Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Mice, Inbred C57BLChromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.PolysaccharidesImmunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: a clinical test of monocyte function. (1/9631)

The lack of a simple, rapid, and quantitative test of the functional activity of the monocyte has hampered studies of the contribution of this cell type to host defense and human disease. This report describes an assay of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which depends exclusively upon the monocyte as the effector cell and therefore provides a convenient test of monocyte function. In this system, mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque separation of whole blood are cytotoxic for 51Cr-labeled human erythrocyte targets coated with anti-blood group antibody. Removal of phagocytic monocytes from the MNL by iron ingestion, followed by exposure to a magnetic field, completely abolishes all cytotoxic activity from the remaining MNL population. Similarly, in severely mono-cytopenic patients with aplastic anemia, cytotoxic effector activity is absent. In normals and less severely monocytopenic aplastic anemia patients, cytotoxicity correlates significantly (p less than 0.001) with monocyte number. Application of this monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay to the study of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome has revealed defective monocyte cytotoxic activity in spite of normal monocyte numbers, suggesting that this test may be useful for the assessment of monocyte function in a variety of clinical situations.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/9631)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (3/9631)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (4/9631)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (5/9631)

The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full-  (+info)

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (6/9631)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (7/9631)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. (8/9631)

We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA.  (+info)

Fine specificity of anti-V3 antibodies induced in chimpanzees by HIV candidate vaccines.: The fine specificity of the anti-V3 antibody responses induced in chim
These stimuli may arise from internal as well as external alterations. The specific reaction elicited by a stimulus is termed a ...
A medicine is any substance that is designed to prevent or treat diseases and a drug is designed to produce a specific reaction inside the body. While there is considerable overlap between the two...
Polyclonal antibodies are a pool of antibodies originating from different B cells in a host animal that recognize more than one epitope on the same protein or antigen. In contrast, a monoclonal antibody is an antibody originating from a single B cell in a host animal that recognizes only one epitope or binding site on a protein or other antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are usually purified from the serum of an immunized host animal such as a rabbit, chicken or goat. Whereas monoclonal antibodies are usually purified from cell culture media supernatant from the growth of a hybridoma cell line. Monoclonal antibodies are divalent but monospecific. Polyclonal antibodies are also divalent but consist of a pool of antibodies with multiple epitope specificities.. ...
Discover singular and custom rat monoclonal antibodies of higher sensitivity and higher affinity! Rat monoclonal antibodies against hormones, peptides, steroids, toxins, DNA, RNA.
Monoclonal antibodies, shown here binding to a cell, are monospecific antibodies (these are antibodies that have an affinity for the same antigen) - mAB or moAb, as they are abbreviated, are the same because they are created by identical immune cells that are clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies are created to specifically bind to a substance so they can detect or purify that particular substance. In medications the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse and recently, as a result of advances, from rabbit B-cells. Monoclonals can be used as therapies for various serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and - Stock Image C009/4806
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody (Acetyl-Lys9), Rabbit Anti Rat Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF, IP, Flo (ALS17772), Abgent
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ER-beta1 (Estrogen Receptor beta-1)Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone ERb455], Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in IF, FC (AH10370-05), Abgent
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal, most commonly a colour change in a chemical substrate.. If an immunogen is injected into an animal, a number of cells will bind that antigen, so the antibody which appears in the bloodstream. The antibodies will have arisen from several clones of cells and are different, so the antibody in bloodstream is a polyclonal antibody. Polyclonal antibody contain different antibodies bind to different antigen. ...
The monoclonal Anti-His antibody facilitates the fast and convenient detection of His-tagged fusion proteins, expressed in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The conjugated antibody allows fast and convenient analysis of His-tagged fusion proteins. Conjugation of the Anti-His antibody to HRP simplifies Western blot or ELISA analysis as the incubation with secondary antibodies becomes dispensable. Fluorochorme-conjugated Anti-His antibodies enable direct flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy analyses, while indirect fluorescent labeling of His fusion protein expressing cells is possible with the biotin-conjugated antibody. After incubation the Anti-His-HRP antibody can be directly detected using commercially available chemiluminescent reagents. The monoclonal Anti-His antibody specifically recognizes proteins that contain a polyhistidine tag at their N- and C-terminus. However, the Anti-His-HRP (C-term.) antibody shows higher sensitivity and specificity for C-terminal His-tagged proteins. -
The Antibody Resource Page (http://www.antibodyresource.com/) is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), produced in the laboratory, are derived from the antibodies that the human body produces in the natural course to fight intruders that threaten health. The discovery of these antibodies have radically transformed our understanding of how diseases progress, and how they can be more quickly, accurately, and cheaply diagnosed, and thus substantially expanded the horizons of treatment for more than 50 major ailments. The importance of Mabs can be estimated from the fact that today a majority of the most commercially-successful drugs are Mab-derived, and Mab-drugs are projected to clock sales of US$125 billion annually by 2020.. Mabs in Cancer Treatment Cancer is unarguably one of the fields where monoclonal antibodies have had the strongest impact. The biggest advantage of Mabs is that they are able to avoid the healthy cells while specifically targeting the cancer cells. This translates to the patient experiencing fewer side effects than conventional radiotherapy or ...
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Abstract All therapeutic antibodies and most vaccines critically depend on the ability of antibodies to specifically recognize particular antigens consequently detailed characterization of antibody antigen binding can provide invaluable information to understand and guide development Unfortunately due to the time and expense required atomic resolution structure determination is typically used sparingly late in a development process or for a small number of different antibodies or antigen variants We seek to enable earlier and larger scale but still detailed characterization and modeling of antibody antigen binding applicable to panels of antibodies that could result from screening polyclonal samples or engineered libraries along with panels of antigens that could result from attempts to understand and account for diversity across populations While not at atomic resolution our approach will still allow residue level localization of specific epitopes for specific antibodies as well as group level ...
... ; Antibody Type: Mouse Monoclonal antibody; Quality Control: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive to endogenous target protein.
OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
... Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2015 Aug;34(4):251-6 Authors: Xu H, Wei D, Xue J, Hu L Abstract DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP), also known as ASK1-interacting protein-1 (AIP1), a novel member of the RasGTPase-activating protein family, plays a key role in tumor suppression during cancer progression and is highly expre...
Schram, B., et al., 11(36), s28-s31, Pharmaceutical Technology, 2012 The authors describe Neoclones human-mAb platform for generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies. In the NeoAb approach, antigen supernatants from cultured B cells are tested for affinity and specificity using the Octet QK system. Streptavidin biosensors loaded with biotinylated antigens are employed for binding constant determinations of purifies antibodies and for KD rank-ordering of crude tissue culture supernatants.
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information. of ERs as well as the efficacy of SERMs for PCa treatment exist, notably due to the use of ER antibodies lacking specificity and treatments with high SERM concentrations leading to off-target effects. To end this confusion, our objective was to study the impact of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic ligands in well-studied PCa models with appropriate controls, dosages, and ER subtype-specific antibodies. When using physiologically relevant concentrations of nine estrogenic/anti-estrogenic compounds, including five SERMs, we observed no significant modulation of PCa cell proliferation. Using RNA-seq and validated antibodies, we demonstrate that these PCa models do not express ERs. In contrast, RNA-seq from PCa samples from patients have detectable expression of ER. Overall, our study reveals that commonly used PCa models are inappropriate to study ERs and indicate that usage of alternative versions is vital to properly measure the roles from the ...
Updated WWWsite: The Antibody Resource Page The Antibody Resource Page has been recently updated. The page will be invaluable to researchers and educators alike. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - some animated gifs have recently been added 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question or have an answer? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added. There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. ...and there is much more. Check it out at: http://www.antibodyresource.com/ Ps. Don t forget to visit our sponsors, ...
Eleven monoclonal antibodies directed against the subcomponent C1q of the first component of human complement, C1, were prepared and tested for binding to intact C1q and to the collagenous portion, the C1q stalks. All of the monoclonals bound well to the intact C1q. Eight out of the eleven exhibited strong binding to the collagenous stalks, while three bound very weakly, if at all, to the stalks and, thus, were presumed to bind to the pepsin-sensitive region which includes the C1q heads. For one of the latter monoclonals, this was confirmed by electron microscopy. Five of the monoclonals were purified by C1q affinity chromatography. When tested with C1 reassembled from its subunits, two of these purified monoclonal antibodies markedly enhanced the rate of spontaneous activation.
It is possible to produce a humanized antibody without creating a chimeric intermediate. "Direct" creation of a humanized antibody can be accomplished by inserting the appropriate CDR coding segments (responsible for the desired binding properties) into a human antibody "scaffold". As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector[3] and expression in mammalian cells. That is, after an antibody is developed to have the desired properties in a mouse (or other non-human), the DNA coding for that antibody can be isolated, cloned into a vector and sequenced. The DNA sequence corresponding to the antibody CDRs can then be determined. Once the precise sequence of the desired CDRs are known, a strategy can be devised for inserting these sequences appropriately into a construct containing the DNA for a human antibody variant.[10][11] The strategy may also employ synthesis of linear DNA fragments based on the reading of CDR sequences.. Alemtuzumab is an ...
plant antibodies, Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology, secondary antibody
plant antibodies, Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology, secondary antibody
Primary antibodies are configured to recognize and bind unique regions (epitopes) that can in essence, be presented in the context of a broad range of bio-molecules. The specific nature of the interaction between a primary antibody and its associated epitope has led to the routine application of primary antibodies in the detection/quantification of target molecules in applications such as Western Blotting (WB), ELISA, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Flow Cytometry (Flow Cyt), Immunofluorescence (IF), and Immunoprecipitation (IP). As one of the leading suppliers of antibodies worldwide,abmprovides |30,000 gene-specific antibodies in addition to the availability of both the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies from a wide range of host sources (i.e. rabbit, mouse, donkey, goat).
Primary antibodies are configured to recognize and bind unique regions (epitopes) that can in essence, be presented in the context of a broad range of bio-molecules. The specific nature of the interaction between a primary antibody and its associated epitope has led to the routine application of primary antibodies in the detection/quantification of target molecules in applications such as Western Blotting (WB), ELISA, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Flow Cytometry (Flow Cyt), Immunofluorescence (IF), and Immunoprecipitation (IP). As one of the leading suppliers of antibodies worldwide,abmprovides |30,000 gene-specific antibodies in addition to the availability of both the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies from a wide range of host sources (i.e. rabbit, mouse, donkey, goat).
antibody test - MedHelps antibody test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for antibody test. Find antibody test information, treatments for antibody test and antibody test symptoms.
Quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) systems, that can distinguish between active-form subtypes of mitogen-activated protein kinases (p44 and p42 MAP kinase, also called ERK1 and ERK2), were developed employing subtype-specific antibodies a
R&D Systems offers a wide range of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that are labeled/unlabeled for a variety of animal species. Explore over 20,000 primary antibodies and secondary antibodies, or learn more about our custom antibody structures or bulk antibodies.
TrueMAB™ are OriGene developed and branded mouse monoclonal antibodies that are generated using human cell produced full length human proteins as immunogens. TrueMAB™ antibodies provide higher sensitivity and specificity for the recognition of native epitopes of the protein.
Anti-ST2 AntibodyIgGy Antibody Selector - Quickly search hundreds of thousands of antibodies available for purchase from VWR by selecting common antibody features like antigen symbol and name, reactivity, clonality, conjugation, host, and other key factors. Antibodies used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins in common applications such as Western Blot, ELISA, ImmunoChemistry and Flow Cytometry are all available for your research.
A recombinant antibody is an antibody made through the use of recombinant DNA technology by inserting a fragment of DNA into a yeast, virus, or bacterium. The resulting recombinant organism will express the antibody even if it is from a different species. A researcher can harvest the antibodies for medical experimentation and research. It is…
Polyclonal, anti-idiotypic, rabbit antibodies have been raised against four murine monoclonal anti-morphine Fab fragments. The antibody preparations, after affinity purification, have been shown to contain an anti-paratypic fraction which reversibly inhibits morphine binding to the anti-morphine antibodies and to cellular opiate receptors. Using some of the unique properties of this system, for the first time cross-reactivities of anti-paratypic antibodies with the monoclonal anti-morphine IgGs have been examined including competition for the same binding sites by a classical opiate agonist/antagonist pair.
Our body has a unique method to fight aggressor foreign micro-organisms when they enter our body.. When any virus, fungus, or bacterium enters our body and starts meddling with our system, our body triggers this mechanism. As a result, our body immune system creates antibodies specific to that foreign substance.. They are basically proteins but all antibodies are not the same.. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses contain character specific proteins called antigens. Antigens are also found on non-living micro-particles such as toxins, snake venoms, pollen, bacterial toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. That marks them apart from each other.. After the antibodies are created, the second step is triggered by our defense system. Now there is a fight between the newly generated antibodies and the interfering antigens. This goes on till our body is clear of all antigens or the antigens completely overwhelm the antibodies. But, complete surrender of the antibodies is an ideal condition.. The ...
Antibodies are a vital part of our immune system. These proteins bind to specific antigen proteins on the surface of foreign bodies such as bacteria and viruses in order to neutralize or disarm them. Since each antigen has a different shape, it requires a different antibody to attach to it. By tailoring antibodies to attach to proteins responsible for specific diseases, pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs that minimise side-effects caused by antibodies binding to the wrong targets. Researchers at Boehringer have been studying a molecule in an antibody and they found that it was unusually compact as a single crystal. The next step was to obtain structural information of the molecule in solution.. ...
Natural antibodies (NAbs) circulate in normal individuals in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation. In the mouse NAbs derive mainly from B-1 cells, a distinct B-cell subset found in the peritoneal and pleural cavities as well as the spleen. In contrast with B-2 cells, B-1 cells are positively selected against self-antigens. The repertoire of B-1 cell derived natural antibodies is characterized by a preferential usage of germline-encoded VH and VL genes, which lack N-region additions and is evolutionarily selected due to their importance for organisms survival and homeostasis. The natural antibody population rapidly recognizes and protects against pathogens that have not been encountered previously. On the other hand NAbs cross-react with several self-antigens and besides their role as first line defense against pathogens, it has been demonstrated they perform important
An antigen is a substance which is used to generate the production of antibodies. In the case of this PolyExpressTM package, this is either a native protein or peptide sequence. The origin of your target antigen is the type of organism that the protein or peptide sequence to be used as an antigen originally came from. An accession number is a unique identification given to a biological polymer sequence and may be found in protein databases such as UniProt. Peptides created through GenScripts OptimumAntigen™ design program have many advantages over full proteins when it comes to antibody production. Our OptimumAntigen™ Design Tool combines the industrys most advanced algorithms with GenScripts time-tested expertise. Each peptide antigen is measured against several protein databases to confirm the desired antibody and epitope specificity. We guarantee a polyclonal antibody with ELISA titer of 1:32,000 or better for any host with the aid of our antigen design tool and unique antibody ...
Invaluable assistance in this task was provided by a monoclonal antibody, a special protein that identifies cell structures with a high degree of specificity. The antibody in question, which is known as AD5-10, binds specifically to the receptors that usually receive and transmit the TRAIL signal. In addition to studies, in which TRAIL itself is used as a therapeutic agent, so-called monoclonal antibodies are also being researched which, like AD5-10, bind to the TRAIL receptor. Yet they can only trigger a suicide signal if there is no resistance to TRAIL. AD5-10 is special, however, because, although it binds to the TRAIL receptor like the other monoclonal antibodies, it does not bind at the precise location where the TRAIL itself docks. Therefore, AD5-10 can arise bound to the receptor along with TRAIL, reports Prof. Krainer. Prof. Krainers team has proposed an interesting hypothesis that takes into account the unique binding site of AD5-10 to the receptor. It is possible that, due its ...
Purpose: : BVES is a transmembrane protein that regulates tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) formation. Furthermore, disruption of BVES level induces phenotypic changes in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells that are associated with increased wound healing. These observations led us to postulate that antibodies blocking BVES will induce increased corneal healing. Methods: : Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Y666) against BVES extracellular region (aa 3-16) were generated. Cultured HCE cells and organ cultured mouse eyes were employed to determine the effects of these antibodies on cell adhesion (immunofluorescent staining), RhoA activation (Elisa assay), and mouse model corneal wound healing. Results: : The immunofluorescent staining on confluent HCE cells for BVES with Y666 reveals a cell membrane pattern of distribution, similar to staining with intracellular domain BVES antibodies (846). Furthermore, Y666 is capable of binding to BVES in live HCE cells. Following antibody treatment ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-MCCC1 Antibody. From world top supplier Cusabio Biotech, validated in ELISA,WB,IHC. AntibodyPlus provides CSB-PA853497ESR2HU trial size antibody samples for antibody validation. Replacement to Santa Cruz, cheaper than Abcam, Sigma and CST antibody.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-SOCS4 Antibody. From world top supplier Cusabio Biotech, validated in ELISA,WB,IHC. AntibodyPlus provides CSB-PA022393ESR1HU trial size antibody samples for antibody validation. Replacement to Santa Cruz, cheaper than Abcam, Sigma and CST antibody.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant SLC7A6OS. SLC7A6OS (AAH13778.1, 1 a.a. ~ 309 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00084138-M) - Products - Abnova
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant UCHL5IP. UCHL5IP (NP_059988.3, 1 a.a. ~ 368 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00055559-M) - Products - Abnova
Storage of Membrane before addition of primary antibody - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi! Im not sure how and how long it is possible to store a PVDF membane after protein transfer but before addition of the primary antibody. The problem is that Ive ordered a new antibody and delivery will take some days. So is it possible to do the blot/transfer in advance, store the membrane and then add the primary antibody few days later? If yes, what are the best storage co...
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Purified PPP5C mouse monoclonal antibody, clone 5G5 - Read User Reviews, Features, Research Applications and get the Best Price/Quote
Obtain accurate, reproducible results in immunohistochemistry applications with Thermo Scientific CD99/MIC2 (Ewings Sarcoma Marker) Ab-2, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody.
Purified CK18 mouse monoclonal antibody, clone 1H10 - Read User Reviews, Features, Research Applications and get the Best Price/Quote
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Antinuclear antibody test positive; sensitivity = 99%; specificity = 49%.[75]. *Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
Other applications include enzymatic inhibition assays and screenings of antibody specificity. The runaway success of DNA ... screening antibody specificity. Stevens, R. C. (2000). "Design of high-throughput methods of protein production for structural ... Here the DNA was immobilized in the well together with an anti-GST antibody. Then cell-free expression mix was added and the ... Many proteins, including antibodies, are difficult to express in host cells due to problems with insolubility, disulfide bonds ...
Antibody characterization is characterizing cross-reactivity, specificity and mapping epitopes. Treatment development involves ... The lysate is arrayed onto the microarray and probed with antibodies against the target protein of interest. These antibodies ... to assay enzymatic activity and to detect antibodies and demonstrate their specificity. They differ from analytical arrays in ... Chang TW (December 1983). "Binding of cells to matrixes of distinct antibodies coated on solid surface". J. Immunol. Methods. ...
Structural differences among antibodies of different specificities». Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (engelsk).. CS1-vedlikehold: ...
The major advantage for NChIP is antibody specificity. It is important to note that most antibodies to modified histones are ... The antibodies are commonly coupled to agarose, sepharose or magnetic beads. Alternatively, chromatin-antibody complexes can be ... The chromatin-antibody complex is selectively retained by the disc and eluted to obtain enriched DNA for downstream ... This is because antibodies have to be generated for each TF, or, alternatively, transgenic model organisms expressing epitope- ...
"Specificity and inhibitory activity of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum aldolase". J Immunol. 144 (4): 1497-503. PMID ... given the right monoclonal antibody). The host produces antibodies against the parasitic enzyme indicating a low sequence ... 1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92 (2): 313-324. doi:10.1017/ ... Li Y, Ning YS, Li L, Peng DD, Dong WQ, Li M (2005). "Preparation of a monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum ...
Based on K. Landsteiner, 1962, The Specificity of Serologic Reactions, Dover Press Promiten, drug information from the Swedish ... In inhibition, free hapten molecules bind with antibodies toward that molecule without causing the immune response, leaving ... ISBN 0-486-66203-9. Shreder, Kevin (March 2000). "Synthetic Haptens as Probes of Antibody Response and Immunorecognition". ... Landsteiner, Karl (1945). The Specificity of Serological Reactions. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press. Landsteiner, Karl (1990). ...
They also contribute to the specificity of each antibody. In a variable region, the 3 HV segments of each heavy or light chain ... In antibodies, hypervariable regions form the antigen-binding site and are found on both light and heavy chains. ... Antibodies are remarkably specific, thanks to hypervariable regions in both light and heavy chains. The hyperbariable regions ...
However, the difference lies in the specificity of the autoreactive antibodies in each case. Initial treatment involves ... intraepidermal antibodies as well as along the dermoepidermal junction. Patients with low concentration of antibodies only ... Demonstration of certain antibodies in the serum was named as the basis for diagnosis of PNP. This piece labeled PNP as a " ... Specifically, antibodies against envoplakin and periplakin were being investigated. Further use of ELISA testing on these ...
Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ... Wilschut, Jan; Duezguenes, Nejat; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios (1981). "Calcium/magnesium specificity in membrane fusion: ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... More recently[when?] work has been undertaken to graft antibodies or other molecular markers onto the liposome surface in the ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ...
"Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 (5517): 495-7. Bibcode:1975Natur. ... Milstein and Köhler's technique for producing monoclonal antibodies laid the foundation for the exploitation of antibodies for ... It was during this work that they devised their hybridoma technique for the production of antibodies. Köhler continued his ... Köhler remained at the Basel Institute for another nine years, during which time he continued investigating antibody diversity ...
Kohler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... César Milstein and Georges Köhler report their discovery of how to use hybridoma cells to isolate monoclonal antibodies, ... effectively beginning the history of monoclonal antibody use in science. Living specimens of the Chacoan Peccary (Catagonus ...
Köhler, G; Milstein, C (Aug 7, 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature ... I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 157 (4): 1149-69. doi:10.1084/jem.157.4.1149. ... Antibody production in plasma B cells 1949 - Growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and ... Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Beginning of humoral theory of immunity. (Emil von ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ( ... Those that produce the desired antibody are then selected and cultured to produce the monoclonal antibody. Hybridoma cells can ... One possible approach would be to use the specificity of the thymidine kinase of poxvirus for the purpose, in a similar way ... It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of monoclonal antibodies. In clinical chemistry it is used as a ...
Köhler, G; Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature ... In need of a reliable method to produce large quantities of a specific antibody, the two merged a monoclonal B cell, exposed to ... capable of being grown indefinitely and of producing significant amounts of an antibody specifically targeting the chosen ... especially to produce hybridoma cells capable of manufacturing monoclonal antibodies in large quantities. Sneezing Hunched ...
... and PD-L1 antibodies.[110][112] Evidence suggests that anti-PD-1 antibodies are more effective than anti-CTLA4 antibodies with ... It reacts positively against melanocytic tumors but not other tumors, thus demonstrating specificity and sensitivity. The ... HMB-45 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts against an antigen present in melanocytic tumors such as melanomas. It is used in ... Immune check point inhibitors include anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (ipilimumab and tremelimumab), toll-like receptor (TLR ...
Monoclonal antibodies can also be selected to bind proteins with great specificity, where protein is released under fairly ... This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... Immunoaffinity media (detailed below) utilizes antigens' and antibodies' high specificity to separate; immobilized metal ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. ...
Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495. Gramer, MJ. Britton TL. ... Hollow fiber bioreactors are used to generate high concentrations of cell-derived products including monoclonal antibodies, ... but they do not allow the passage of larger products such as antibodies. Therefore, as a cell line (e.g., hybridoma) expands ... including monoclonal antibody and influenza vaccine production. Likewise, because hollow fiber bioreactors use up significantly ...
... warned since vaccinated dogs develop antibodies, they can be difficult to distinguish from asymptomatic, infected dogs.[20] ... testing includes molecular biology and genetic techniques which provide high accuracy and high sensitivity/specificity. The ... the same population tested with serological/antibody assays showed only 5% positive.[15] ...
Antibody epitope mapping is used to find the specificity of an antibody. The epitope (antibody binding site of antigens) is ... Flow cytometry with fluorescently-labelled antibodies is used to detect the amount of antibody binding to epitope. This can be ... Rockberg J, Lofblom J, Hjelm B, Uhlen M & Stahl S (2008). "Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Bacterial Surface Display". ... These include affinity-based screening, antibody epitope mapping, the identification of peptide substrates, the identification ...
Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. Polymerase chain ... and specificity 77%. The TK canine cancer panel is an indicator of general neoplastic disease. The stage of the disease is ...
... specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses". BMC Infectious Diseases. 10: 142. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10- ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ...
... and using the resulting immortalized line to create antibodies. This causes the antibodies to show specificity for a single ... Antibody types[edit]. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. The secondary antibody is ...
Study of the specificity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 7 (5): 335-343. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(76)90092-3. ISSN 0022-4731.. ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ...
... of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to ... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ... propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, ...
Here, we show that presentation of antibodies on the surface of nonspherical particles enhances antibody specificity as well as ... Shape-induced enhancement of antibody specificity. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya Wakankar, Yatin R. ... Shape-induced enhancement of antibody specificity. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya Wakankar, Yatin R. ... Particle shape enhances specificity of antibody-displaying nanoparticles. Sutapa Barua, Jin-Wook Yoo, Poornima Kolhar, Aditya ...
Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.. Köhler G, Milstein C. ...
A central core structure in an antibody variable domain determines antigen specificity.. Jirholt P1, Strandberg L, Jansson B, ... Antibody binding sites provide an adaptable surface capable of interacting with essentially any molecular target. Using CDR ... residues was supported by their presence in a mouse monoclonal antibody with a known structure and the same epitope specificity ... Several of these corresponding residues in the mouse monoclonal antibody are known to interact with the antigen. In conclusion ...
... to test the specificity of an antibody against the human proteome in a high-throughput manner. This platform can also be used ... to screen for the target(s) of an antibody or a small molecule. ... High specificity is the pre-requisite for any antibody used in ... UltraMAB Antibody Specificity Service. The Ultimate Array test for Validating Antibody Specificity. ... OriGene now provides UltraMAB Service, the ultimate array test to validate the antibody specificity. The UltraMAB Service ...
... antibody specificity.. [8].. *Inheritance of antibody specificity. III. A new VH gene controls fine specificity of anti-p- ... Gene context of Antibody Specificity. *Diversity in the CDR3 region of V(H) is sufficient for most antibody specificities [29]. ... Disease relevance of Antibody Specificity. *The antibody specificity of immunoglobulin G bound to the liver cell membrane ... Inheritance of antibody specificity. III. A new VH gene controls fine specificity of anti-p-azobenzenearsonate coupled to the ...
This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. This antibody ... This antibody reacts with type specific as well as type-common antigens. It can be used to identify HXV-1 in the tissues of ... This antibody in B lymphocytes at all stages of maturation, but is decreased on plasma cells and a subset of memory B cells. It ... This antibody stains only lambda light chain-containing cells in lymphoid tissue. Since most plasma cell tumors in the dog ...
To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) ... The Specificity of Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 to C-Series Gangliosides J Neurochem. 2001 Jul;78(1):64-74. doi: 10.1046/j.1471- ... To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) ... The monoclonal antibody A2B5 would be a useful tool for examining the distribution and function of c-series gangliosides. ...
... validation as a standard quality control protocol for antibodies at scale ... With increasing need for specific antibodies, Abcam introduces knockout (KO) ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... We are starting at 500 antibodies a year, and we will knockout validate these antibodies as a part of our rigorous antibody ...
Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ... Passenger transgenes reveal intrinsic specificity of the antibody hypermutation mechanism: clustering, polarity, and specific ...
Please fill out the information below to obtain more information and/or a quote for an Antibody Specificity Profiling Service ... 3) The detection reagents used in Invitrogens standard Antibody Specificity Profiling Service recognize antibodies containing ... Please fill out the information below to obtain more information and/or a quote for an Antibody Specificity Profiling Service ... If your antibody DOES NOT contain a human, mouse, or rabbit Fc region, what do you recommend as a detection reagent?. ...
The purpose of the public workshop is to discuss approaches to identify the most relevant antibody specificities in Immune ... Immune Globulins for Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases: Antibody Specificity, Potency and Testing; Public Workshop. A Notice ... The second day of the workshop will focus on the potential clinical impact on PIDD patients of declining measles antibody ... The public workshop will also include a discussion about the declining measles antibody levels in U.S. licensed Immune ...
IHC: confirming specificity phosphorylated protein antibody - (Jul/09/2012 ). I want to do stainings on FFPE tissues using an ... You can also do a peptide competition where you pre-incubate the antibody with the specific peptide and then use the antibody ... Now as a control I want to show that this antibody really only binds to the phosphorylated protein. Ive heard this can be ... for detection - the loss of signal indicates specificity.. Preferably you would also determine that the antibody has a single ...
OriGene provides antibodies with both high affinity and specificity. ... OriGene validates every lot of every antibody it offers using Western blot analysis. The samples that are used include ... Specificity Validation for OriGene antibody Cat. No. UM500036. Figure 1. Specificity validation of anti-Her2 antibody (Cat. No ... Specificity Validation Of OriGene Antibodies. Specificity is one of the most important attributes of antibodies. At OriGene, we ...
New antibody specificity portal bolsters biomedical research reliability UNCs Brian Strahl and Van Andel Research Institutes ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (www.histoneantibodies.com), a newly launched online portal that lets ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (www.histoneantibodies.com), a newly launched online portal that lets ... Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (www.histoneantibodies.com), a newly launched online portal that lets ...
A new and flexible technology for high throughput analysis of antibody specificity and affinity is presented. The method is ... Microfluidic Analysis of Antibody Specificity in a Compact Disk Format J Proteome Res. 2006 Jul;5(7):1568-74. doi: 10.1021/ ... A new and flexible technology for high throughput analysis of antibody specificity and affinity is presented. The method is ... The antibodies to be analyzed are applied onto the columns. Thereafter, fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies recognize ...
Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Marius Nap, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Ole ... Specificity and Affinity of Monoclonal Antibodies against Carcinoembryonic Antigen Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... Author(s). Nilsson, Ph.R.; Marsh, S.G.E.; Joosten, I.; ...
Anti-IgM asialo GM1 antibodies had the highest sensitivity and specificity. High-titer IgM antibodies against monosialo GM1 ... The sensitivity and specificity of anti-GM sub 1 antibody testing. Bruce V. Taylor, LouAnn Gross, Anthony J. Windebank ... and 173 consecutive patient serum samples submitted for GM1 antibody testing. Antibodies to three ganglioside epitopes were ... Antibody titers for normal subjects and patients with ALS were used to determine normal values and borderline levels below ...
We find that the GAD binding present in most IDDM sera (n = 11 of 12) is composed of two distinct GAD antibody specificities ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes. ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes ... Two Distinct Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Auto-Antibody Specificities in IDDM Target Different Epitopes ...
Author Summary Dengue is a viral infection of humans that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue is a very important public health problem in many developing countries. Recently, new tests to help diagnose patients with dengue have been developed. Evaluating these tests to see how well they perform in different countries and in different health care settings is an important process that helps to guide health care policy on whether these assays are likely to be useful in making a diagnosis, and if so, when best to use them. Our hospital-based results, using two different types of NS1 tests for diagnosing dengue, indicates that these tests are most sensitive when used during the first 3 days of illness and are most likely to be positive if the patient has primary dengue. Our results also show that a positive NS1 test result is a reflection of the amount of virus in the blood, so that patients with high amounts of virus in the blood are more likely to be NS1 positive. Collectively, the results indicate these
Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies. Asoke C. Ghose and Fred Karush ... Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies Message Subject (Your Name) has ... This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody ... The isolated chains were also evaluated with respect to binding affinity and inhibition of anti-idiotype antibody. The most ...
Evaluation of the subtype specificity of monoclonal antibodies raised against H1 and H3 subtypes of human influenza A virus ... Epitope specificity of anti-HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection. ... Epitope specificity of anti-HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection. Influenza and Other Respiratory ... Monoclonal antibodies to glycopeptides HA1 and HA2 of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Acta Virol 1987; 31:374-386. *PubMed, ...
Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein. Marcela Herrera ... Here, we examined the specificity of a panel of putative AT1R antibodies that are commonly used by investigators in the field. ... Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein ... Lack of Specificity of Commercial Antibodies Leads to Misidentification of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Protein ...
  • Functionally homogeneous fractions of rabbit anti-lactose IgG antibody have been characterized with respect to their idiotypic specificity and the effect of homologous recombination of isolated chains on the recovery of functional homogeneity and idiotypic determinants. (jimmunol.org)
  • With two possible exceptions, the monoclonal antibodies tested reacted specifically with T. pallidum, either purified or found within a high-contaminating tissue background, and not with Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter, Haemophilus ducreyi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus type 2, or normal rabbit testicular tissue. (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal and rabbit antibodies raised against estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide have been studied with respect to their ability to bind free estrone and its conjugates or free pregnanediol and its conjugates, respectively. (eurekamag.com)
  • Both monoclonal and rabbit antibodies had affinity constants in the range of 10(9)--10(10) liter/mole. (eurekamag.com)
  • There's been a real awakening in the biological community that we need better ways to know if the antibodies are recognizing what they're intended to recognize. (healthcanal.com)
  • In immunoblotting analysis, this antibody did not recognize CYP3A5 or CYP3A7 in microsomes prepared from baculovirus-infected cells containing these two expressed isoforms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, this cross-reactive antibody population did not recognize glycosylated or totally deglycosylated simian immunodeficiency virus gp140 despite an amino acid homology with HIV-1 within this region that is comparable to that of HIV-2. (asm.org)
  • The aims of this study were to develop two polyclonal antibodies against the Fas-1 region of human PN and investigate what they recognize in human serum and bone. (bioclinica.com)
  • We selected for antibodies against predominantly linear determinants (as distinct from complex assembled determinants) and have isolated antibodies that recognize rhodopsin's amino terminus, its carboxyl terminus, as well as the hydrophilic helix-connecting regions 61-75, 96-115, 188-203, 230-252 and 310-321. (elsevier.com)
  • Phospho-Akt (Ser473) Antibody does not recognize Akt with an alanine substituion at Ser473. (cellsignal.com)
  • For immunostaining of mammalian cells, an advantage of using anti-horseradish peroxidase is reduced background, since the antibody does not recognize the endogenous peroxidase-like enzymes found in those cells. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • In addition to exhibiting higher binding and internalization, trastuzumab-coated rods also exhibited greater inhibition of BT-474 breast cancer cell growth in vitro to a level that could not be attained by soluble forms of the antibody. (pnas.org)
  • The isolated chains were also evaluated with respect to binding affinity and inhibition of anti-idiotype antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • The anti-idiotype reaction was subject to inhibition with lactose and p-amino-phenyl-β-lactoside with some antisera, depending on the form in which the homogeneous antibody was presented for immunization. (jimmunol.org)
  • This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody to be accommodated simultaneously at contiguous sites because of overlapping volumes. (jimmunol.org)
  • An antipeptide antibody has been produced that recognizes CYP3A4 and exhibits greater than 90-95% inhibition on CYP3A4-mediated reactions [Wang RW and Lu AYH (1997) Drug Metab Dispos 25:762- (aspetjournals.org)
  • This conclusion was based on the reversal of antibody inhibition of testosterone 6β-hydroxylation when peptides with overlapping sequence in this region were preincubated with the antibody. (aspetjournals.org)
  • All three antibodies also bound poly(dT), poly(rA), and the single-stranded random copolymer poly(dI,dT), and each antibody displayed a unique preference for a limited array of other ribo- and deoxyribopolynucleotides based on direct binding as well as inhibition studies. (scripps.edu)
  • Other applications include enzymatic inhibition assays and screenings of antibody specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody against CD34 reacts with hematopoietic precursor cells and endothelial cells. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. (osu.edu)
  • The antibody reacts specifically with Cdk7 (40 kDa catalytic subunit of Cdk activating kinase). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Group specificity occurs when an enzyme will only reacts with molecules that have specific functional groups, such as aromatic structures, phosphate groups, and methyls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional support for the concept that C region can affect V region structure came from studies with the cell line SAMM 368, which produces IgG2b and IgA Abs with specificity for the same Ag, without sharing idiotypic determinants ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This article must therefore be hereby marked 'advertisement' in accordance with 18 U. S. C solely to indicate this fact lines producing antibodies that detect determinants expressed on human, and to a lesser extent on adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, but not on a variety of normal tissue or human cell lines. (docplayer.net)
  • Accordingly, the CAR?s composition includes extracellular recognition domain made of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody linked to intracellular domains of various stimulatory and co-stimulatory molecules that dictate the function of the transduced cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9 Although these assays have provided important results, greatly contributing to our understanding of the loss of FVIII function seen in patients, FVIII inhibitors do not reflect the whole picture of FVIII-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although the benefits of antibodies in delivering therapeutic carriers to tissues have long been recognized, the effect of carriers themselves on antibody function has been relatively less studied. (pnas.org)
  • The specificity of the chimeric ING-1 and mouse BA-Br-1 antibodies were compared by extensive immunohistochemical analysis on human normal and tumor tissues. (iospress.com)
  • The chimeric antibody retained the same broad carcinoma binding activity, showing strong reactivity with greater than 90% of epithelial tumor tissues, as was previously observed for the mouse BA-Br-1 antibody. (iospress.com)
  • The chimeric and mouse antibodies also recognized the same selected normal tissues: primarily glandular epithelia, gastrointestinal mucosa, bile ducts, and thyroid follicles. (iospress.com)
  • If the two antibodies generate a sim ilar staining pattern when compared in a set of relevant tissues, the antibodies validate each other. (atlasantibodies.com)
  • The function of antibodies that are immobilized on particles depends on the physicochemical properties of underlying particles, including the choice of material, size, surface modification, and shape. (pnas.org)
  • The Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (DASP), an extension of Immunology of Diabetes Society autoantibody workshop activities, was established in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate and improve general implementation of assay methods and to undertake extended evaluation of the new WHO international reference reagent for antibodies to GAD and IA-2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aims of the first proficiency evaluation of the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (DASP) were to assess general implementation of assay methods and to evaluate the new World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for autoantibodies to GAD and IA-2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 8 ). The major achievements of these activities have been the introduction of a reference standard preparation and units for ICA measurement, validation of diabetes-associated antibody markers and methods for their measurement, and an improved concordance between laboratory measurements ( 6 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present invention also relates to the therapeutic uses of the antibody molecules and methods for producing the antibody molecules. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Read on, we briefly summarize the five methods for enhanced antibody validation in WB below. (atlasantibodies.com)