to produce recombinant antibodies by inserting DNA encoding them into model cells such as E-coli or yeast, which are much easier to handle. A big advantage here is that it is also possible to make human antibodies, critical for any clinical work. However this synthetic approach is still tough as many recombinant antibodies are not stable enough to survive purification.. This is where the sharks come in. ...
Maintain unopened vial at -70°C for up to 6 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. PREPARATION AND USE: To reconstitute the antibody, centrifuge the antibody vial at moderate speed (5,000 rpm) for 5 minutes to pellet the precipitated antibody product. Carefully remove the ammonium sulfate/PBS buffer solution and discard. It is not necessary to remove all of the ammonium sulfate/PBS solution: 10 µL of residual ammonium sulfate solution will not affect the resuspension of the antibody. Do not let the protein pellet dry, as severe loss of antibody reactivity can occur. Resuspend the antibody pellet in a suitable biological buffer such as PBS or TBS (pH 7.3-7.5) to a final concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. For example, to achieve a 1.0 mg/mL concentration with 50 µg of precipitated antibody, the amount of buffer needed would be 50 µL. Carefully add the liquid buffer to the pellet. DO NOT VORTEX. Mix by gentle stirring with a wide pipet tip or gentle finger-tapping. Let the precipitated antibody ...
Neutralizing is not a general concept; its context-dependent. Most often (in virology anyway) it means that the antibodies, by themselves in a tissue culture plate, can prevent infection of the cells by the virus. Many antibodies that are non-neutralizing in tissue culture are probably protective in the animal, in the context of complement and phagocytic cells and so on. That said, theres no reason why antibodies should be protective, let alone neutralizing. Antibodies dont arise in a guided manner with foreknowledge; antibody development is driven by physical interactions between the antibody and its binding partner. If they happen to arise to something irrelevant -- an internal protein of a virus, or a pollen grain, perhaps -- then they can still be driven through priming and development and maturation and still be functionally useless, or even harmful. On top of that, of course it would be beneficial for pathogens to be resistant to antibodies, and at least a few have evolved this ...
Monoclonal antibodies development has been limited for a long time to only two species : mice and rats. However, the immune systems of mice and rats are not the most suitable in terms of humoral response to certain antigens, such as human antigens like glucagon. Indeed, the protein sequence of glucagon is the same in mice, rats and human (fig. 1). Small not immunogenic antigens, such as antibiotics or toxins, generally failed to trigger an immune response in such species. This is why some companies have developed fusion cell lines to generate monoclonal antibodies in rabbit (Abcam-Epitomics) or in sheep (Bioventix). However, these two tools are not totally satisfactory whether in terms of cost, stability or productivity. SynAbs has therefore opted to develop its own myeloma cell line to manufacture guinea pig monoclonal antibodies and offer more efficient investigation tools for researchers. ...
Antibodies against Hemagglutinin/HA are validated for multiple applications,including WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IP, IHC-P, ELISA(Det), FCM, ELISA(Cap), Microneutralizaiton(MN), HemagglutininInhibition(HI), B/N. There are 20 recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies, 43 mouse monoclonal antibodies, 1 chimeric antibodies, 99 rabbit polyclonal antibodies.
shark at (John D. Valentich) wrote: , , We have recently started preparing polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against synthetic peptides , from annexins and phospholipase A2 activating protein (PLAP). Peptides were , conjugated to the carrier BSA. We are wondering about the problem of , antibodies generated against BSA reacting with serum albumin or albumin-like , epitopes in other cellular proteins. Questions: , , 1. Is it likely (or inevitable) that our antisera will contain high titer , antibodies against BSA? Could they be expected to cross react with other , non-albumin cellular proteins? They will almost certainly react with albumin. , , 2. If so, is the best (or only?) solution to this problem affinity purification of annexin or PLAP , antibodies from the antisera? Affinity purification should work. You could also adsorb the antisera with BSA and hope to remove many of the cross-reacting antibodies. Its probably too late now but you can use keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) ...
Antinuclear antibody test positive; sensitivity = 99%; specificity = 49%.[75]. *Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
Other applications include enzymatic inhibition assays and screenings of antibody specificity. The runaway success of DNA ... screening antibody specificity. Stevens, R. C. (2000). "Design of high-throughput methods of protein production for structural ... Here the DNA was immobilized in the well together with an anti-GST antibody. Then cell-free expression mix was added and the ... Many proteins, including antibodies, are difficult to express in host cells due to problems with insolubility, disulfide bonds ...
They also contribute to the specificity of each antibody.[4] In a variable region, the 3 HV segments of each heavy or light ... Antibodies[edit]. Main articles: V(D)J recombination and Somatic hypermutation. In antibodies, hypervariable regions form the ... Antibodies are remarkably specific, thanks to hypervariable regions in both light and heavy chains. The hyperbariable regions ...
Antibody characterization is characterizing cross-reactivity, specificity and mapping epitopes. Treatment development involves ... The lysate is arrayed onto the microarray and probed with antibodies against the target protein of interest. These antibodies ... to assay enzymatic activity and to detect antibodies and demonstrate their specificity. They differ from analytical arrays in ... Chang TW (December 1983). "Binding of cells to matrixes of distinct antibodies coated on solid surface". J. Immunol. Methods. ...
"Specificity and inhibitory activity of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum aldolase". J Immunol. 144 (4): 1497-503. PMID ... given the right monoclonal antibody). The host produces antibodies against the parasitic enzyme indicating a low sequence ... 1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92 (2): 313-324. doi:10.1017/ ... Li Y, Ning YS, Li L, Peng DD, Dong WQ, Li M (2005). "Preparation of a monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum ...
However, the difference lies in the specificity of the autoreactive antibodies in each case. Initial treatment involves ... intraepidermal antibodies as well as along the dermoepidermal junction. Patients with low concentration of antibodies only ... Demonstration of certain antibodies in the serum was named as the basis for diagnosis of PNP. This piece labeled PNP as a " ... Specifically, antibodies against envoplakin and periplakin were being investigated. Further use of ELISA testing on these ...
Structural differences among antibodies of different specificities». Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (engelsk).. CS1-vedlikehold: ...
They have been used to evaluate the properties of specific epitopes and antibodies. They are important in the purification and ... Based on K. Landsteiner, 1962, The Specificity of Serologic Reactions, Dover Press Lemus, Ranulfo; Karol, Meryl H. (2008). ... In inhibition, free hapten molecules bind with antibodies toward that molecule without causing the immune response, leaving ... ISBN 978-0-486-66203-9. Shreder, Kevin (March 2000). "Synthetic Haptens as Probes of Antibody Response and Immunorecognition". ...
... and PD-L1 antibodies.[110][112] Evidence suggests that anti-PD-1 antibodies are more effective than anti-CTLA4 antibodies with ... It reacts positively against melanocytic tumors but not other tumors, thus demonstrating specificity and sensitivity. The ... HMB-45 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts against an antigen present in melanocytic tumors such as melanomas. It is used in ... Immune check point inhibitors include anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (ipilimumab and tremelimumab), toll-like receptor (TLR ...
Monoclonal antibodies can also be selected to bind proteins with great specificity, where protein is released under fairly ... This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... Immunoaffinity media (detailed below) utilizes antigens' and antibodies' high specificity to separate; immobilized metal ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. ...
Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ... Wilschut, Jan; Duezguenes, Nejat; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios (1981). "Calcium/magnesium specificity in membrane fusion: ... AND SPECIFICITY". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (40): 37272-37279. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204257200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... More recently[when?] work has been undertaken to graft antibodies or other molecular markers onto the liposome surface in the ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ...
G. Köhler & C. Milstein (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... Milstein and Köhler's technique for producing monoclonal antibodies laid the foundation for the exploitation of antibodies for ... He not only worked hard for refining antibodies but also gave his time to his family. George moonlighted as a taxi driver to ... It was during this work that they devised their hybridoma technique for the production of antibodies. Köhler continued his ...
The major advantage for NChIP is antibody specificity. It is important to note that most antibodies to modified histones are ... The antibodies are commonly coupled to agarose, sepharose or magnetic beads. Alternatively, chromatin-antibody complexes can be ... The chromatin-antibody complex is selectively retained by the disc and eluted to obtain enriched DNA for downstream ... This is because antibodies have to be generated for each TF, or, alternatively, transgenic model organisms expressing epitope- ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... SeV antibodies that cross-reactive with HPIV-1 antibodies are present in most people, however, majority of people do not have ... Instead, it can be measured using anti-glycan antibodies, and despite the large collection of such antibodies in a community ... and from (No. ABIN6737444) . Monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) to F-protein are available from Kerafast ( ...
Kohler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... César Milstein and Georges Köhler report their discovery of how to use hybridoma cells to isolate monoclonal antibodies, ... effectively beginning the history of monoclonal antibody use in science. Living specimens of the Chacoan Peccary (Catagonus ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... The monoclonal antibody infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody to TNF-α. The FDA approved it in 1998, making it the ... they can prompt an immunological response causing the development of anti-drug antibodies. Anti-drug antibodies can cause ... The use of antibodies to treat diseases can be traced all the way back to the late 1800s with the advent of diphtheria ...
Köhler, G; Milstein, C (7 August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". ... I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 157 (4): 1149-69. doi:10.1084/jem.157.4.1149. ... Antibody production in plasma B cells 1949 - Growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization, and demonstration of ... Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Beginning of humoral theory of immunity. (Emil von ...
... an antibody). Owing to their high affinity and specificity, antibodies have been considered as suitable vehicles for imaging ... Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". ... Owing to the high molecular weight of antibodies and the Fc domain of the antibody, a slow clearance from the blood and non- ... However, these types of antibodies turned out to be quite troublesome, due to the triggering of the human anti-murine antibody ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... Those that produce the desired antibody are then selected and cultured to produce the monoclonal antibody. Hybridoma cells can ... One possible approach would be to use the specificity of the thymidine kinase of poxvirus for the purpose, in a similar way ... It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of monoclonal antibodies. In clinical chemistry it is used as a ...
Antibody specificity exists for specific interaction with a given antigen. Antigen-antibody interaction occurs by precise ... He worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and their binding to antibodies in the blood. He hypothesised that antibodies bind to ... The theory explains the interaction of antibodies and antigens in the blood, and how antibodies are produced. In 1891, Paul ... which would then be liberated into the blood stream as antibodies. According to Ehrlich, an antibody could be considered an ...
... warned since vaccinated dogs develop antibodies, they can be difficult to distinguish from asymptomatic, infected dogs.[20] ... testing includes molecular biology and genetic techniques which provide high accuracy and high sensitivity/specificity. The ... the same population tested with serological/antibody assays showed only 5% positive.[15] ...
When positive, they feature similar specificity to the heterophile antibody test. Therefore, these tests are useful for ... of diagnosed people have heterophile antibodies by week 3, disappearing in under a year. The antibodies involved in the test do ... EBV-targeting antibodies can also be classified according to which part of the virus they bind to: Viral capsid antigen (VCA): ... The heterophile antibody test is a screening test that gives results within a day, but has significantly less than full ...
Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495. Gramer, MJ. Britton TL. ... Hollow fiber bioreactors are used to generate high concentrations of cell-derived products including monoclonal antibodies, ... but they do not allow the passage of larger products such as antibodies. Therefore, as a cell line (e.g., hybridoma) expands ... including monoclonal antibody and influenza vaccine production. Likewise, because hollow fiber bioreactors use up significantly ...
"RBPDB: The database of RNA-binding protein specificities". "Anti-TMEM171 Antibody". Sigma-Aldrich. Swiss Institute of ... November 2008). "A comprehensive functional analysis of tissue specificity of human gene expression". BMC Biology. 6 (1): 49. ...
... and using the resulting immortalized line to create antibodies. This causes the antibodies to show specificity for a single ... Antibody types[edit]. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. The secondary antibody is ...
Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. Polymerase chain ... and specificity 77%. The TK canine cancer panel is an indicator of general neoplastic disease. The stage of the disease is ...
... specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses". BMC Infectious Diseases. 10: 142. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10- ...
Study of the specificity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 7 (5): 335-343. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(76)90092-3. ISSN 0022-4731.. ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ...
An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ...
... showed the specificity of Rho in the stimulation of focal adhesions and stress fibres formation in fibroblasts in the ... Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... providing specificity.[10] In the same year, Hall investigated the role of the small GTPase Ral in neurite branching. After ... yet very little investigation into the way in which specificity of the pathway is maintained. It was known at this point that ...
Two or more positive criteria have a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.0% of describing GPA.[13][18] ... It is now widely presumed that the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are responsible for the inflammation in GPA.[ ... Seo P, Stone JH (July 2004). "The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides". The American Journal of ... Determination of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) can aid in the diagnosis, but positivity is not conclusive and ...
It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ... thus providing ultimately the best specificity for medical purposes.[2] ...
To ensure the specificity of the binding of the probe to the sample DNA, most common hybridization methods use salmon or ... Proteins from Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels to Unmodified Nitrocellulose and Radiographic Detection with Antibody ... may be used to increase specificity and decrease hybridization of the probe to sequences that are less than 100% similar. ...
Alirocumab and evolocumab, both monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, are specifically indicated as adjunct to diet and ... 98% specificity)[6]. 1st degree relative general population age cholesterol mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L ... "PCSK9 inhibition with monoclonal antibodies-modern management of hypercholesterolemia". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ...
Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.[1] ...
In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... Ebner S, Sharon N, Ben-Tal N (October 2003). "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type ... With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... These variations in specificity are the result of interatomic contacts with local residues near the active sites of each ... The specific response to ARF derepression is thought to be mediated by specificity in the pairing of individual ARF and Aux/IAA ... The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is ...
Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... Invertebrates do not possess lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral immune system, and it is likely that a multicomponent, ...
Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Wakefield TS, Kempf SC (2001) Development of host- and symbiont-specific monoclonal antibodies and confirmation of the origin ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Coffroth MA, Santos SR, Goulet TL (2001) Early ontogenic expression of specificity in a cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Mar Ecol ...
"CD30 contains two binding sites with different specificities for members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ... Antibodies: Emapalumab. *Fontolizumab. IFNLR (λ, III). *See IL-28R (IFNLR) here instead. ...
... a monoclonal antibody, Novartis) being developed and sold,[7] and the off-label use of the cheaper Bevacizumab.[8] ... a single strand of nucleic acid that binds with specificity to a particular target. Pegaptanib specifically binds to the 165 ...
... ic specificity[edit]. Antigenic specificity is the ability of the host cells to recognize an antigen specifically as a ... In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
This leads to specificity of downstream signaling. It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain ... Such antagonists include (but are not limited to) specific antibodies that target the molecule of interest, which act only in a ... receptors define three immunoglobulin-like domains of the alpha-PDGF receptor that determine PDGF-AA binding specificity". J. ... "An antibody reactive with domain 4 of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor allows BB binding while inhibiting ...
Specificity of IgE antibodies to sequential epitopes of hen's egg ovomucoid as a marker for persistence of egg allergy»։ ... Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases»։ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 105 (6): 1077-1084։ June ... Overview of Serological-Specific IgE Antibody Testing in Children»։ Pediatric Allergy and Immunology։ 2011 ,vauthors=. ... Yunginger (2000)։ «Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic disease»։ J Allergy Clin Immunol 105 (6): 1077-84։ doi:10.1067/ ...
The specificity of this technique is to modify three parameters during the treatment. VMAT delivers radiation by rotating ... Targeting can also be achieved by attaching the radioisotope to another molecule or antibody to guide it to the target tissue. ... CD20 monoclonal antibody conjugated to yttrium-90.[75] In 2003, the FDA approved the tositumomab/iodine (131I) tositumomab ... regimen (Bexxar), which is a combination of an iodine-131 labelled and an unlabelled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.[76] These ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Because of this specificity, medical microbiologists must consider the effectiveness of certain antimicrobial drugs when making ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... and specificity of 90-95% when compared with viral culture.[30] ... that produces antibodies against proteins on the viral coat ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ...
... the family is named after antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. ... The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ...
... absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody specificities ... Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation.[2][3] Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... "Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ... engineering aglycosylated full-length IgG antibodies for human therapy". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 22 (6): 858-67. doi: ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ...
... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ... "A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e201. doi ... Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus.[3] The symptoms can be mistaken for ... Passive immunotherapy involves administration of anti-CHIKV hyperimmune human intravenous antibodies (immunoglobulins) to those ...
These antibodies can be subdivided according to their specificity, and each subset has different propensities for specific ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... antibodies are antibodies to components of the nuclear membrane and are found in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Each antibody ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[37] ... although the surrounding amino acids may determine the exact binding specificity). A large number of such motifs has been ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ...
The correlation of group carbohydrate specificity with the proposed species S.dysgalactiae and S.equisimilis, however, were not ... and thus interfering with the host antibody response. DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides ...
1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ...
Immature thymocytes undergo a process of selection, based on the specificity of their T-cell receptors. This involves selection ... Allergies involve mainly IgE, antibodies, and histamine. Mast cells release the histamine. Sometimes an allergen may cause a ... Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors. Myasthenia gravis is often ...
Here, we show that presentation of antibodies on the surface of nonspherical particles enhances antibody specificity as well as ... Shape-induced enhancement of antibody specificity. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya Wakankar, Yatin R. ... Shape-induced enhancement of antibody specificity. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya Wakankar, Yatin R. ... Particle shape enhances specificity of antibody-displaying nanoparticles. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya ...
Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.. Köhler G, Milstein C. ...
A central core structure in an antibody variable domain determines antigen specificity.. Jirholt P1, Strandberg L, Jansson B, ... Antibody binding sites provide an adaptable surface capable of interacting with essentially any molecular target. Using CDR ... residues was supported by their presence in a mouse monoclonal antibody with a known structure and the same epitope specificity ... Several of these corresponding residues in the mouse monoclonal antibody are known to interact with the antigen. In conclusion ...
... to test the specificity of an antibody against the human proteome in a high-throughput manner. This platform can also be used ... to screen for the target(s) of an antibody or a small molecule. ... High specificity is the pre-requisite for any antibody used in ... UltraMAB Antibody Specificity Service. The Ultimate Array test for Validating Antibody Specificity. ... OriGene now provides UltraMAB Service, the ultimate array test to validate the antibody specificity. The UltraMAB Service ...
... antibody specificity.. [8].. *Inheritance of antibody specificity. III. A new VH gene controls fine specificity of anti-p- ... Gene context of Antibody Specificity. *Diversity in the CDR3 region of V(H) is sufficient for most antibody specificities [29]. ... Disease relevance of Antibody Specificity. *The antibody specificity of immunoglobulin G bound to the liver cell membrane ... Inheritance of antibody specificity. III. A new VH gene controls fine specificity of anti-p-azobenzenearsonate coupled to the ...
This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. This antibody ... This antibody reacts with type specific as well as type-common antigens. It can be used to identify HXV-1 in the tissues of ... This antibody in B lymphocytes at all stages of maturation, but is decreased on plasma cells and a subset of memory B cells. It ... This antibody stains only lambda light chain-containing cells in lymphoid tissue. Since most plasma cell tumors in the dog ...
To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) ... The Specificity of Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 to C-Series Gangliosides J Neurochem. 2001 Jul;78(1):64-74. doi: 10.1046/j.1471- ... To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) ... The monoclonal antibody A2B5 would be a useful tool for examining the distribution and function of c-series gangliosides. ...
... validation as a standard quality control protocol for antibodies at scale ... With increasing need for specific antibodies, Abcam introduces knockout (KO) ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... We are starting at 500 antibodies a year, and we will knockout validate these antibodies as a part of our rigorous antibody ...
Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ...
Please fill out the information below to obtain more information and/or a quote for an Antibody Specificity Profiling Service ... 3) The detection reagents used in Invitrogens standard Antibody Specificity Profiling Service recognize antibodies containing ... Please fill out the information below to obtain more information and/or a quote for an Antibody Specificity Profiling Service ... If your antibody DOES NOT contain a human, mouse, or rabbit Fc region, what do you recommend as a detection reagent?. ...
The purpose of the public workshop is to discuss approaches to identify the most relevant antibody specificities in Immune ... Immune Globulins for Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases: Antibody Specificity, Potency and Testing; Public Workshop. A Notice ... The second day of the workshop will focus on the potential clinical impact on PIDD patients of declining measles antibody ... The public workshop will also include a discussion about the declining measles antibody levels in U.S. licensed Immune ...
... the sVNT is capable of detecting the functional neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that can block the binding of the coronavirus ... Scientists develop COVID-19 test to detect neutralizing antibodies with high sensitivity, specificity. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: ACE2, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Antibodies, Antibody, Assay, Biotechnology, Blood, Cell, Cell Biology ... and whether antibodies protect patients from reinfection. Neutralizing antibody is the gold-standard serological platform to ...
IHC: confirming specificity phosphorylated protein antibody - (Jul/09/2012 ). I want to do stainings on FFPE tissues using an ... You can also do a peptide competition where you pre-incubate the antibody with the specific peptide and then use the antibody ... Now as a control I want to show that this antibody really only binds to the phosphorylated protein. Ive heard this can be ... for detection - the loss of signal indicates specificity.. Preferably you would also determine that the antibody has a single ...
Featured journal article: A western blot and immunoprecipitation assay to verify antibody specificity. 22 Mar 2021. ... Find out more about how commercial antibody providers are sharing the responsibility for antibody validation, with Bethyl ... high-throughput method for validating the target-specificity of antibodies for the application of western blot. ... Part of the crisis of irreproducibility has been blamed on antibodies, and from this standpoint, an equal push to bring ...
OriGene provides antibodies with both high affinity and specificity. ... OriGene validates every lot of every antibody it offers using Western blot analysis. The samples that are used include ... Specificity Validation for OriGene antibody Cat. No. UM500036. Figure 1. Specificity validation of anti-Her2 antibody (Cat. No ... Specificity Validation Of OriGene Antibodies. Specificity is one of the most important attributes of antibodies. At OriGene, we ...
New antibody specificity portal bolsters biomedical research reliability UNCs Brian Strahl and Van Andel Research Institutes ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (, a newly launched online portal that lets ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (, a newly launched online portal that lets ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (, a newly launched online portal that lets ...
A new and flexible technology for high throughput analysis of antibody specificity and affinity is presented. The method is ... Microfluidic Analysis of Antibody Specificity in a Compact Disk Format J Proteome Res. 2006 Jul;5(7):1568-74. doi: 10.1021/ ... A new and flexible technology for high throughput analysis of antibody specificity and affinity is presented. The method is ... The antibodies to be analyzed are applied onto the columns. Thereafter, fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies recognize ...
Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... Author(s). Nilsson, Ph.R.; Marsh, S.G.E.; Joosten, I.; ...
Anti-IgM asialo GM1 antibodies had the highest sensitivity and specificity. High-titer IgM antibodies against monosialo GM1 ... The sensitivity and specificity of anti-GM sub 1 antibody testing. Bruce V. Taylor, LouAnn Gross, Anthony J. Windebank ... and 173 consecutive patient serum samples submitted for GM1 antibody testing. Antibodies to three ganglioside epitopes were ... Antibody titers for normal subjects and patients with ALS were used to determine normal values and borderline levels below ...
We find that the GAD binding present in most IDDM sera (n = 11 of 12) is composed of two distinct GAD antibody specificities ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes. ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes ...
Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin Anges Yadouleton1, Anna-Lena Sander1, Andres ... Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin. ...
Author Summary Dengue is a viral infection of humans that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue is a very important public health problem in many developing countries. Recently, new tests to help diagnose patients with dengue have been developed. Evaluating these tests to see how well they perform in different countries and in different health care settings is an important process that helps to guide health care policy on whether these assays are likely to be useful in making a diagnosis, and if so, when best to use them. Our hospital-based results, using two different types of NS1 tests for diagnosing dengue, indicates that these tests are most sensitive when used during the first 3 days of illness and are most likely to be positive if the patient has primary dengue. Our results also show that a positive NS1 test result is a reflection of the amount of virus in the blood, so that patients with high amounts of virus in the blood are more likely to be NS1 positive. Collectively, the results indicate these
Antibodies to double-stranded DNA: purification and characterization of binding specificities.. A C Gilliam, D Lang, J J ... Antibodies to double-stranded DNA: purification and characterization of binding specificities.. A C Gilliam, D Lang, J J ... Antibodies to double-stranded DNA: purification and characterization of binding specificities.. A C Gilliam, D Lang and J J ... Antibodies to double-stranded DNA: purification and characterization of binding specificities. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies. Asoke C. Ghose and Fred Karush ... Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies Message Subject (Your Name) has ... This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody ... The isolated chains were also evaluated with respect to binding affinity and inhibition of anti-idiotype antibody. The most ...
Evaluation of the subtype specificity of monoclonal antibodies raised against H1 and H3 subtypes of human influenza A virus ... Epitope specificity of anti-HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection. ... Epitope specificity of anti-HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection. Influenza and Other Respiratory ... Monoclonal antibodies to glycopeptides HA1 and HA2 of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Acta Virol 1987; 31:374-386. *PubMed, ...
Mapping Neutralizing Antibody Epitope Specificities to an HIV Env Trimer in Immunized and in Infected Rhesus Macaques Number of ... Mapping Neutralizing Antibody Epitope Specificities to an HIV Env Trimer in Immunized and in Infected Rhesus Macaques. Number ... Mapping Neutralizing Antibody Epitope Specificities to an HIV Env Trimer in Immunized and in Infected Rhesus Macaques. Cell ... Mapping Neutralizing Antibody Epitope Specificities to an HIV Env Trimer in Immunized and in Infected Rhesus Macaques. ...
Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein. Marcela Herrera ... Here, we examined the specificity of a panel of putative AT1R antibodies that are commonly used by investigators in the field. ... Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein ... Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein ...
... that endows them with antibody-type specificity to any pre-d... ... is based on engineered T cells expressing chimeric antibody ... The T-body approach combining antibody specificity with T cell activity for adoptive vaccination of cancer. ... that endows them with antibody-type specificity to any pre-defined target antigen. We have designed the modular CAR construct ... T he ?T-body? approach is based on engineered T cells expressing chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) ...
... suggest that this antibody is indeed different from anti-gal(α1-3)gal antibody. Anti-gal(α1-2)gal antibody levels were ... This antibody was found evenly distributed between the IgG and IgM classes and was present at high titers in the serum of all ... Although this antibody bound to gal(α1-3)gal-linked synthetic antigens, it did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit ... Since antibody binding is blocked by gal(α1-3)gal, previous results suggest that in chronic T. cruzi infection, at least three ...
  • The importance of several of these conserved residues was supported by their presence in a mouse monoclonal antibody with a known structure and the same epitope specificity. (
  • Several of these corresponding residues in the mouse monoclonal antibody are known to interact with the antigen. (
  • To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) were purified from bonito fish brain. (
  • The monoclonal antibody A2B5 would be a useful tool for examining the distribution and function of c-series gangliosides. (
  • The antigenic site recognized by the protein-reactive serum IgM antibodies was characterized by comparison with the pattern of antigen recognition by a monoclonal antibody to human sperm protamines (HPmAb). (
  • The monoclonal antibody (mAb) F425-B4e8 had been suggested previously to bind an epitope at the base of V3 and shown to neutralize two primary HIV isolates. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies and a method of making monoclonal antibodies of the invention include monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing to HIV-1 or other envelop viruses wherein the monoclonal antibody has subsites that simultaneously recognize protein and lipid epitopes from the virus. (
  • A bacutovirus-expressed chimeric recombinant IgG(1) (rlgG(1)) antibody, with C gamma(1) and C kappa human constant domains, was derived from the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 13B8.2, which is specific for the CDR3-like loop of the CID4 molecule and which inhibits HIV-1 replication. (
  • Techniques for increasing specificity will be discussed on the Monoclonal Antibody Alternative page. (
  • A therapeutic monoclonal antibody and its Fab and Fc fragments were recently investigated using differential scanning fluorimetry, temperature-ramped dynamic light scattering, and turbidity measurements. (
  • A variant of the HERCEPTIN® antibody, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that binds the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), was isolated on the basis of its ability to simultaneously interact with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (
  • Stable monoclonal antibody-producing lines were isolated by repeated cloning. (
  • Affinity binders/antibodies are amongst the most commonly used tools in life science to study proteins and their functions within various biological pathways and diseases. (
  • There was no correlation between antibody specificity and affinity for CEA. (
  • A new and flexible technology for high throughput analysis of antibody specificity and affinity is presented. (
  • Given that isotype class switching and Ig gene somatic hypermutation share molecular mechanisms, these observations unify these processes in the sense that both can alter specificity and affinity. (
  • We report here the affinity purification from SLE serum of a group of IgG and IgM antibodies that bind in nitrocellulose filter binding assays to entirely double-stranded radiolabeled DNA devoid of single-stranded regions. (
  • Both monoclonal and rabbit antibodies had affinity constants in the range of 10(9)--10(10) liter/mole. (
  • In addition, anti-desialylated gp160 antibodies retained on a P39 affinity column still bound HIV-2 gp140. (
  • Kinetic binding and affinity studies on recombinant antibodies were performed on the Octet QK system using Human IgG FC capture (AHC) biosensors. (
  • The binding specificity, affinity and biophysical characteristics of these fragments determine their potential applications and resulting efficacies. (
  • Antibodies to whole cells of Streptococcus mutans were examined in 108 subjects by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and quantified by reference to isotype-specific affinity-purified antibodies. (
  • The results show that the prepared polyclonal antibody-based biosensor presents excellent specificity to detect bacteria of Salmonella species, and especially prefers to bind Salmonella typhimurium , almost zero affinity for non- Salmonella species of Listeria monocytogenes by detecting solution with different kinds of bacteria, including Salmonella species and non- Salmonella species, and the bound bacterial cells were visibly confirmed. (
  • The antibody was isolated by affinity chromatography on a melibiose-Sepharose column. (
  • Due to the transient and heterogeneous nature of protein PTMs, high specificity and affinity of PTM-specific antibodies are critical for their sensitive and reproducible detection. (
  • However, recent studies have revealed an alarming degree of non-specific binding found in these antibodies, and whether the affinity meets the required detection sensitivity is unclear. (
  • To address these challenges, we investigated whether directed evolution could be applied to improve the affinity of a high-specific antibody targeting phospho-threonine 231 of the human microtubule-associated protein tau. (
  • This approach enabled us to measure its affinity and reveal its cross-reactivity towards the non-targets when we affinity-matured the single-chain variable antibody fragment through directed evolution. (
  • We demonstrate that directed evolution is a viable approach for obtaining high-affinity PTM-specific antibodies, and highlight the importance of assessing the specificity in the antibody engineering process. (
  • A- and S-scores greater than 3 standard deviations over the next listed target are deemed statistically significant and indicate highly specific antibodies with high affinity. (
  • One goal was to develop a method to generate antibodies that bind two protein antigens with high affinity using a single-antigen binding site, and to investigate the molecular and thermodynamic requirements for antibody multispecificity. (
  • This affinity-improved version of bH1 specifically inhibits both HER2- and VEGF-mediated cell proliferation in vitro and tumor progression in mouse models with activity similar to the Herceptin® antibody and the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab, respectively. (
  • Finally we show that by mutation of merely two residues in the CDRs, the high affinity dual specific antibodies can be converted back to essentially monospecific HER2 or VEGF antibodies. (
  • Although this antibody bound to gal(α1-3)gal-linked synthetic antigens, it did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig RBC or in murine laminin or nidogen. (
  • Titers of antibody up to a dilution of 1:64 were found with all four antigens. (
  • The identification of cross-neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 is important for designing antigens aimed at eliciting similar antibodies upon immunization. (
  • Despite the somewhat limited neutralization breadth of mAb F425-B4e8, the results presented here, along with analyses from other cross-neutralizing anti-V3 mAbs, may facilitate the template-based design of antigens that target V3 and permit neutralization of HIV-1 strains in which the V3 region is accessible to antibodies. (
  • Future studies on immune response during MenA disease should take into account the high levels of anti-MenA polysaccharide IgG commonly found in the population and seek to clarify the role of antibodies against subcapsular antigens in protection against MenA disease. (
  • It is difficult to assign antibody specificity for highly sensitized patients using a cell panel with multiple antigens per reaction. (
  • These single antigens were coated onto eight different colored microbeads, which were mixed together in one tube for simultaneous detection of HLA antibodies against eight different antigens per flow cytometry test. (
  • Single antigens also provided higher sensitivity than the multiple antigens coated onto beads for HLA antibody detection as demonstrated by serum dilution studies. (
  • In 10 sera from patients who had rejected a kidney transplant, single antigen beads identified antibodies to 31 of 35 antigens that were mismatched in the donor. (
  • Antibodies to low frequency antigens such as Kp a and Lu a do not need to be excluded in the absence of unexplained results. (
  • The NOR phenotype-related antigens are unique neutral glycosphingolipids recognized by these antibodies and Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 isolectin (GSL-IB4). (
  • Also, because serum contains antibodies against so many antigens (not just the protein that may have been used for immunizations), specificity is typically very low with raw serum. (
  • [2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (
  • Crystallographic and mutagenesis studies revealed that distinct amino acids of this antibody, called bH1, engage HER2 and VEGF energetically, but there is extensive overlap between the antibody surface areas contacting the two antigens. (
  • While the structural and mutagenesis studies highlight the differences of the interfaces between the dual specific antibody and its two antigens in surface topology and energetic engagement of CDR residues, the two interactions share a common thermodynamic signature: favorable entropy and enthalpy. (
  • As a first approach, we wanted to make monoclonal antibodies that react selectively with lung tumors but not with autologous histocompatibility antigens. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies against rat glomerular antigens: production and specificity. (
  • To define the characteristics and target antigens (Ags) of nephrotoxic antibodies (Abs) and to analyze the factors that govern the evolution of Ab-mediated glomerular injury, we have prepared monoclonal Abs against rat glomerular Ags. (
  • With their specificity and sensitivity, these tools can help to easily identify the protein of interest at various expression levels. (
  • The scientists in Singapore and China validated the test across two patient cohorts, with a sample size of 250 from China and 375 from Singapore, achieving 99-100 per cent specificity and 95-100 per cent sensitivity. (
  • Anti-IgM asialo GM 1 antibodies had the highest sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of Treponema pallidum Nichols in the diagnosis of syphilis. (
  • Murine anti-Treponema pallidum monoclonal antibodies were employed in studies on sensitivity and specificity of binding to examine their potential for use in the detection of low numbers of pathogenic treponemes present in various body fluids. (
  • The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by these anti-T. pallidum monoclonal antibodies make them excellent candidates for employment in new syphilis or other treponemal diagnostic tests designed to detect very low numbers of pathogenic treponemes in lesion exudates or other body fluids. (
  • For such sera, the relative specificity and sensitivity of the test might yield misleading results. (
  • We have validated the assay for sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility using spiked urine samples and a panel of BinaxNOW tested clinical urine specimens, some of which were from patients from whom a pneumococcal isolate was also cultured. (
  • Further investigation of the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA for rubella antibody screening. (
  • The test has been validated with two COVID-19 patient cohorts in Singapore and China, achieving 99-100% specificity and 95-100% sensitivity and it is capable of differentiating antibody responses from other known human coronaviruses. (
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG) lateral flow rapid tests were evaluated in a panel of plasma samples from 245 Vietnamese patients with RT-PCR confirmed dengue and 47 with other febrile illnesses. (
  • The IgM parameter in the SD Duo test improved overall test sensitivity without compromising specificity. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 2 commercially available, lateral-flow dengue RDTs (Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo) in a panel of plasma samples from dengue patients with different viral serotypes and viraemia levels. (
  • Sensitivity and specificity for primary Sjögren's syndrome of IgA and IgG anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies detected by ELISA. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). (
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of IgA and IgG anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies for pSS was 32.50% and 21.25%, respectively. (
  • The sensitivity and specificity for pSS of the combined determination of IgA and IgG anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies were 40% and 58.18%, respectively. (
  • Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of several Trypanosoma cruzi antibody assays in blood donors in Argentina. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of multiple blood donor screening tests for T. cruzi antibodies in Argentina.From June 2006 to March 2007 a sample of 1455 blood donors was recruited from two blood banks in Chaco province, an area of Argentina with highly endemic T. cruzi infection. (
  • Relative to the LCA, assay specificities were from 96% to almost 100%.Based on the comparison of several tests in a large population from an endemic area for T. cruzi infection, our data showed an adequate sensitivity for EIA tests in contrast to PA and IHA assays. (
  • In general, sensitivity and specificity exist in a state of balance. (
  • Increased sensitivity (the ability to correctly identify people who have HIV) usually comes at the expense of reduced specificity (meaning more false positives). (
  • Likewise, high specificity usually means that the test has lower sensitivity (more false negatives). (
  • Therefore, healthcare services use a two-part testing procedure: a test with high sensitivity (to detect as many HIV-positive individuals as possible, allowing some false positives but very few false negatives), followed by a confirmatory test with high specificity (to eliminate as many of the false positives as possible). (
  • Antibodies are used routinely in various analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications, including cell and protein sorting ( 1 ), in vitro assays ( 2 ), in vivo imaging ( 3 ), and targeted delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer ( 4 ), arthritis ( 5 ), and allergies ( 6 ). (
  • In a knockout validation, antibody specificity is confirmed by testing the antibody of interest on a knockout sample or cell line which doesn't express the target protein. (
  • Furthermore, an explanation for the observed restricted germline gene usage in certain antibody responses against protein epitopes is provided. (
  • The UltraMAB Service leverages OriGene's proprietary technology platform, the High-Density Protein Microarray, to test the specificity of an antibody against the human proteome in a high-throughput manner. (
  • With a large collection of overexpression antigen standards, OriGene developed a high-density protein microarray chip for antibody evaluation at the proteome-wide level. (
  • OriGene has applied the High-Density Protein Microarray to test the specificity of over 100 UltraMAB® and other commercial antibodies. (
  • According to a study published in Nature Biotechnology , the sVNT is capable of detecting the functional neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that can block the binding of the coronavirus spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor, which mimics the virus-host interaction. (
  • The specificity is further proved by using an independent antibody (anti-DDK antibody in the middle) against the same recombinant overexpressed Her2 protein. (
  • Antibodies against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein label astrocytes and some CNS ependymal cells. (
  • I want to do stainings on FFPE tissues using an antibody specific for a phosphorylated protein. (
  • Now as a control I want to show that this antibody really only binds to the phosphorylated protein. (
  • Each histone antibody is supposed to bind to a specific protein target, allowing scientists to track where and how that protein is being regulated in healthy and diseased cells. (
  • For the 3 antibodies tested, Western blots of protein homogenates from wild-type kidneys yielded distinct bands with the expected size range for AT 1 R. In addition, these bands appeared identical in samples from mice lacking 1 or both murine AT 1 R isoforms. (
  • Finally, these antibodies failed to detect epitope-tagged AT 1A R protein overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells. (
  • However, the IDDM epitopes have been difficult to further define because the antibodies do not bind GAD protein fragments or synthetic peptides. (
  • We find that the GAD binding present in most IDDM sera ( n = 11 of 12) is composed of two distinct GAD antibody specificities that target different conformation-dependent regions of the GAD 65 protein, one that is located between amino acids 240 and 435 (termed IDDM-E1) and one that is located between amino acids 451 and 570 (termed IDDM-E2). (
  • The results suggest that the C region affects V region protein conformation, leading to differences in fine specificity and Id. (
  • In contrast, levels of non-citrullinated protein antibodies were not higher in those with ILD. (
  • In this study, we investigated influences of IC immunization on the fine specificity of antibody responses in a structurally well-defined system, using the envelope (E) protein of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus as an immunogen. (
  • Antibodies to viral envelope protein E induced by natural infection or vaccination were shown to confer protection from disease. (
  • Such antibodies can target different epitopes in E protein, and the fine specificities of polyclonal responses can differ between individuals. (
  • We conducted a mouse immunization study with TBE E protein alone or complexed to monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the three protein domains. (
  • It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V regions. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (
  • Each individual antibody protein is capable of binding specifically with one unique epitope thanks to the unique Antigen Binding Site located at the tip of the variable region on the antibody. (
  • This specificity allows precise detection of a target antigen such as a protein while avoiding detection of unrelated proteins that are not of interest. (
  • Also, it is important to recognize that multiple antibodies will be generated against a typical protein antigen and so any one of these antibodies could potentially cross-react with another protein that contains the same epitope(s). (
  • So overall, in general terms, antibody specificity helps us discuss if the antibody that we are using in our research (whether it's a single antibody from a B cell or a pool of antibodies from serum) is able to detect our target protein specifically without cross-reacting with non-specific proteins. (
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (
  • Antibodies targeting protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are an essential tool in scientific research and clinical investigations. (
  • Murine MAbs were found to be diverse in their specificity to AM and cross-reactivity with other arabinose-containing mycobacterial polysaccharides, with MAb 9d8 binding exclusively to AM. Human antibodies to AM were detected in serum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), as well as in those from healthy, purified protein derivative-negative controls, with significantly higher titers among patients. (
  • The research presented in this thesis investigates antibody specificity, antibody-antigen and protein-protein interactions using combinatorial antibody libraries, phage-display and bacterial display technology. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. (
  • This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase with the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine, serine and threonine. (
  • The fewer ligands a protein can bind, the greater its specificity. (
  • Specificity describes the strength of binding between a given protein and ligand. (
  • An example of a protein-ligand pair whose binding activity can be described as highly specific is the antibody-antigen system. (
  • Conversely, an example of a protein-ligand system that can bind substrates and catalyze multiple reactions effectively is the Cytochrome P450 system, which can be considered a promiscuous enzyme due to its broad specificity for multiple ligands. (
  • The interactions between the protein and ligand substantially affect the specificity between the two entities. (
  • Electrostatic interactions and Hydrophobic interactions are known to be the most influential in regards to where specificity between two molecules is derived from.The strength of these interactions between the protein and ligand positively correlate with their specificity for one another. (
  • In the in situ method, protein synthesis is carried out on a protein array surface that is pre-coated with a protein-capturing reagent or antibody. (
  • Once the newly synthesized proteins are released from the ribosome, the tag sequence that is also synthesized at the N- or C-terminus of each nascent protein will be bound by the capture reagent or antibody, thus immobilizing the proteins to form an array. (
  • Moreover, the resulting protein array is not 'pure' because the proteins are co-localized with their DNA templates and capture antibodies. (
  • Antibodies to three ganglioside epitopes were determined by ELISA: IgM and IgG anti-monosialo GM 1 , asialo GM 1 , and disialo GD 1b . (
  • Identification of epitopes targeted by IDDM sera may allow one to distinguish between GAD antibody-positive individuals at high and low risk of developing IDDM and to determine if differences in the autoimmune repertoire directed at GAD are present. (
  • These results were interpreted as indicative of fine specificity changes originating from differences in isotype, possibly as a result of differences in the folding and exposure of antigenic epitopes of the V region ( 10 ). (
  • Accordingly, we report here the isolation of 45 BG505 nAbs with multiple specificities from immunized and infected rhesus macaques.Notably, all of the autologous nAbs bind in close proximity to known bnAb epitopes and might therefore sterically hinder elicitation of bnAbs. (
  • Gal(α1-2)gal antibodies did not absorb to intact T. cruzi parasites, but absorbed strongly to trypomastigote and epimastigote sonicates, suggesting some masking of reactive epitopes. (
  • Since antibody binding is blocked by gal(α1-3)gal, previous results suggest that in chronic T. cruzi infection, at least three different antibody clones exist that react with gal(α1-3)gal epitopes: anti-gal(α1-3)gal IgG, anti-mannose [man](α 1-3)gal or anti-man(β1-3)gal IgM, and anti-gal(α1-2)gal IgM and IgG. (
  • Differences in binding properties of the various monoclonal antibodies were most likely a reflection of differential binding affinities or their specificities for different epitopes on the 47,000-dalton surface antigen. (
  • The authors performed a high throughput multiplexed antigen screen of memory B cell from immune individuals to identify potential antibodies that have a neutralizing effect on viral epitopes. (
  • The antibodies have simultaneous or independent recognition subsites to each of the epitopes. (
  • A group of seven antibodies with epitopes clustered within the amino terminal region of rhodopsin and a group of 15 antibodies with epitopes within the carboxyl terminal region are described. (
  • abstract = "Reassortants between serotype 3 SA11 and serotype 6 NCDV rotaviruses were used to determine the relative amounts of serum-neutralizing antibody to VP4 and VP7 of serotype 3 SA11 rotavirus in children after natural rotavirus exposure. (
  • Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies with Specificity for Rhesus Macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle. (
  • Antibodies to double-stranded DNA: purification and characterization of binding specificities. (
  • Therefore, an essential test for the characterization of any biosensor is to investigate the specificity of the bioprobe (the bio-molecular recognition element). (
  • However, many investigators are UNAWARE of the potential problems with the specificity of antibodies, suggesting a need for new methods of characterization for antibodies being considered for use in serious scientific investigations, grant proposals or for commercialization purposes. (
  • The binding specificities of 52 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from 12 different research groups were studied by immunohistochemistry and immuno flow cytometry. (
  • Mabs with a high degree of CEA specificity almost exclusively belonged to epitope groups 1, 2, and 3, while highly cross-reactive Mabs belonged to epitope groups 4 and 5. (
  • The N[H.sub.2] terminus of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has 31 additional amino acids not present in the skeletal isoforms, and this has aided in generating cTnI-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (8,9). (
  • We previously defined the presence of CD4bs neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the serum of an HIV-1 infected individual and subsequently isolated the CD4bs-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) VRC01 and VRC03 from the memory B cell population. (
  • In this study, we analyzed the repertoire and specificity of antibodies to AM by using AM-binding murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and human serum samples. (
  • Analysis of human antibodies with murine MAbs to human V H , determinants demonstrated diversity among antibodies to AM with qualitative and quantitative differences compared with antibodies to lipoarabinomannan. (
  • In summary, our study suggests that antibodies to AM are diverse and heterogeneous with respect to antigen recognition and V H , determinant expression, with human serum samples containing different subsets of antibodies to AM with the specificities of AM-binding murine MAbs. (
  • A panel of anti-bovine rhodopsin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of defined site-specificity has been prepared and used for functional and topographic studies of rhodopsins. (
  • For rapid detection of PEDV, a new immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was developed in this study. (
  • With the UltraMAB array service, OriGene helps you identify reactive proteins of your antibody and potential off-target effects to eliminate the cross-reactivity concerns. (
  • The problem is that antibodies-research tools used to identify key proteins at work in a cell-aren't always what they seem. (
  • Scientists use histone antibodies to track the roles of various proteins in this vital process of gene regulation. (
  • However, some antibodies have been observed binding to other proteins in addition to their primary target while other antibodies have been shown to bind to just one target, but not the target indicated on the product label. (
  • The CDs contain 104 microstructures enabling analysis of antibodies against more than 100 different proteins using a single CD. (
  • The antibody response to proteins may be modulated by the presence of preexisting antigen-specific antibodies and the formation of immune complexes (ICs). (
  • Antibody specificities were analyzed by immunoblotting (IB) against outer membrane antigen extracts of a reference strain and of the patients' own isolates and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against lipooligosaccharide (LOS) L11 and the proteins NadA and NspA. (
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • Mutans streptococcal infection induces salivary antibody to virulence proteins and associated functional domains. (
  • Traditional western blot evaluation using particular antibodies against HBA1 and HBB demonstrated low degrees of Hgb proteins appearance in the cell lines examined. (
  • So, one antibody could potentially recognize two or more proteins if these proteins are highly homologous and contain the same epitope. (
  • Based on the conserved evolution of amino acid sequences of SOD proteins, we examined the utility of commercially available antibodies raised against human SOD1 and rat SOD2 to identify BmSOD1 and BmSOD2. (
  • Newly synthesized proteins which are tagged with GST are then immobilized next to the template DNA by binding to the adjacent polyclonal anti-GST capture antibody that is also pre-coated onto the capture surface. (
  • Antibody titers for normal subjects and patients with ALS were used to determine normal values and borderline levels below which 99% of normal and 99% of ALS patient titers were found. (
  • This antibody was found evenly distributed between the IgG and IgM classes and was present at high titers in the serum of all normal adults studied, but in 75% of children less than three years of age, it was observed at the lower limit of detection, and gradually increased to adult levels by the age of six. (
  • Second, susceptible strains of rodents (8-12) and nonhuman primates (1315) immunized with type I1 collagen produce high titers of autoreactive antibodies and develop an erosive polyarthritis that shares phenotypic features with RA. (
  • In one group, serological titers for all the four antibodies were lower than the threshold of sensitization reported by the producing firm. (
  • Until more experience is gained with the test, caution should be used in its application to infant and older adult age groups, where significant streptococcal antibody titers are frequently near the threshold of the test. (
  • In a previous report we have shown that, in contrast to antibodies produced against native or fully deglycosylated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 in rabbits, antibodies raised against desialylated HIV-1 gp160 also recognize gp140 from HIV-2 at high titers. (
  • Rabbits that are protected by homologous infection do not develop lesions, inoculation sites do not support treponeme proliferation, the inoculation sites do not ulcerate, and antibody titers do not increase, indicating reinfection has not occurred ( 19 ). (
  • Sera from Ecuadorian children of a population-based study and sera from children of a hospital-based study in Germany (excluding diarrhea patients) demonstrated high titers of VP7-specific but only low titers of VP4-specific antibodies. (
  • This data is compared side-by-side against a normal cell line (or wild type) and if the antibody is truly specific, the antibody should have no detection in the knockout cell line, but instead a specific signal in the normal cell line. (
  • 3) The detection reagents used in Invitrogen's standard Antibody Specificity Profiling Service recognize antibodies containing human, mouse, and rabbit Fc regions. (
  • If your antibody DOES NOT contain a human, mouse, or rabbit Fc region, what do you recommend as a detection reagent? (
  • You can also do a peptide competition where you pre-incubate the antibody with the specific peptide and then use the antibody for detection - the loss of signal indicates specificity. (
  • Thereafter, fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies recognize the bound primary antibodies, and detection is carried out by laser-induced fluorescence. (
  • Western blot analyses showed that all anti-T. pallidum monoclonal antibodies exhibiting high sensitivities for the detection of T. pallidum cells were directed against an abundant, 47,000-dalton surface-exposed antigen of the organism (S. A. Jones, K. S. Marchitto, J. N. Miller, and M. V. Norgard, Abstr. (
  • This study was designed to determine which morphologic form and species of Leishmania is most suitable for detection of antibody in sera from American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) patients by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). (
  • The single antigen panel provided higher resolution than the regular cell panel for antibody detection by uncovering the masked specificities. (
  • An accurate and sensitive HLA antibody detection method is described using flow cytometry beads coated with single HLAs produced by recombinant technology. (
  • An antibody reactive with the galactosyl(α1-2)galactose [gal(α1-2)gal] epitope was characterized in human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, red blood cell (RBC) and laminin absorption, and oligosaccharide inhibition. (
  • Analysis of 19 selected RA sera revealed that autoantibodies were generally associated with specific antibodies to some species of heterologous type I1 collagen. (
  • However, since RA and relapsing polychondritis patient sera differed in their reactivity with the cyanogen bromide-digested peptides, it is possible that the clinical manifestation of collagen autoimmunity might be influenced by the epitope specificity of the antibodies. (
  • False-positive and false-negative reactions occur with those sera when one or more antibody titer is at or near the threshold of the test as described by the manufacturer. (
  • It is less useful to assess the levels of antibodies in sera from general population surveys. (
  • Protamine-reactive natural IgM antibodies in human sera. (
  • Those antibodies were detected by ELISA in significant titer in all of 100 sera of normal adult males and females and in 26 of 28 sera of normal pediatrics aged 7 d to 2 yr. (
  • Commonality between the protamine-reactive IgM antibodies of pediatric and adult sera was established by the demonstration of similarity in antigen recognition and reaction kinetics. (
  • The possible implications of those findings are discussed in the light of early hypotheses concerning the origin and function of natural antibodies and the many recent reports of identification of natural antibodies in normal human sera. (
  • Immunoassays using recombinant domains and domain combinations of TBE virus sE as well as the distantly related West Nile virus sE allowed the dissection and quantification of antibody subsets present in postimmunization sera, thus generating fine-specificity patterns of the polyclonal responses. (
  • METHODS: IgA and IgG anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies were measured in the sera of 80 patients with pSS, 60 blood donors matched for age and sex, 50 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 30 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 20 with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 10 with polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM/DM) by an ELISA method employing recombinant human alpha-fodrin as antigen. (
  • We assessed the specificity of these antibodies for PN by IHC in human bone tissue and by WB analysis in human sera previously depleted for albumin, IgG and transferrin. (
  • Natural anti-NOR antibodies are common in human sera and agglutinate human erythrocytes of a rare NOR phenotype. (
  • Two different antibodies could be found in sera of HIV-infected persons, one being directed against HIV-induced cell surface component(s) and the other reacting with structure(s) present on activated T4 cells. (
  • These antibodies were reactive mainly after stimulation of HIV-infected target cells by Con-A. Sera of ARC and AIDS patients contained autoantibodies reactive with PHA-stimulated or HIV-infected T4 lymphocytes. (
  • Antibodies reactive with left-handed Z-DNA arise spontaneously in the sera of patients with SLE and rheumatoid arthritis and in autoimmune MRL mice. (
  • It also has the ability to detect total receptor binding domain (RBD)-targeting neutralizing antibodies in patient samples, in contrast to most SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests published or marketed, which are isotype-specific. (
  • 2) What is the species and isotype of the Fc region of your antibody? (
  • However, this view was recently challenged by the observation that families of mouse-human chimeric Abs with identical V regions demonstrate differences in fine specificity and by reports of changes in Ab Id structure with isotype switching. (
  • The results reveal isotype-related differences in fine specificities and Id for two mAb isotype switched families, thus establishing the validity of this observation with sets of homologous Abs. (
  • The finding that isotype can affect fine specificity has major implications for current concepts of the generation of secondary responses, idiotypic network regulation, and isotype function. (
  • In contrast to other Fc receptors, TRIM21 shows remarkably broad isotype specificity as it does not only bind IgG but also IgM and IgA. (
  • Serum antibodies of each isotype were present in all subjects examined. (
  • An isotype control is an antibody of the same isotype as a primary antibody with no relevant specificity to the target antigen. (
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (
  • Here, we have assessed the neutralization breadth of mAb F425-B4e8 using a 40-member panel of primary HIV-1 and determined the epitope specificity of the mAb. (
  • In order to select these antibodies, hybridoma supernatants that contained anti-rhodopsin antibodies have been screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the presence of synthetic peptides from rhodopsin's cytoplasmic regions. (
  • In addition to exhibiting higher binding and internalization, trastuzumab-coated rods also exhibited greater inhibition of BT-474 breast cancer cell growth in vitro to a level that could not be attained by soluble forms of the antibody. (
  • Inhibition assays with a panel of synthetic peptides as competitors showed that cross-reactivity to gp140 was due to antibodies that were specific for the region encompassing HIV-1 gp41 immunodominant epitope, mimicked by peptide P39 (residues 583 to 609), the latter being able to totally inhibit the formation of complexes between radiolabeled HIV-2 gp140 and antibodies elicited by desialylated HIV-1 gp160. (
  • An antipeptide antibody has been produced that recognizes CYP3A4 and exhibits greater than 90-95% inhibition on CYP3A4-mediated reactions [Wang RW and Lu AYH (1997) Drug Metab Dispos 25:762-767]. (
  • This conclusion was based on the reversal of antibody inhibition of testosterone 6β-hydroxylation when peptides with overlapping sequence in this region were preincubated with the antibody. (
  • Chimeric rlgG1 antibody 13B8.2 blocked, in a dose-dependent manner, antigen presentation through inhibition of subsequent IL-2 secretion by stimulated T cells. (
  • The specificity was determined by inhibition experiments with various carbohydrates. (
  • Other applications include enzymatic inhibition assays and screenings of antibody specificity. (
  • Antibody cross-reactivity will create unexpected side effects of false diagnostic reports for clinicians. (
  • We demonstrate that antibody responses to the V regions of one TprK molecule show limited cross-reactivity with heterologous TprK V regions. (
  • HighSpec ™ Antibody Cross-Reactivity Testing … a tremendous leap in antibody quality validation offered as a service by CDI Laboratories. (
  • Despite having identical V regions, the IgM and IgG3 chimeras had altered fine specificity compared with the IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and IgA chimeras as measured by several serological assays ( 10 ). (
  • In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. (
  • We conclude that monoclonal antibodies have been generated that react with common antigenic determinants expressed on several human lung cancer types, neuroblastoma, and some breast cancers, but are not detectable by our current assays on a variety of other human tumors or normal adult human tissues. (
  • Once word got out about the team's peptide array platform, Strahl and his colleagues started fielding calls from other scientists asking for advice on antibody selection. (
  • however, the association of specific anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) with ILD in RA is unknown. (
  • Objective To determine the prevalence and specificity of anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to evaluate the effect of immune reconstitution on these markers. (
  • In the first study, de novo modeling was used to generate libraries of FLAG peptide-binding single-chain antibodies. (
  • In the example below, lane 2 has no signal because the peptide has effectively blocked the antibody from binding, whereas in lane 1 the band is visible as expected. (
  • Figure 17: Peptide Blocks Binding of Anti-CX3CR1 Antibody (AHP566). (
  • This differs from group specificity, as it is not reliant on the presence of particular functional groups in order to catalyze a particular reaction, but rather a certain bond type (for example, a peptide bond). (
  • Significant attention has been given to understanding the molecular basis of antibody-antigen interactions ( 7 ) as well as to molecular engineering of antibodies to enhance their functions ( 8 ). (
  • The current understanding in immunology is that the interactions between V region amino acids and the cognate Ag define Ab specificity. (
  • However, several recent observations strongly suggest that for certain Ag-Ab combinations, the C region can affect the specificity of the interactions between the Ab-binding site and Ag ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Landsteiner performed these studies in an era that was dominated by Paul Ehrlich's chemical models to explain the interactions of antibody, antigen, and complement ( Ehrlich, 1900 ). (
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (
  • Enzyme specificity refers to the interactions between any particular enzyme and its corresponding substrate. (
  • Specificity of antibodies produced against native or desialylated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant gp160. (
  • Recombinant DNA techniques were utilized successfully to join the coding regions for the variable region of a mouse anti-tumor antibody (BA-Br-1) and the human IgG1 constant region for both the light and heavy chains. (
  • Treatment of DBA1/J human CD4-transgenic mice with 100 mu g of recombinant antibody for three consecutive days led to in vivo recovery of rlgG1 antibody 13B8.2 both coated on murine T lymphocytes and free in mouse serum, without CD4 depletion or down-modulation. (
  • Specificity of anti-SOD antibodies.Recombinant BmSOD1 (A) and BmSOD2 (B) were separated on a 12% SDS-PAGE gel, transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and processed for immunoblotting with anti-SOD antibodies and anti-Xpress antibody. (
  • From the competition studies we could identify a type of purified antibody that binds only to entirely double-stranded DNA and other types that bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA. (
  • We report also that purified antibodies that bind to double-stranded poly d(AT) bind well to single-stranded DNA. (
  • antibodies to poly d(AT) can be shown to bind independently of antibodies to native double-stranded DNA. (
  • Monoclonal and rabbit antibodies raised against estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide have been studied with respect to their ability to bind free estrone and its conjugates or free pregnanediol and its conjugates, respectively. (
  • Ehrlich's "side-chain theory" held that cells expressed a variety of side-chains (antibodies) at their surface that are released after infection and bind to potential pathogens that neutralize microbial toxins while sparing the organism's own tissues. (
  • In addition, the anti-Gal bind specifically to normal and pathologically senescent HuRBC, suggesting a physiological role for this natural antibody in the aging of RBC. (
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (
  • [4] The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (
  • One MAb and a subset of human antibodies bind AM specifically, suggesting that this polysaccharide is antigenically distinct and is expressed in human infection. (
  • Antibodies directed against rhodopsin's carboxyl terminal sequence did not bind well to highly phosphorylated rhodopsin. (
  • Chemical specificity is the ability of a protein's binding site to bind specific ligands. (
  • Enzymes vary in the specificity of the substrates that they bind to, in order to carry out specific physiological functions. (
  • Specificity of antibodies to type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Antibodies to both native and denatured type II collagen were measured in the serum of 63 patients with juvenile onset arthritis (JA) and in 67 patients with adult onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • Rowley, MJ , Gershwin, ME & Mackay, IR 1988, ' Collagen antibodies in juvenile arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis: Differences in levels and type-specificity ', Journal of Rheumatology , vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 289-294. (
  • approach is based on engineered T cells expressing chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) that endows them with antibody-type specificity to any pre-defined target antigen. (
  • Additional support for the concept that C region can affect V region structure came from studies with the cell line SAMM 368, which produces IgG2b and IgA Abs with specificity for the same Ag, without sharing idiotypic determinants ( 8 ). (
  • We selected for antibodies against predominantly linear determinants (as distinct from complex assembled determinants) and have isolated antibodies that recognize rhodopsin's amino terminus, its carboxyl terminus, as well as the hydrophilic helix-connecting regions 61-75, 96-115, 188-203, 230-252 and 310-321. (
  • CONCLUSIONS We developed a new antibody biomarker identifying novel antigenic determinants within the N terminus of IA-2. (
  • This article must therefore be hereby marked 'advertisement' in accordance with 18 U. S. C solely to indicate this fact lines producing antibodies that detect determinants expressed on human, and to a lesser extent on adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, but not on a variety of normal tissue or human cell lines. (
  • There's been a real awakening in the biological community that we need better ways to know if the antibodies are recognizing what they're intended to recognize. (
  • Interestingly, this cross-reactive antibody population did not recognize glycosylated or totally deglycosylated simian immunodeficiency virus gp140 despite an amino acid homology with HIV-1 within this region that is comparable to that of HIV-2. (
  • In immunoblotting analysis, this antibody did not recognize CYP3A5 or CYP3A7 in microsomes prepared from baculovirus-infected cells containing these two expressed isoforms. (
  • The aims of this study were to develop two polyclonal antibodies against the Fas-1 region of human PN and investigate what they recognize in human serum and bone. (
  • We have analyzed somatic hypermutation in mice carrying an immunoglobulin kappa transgene in order to discriminate mutations that reflect the intrinsic specificity of the hypermutation mechanism from those highlighted by antigenic selection. (
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (
  • Accordingly, the CAR?s composition includes extracellular recognition domain made of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody linked to intracellular domains of various stimulatory and co-stimulatory molecules that dictate the function of the transduced cells. (
  • High-titer IgM antibodies against monosialo GM 1 occurred only in patients with various forms of pure motor neuropathy (100% specificity). (
  • In the second group, the titer of at least one of the four antibodies was equal to or higher than the threshold. (
  • A new natural anti-alpha-galactosyl IgG antibody (anti-Gal) was found to be present in high titer in the serum of every normal individual studied. (
  • Decrease in the antibody titer was found to reflect humoral immunodeficiency disorders. (
  • Like infections with other pathogens, a COVID-19 infection creates IgM and IgG antibodies, which are the most useful for assessing antibody response. (
  • This antibody recognizes muscle specific alpha and gamma actin isomers but is not reactive to beta isomers. (
  • We have identified a set of natural IgM antibodies in human serum that are reactive with protamines, a class of low molecular weight basic nucleoproteins that are synthesized de novo in the postpubertal testis and are unique to sperm. (
  • A series of immunoabsorption procedures indicated that the protamine-reactive serum IgM antibodies are a discrete set with a high order of specificity. (
  • Here, we characterize the fine specificity of these cross-reactive antibodies. (
  • Therefore, we developed another assay that enables PTM-specificity measurement for existing, commercially available antibodies. (
  • Preferably you would also determine that the antibody has a single band on a western blot - which is a good indication of specificity. (
  • Find out more about how commercial antibody providers are sharing the responsibility for antibody validation, with Bethyl Laboratories' solution for a practical, high-throughput method for validating the target-specificity of antibodies for the application of western blot. (
  • Western Blot analysis of Jurkat cells using ATF5 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:1000. (
  • Western Blot analysis of Jurkat cells with CD45 Polyclonal Antibody. (
  • This contrasts sharply with the absence of activity in the same systems when the native murine antibody was used. (
  • In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. (
  • As such, TRIM21 acts as a cytosolic sensor that engages antibodies that have failed to protect against infection in the extracellular environment. (
  • Rabbits that receive passive transfers of antibodies from infection-immune rabbits and undergo intradermal homologous challenge develop delayed and altered lesions that appear after antibody administration is suspended ( 4 ). (
  • These data indicate that both antibodies and T cells play a role in protection but neither alone prevents infection. (
  • Singapore , 24 July 2020 - As the current COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely impact communities and economies across the world, efficiency in testing for the infection and antibodies is vital. (
  • COVID-19 antibody tests utilize a patient's blood sample to detect the presence of specific antibodies to show a past infection with the virus. (
  • Prevalence and specificity of lymphocytotoxic antibodies in different stages of HIV infection. (
  • We validated the assay using antibodies with known specificity profiles and used it to measure the specificity of 7 widely used phospho-tau antibodies (AT270, AT8, AT100, AT180, PHF-6, TG-3, and PHF-1) among others. (
  • The function of antibodies that are immobilized on particles depends on the physicochemical properties of underlying particles, including the choice of material, size, surface modification, and shape. (
  • A unique natural human IgG antibody with anti-alpha-galactosyl specificity. (
  • Specificity of human anti-NOR antibodies, a distinct species of "natural" anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies. (
  • Using spherical, rod-, and disk-shaped polystyrene nano- and microparticles and trastuzumab as the targeting antibody, we studied specific and nonspecific uptake in three breast cancer cell lines: BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231. (
  • Using CDR shuffling, residues important for the assembly of mucin-1 specific paratopes were defined by random recombination of the complementarity determining regions derived from a set of mucin-1 specific clones, previously selected from an antibody fragment library. (
  • In conclusion, critical residues important for maintaining a human antigen-specific binding site during the process of in vitro antibody evolution were defined. (
  • Research data from various groups have shown that some monoclonal antibodies on the market are not mono-specific. (
  • Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific hot spots. (
  • More than half of the antibodies considered to be specific for their designated antigen were found to cross-react with other glycans. (
  • High titre and high specificity were observed with monoclonal antibodies produced against pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide, whereas the monoclonal antibodies produced against estrone-3-glucuronide were not so specific when compared with the corresponding rabbit antibodies. (
  • In contrast, antibodies found in 4% of the non-RA controls were specific for either bovine or chick type I1 collagen. (
  • Our laboratory has just completed initial development of an extended range antigen capture Luminex based assay to detect S. pneumoniae serotype specific antigen in urine samples using fully human human, full length monoclonal antibodies. (
  • These results illustrate the influence of carbohydrate moieties on the specificity of the antibodies produced and clearly indicate that such procedures may be an efficient way to raise specific immune responses that are not type specific. (
  • Mice were immunized with a dimeric soluble form of E (sE) alone or in complex with monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the three domains of E, and the antibody response induced by these ICs was compared to that seen after immunization with sE alone. (
  • The phenomena described may also be relevant for polyclonal responses upon secondary infections and/or booster immunizations and may affect antibody responses in an individual-specific way. (
  • The study thus provided important new information on the potential immunomodulatory role of preexisting antibodies in a flavivirus system that can be relevant for understanding individual-specific factors influencing antibody responses in sequential flavivirus infections and/or immunizations. (
  • Antibodies and method of making antibodies, either monoclonal or polyclonal wherein said antibodies have dual or multi-specific binding capacity to more than one type of antigenic epitope. (
  • Specific polyclonal antibodies Ab12 and Ab34 were purified by immunoaffinity. (
  • We developed a novel approach using yeast surface display to quantify the specificity of PTM-specific antibodies. (
  • We defined a specificity parameter, which measures the fraction of non-specific signal in PTM-specific antibodies, and successfully applied the HEK cell-based assay to measure the specificity parameter. (
  • We anticipate that the quantitative approach and parameter introduced here will be widely adopted as a standard for reporting the specificity for phospho-tau antibodies, and potentially for PTM-specific antibodies in general. (
  • Antibody A11-82P, specific for phosphorylated rhodopsin, recognized rhodopsin containing two or more phosphates and inhibited its further phosphorylation. (
  • These data suggest that HIV-specific antibodies represent an anti-viral immune defense, while autoantibodies may be important in destruction of the immune system in AIDS. (
  • The described dual specific "two-in-one" antibodies challenge the paradigm of monoclonal antibodies being one binding site/one antigen, and they could provide new opportunities for antibody-based therapies. (
  • Antibodies to denatured collagen were not type specific, and reacted similarly with type I and type II collagens, but antibodies to native collagen were much more specific, and most reacted more strongly on type II collagen than on type I collagen. (
  • If indeed signals transmitted through a BCR of a certain specificity lead to the generation of B-1 cells, then interference with the cell surface expression of that specific BCR may alter the differentiation process of these cells. (
  • On the other hand, certain physiological functions require extreme specificity of the enzyme for a single specific substrate in order for a proper reaction and physiological phenotype to occur. (
  • Absolute specificity can be thought of as being exclusive, in which an enzyme acts upon one specific substrate. (
  • Group specificity occurs when an enzyme will only react with molecules that have specific functional groups, such as aromatic structures, phosphate groups, and methyls. (
  • We have generated two polyclonal antibodies against the Fas-like domains of human PN. (
  • Several groups have prepared polyclonal antibodies with potential specificity for lung cancer by using standard immunologic methods (1-8). (
  • There were substantially different responses with two of the ICs, and the differences could be mechanistically related to (i) epitope shielding and (ii) antibody-mediated structural changes leading to dissociation of the sE dimer. (
  • We demonstrated that phenomena such as epitope shielding and antibody-induced structural changes can profoundly influence the fine specificity of antibody responses to the same immunogen. (
  • Dissecting the specificities of human antibody responses following disease caused by serogroup A meningococci may be important for the development of improved vaccines. (
  • BNT162b2 elicited strong antibody responses: at one week after the boost, SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean 50% neutralizing titres were up to 3.3-fold above those observed in samples from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. (
  • This antibody recognizes the antigen presenting on the cell surface membrane of tissue macrophages. (
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (
  • Bond specificity, unlike group specificity, recognizes particular chemical bond types. (
  • Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. (
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (
  • We describe here a single antigen bead panel for accurate identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody specificities by flow cytometry. (
  • The specificity of the chimeric ING-1 and mouse BA-Br-1 antibodies were compared by extensive immunohistochemical analysis on human normal and tumor tissues. (
  • A clear band of 17 kDa was enriched from SiHa and CaSki lysates by immunoprecipitation using an anti-human Hgb antibody. (
  • By in silico study of the human PN we have detected two sequences of amino acids suitable for generate antibodies (Patent n° 13/375,870) in the second Fasciclin-like domain (ETLEGNTIEIGCDGDSI, Ab-34) and in the fourth Fasciclin-like domain (CKGFEPGVTNILKTTQGSK, Ab-12). (
  • Test antibody specificity was evaulated using CDI HuProt™ Human Proteome Microarray (~75% of the human proteome) and subseqently analyzed with GenePix Pro Image Acquisition and Analysis Software, the benchmark tool for the acquisition and analysis of microarray images. (
  • The binding of human antibodies to AM was inhibited by MAb 9d8 in three patients with TB but not in controls. (
  • Three independently derived monoclonal antibodies, designated 525A5, 534F8, and 538F12, were found to react with three of the major types of human lung cancer (small cell, adenocarcinoma, and squamous carcinoma). (
  • Interestingly, these antibodies also bound to three out ofthree human neuroblastomas and two out of three breast cancers but failed to react with mouse neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma. (
  • The monoclonal antibodies reacted with human small cell lung cancer tumors obtained at autopsy, but had insignificant reactions with normal human lung, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle. (
  • Antibodies with sufficient specificity for human lung cancer are potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic tools. (
  • The development of somatic cell hybrid technology for the production of monoclonal antibodies (9) offers a different approach, and several monoclonal antibodies have been reported with various degrees of specificity to a variety of human neoplasms (1-17). (
  • In this report, we describe the use of this technology to prepare antibodies with specificity for human lung cancer. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies were used as a primary antibody source in a solid-phase immunoblot assay system. (
  • The sVNT kit can detect functional NAbs in an hour and differentiate them with binding antibodies (BAbs), without the need for live virus or a biocontainment facility. (
  • Of 13 monoclonal antibodies examined, 3 were able to detect 10(3) virulent treponemes, and 1 of these antibodies was able to reveal the presence of as few as 500 organisms. (
  • Many diagnostic tests for HIV detect the presence of antibodies to HIV in blood. (
  • Although the benefits of antibodies in delivering therapeutic carriers to tissues have long been recognized, the effect of carriers themselves on antibody function has been relatively less studied. (
  • This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. (
  • The chimeric antibody retained the same broad carcinoma binding activity, showing strong reactivity with greater than 90% of epithelial tumor tissues, as was previously observed for the mouse BA-Br-1 antibody. (
  • The chimeric and mouse antibodies also recognized the same selected normal tissues: primarily glandular epithelia, gastrointestinal mucosa, bile ducts, and thyroid follicles. (
  • The set of natural antibodies identified in this study may be unique or may represent a class of antibodies present in the repertoire that, by virtue of the obscurity of their origin or function, have not been previously or extensively recognized. (
  • Antibody Combining Sites: How Much of the Antibody Repertoire are we Seeing? (
  • The distinct V H repertoire that is found in B-1 cells has led to the hypothesis that the specificity of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) 1 may in fact determine the differentiation of B cells into this subset ( 5 )( 6 ). (
  • Although scientists agree the onus of validation is on the user, it is also viewed that commercial antibody providers should share in this responsibility. (
  • WHITE PAPER on commercial antibody specificity. (
  • Neglecting this important validation step has resulted in the proliferation of nonspecific, poorly validated antibodies, thus contributing to a major problem in biomedicine: the reproducibility crisis. (
  • In fact, it has been speculated that the largest driver of poor reproducibility in published biomedical literature is antibody- driven. (
  • In contrast, a fourth antibody (3-7.3) bound preferentially to poly(dG-5BrdC)·poly(dG-5BrdC) in Z conformation. (
  • Our results, unlike those in previous reports, imply that antibodies to collagen are infrequent in JA and hence cannot be implicated in the pathogenesis of that disease, which is in contrast to adult onset RA. (
  • Specificity for a set of ligands is unrelated to the ability of an enzyme to catalyze a given reaction, with the ligand as a substrate If a given enzyme has a high chemical specificity, this means that the set of ligands to which it binds is limited, such that neither binding events nor catalysis can occur at an appreciable rate with additional molecules. (
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (
  • Neither antibody (Za or Zi) bound significantly to B-DNA or to denatured DNA. (
  • After insertion into a mouse myeloma host cell line, the chimeric genes were expr essed successfully and the resulting antibody (ING-1) was purified. (
  • Analysis of the biological function of the chimeric antibody revealed that it possessed ADCC activity against antigen-bearing tumor targets in vitro which was absent from the mouse form of the antibody. (
  • The in vitro activation of cell-dependent cytolysis observed with the chimeric antibodies when effector cells from both normal and tumor-bearing donors were used strongly suggests that comparable activity would be observed in vivo. (
  • These results, along with the broad carcinoma binding activity and minimal normal tissue reactivity, suggest that the ING-1 chimeric antibody may be useful in cancer therapy. (
  • The application of the ING-1 chimeric antibody for treatment of tumors thus offers a promising avenue for future research. (
  • These findings predict that the bacutovirusexpressed chimeric rlgG1 anti-CD4 antibody 13B8.2 is a promising candidate for immunotherapy. (