Sensitivity and Specificity
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Binding Sites, Antibody
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Amino Acid Sequence
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunoglobulin Variable Region
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
HIV Envelope Protein gp120
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
False Positive Reactions
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Viral Envelope Proteins
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunoglobulin Light Chains
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: a clinical test of monocyte function. (1/9631)The lack of a simple, rapid, and quantitative test of the functional activity of the monocyte has hampered studies of the contribution of this cell type to host defense and human disease. This report describes an assay of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which depends exclusively upon the monocyte as the effector cell and therefore provides a convenient test of monocyte function. In this system, mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque separation of whole blood are cytotoxic for 51Cr-labeled human erythrocyte targets coated with anti-blood group antibody. Removal of phagocytic monocytes from the MNL by iron ingestion, followed by exposure to a magnetic field, completely abolishes all cytotoxic activity from the remaining MNL population. Similarly, in severely mono-cytopenic patients with aplastic anemia, cytotoxic effector activity is absent. In normals and less severely monocytopenic aplastic anemia patients, cytotoxicity correlates significantly (p less than 0.001) with monocyte number. Application of this monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay to the study of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome has revealed defective monocyte cytotoxic activity in spite of normal monocyte numbers, suggesting that this test may be useful for the assessment of monocyte function in a variety of clinical situations. (+info)
Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/9631)The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies. (+info)
Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (3/9631)Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability. (+info)
Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (4/9631)The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar. (+info)
Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (5/9631)The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full- (+info)
Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (6/9631)OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue. (+info)
Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (7/9631)OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera. (+info)
Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. (8/9631)We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA. (+info)
Fine specificity of anti-V3 antibodies induced in chimpanzees...
Fine specificity of anti-V3 antibodies induced in chimpanzees by HIV candidate vaccines.: The fine specificity of the anti-V3 antibody responses induced in chim
The Nervous System
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About Primary Monoclonal Antibodies - Leinco Technologies
Polyclonal antibodies are a pool of antibodies originating from different B cells in a host animal that recognize more than one epitope on the same protein or antigen. In contrast, a monoclonal antibody is an antibody originating from a single B cell in a host animal that recognizes only one epitope or binding site on a protein or other antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are usually purified from the serum of an immunized host animal such as a rabbit, chicken or goat. Whereas monoclonal antibodies are usually purified from cell culture media supernatant from the growth of a hybridoma cell line. Monoclonal antibodies are divalent but monospecific. Polyclonal antibodies are also divalent but consist of a pool of antibodies with multiple epitope specificities.. ...
Rat Monoclonal Antibodies - Higher affinity, higher specificity mAbs
Discover singular and custom rat monoclonal antibodies of higher sensitivity and higher affinity! Rat monoclonal antibodies against hormones, peptides, steroids, toxins, DNA, RNA.
Human Monoclonal Antibody Prophylactics
Lab Reagents Human Antibody Laboratories manufactures the human monoclonal antibody prophylactics reagents distributed by Genprice. The Human Monoclonal Antibody Prophylactics reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact human Antibody. Other Human products are available in stock. Specificity: Human Category: Monoclonal Group: Antibody Prophylactics. Antibody Prophylactics information ...
Monoclonal antibodies - Stock Image C009/4806 - Science Photo Library
Monoclonal antibodies, shown here binding to a cell, are monospecific antibodies (these are antibodies that have an affinity for the same antigen) - mAB or moAb, as they are abbreviated, are the same because they are created by identical immune cells that are clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies are created to specifically bind to a substance so they can detect or purify that particular substance. In medications the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse and recently, as a result of advances, from rabbit B-cells. Monoclonals can be used as therapies for various serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and - Stock Image C009/4806
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody (Acetyl-Lys9) - Rabbit Anti Rat Monoclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P, IF, IP, Flo - Buy Now! |Abgent
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody (Acetyl-Lys9), Rabbit Anti Rat Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF, IP, Flo (ALS17772), Abgent
cd cd mouse monoclonal antibody Gentaur Molecular Products
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ER-beta1 (Estrogen Receptor beta-1)Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone ERb455] - Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody IF, FC - Buy...
ER-beta1 (Estrogen Receptor beta-1)Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone ERb455], Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in IF, FC (AH10370-05), Abgent
ELISA Antibody-Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal, most commonly a colour change in a chemical substrate.. If an immunogen is injected into an animal, a number of cells will bind that antigen, so the antibody which appears in the bloodstream. The antibodies will have arisen from several clones of cells and are different, so the antibody in bloodstream is a polyclonal antibody. Polyclonal antibody contain different antibodies bind to different antigen. ...
Anti-His antibodies - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Schweiz
The monoclonal Anti-His antibody facilitates the fast and convenient detection of His-tagged fusion proteins, expressed in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The conjugated antibody allows fast and convenient analysis of His-tagged fusion proteins. Conjugation of the Anti-His antibody to HRP simplifies Western blot or ELISA analysis as the incubation with secondary antibodies becomes dispensable. Fluorochorme-conjugated Anti-His antibodies enable direct flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy analyses, while indirect fluorescent labeling of His fusion protein expressing cells is possible with the biotin-conjugated antibody. After incubation the Anti-His-HRP antibody can be directly detected using commercially available chemiluminescent reagents. The monoclonal Anti-His antibody specifically recognizes proteins that contain a polyhistidine tag at their N- and C-terminus. However, the Anti-His-HRP (C-term.) antibody shows higher sensitivity and specificity for C-terminal His-tagged proteins. -
Looking for an antibody or information on antibodies?
The Antibody Resource Page (http://www.antibodyresource.com/) is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
Why Monoclonal Antibodies Are Likely to Transform Medical Treatment - NEWS BLOGGER
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), produced in the laboratory, are derived from the antibodies that the human body produces in the natural course to fight intruders that threaten health. The discovery of these antibodies have radically transformed our understanding of how diseases progress, and how they can be more quickly, accurately, and cheaply diagnosed, and thus substantially expanded the horizons of treatment for more than 50 major ailments. The importance of Mabs can be estimated from the fact that today a majority of the most commercially-successful drugs are Mab-derived, and Mab-drugs are projected to clock sales of US$125 billion annually by 2020.. Mabs in Cancer Treatment Cancer is unarguably one of the fields where monoclonal antibodies have had the strongest impact. The biggest advantage of Mabs is that they are able to avoid the healthy cells while specifically targeting the cancer cells. This translates to the patient experiencing fewer side effects than conventional radiotherapy or ...
Alibaba.com에서 korean 스피커 마켓에 대한 최고 competition elisa 제조사와 competition elisa 를 찾기
Alibaba.com에서 korean 스피커 마켓에 대한 competition elisa 제조사의 최고의 선택을 찾고 저렴하고 고품질의 competition elisa 제품 출처를 명시하기
High throughput multiplexed characterization and modeling of antibody antigen binding with application to HSV | SBIR.gov
Abstract All therapeutic antibodies and most vaccines critically depend on the ability of antibodies to specifically recognize particular antigens consequently detailed characterization of antibody antigen binding can provide invaluable information to understand and guide development Unfortunately due to the time and expense required atomic resolution structure determination is typically used sparingly late in a development process or for a small number of different antibodies or antigen variants We seek to enable earlier and larger scale but still detailed characterization and modeling of antibody antigen binding applicable to panels of antibodies that could result from screening polyclonal samples or engineered libraries along with panels of antigens that could result from attempts to understand and account for diversity across populations While not at atomic resolution our approach will still allow residue level localization of specific epitopes for specific antibodies as well as group level ...
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Development: IHC Positive Guaranteed
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Development: IHC Positive Guaranteed; Antibody Type: Mouse Monoclonal antibody; Quality Control: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive to endogenous target protein.
Antibodies to GABAA receptor α1 and γ2 subunits: clinical and serologic characterization. - Nuffield Department of Clinical...
OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
GB12284 Anti -Hsp90 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody from China manufacturer - Servicebio
GB12284 Anti -Hsp90 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody offered by China manufacturer Servicebio. Buy GB12284 Anti -Hsp90 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody directly with low price and high quality.
A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against Human DAB2IP.
A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against Human DAB2IP. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2015 Aug;34(4):251-6 Authors: Xu H, Wei D, Xue J, Hu L Abstract DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP), also known as ASK1-interacting protein-1 (AIP1), a novel member of the RasGTPase-activating protein family, plays a key role in tumor suppression during cancer progression and is highly expre...
IL22RA1 Antibody (monoclonal) (M03) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant IL22RA1. WB, E - Buy...
IL22RA1 Antibody (monoclonal) (M03), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant IL22RA1. validated in WB, E (AT2516a), Abcepta
JUP Antibody (monoclonal) (M01) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant JUP. WB, IHC, IF, E - Buy...
JUP Antibody (monoclonal) (M01), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant JUP. validated in WB, IHC, IF, E (AT2587a), Abcepta
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Assay Solution. Adiponectin Antibody
30 kDa adipocyte complement related protein antibody,30 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein antibody,ACDC antibody,ACRP 30 antibody,ACRP30 antibody,ADIPO_HUMAN antibody,Adipocyte antibody,Adipocyte C1q and collagen domain containing protein antibody,Adipocyte complement related 30 kDa protein antibody,Adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kDa antibody,Adipocyte complement-related 30 kDa protein antibody,Adiponectin antibody,AdipoQ antibody,Adipose most abundant gene transcript 1 antibody,Adipose most abundant gene transcript 1 protein antibody,Adipose specific collagen like factor antibody,ADIPQTL1 antibody,ADPN antibody,APM 1 antibody,apM-1 antibody,ApM1 antibody,C1q and collagen domain-containing protein antibody,GBP 28 antibody,GBP28 antibody,Gelatin binding protein antibody,Gelatin binding protein 28 antibody,Gelatin-binding protein ...
Abbkine Scientific launches its new antibody - Anti-DDDDK Tag Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (1B10) | Phoenix News Desk
Wuhan, China - 14th May, 2017 - DDDDK antibody is a new antibody produced by Abbkine Scientific Company Limited and the launch is set to revolutionize the science world especially in the area of research and investigation. Announcing the launch of the product, Abbkine Scientific reiterated the features and benefits of the Anti-DDDDK Tag Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (1B10), otherwise known as Flag antibody.. The monoclonal antibody is designed to be used for affinity chromatography and the subsequent separation of recombinant, over expressed protein from wild-type protein expressed by the host organism. This is in addition to being a polypeptide protein tag that can be added to a protein by using recombinant DNA technology.. Hosted in mouse, the antibody can also be used in the isolation of protein complexes that have multiple subunits.. Available in a liquid solution, the antibody was affinity-purified from mouse ascites by affinity-chromatography using specific immunogen, which is one of the ...
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IJMS | Free Full-Text | Bispecific Antibodies as a Development Platform for New Concepts and Treatment Strategies | HTML
With the development of molecular cloning technology and the deep understanding of antibody engineering, there are diverse bispecific antibody formats from which to choose to pursue the optimal biological activity and clinical purpose. The single-chain-based bispecific antibodies usually bridge tumor cells with immune cells and form an immunological synapse because of their relatively small size. Bispecific antibodies in the IgG format include asymmetric bispecific antibodies and homodimerized bispecific antibodies, all of which have an extended blood half-life and their own crystalline fragment (Fc)-mediated functions. Besides retargeting effector cells to the site of cancer, new applications were established for bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies that can simultaneously bind to cell surface antigens and payloads are a very ideal delivery system for therapeutic use. Bispecific antibodies that can inhibit two correlated signaling molecules at the same time can be developed to overcome inherent
A novel monoclonal antibody to CD40 prolongs islet allograft survival<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel monoclonal antibody to CD40 prolongs islet allograft survival. AU - Lowe, M.. AU - Badell, I. R.. AU - Thompson, P.. AU - Martin, B.. AU - Leopardi, F.. AU - Strobert, E.. AU - Price, A. A.. AU - Abdulkerim, H. S.. AU - Wang, R.. AU - Iwakoshi, N. N.. AU - Adams, A. B.. AU - Kirk, A. D.. AU - Larsen, C. P.. AU - Reimann, K. A.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - The importance of CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway blockade in immunosuppression strategies is well-documented. Efforts are currently focused on monoclonal antibodies specific for CD40 because of thromboembolic complications associated with monoclonal antibodies directed towards CD154. Here we present the rational development and characterization of a novel antagonistic monoclonal antibody to CD40. Rhesus macaques were treated with the recombinant anti-CD40 mAb, 2C10, or vehicle before immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Treatment with 2C10 successfully inhibited T cell-dependent antibody responses to ...
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RON Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody [SD2006] (ET1612-80) - HUABIO
c met related tyrosine kinase antibody; CD136 antibody; CD136 antigen antibody; CDw136 antibody; Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c met related tyrosine kinase) antibody; Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor antibody; Macrophage stimulating protein receptor alpha chain antibody; MACROPHAGE STIMULATING PROTEIN RECEPTOR antibody; Macrophage stimulating protein receptor beta chain antibody; Macrophage-Stimulating 1 Receptor (MST1R) antibody; Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor beta chain antibody; MSP receptor antibody; Mst1r antibody; MST1R variant RON30 antibody; MST1R variant RON62 antibody; NPCA3 antibody; p185 RON antibody; p185-Ron antibody; Protein-tyrosine kinase 8 antibody; PTK 8 antibody; ptk8 antibody; PTK8 protein tyrosine kinase 8 antibody; Recepteur dorigine nantais (RON) antibody; RON antibody; RON protein tyrosine kinase antibody; RON variant E2E3 antibody; RON_HUMAN antibody; Soluble RON variant 1 antibody; Soluble RON variant 2 antibody; Soluble RON variant 3 antibody; Soluble ...
Bcl10 Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody [SN74-04] (ET1611-79) - HUABIO
AI132454 antibody; B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 antibody; B cell lymphoma/leukemia10 antibody; B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 antibody; B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 antibody; B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 antibody; Bcl 10 antibody; Bcl-10 antibody; Bcl10 antibody; BCL10_HUMAN antibody; c E10 antibody; c-E10 antibody; C81403 antibody; CARD containing apoptotic signaling protein antibody; CARD containing molecule enhancing NF kappa B antibody; CARD containing molecule enhancing NF kB antibody; CARD containing molecule enhancing NF-kB antibody; CARD containing molecule enhancing NFkB antibody; CARD containing proapoptotic protein antibody; CARD like apoptotic protein antibody; CARD-containing apoptotic signaling protein antibody; CARD-containing molecule enhancing NF-kappa-B antibody; CARD-containing proapoptotic protein antibody; CARD-like apoptotic protein antibody; CARMEN antibody; Caspase recruiting domain containing protein antibody; caspase-recruiting domain-containing protein antibody; cCARMEN antibody; cE ...
Webinar: Zumab, Ximab and Umab: Making Sense of Monoclonal Antibodies | APHON
Monoclonal antibodies are a unique class of biological agents that have been developed for autoimmune disease, antitumor and antiplatelet therapy to name a few. Antibodies produced by the body in response to an infection are polyclonal antibodies, meaning the antibodies produced are not identical. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins that are identical and bind to the same antigenic surface marker, thus the term targeted therapy. The naming of monoclonal antibodies is based on the target of the antibody (e.g. tumor, viral) and the source from which the antibody was produced (e.g. murine, human), followed by the mab suffix. While monoclonal antibodies have a wide therapeutic benefit, they have limitations including inability to cross the blood brain barrier and cost.. This presentation will review the history, types and immunogenicity of each type of monoclonal antibody. The nurse will understand the naming nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies and will be able to recognize the action of ...
Specific antibody-blocking activities in antilymphocyte globulin as correlates of efficacy for the treatment of aplastic anemia...
Horse anti-human thoracic duct lymphocyte globulin (ATDLG) has been used successfully for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, although not all lots have comparable efficacy. We have characterized the antibody specificities contained in one lot of Swiss ATDLG found to provide a response rate of 69% and another lot that provided only a 31% response rate. Antibody specificities were analyzed quantitatively by competitive inhibition assays with the use of a panel of fluorescein-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies that recognize T cell antigens, common leukocyte antigens, and la-like antigens. Although there was wide variation in the amounts of individual antibody specificities within each lot, the effective lot of ATDLG contained an average of 2 1/2 times as much of each antibody specificity as the less effective lot. There were only two antibody specificities that differed remarkably from this pattern; and these deviations did not appear sufficient to account for the variation in ATDLG efficacy.
A human monoclonal antibody against HLA-Cw1 and a human monoclonal antibody against an HLA-A locus determinant derived from a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A human monoclonal antibody against HLA-Cw1 and a human monoclonal antibody against an HLA-A locus determinant derived from a single uniparous female. AU - Mulder, A. AU - Kardol, M J. AU - Uit het Broek, C M. AU - Tanke-Visser, J. AU - Young, Neil Thomas. AU - Claas, F H. PY - 1998/10/1. Y1 - 1998/10/1. N2 - Two human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with widely different HLA specificities were raised from a uniparous HLA-seropositive female. Screening against a large panel of serologically HLA-typed lymphocytes in the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test showed that one of these HuMAbs, VP6G3, was specific for HLA-Cw1, thereby constituting the first HuMAb against an HLA-C locus product. The second HuMAb, VP5G3, was directed against an HLA-A-encoded determinant shared by HLA-A11, -A25, -A26 and -A66. The epitopes responsible for binding were determined by comparing the aminoacid sequences and were pinpointed to the 6K/9F combination for HuMAb VP6G3, and 163R with a critical ...
Idiotypic determinants of monoclonal antibodies that bind to 3-fucosyllactosamine. | The Journal of Immunology
Many monoclonal antibodies that react with the lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNF III) antigenic determinant, Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc, have been described recently. The terminal trisaccharide of this determinant, fucosyllactosamine, is present on glycolipids and glycoproteins and on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, and other cells. To study the structural and genetic diversity of these antibodies, syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies were produced in BALB/c mice against PMN 6, a monoclonal antibody directed against this sequence. Anti-idiotypic antibodies 6B1 and 6C4 reacted with 50% of a panel of 20 anti-LNF III monoclonal antibodies, whereas 6A3 reacted strongly only with PMN 6. This indicates that the determinants recognized by 6C4 and 6B1 represent major cross-reactive idiotopes of this family of antibodies. The binding of idiotypic antibodies to a glycolipid bearing this antigenic determinant was completely inhibited by the three anti-idiotypic ...
A Powerful Helper to Epitope-specific Antibody Design Projects-Creative Biolabs - Share Market News Live
October 10, 2019-New York, US Antibodies are crucial tools in scientific researches, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Designing antibodies with desired functions targeting specific epitopes now becomes a powerful prompter in the field of medical research and medicine development. Creative Biolabs, equipped with the first-level technology support and knowledgeable scientists, has launched the one-stop services regarding antibody design, aiming to help clients obtain ideal, highly developable and stable epitope-specific mAbs.. The neo epitope-specific mAbs design services are comprehensive and systematic, mainly made up of antibody structure modelling, antibody-antigen complex analysis, computer-aided affinity maturation, antibody structure determination, and experimental validation.. For the first step antibody structure design modeling, Creative Biolabs provides two approaches: homology modeling and antibody initio (or de novo) modeling. The homology modeling method takes advantage of ...
Brookwood Biomedical: Custom Peptide Synthesis & Antibody Production
BROOKWOOD BIOMEDICAL is a full service antibody development company in Birmingham, Alabama. We offer a range of services including custom peptide design, custom monoclonal antibody and hybridoma development, custom polyclonal antibody development, antibody production, purification, conjugation, and assay design.. In addition to our custom services, we have a wide selection of high quality primary and secondary antibodies. Our primary antibodies include anti-collagen, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies, fluorescent amplification, transcription factor antibodies, and anti-leptin antibodies. We offer a number of different secondary antibodies including anti-monkey and anti-hamster. All of our secondaries are affinity purified and are sold either unlabeled or labeled with Biotin, HRP, Alkaline Phosphatase, Phycoerytherin, Texas Red, FITC, TRITC, APC, or Agarose. Also, F(ab) and F(ab)2 digests of all antibodies are available.. To place an order, please fill out an order form and email to ...
ANTI-IMMUNE COMPLEX ANTIBODIES - Patent application
0073] In such embodiments, the AIC antibody typically is not recognized by the Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G. For example, the AIC antibody can be an antibody fragment or variant that lacks the Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G binding site on the Fc region of the AIC. The AIC can also be of an isotype that is not recognized (specifically bound) by Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G, or the AIC can be an antibody derived from a species that is not recognized by Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G. For example, Protein A, Protein G, and Protein A/G do not show significant binding to chicken antibodies, so the AIC antibody for an immune complex comprising a primary antibody and Protein A, Protein G, or Protein A/G can be derived from a chicken. Protein A does not show significant binding to antibodies from horse, human IgG3, human IgD, mouse IgG1, rat or sheep. Thus, where the immune complex comprises a primary antibody and Protein A, the AIC antibody can be derived from an antibody ...
Protamine-reactive natural IgM antibodies in human sera. Characterization of the epitope demonstrates specificity of antigenic...
We have identified a set of natural IgM antibodies in human serum that are reactive with protamines, a class of low molecular weight basic nucleoproteins that are synthesized de novo in the postpubertal testis and are unique to sperm. Those antibodies were detected by ELISA in significant titer in all of 100 sera of normal adult males and females and in 26 of 28 sera of normal pediatrics aged 7 d to 2 yr. Commonality between the protamine-reactive IgM antibodies of pediatric and adult sera was established by the demonstration of similarity in antigen recognition and reaction kinetics. Therefore, the role of protamines as either immunogenic stimulus or antigenic target of that set of natural antibodies is not likely. The antigenic site recognized by the protein-reactive serum IgM antibodies was characterized by comparison with the pattern of antigen recognition by a monoclonal antibody to human sperm protamines (HPmAb). By the use of synthetic peptides simulating the amino acid sequences of ...
Polyclonal or monoclonal antibody to detect IL-2 in sandwich Elisa? - ELISA and Immunoassay - BioForum
Polyclonal or monoclonal antibody to detect IL-2 in sandwich Elisa? - posted in ELISA and Immunoassay: I can only either use: - polyclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody - monoclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody Im thinking the first since monoclonal capture would be too specific? But the polyclonal and polyclonal one sounds too general and would have lots of non specific binding or binding to other molecules... Thank you so much in advan...
MCM6 and MCM7 monoclonal antibodies and methods for their use in the detection of cervical disease - Patent # 7632498 -...
Compositions and methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease in a patient sample are provided. The compositions include novel monoclonal antibodies, and variants and fragments thereof, that specifically bind to MCM6 or MCM7. Monoclonal antibodies having the binding characteristics of an MCM6 or MCM7 antibody of the invention are further provided. Hybridoma cell lines that produce an MCM6 or MCM7 monoclonal antibody of the invention are also disclosed herein. The compositions find use in practicing methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease comprising detecting overexpression of MCM6, MCM7, or both MCM6 and MCM7 in a cervical sample from a patient. Kits for practicing the methods of the invention are further provided. Polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence for an MCM6 or an MCM7 epitope and methods of using these polypeptides in the production of antibodies are also encompassed by the present invention.
Abbkine launched Anti-Histone H3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (2D10) | Illinois News Desk
The Anti-Histone H3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (2D10) is otherwise known as Hist1h3a antibody getting its name from Histone H3, one of the five major histone proteins. Histone H3 is involved in the structuring of chromatin in eukaryotic cells and a major component of nucleosome. Nucleosome wrap and compact DNA limit DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries requiring DNA as a template. Therefore, histones play a pivotal role in the transcription, regulation, DNA replication, repair and chromosomal stability.. The Histone H3 antibody has a human, mouse, rat and yeast reactivity with recombinant protein immunogen and the mouse as host. The monoclonal antibody has Mouse IgG1 isotype with IF, IP, WB applications. The team at Abbkine has suggested starting dilutions of WB 1:2000-5000, IF:1:100-500, IP 1:200, while reiterating that investigators should determine the optimal working dilutions experimentally.. The product is available in liquid solution and has been affinity-purified from mouse ...
HybriFree: a robust and rapid method for the development of monoclonal antibodies from different host species | BMC...
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are made by identical immune cells and target one particular epitope by monovalent or monospecific affinity. The high affinity and selective binding of MAbs to epitopes in target antigens makes them highly potent tools for use in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. The first working method described for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies was hybridoma technology, based on forming hybrid cell lines (hybridomas) by fusing an antibody-producing B-cell with a myeloma cell . The antibodies produced by a particular hybridoma clone share the same specificity. Thus, individual clones can be screened for the production of an antibody with the desired affinity. However, hybridoma technology has shortcomings: it takes a relatively long time (on the order of months) and has not been widely applied to organisms other than mice. Moreover, antibody sequence information is unavailable by this method. Thus, when a hybridoma-screened antibody is selected for further ...
Antibodies named TcCRA Trypanosoma cruzi Combination Reactive Antibodies were detected in - ALK Mutations Conferring...
Antibodies named TcCRA Trypanosoma cruzi Combination Reactive Antibodies were detected in 47% of bloodstream donors from France population unexposed towards the parasite. in 4 out of 24 patients who received hematopoietic stem cells from positive donors. Here, we are discussing possible scenarios to explain TcCRA-immune status in recipient after transplantation. Introduction In the course of biomarker evaluation of a neglected disease (Chagas disease), we made a remarkable observation of a highly prevalent antibody specificity in unexposed European serum samples. These specific antibodies were named Cross Reactive Antibodies (TcCRA) to stress out the fact that they were induced by another antigen than the one from al 2013 . All the collected samples were tested in duplicate at least one time, if necessary twice, for validation. For some patients we tested serum for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-CMV IgGs. Those assessments were performed by using the corresponding Enzygnost kit from ...
Aniara Marmoset IL-13 ELISA antibody pair
10-plate (plates NOT included). Monoclonal antibody to marmoset interleukin 13 (IL-13); Mouse IgG|sub|1. Biotinylated polyclonal antibody to marmoset interleukin 13 (IL-13); Rabbit IgG. The usefulness of sandwich ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) in cytokine biology is evident from the many reports published on this subject. The assay requires two antibodies (either mono- or polyclonal antibodies) that bind with high affinity to different sites on the cytokine molecule. One of the antibodies is immobilized to the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This so-called capture or coating antibody functions to selectively immobilize the cytokine from crude protein preparations. The second antibody (detection antibody) is labeled with biotin and binds to a different site on the cytokine molecule. Biotin allows the antibody to interact with streptavidin molecules. By using HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled streptavidin, the cytokine can now quantitatively be determined by enzymatic conversion of a
Production and Characterization of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Conformational and Linear Epitopes Localized on...
Background: There are two subclasses of human IgA (IgA1 and IgA2) that differ in antigenic properties and in chemical composition. The constant domains of α1 and α2 heavy chains have |95% sequence homology though major structural differences exist in the hinge region. Quantitation of IgA subclass levels depends on the availability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for conserved conformational or linear epitopes restricted to each subclass. Objective: To produce, select and characterize monoclonal antibodies specific for human IgA2. Methods: Splenocytes from BALB/C mice immunized with a human IgA2 myeloma protein were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Fused cells were grown in hypoxanthine, aminopterine and thymidine (HAT) selective medium and cloned by limiting dilution assay. Antibody (Ab) secreting cells were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the specificity of secreted MAbs was further analyzed, using a panel of purified myeloma proteins and some animal sera by ELISA
Antibodies and Assays from Rockland Immunochemicals
Rockland Immunochemicals specializing in Akt Signaling Antibodies Antibody, Custom Assay Development, Custom Antibody Production, Loading Control Antibodies, DyLight Dye Conjugated Antibodies, Secondary Antibody Conjugates, Custom Monoclonal Antibody Production, Anti-GFP Green Fluorescent Protein, Multiplex Fluorescent Western Blotting Assay, Akt PI3 Kinase Signaling Antibodies, Western Blot Blocking Buffer, Streptavidin Peroxidase HRP ELISA, DyLight Dye Immuno fluorescence microscopy, NFkB p65 Antibody, High Content Screen Assay. Rockland Immunochemicals has supported the life science industry for over 40 years with a full range of the highest quality primary and secondary antibodies, fusion proteins, substrates, standards, and controls for basic research, assay development, and preclinical studies.
Fusion proteins (GST, His, Myc, Beta-Galactosidase, MBP, VSV)-Genemed Synthesis Inc.
Western control BGAL11-C Antibody BGAL11-M Antibody BGAL12-A Antibody conjugate BGAL12-BTN Antibody conjugate BGAL12-FITC Antibody conjugate BGAL12-HRP antiserum BGAL12-S Affinity support BGAL15-AS Rec. protein BGAL15-R Rec. protein EGFP16-R Rec. protein EGFP16-R-100 Kit EK-800-100-GST Kit EW-90110 Affinity support FETB11-AS Western control FETB11-C antibodies FETB11-S Mouse-Monoclonal FITC11-HRP Western control FLAG12-C Rec. protein FLAG15-R Antibody GFP11-A Antibody conjugate GFP11-AP Antibody conjugate GFP11-BTN Western control GFP11-C Antibody conjugate GFP11-FITC Antibody conjugate GFP11-HRP Antibody GFP12-M Rec. protein GFP15-R Rec. protein GFP15-R-100 Affinity support GSSH15-AS Antibody GST11-A Antibody conjugate GST11-AP Western control GST11-C Rec. protein GST11-R antiserum GST11-S Western control GST12-C Antibody GST12-M Antibody GST13-A Affinity support GST13-AS Antibody conjugate GST13-BTN Antibody conjugate GST13-FITC Antibody conjugate GST13-HRP Rec. protein GST13-R Rec. protein GST14-R
Patent US5162504 - Monoclonal antibodies to a new antigenic marker in epithelial prostatic ... - Google Patents
Monoclonal antibodies to prostatic cells, are produced by a hybridoma formed by fusing mouse lymphocytes and mouse myeloma cells. The monoclonal antibodies show specificity for a non-soluble, membrane associated, organ specific antigenic determinant limited in its distribution to normal and neoplastic, human prostate epithelial cells. The monoclonal antibodies, specifically 7E11-C5 monoclonal antibodies, may be suitable for diagnostic uses.
KBPA-101 is a human monoclonal antibody from the immunoglobulin M isotype, - PARG inhibitors in cancer therapy
KBPA-101 is a human monoclonal antibody from the immunoglobulin M isotype, which is directed against the O-polysaccharide moiety of serotype O11. mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. The mean eradication XAV 939 half-life was between 70 and 95 h. The mean level of distribution was between 4.76 and 5.47 liters. Clearance ranged between 0.039 and 0.120 liters/h. At the best dosage of 4.0 mg/kg, plasma KBPA-101 amounts were higher than 5,000 ng/ml for two weeks. KBPA-101 exhibited linear kinetics across all dosages. No anti-KBPA-101 antibodies had been recognized after dosing in virtually any subject. General, the human being monoclonal antibody KBPA-101 was well tolerated over the complete dosage range in healthful volunteers, no significant adverse events have already been reported. Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) attacks are in charge of an increasing amount of significant secondary ailments in a healthcare facility environment. Immunocompromised people including burn off victims, incubated ...
Antinuclear Antibodies - Noble Medical Care
The immune system makes an abundance of proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are made by white blood cells (B cells). The antibodies recognize and combat infectious organisms (germs) in the body. Antibodies develop in our immune system to help the body fight infectious organisms. When an antibody recognizes the foreign proteins of an infectious organism, it recruits other proteins and cells to fight off the infection. This cascade of attack is called inflammation.. Sometimes these antibodies make a mistake, identifying normal, naturally-occurring proteins in our bodies as being foreign and dangerous. When these antibodies make incorrect calls, identifying a naturally-occurring protein (or self protein) as foreign, they are called autoantibodies. Autoantibodies start the cascade of inflammation, causing the body to attack itself. The antibodies that target normal proteins within the nucleus of a cell are called antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Most of us have autoantibodies, but typically in ...
Anti-CARS antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered...
Anti-CARS antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution; Synonyms: Anti-Cysteine--tRNA ligase antibody produced in rabbit,Anti-CysRS antibody produced in rabbit,Anti-Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic antibody produced in rabbit; find Sigma-Aldrich-HPA002384 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody In The Us - Kim Gevaert (Athletics)
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the rabbit monoclonal antibody in the us reagents distributed by Genprice. The Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody In The Us reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact rabbit Antibody. Other Rabbit products are available in stock. Specificity: Rabbit Category: Monoclonal Group: Antibody In. Antibody In information ...
High-throughput analysis of antigen-specific antibody effector function from polyclonal Ig / by Eric Brown :: Dartmouth...
Antibodies are known to be a primary correlate of protection in almost all current vaccines, and thus evaluating the antibody response is of critical importance in attempting to predict the efficacy of novel vaccine candidates. Historically antibody responses have generally been detected by measuring the titer (amount of antibody present against a specific antigen) using measurements such as an ELISA or aggluttination assay. In this simple case a high enough level of antibody against the vaccine antigen is sufficient to predict protection. However antibody titer only evaluates one half of the function of antibody, which is dependent on both the variable region (Fv) to bind the antigen target, and the constant region (Fc) to elicit an effector response from other arms of the immune system. In the case of some diseases for which an effective vaccine has so far proven elusive, such as HIV, effector function has been shown to be an important driver of viral control in infected patients, and of ...
Novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: synergy and antagonism with tumor necrosis factor-α | BMC Cancer | Full Text
One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2
Frontiers | Repertoire analysis of antibody CDR-H3 loops suggests affinity maturation does not typically result in...
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibodys antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions, and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop
Fully Human Monoclonal Antibodies Antagonizing the Glucagon Receptor Improve Glucose Homeostasis in Mice and Monkeys | Journal...
Anti-glucagon antibodies have shown some efficacy in animal models (Brand et al., 1994, 1996; Sørensen et al., 2006a); however, daily injections of high doses of antibodies were required (Sørensen et al., 2006). The lack of long-term efficacy of the antibody on blood glucose lowering is probably due to a compensatory mechanism involving oversecretion of endogenous glucagon in response to the reduction of glucagon receptor signaling. Increases in circulating glucagon levels have been reported with all modalities blocking the glucagon signaling pathway, which presents technical challenges for both small-molecule GCGR inhibitors and glucagon-neutralizing mAb approaches.. Despite rising glucagon levels, treatment with neutralizing hGCGR mAbs maintained glucose-lowering efficacy. These anti-GCGR mAbs have several desirable attributes as potential therapeutic agents compared with previously pursued approaches. First, mAb B showed a higher affinity than glucagon to the GCGR (Kd = 36 pM versus Kd = ...
Anti-MICAL1 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody | VWR
Rabbit polyclonal antibody to CYR61 (cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61)IgGy Antibody Selector - Quickly search hundreds of thousands of antibodies available for purchase from VWR by selecting common antibody features like antigen symbol and name, reactivity, clonality, conjugation, host, and other key factors. Antibodies used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins in common applications such as Western Blot, ELISA, ImmunoChemistry and Flow Cytometry are all available for your research.
Comparison of Plasma & SMARTplasma for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Testing - Full...
Following exposure to HIV and HCV, there is a window period where a person is infected with the virus but does not produce antibodies at a high enough level so they can be detected by antibody detection test methods. During this time, the person is capable of unknowingly transmitting the virus to others. SMARTstim (SMARTube)is a blood sample additive which pre-treats blood, stimulating antibody production in vitro so as to bring it to detectable levels using ELISA (or any other antibody test method). Accelerated antibody production allows antibody detection in specimens that would otherwise be below the detectable limit of antibody test kits. Plasma samples from blood pretreated with SMARTstim are referred to as SMARTplasma.. A total of 1,600 blood samples will be collected and tested using an ELISA for HIV and HCV using FDA-approved test kits. The populations include:. ...
Polyclonal antibody | definition of polyclonal antibody by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of polyclonal antibody in the Medical Dictionary? polyclonal antibody explanation free. What is polyclonal antibody? Meaning of polyclonal antibody medical term. What does polyclonal antibody mean?
Mouse monoclonal antibodies to chicken vh idiotypic determinants react by T C. Chanh, C H. Chen et al.
Chanh, T C.; Chen, C H.; and Cooper, M D., Mouse monoclonal antibodies to chicken vh idiotypic determinants reactivity with b and t cells. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1333 ...
The Prevalence of Antibodies Against Wheat and Milk Proteins in Blood by Aristo Vojdani, Datis Kharrazian et al.
The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to be involved in neuroimmune disorders, we measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against various neural antigens. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 400 donors to wheat and milk proteins, GAD-65, cerebellar, MBP, and MOG. Statistical analysis showed significant clustering when certain wheat and milk protein antibodies were cross-referenced with neural antibodies. Approximately half of the sera with antibody elevation against gliadin reacted significantly with GAD-65 and cerebellar peptides; about half of the sera with elevated antibodies against α + β-casein and milk butyrophilin also showed antibody elevation against MBP and MOG. Inhibition studies showed that only two out of four of the samples with elevated cerebellar or MOG antibodies could be inhibited by
Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Norge
Browse our MACS® Antibodies perfectly suited for the identification and enumeration of human, mouse, rat, or non-human primate cells by flow cytometry or microscopy. Our REAfinity™ Antibodies are recombinantly engineered to provide highly specific antibodies that no longer need a Fcγ receptor blocking step and require only one isotype control, saving you time and effort. The Vio® Dye family of fluorochromes are ideal for your multicolor flow analysis due to their high fluorescence intensities and low spillover. Working with a dim antigen or rare cells? VioBright™FITC gives you greater flexibility in your multicolor panel design with brightness similar to PE.. Cant find the marker and dye combination you need? Use our Custom Antibody Design Service. ...
What we can learn from sharks: Ancient antibodies - The Brain Bank North West
The typical method for producing these antibodies is to first induce their production in a model organism, such as a mouse, then extract cells from the mouses spleen, fuse them with a myeloma (a benign cancer cell that divides rapidly) and then use this hybrid cell (known as a hybridoma) to produce many copies of the antibody. Following this the antibodies must be carefully purified before they can be used.. This is a complicated process and fraught with difficulties, getting mice to make the right antibodies and producing the hybridoma is difficult enough for a start. A better approach is to produce recombinant antibodies by inserting DNA encoding them into model cells such as E-coli or yeast, which are much easier to handle. A big advantage here is that it is also possible to make human antibodies, critical for any clinical work. However this synthetic approach is still tough as many recombinant antibodies are not stable enough to survive purification.. This is where the sharks come in. ...
AB5776 - EMD Millipore SOX11 antibody | Antibodypedia
Maintain unopened vial at -70°C for up to 6 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. PREPARATION AND USE: To reconstitute the antibody, centrifuge the antibody vial at moderate speed (5,000 rpm) for 5 minutes to pellet the precipitated antibody product. Carefully remove the ammonium sulfate/PBS buffer solution and discard. It is not necessary to remove all of the ammonium sulfate/PBS solution: 10 µL of residual ammonium sulfate solution will not affect the resuspension of the antibody. Do not let the protein pellet dry, as severe loss of antibody reactivity can occur. Resuspend the antibody pellet in a suitable biological buffer such as PBS or TBS (pH 7.3-7.5) to a final concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. For example, to achieve a 1.0 mg/mL concentration with 50 µg of precipitated antibody, the amount of buffer needed would be 50 µL. Carefully add the liquid buffer to the pellet. DO NOT VORTEX. Mix by gentle stirring with a wide pipet tip or gentle finger-tapping. Let the precipitated antibody ...
immunology - What is the use of an antibody that is non-neutralizing? - Biology Stack Exchange
Neutralizing is not a general concept; its context-dependent. Most often (in virology anyway) it means that the antibodies, by themselves in a tissue culture plate, can prevent infection of the cells by the virus. Many antibodies that are non-neutralizing in tissue culture are probably protective in the animal, in the context of complement and phagocytic cells and so on. That said, theres no reason why antibodies should be protective, let alone neutralizing. Antibodies dont arise in a guided manner with foreknowledge; antibody development is driven by physical interactions between the antibody and its binding partner. If they happen to arise to something irrelevant -- an internal protein of a virus, or a pollen grain, perhaps -- then they can still be driven through priming and development and maturation and still be functionally useless, or even harmful. On top of that, of course it would be beneficial for pathogens to be resistant to antibodies, and at least a few have evolved this ...
Guinea pig monoclonal antibodies : a new promising tool for R&D, IVD and therapeutics - SYNGULAR ANTIBODIES
Monoclonal antibodies development has been limited for a long time to only two species : mice and rats. However, the immune systems of mice and rats are not the most suitable in terms of humoral response to certain antigens, such as human antigens like glucagon. Indeed, the protein sequence of glucagon is the same in mice, rats and human (fig. 1). Small not immunogenic antigens, such as antibiotics or toxins, generally failed to trigger an immune response in such species. This is why some companies have developed fusion cell lines to generate monoclonal antibodies in rabbit (Abcam-Epitomics) or in sheep (Bioventix). However, these two tools are not totally satisfactory whether in terms of cost, stability or productivity. SynAbs has therefore opted to develop its own myeloma cell line to manufacture guinea pig monoclonal antibodies and offer more efficient investigation tools for researchers. ...
Hemagglutinin/HA Antibodies | Sino Biological
Antibodies against Hemagglutinin/HA are validated for multiple applications,including WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IP, IHC-P, ELISA(Det), FCM, ELISA(Cap), Microneutralizaiton(MN), HemagglutininInhibition(HI), B/N. There are 20 recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies, 43 mouse monoclonal antibodies, 1 chimeric antibodies, 99 rabbit polyclonal antibodies.
Synthetic Peptide Antibodies
shark at sam.neosoft.com (John D. Valentich) wrote: , , We have recently started preparing polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against synthetic peptides , from annexins and phospholipase A2 activating protein (PLAP). Peptides were , conjugated to the carrier BSA. We are wondering about the problem of , antibodies generated against BSA reacting with serum albumin or albumin-like , epitopes in other cellular proteins. Questions: , , 1. Is it likely (or inevitable) that our antisera will contain high titer , antibodies against BSA? Could they be expected to cross react with other , non-albumin cellular proteins? They will almost certainly react with albumin. , , 2. If so, is the best (or only?) solution to this problem affinity purification of annexin or PLAP , antibodies from the antisera? Affinity purification should work. You could also adsorb the antisera with BSA and hope to remove many of the cross-reacting antibodies. Its probably too late now but you can use keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) ...
Dema B, Charles N (January 2016). "Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes and Receptors". Antibodies. 5 (1): 2. doi: ...
The specificity of this test is >98%. Thus, a positive anti-centromere antibody finding is strongly suggestive of limited ... Anti-centromere antibodies are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those ... Anti-centromere antibodies present early in the course of disease and are notably predictive of limited cutaneous involvement ... Anti-centromere antibodies (ACAs; often styled solid, anticentromere) are autoantibodies specific to centromere and kinetochore ...
Cell-free protein array
Other applications include enzymatic inhibition assays and screenings of antibody specificity. The runaway success of DNA ... screening antibody specificity. Stevens, R. C. (2000). "Design of high-throughput methods of protein production for structural ... Here the DNA was immobilized in the well together with an anti-GST antibody. Then cell-free expression mix was added and the ... Many proteins, including antibodies, are difficult to express in host cells due to problems with insolubility, disulfide bonds ...
An antibody can be called monospecific if it has specificity for the same antigen or epitope, or bispecific if they have ... antibody Neutralizing antibody Optimer Ligand Secondary antibodies Single-domain antibody Slope spectroscopy Synthetic antibody ... Antibody fragments, such as Fab and nanobodies are not considered as antibody mimetics. Common advantages over antibodies are ... Affimer Anti-mitochondrial antibodies Anti-nuclear antibodies Antibody mimetic Aptamer Colostrum ELISA Humoral immunity ...
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
... with antibodies to multiple antigenic targets). p-ANCA with MPO specificity is found in 50% of microscopic polyangiitis, 50% of ... Classical p-ANCA occurs with antibodies directed to MPO. p-ANCA without nuclear extension occurs with antibodies to BPI, ... Sinclair, D; Stevens, JM (Sep 2007). "Role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and glomerular basement membrane antibodies ... Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the ...
Monoclonal antibody therapy
... which consist of three antibody hypervariable amino acid domains responsible for the antibody specificity embedded into ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ...
Bispecific antibodies combine two different antigen binding specificities within one molecule. The bispecific antibodies are ... Recombinant antibodies are antibody fragments produced by using recombinant antibody coding genes. They mostly consist of a ... a group including Fab fragment antibodies, antibodies binding to idiotope outside of the drug binding site and antibodies, ... Fab fragment antibodies can be used for detection of not bound drugs or free drugs in the serum. Fab antibodies have also been ...
Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies
Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (2005). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. 1975". ... Other antibody parts (such as Fc regions) and antibody mimetics use different naming schemes. For antibodies named until early ... ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. Purely human antibodies used -u-. Rat/mouse hybrid antibodies can be ... This means that antibodies with the same source and target substems are only distinguished by their prefix. Even antibodies ...
Bispecific monoclonal antibody
"Recombination of a mixture of univalent antibody fragments of different specificity". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... Bispecific monoclonal antibody entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Bispecific+antibodies at the US ... The most common types are called trifunctional antibodies, as they have three unique binding sites on the antibody: the two Fab ... Suurs FV, Lub-de Hooge MN, de Vries EG, de Groot DJ (September 2019). "A review of bispecific antibodies and antibody ...
Dema, Barbara; Charles, Nicolas (4 January 2016). "Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes, and Receptors". Antibodies. ... Anti-histone antibodies can be used as a marker for drug-induced lupus. Anti-histone antibodies target 5 major classes of ... Anti-histone antibodies are autoantibodies that are a subset of the anti-nuclear antibody family, which specifically target ... Anti-histone antibodies are diverse, so aside from targeting the protein subunits, different antibodies may also be specific ...
"RBPDB: The database of RNA-binding protein specificities". "Anti-TMEM171 Antibody". Sigma-Aldrich. Swiss Institute of ... November 2008). "A comprehensive functional analysis of tissue specificity of human gene expression". BMC Biology. 6 (1): 49. ...
Antibodies show a strong correlation between rigidity and specificity. This correlation extends far beyond the paratope of the ... Bond specificity, unlike group specificity, recognizes particular chemical bond types. This differs from group specificity, as ... Immunostaining utilizes the chemical specificity of antibodies in order to detect a protein of interest at the cellular level. ... Tanford, Charles (1968). "Chemical basis for antibody diversity and specificity". Accounts of Chemical Research. 1 (6): 161-167 ...
Problematic with AGA is the typical sensitivity and specificity was about 85%. Gliadin peptides which are synthesized as the ... Clinically these antibodies and IgG antibodies to gliadin are abbreviated as AGA. The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but ... Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The IgE antibodies are more typically found ... removal of gluten results in the benign circulation of antibodies. The half life of these antibodies is typically 120 days. ...
AbC-19 rapid antibody test
The sensitivity of this test is 98.03% while the specificity is 99.56%. This test is paired with an easy-to-use mobile app ... It uses a lateral flow test to determine whether a person has IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The ... The AbC-19 rapid antibody test is an immunological test for COVID-19 exposure developed by the UK Rapid Test Consortium and ... COVID-19 rapid antigen test "AbC-19™ , COVID-19 Rapid Antibody Test and Certificate Solution , IgG". Abingdon Health plc. ...
Gregson NA, Koblar S, Hughes RA (1993). "Antibodies to gangliosides in Guillain-Barré syndrome: specificity and relationship to ... These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells. These antibodies show highest association with certain forms ... Antibodies levels correlate with more severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. Levels of anti-GM1 antibodies are especially elevated in ... In vivo studies of isolated anti-GM1 and GD3 antibodies indicate the antibodies can interfere with motor neuron function. Anti- ...
The kinetoplast fluoresces if serum contains high avidity anti-dsDNA antibodies. This test has a higher specificity than EIA ... EIA detects low and high avidity anti-dsDNA antibodies, increasing its sensitivity and reducing its specificity. Flow cytometry ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies can be present in normal individuals, however these antibodies are usually low avidity IgM isotype. In ...
Antibodies have successfully been raised against endogenous & unreactive small molecules such as some neurotransmitters (e.g. ... Based on K. Landsteiner, 1962, The Specificity of Serologic Reactions, Dover Press Tagliaferro, P; Tandler, C.J; Ramos, A.J; ... They have been used to evaluate the properties of specific epitopes and antibodies. They are important in the purification and ... In inhibition, free hapten molecules bind with antibodies toward that molecule without causing the immune response, leaving ...
They also contribute to the specificity of each antibody. In a variable domain, the 3 HV segments of each heavy or light chain ... In antibodies, hypervariable regions form the antigen-binding site and are found on both light and heavy chains. ... Antibodies are remarkably specific, thanks to hypervariable regions in both light and heavy chains. The hyperbariable regions ...
The specificity of the binding is due to specific chemical constitution of each antibody. The antigenic determinant or epitope ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... The principles of specificity and cross-reactivity of the antigen-antibody interaction are useful in clinical laboratory for ... Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. The ...
Monoclonal antibodies, on the other hand, all bind the same epitope with high specificity. They can be produced with the ... Not all antibodies that bind a pathogenic particle are neutralizing. Non-neutralizing antibodies, or binding antibodies, bind ... A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from a pathogen or infectious particle by neutralizing any ... Neutralizing antibodies may also assist the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Although this type of antibody has the ability to ...
Lipid bilayer fusion
Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ... Wilschut, Jan; Duezguenes, Nejat; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios (1981). "Calcium/magnesium specificity in membrane fusion: ... AND SPECIFICITY". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (40): 37272-37279. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204257200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... More recently[when?] work has been undertaken to graft antibodies or other molecular markers onto the liposome surface in the ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ...
Georges J. F. Köhler
G. Köhler & C. Milstein (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... Milstein and Köhler's technique for producing monoclonal antibodies laid the foundation for the exploitation of antibodies for ... He not only worked hard for refining antibodies but also gave his time to his family. George moonlighted as a taxi driver to ... It was during this work that they devised their hybridoma technique for the production of antibodies. Köhler continued his ...
The major advantage of NChIP is antibody specificity. It is important to note that most antibodies to modified histones are ... The antibodies are commonly coupled to agarose, sepharose, or magnetic beads. Alternatively, chromatin-antibody complexes can ... The chromatin-antibody complex is selectively retained by the disc and eluted to obtain enriched DNA for downstream ... This is because antibodies have to be generated for each TF, or, alternatively, transgenic model organisms expressing epitope- ...
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... SeV antibodies that cross-reactive with HPIV-1 antibodies are present in most people, however, majority of people do not have ... Instead, it can be measured using anti-glycan antibodies, and despite the large collection of such antibodies in a community ... and from antibodies-online.com (No. ABIN6737444) . Monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) to F-protein are available from Kerafast ( ...
It is an antibody to EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule). BerEp4 has a high sensitivity and specificity in being positive ... Ordóñez, Nelson G. (1998). "Value of the Ber-EP4 Antibody in Differentiating Epithelial Pleural Mesothelioma From ...
1975 in science
Kohler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ... César Milstein and Georges Köhler report their discovery of how to use hybridoma cells to isolate monoclonal antibodies, ... effectively beginning the history of monoclonal antibody use in science. Living specimens of the Chacoan Peccary (Catagonus ...
Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease
Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. ... The monoclonal antibody infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody to TNF-α. The FDA approved it in 1998, making it the ... they can prompt an immunological response causing the development of anti-drug antibodies. Anti-drug antibodies can cause ... The use of antibodies to treat diseases can be traced all the way back to the late 1800s with the advent of diphtheria ...
Timeline of immunology
Köhler, G; Milstein, C (7 August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". ... I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 157 (4): 1149-69. doi:10.1084/jem.157.4.1149. ... Antibody production in plasma B cells (Astrid Fagraeus) 1949 - Growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization, and ... Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Beginning of humoral theory of immunity. (Emil von ...
... an antibody). Owing to their high affinity and specificity, antibodies have been considered as suitable vehicles for imaging ... Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". ... Owing to the high molecular weight of antibodies and the Fc domain of the antibody, a slow clearance from the blood and non- ... However, these types of antibodies turned out to be quite troublesome, due to the triggering of the human anti-murine antibody ...
Tests such as ELISA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially, but lack specificity ... "Persistence of Antibodies to 2 Virus-Like Particle Norovirus Vaccine Candidate Formulations in Healthy Adults: 1-Year Follow-up ...
As of 2015 antibodies for ICOS were not available for clinical testing. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163600 - Ensembl, ... binding specificity and function of human ICOS". European Journal of Immunology. 30 (12): 3707-17. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200012 ... In agreement with reduced Th2 responses, ICOS-/- mice expressed reduced germinal center formation and IgG1 and IgE antibody ... Handbook of Therapeutic Antibodies (2 ed.). Weinheim, Bergstr: Wiley-VCH. pp. 1088-9. ISBN 978-3527329373. Sharma P, Allison JP ...
... or indirectly with streptavidin or antibodies, if biotin-dUTP or BrdUTP are used, respectively. The most sensitive of them is ... "Importance of DNA fragmentation in apoptosis with regard to TUNEL specificity". Biomed Pharmacother. 52 (6): 252-8. doi:10.1016 ...
Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow ... May 1999). "Sulfotransferases of two specificities function in the reconstitution of high endothelial cell ligands for L- ... Tindle RW, Nichols RA, Chan L, Campana D, Catovsky D, Birnie GD (1985). "A novel monoclonal antibody BI-3C5 recognises ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ...
Studies have shown that S1 domain induced IgG and IgA antibody levels at a much higher capacity. It is the focus spike proteins ... Due to overlap with other infections such as adenovirus, imaging without confirmation by rRT-PCR is of limited specificity in ... Detection of a past infection is possible with serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response to ... It is unknown whether different persons use similar antibody genes in response to COVID‑19. The severity of the inflammation ...
This approach depended on the use of antibodies to cell surface glycoproteins or "markers" that might identify specialized ... Ly phenotypes predict both function and specificity for major histocompatibility complex products. Immunogenetics 1983;17:147. ...
Ranid herpesvirus 1
The virus appears to have specificity for renal tissues within the species Rana pipiens. It is possible that this is because ... even in the absence of antibodies. This is also seen in the studies in which warm frogs nearly devoid of tumors are cooled down ...
First, antibodies with high specificities for plant SPS also target the bacterial SPS, indicating the structure is conserved ... enough for the antibody to recognize the enzyme as an antigen. Furthermore, genomic studies reveal that closely related plant ...
Placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1)
The specificities were 95%, 72%, and 73% for PAMG-1, fFN and CL, respectively. The NPVs were 96%, 87%, and 89% for PAMG-1, fFN ... capability of the PAMG-1 protein has originally been used by an immunoassay that employs a series of monoclonal antibodies ( ... specificity for ≤7 and ≤14 days, respectively. A second peer-reviewed, published study by this same group of authors involved ... with respect to SP specificity and PPV positive predictive value (P < 0.01) provides evidence toward being able to ...
This peptide-to-antibody conjugation is validated in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation (IP), immunocytochemistry (IHC), and ... This is advantageous to offer stringent specificity to the NE-tagged proteins, which are readily to be detected, quantitated, ... The NE-tag can be specifically detected using a monoclonal anti-NE detection antibody - an affinity-purified mouse ...
An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ... presence of excess protein in the urine and fever can indicate Lassa fever with higher specificity. In cases in which death ...
Pattern recognition receptor
They are classified according to their ligand specificity, function, localization and/or evolutionary relationships. Based on ... including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy and cancer vaccines. ...
There he performed a number of studies on the immunological specificity and chemical nature of antibodies and antigens and ... Ostromislensky investigated the possibility of synthesis of antibodies in vitro and proposed a theory of antibody synthesis, ... which is regarded as one of the first versions of the so-called matrix theory of antibody synthesis. The theory had strong ...
... weakened immune systems without specificity to a toxin, and as allergens or irritants. Some mycotoxins are harmful to other ... "Development of an immuno-electrochemical glass carbon electrode sensor based on graphene oxide/gold nanocomposite and antibody ...
One drawback to shielding the drug from the outside cells is that it no longer has specificity, and requires coupling to extra ... antibodies to be able to target a biological site. Due to their low stability, liposome-based nanoparticles for drug delivery ...
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
... the samples are labelled with a fluorescent dye using an antibody for specificity and then finally loaded into a microcapillary ... method combines amplification with a novel technology called surround optical fiber immunoassay and some specific antibodies ...
Type 1 regulatory T cell
... and enhances the antigen-specific T-cell response which is necessary for Tr1 cells antigen specificity. CD49b belongs to the ... "Correlation of allergen-specific IgG subclass antibodies and T lymphocyte cytokine responses in children with multiple food ...
They may directly activate B cells, regardless of their antigenic specificity. Plasma cells are terminally differentiated and, ... or antibodies. Mitogens are often used to stimulate lymphocytes and thereby assess immune function. The most commonly used ...
Modification-specific antibodies in turn, are used to immunoprecipitate the DNA-histone complexes. Following ... which cleaves DNA in a low sequence specificity manner. Such hypersensitive sites were thought to be transcriptionally active ...
Separate and overlapping specificities in rheumatoid arthritis antibodies binding to citrulline- and homocitrulline-containing ... Antibodies binding to homocitrulline-containing sequences have been found in rheumatoid arthritis patients' sera More recently ... Turunen, S., Koivula, M.-K., Risteli, L. and Risteli, J. (2010), Anticitrulline antibodies can be caused by homocitrulline- ... Homocitrulline has been suggested as a confounding antigen for rheumatoid arthritis antibodies targeting citrullinated proteins ...
Reverse phase protein lysate microarray
Thus, the antibodies used in RPMA must be carefully validated for specificity and performance against cell lysates by western ... Strips with single band indicate specific antibodies that are suitable for RPMA use. Antibody performance should be also ... In addition, finding the appropriate antibody could require extensive screening of many antibodies by western blotting prior to ... two open resource databases have been created to display western blot results for antibodies that have good binding specificity ...
The Weil-Felix antibody was recently found to target rickettsia LPS O-antigen. The basis of the test is the presence of ... The Weil-Felix test suffers from poor sensitivity and specificity, with a recent study showing an overall sensitivity as low as ... Weil-Felix is a nonspecific agglutination test which detects anti-rickettsial antibodies in patient's serum. Weil-Felix test is ... As a result, it has largely been supplanted by other methods of serology, including indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) ...
Photonic crystal sensor
The specificity and sensitivity can be controlled by the appropriate choice of materials and their interaction with the ... A large range of analytes of biological interest such as proteins, DNA, cancer cells, glucose and antibodies can be detected ... In ion-containing hydrogels, their selective swelling results in their specificity. Applications in gaseous and aqueous ... Emiliyanov, Grigoriy; Høiby, Poul; Pedersen, Lars; Bang, Ole (2013-03-08). "Selective Serial Multi-Antibody Biosensing with ...
Function-spacer-lipid Kode construct
Nadarajan, V.S.; Laing, A. A.; Saad, S. M.; Usin, M (2011). "Prevalence and specificity of red-blood-cell antibodies in a ... FSL have been used to create human red cell kodecytes that have been used to detect and identify blood group allo-antibodies as ... FSL blood group A as a solution has been used to neutralise circulating antibodies in a mouse model and allow incompatible ... This model experiment was used to demonstrate the potential of FSLs to neutralise circulating antibody and allow for ...
Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... These findings were published in Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB). Alan Hall showed the specificity of Rho in the ... providing specificity. In the same year, Hall investigated the role of the small GTPase Ral in neurite branching. After ... yet very little investigation into the way in which specificity of the pathway is maintained. It was known at this point that ...
Risk factors of schizophrenia
The relevance of some auto-antibodies that act against the NMDAR and VGKC is being studied. Current estimates suggest that ... Bentall RP, Fernyhough C (August 2008). "Social Predictors of Psychotic Experiences: Specificity and Psychological Mechanisms ... Torrey EF, Bartko JJ, Lun ZR, Yolken RH (May 2007). "Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta- ... In a meta-analysis of several studies, they found moderately higher levels of Toxoplasma antibodies in those with schizophrenia ...
... which use DNA-barcoded antibodies. A different approach uses a combination of heavy-metal RNA probes and protein antibodies to ... Specificity, and Excellent Scalability". PLOS ONE. 9 (4): e95192. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995192A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095192 ...
Heizmann B, Reth M, Infantino S (Oct 2010). "Syk is a dual-specificity kinase that self-regulates the signal output from the B- ... However, the presence of both the CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines were required for normal T cell dependent antibody responses. ...
In general, small molecular inhibitors are difficult in terms of specificity along with unendurable side effects. Antibodies ... would be the specificity and diversity of targets it can affect compared to what is currently being used such as antibodies or ... Also, producing miRNA therapeutically lacks in specificity because only 6-8 nucleotide base pairing is required for miRNA to ... in order to effectively position the RNaseIII domains and thus control the specificity of the sRNA products. The helicase ...
Figure 2 - Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin - Volume 27, Number 1-January 2021 -...
The specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in the fluorescent antibody test for malaria parasites in mice / by F....
Side by side comparison of three fully automated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays with a focus on specificity | medRxiv
Side by side comparison of three fully automated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays with a focus on specificity. View ORCID Profile ... Side by side comparison of three fully automated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays with a focus on specificity ... Side by side comparison of three fully automated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays with a focus on specificity ... Side by side comparison of three fully automated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays with a focus on specificity ...
Specificity and durability of antibody responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) immunised with Vibrio anguillarum O2b -...
Specificity and durability of antibody responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) immunised with Vibrio anguillarum O2b. ... Specificity and durability of antibody responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) immunised with Vibrio anguillarum O2b. ... Specificity and durability of antibody responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) immunised with Vibrio anguillarum O2b ...
Use of a Mouse Model to Determine the Specificity of an Elisa Assay Designed to Detect Antibodies Against Erysipelothrix...
Monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity for hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants can recognize viral...
T1 - Monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity for hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants can recognize viral ... title = "Monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity for hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants can recognize viral ... Monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity for hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants can recognize viral ... Monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity for hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants can recognize viral ...
The effect of different immunisation schedules on the specificity of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to potato cyst nematode<...
The effect of different immunisation schedules on the specificity of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to potato cyst nematode. In: ... The effect of different immunisation schedules on the specificity of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to potato cyst nematode. ... The effect of different immunisation schedules on the specificity of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to potato cyst nematode. / ... The effect of different immunisation schedules on the specificity of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to potato cyst nematode. ...
Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin
Antibodies, Viral Coronavirus Infections COVID-19 Humans SARS-CoV-2 Sensitivity And Specificity Serologic Tests ... Title : Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin Personal Author(s) : Yadouleton, Anges; ... Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin. ... Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin ...
High Affinity and Specificity PSMC3 Polyclonal Antibody E-AB-64570 at Elabscience.com
Our PSMC3 Polyclonal Antibody price is reasonable. Check more details about PSMC3 Polyclonal Antibody now. ... Antibodies. Flow Cytometry Antibodies Polyclonal Antibody Monoclonal Antibody Virus Antibody Secondary Antibody KO Validated ... Acetyl Phospho Methyl Antibody Ready-to-Use Antibodies Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Kits. SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kit ELISA Kits Food ... IHC Validated Antibodies Cancer Research Antibodies SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test TUNEL Assay Kit Immunology Related Reagents ...
Table 1 - Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin - Volume 27, Number 1-January 2021 -...
Recombinant Anti-CD13 antibody [EPR4058] KO Tested (ab108310) | Abcam
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal CD13 antibody [EPR4058]. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, ... Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Anti-CD13 antibody [EPR4058] - Low endotoxin, Azide free (ab227111) *Anti-CD13 antibody [EPR4058] - BSA and Azide free ( ...
Revised Guidelines for HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral
... result of antibodies induced by the introduction of antigens or microorganisms into the host. Specificity:. The probability ... More correctly referred to as an HIV antibody test, the HIV test is a laboratory procedure that detects antibodies to HIV, ... A laboratory test that detects specific antibodies to components of a virus. Chiefly used to confirm HIV antibodies in ... Participants in HIV vaccine trials. HIV-vaccine--induced antibodies may be detected by current HIV tests and may cause a false- ...
Anti-CD3d Antibody, clone 1H2 ZooMAb® Rabbit Monoclonal recombinant, expressed in HEK 293 cells | Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-CD3d Antibody, clone 1H2 ZooMAb® Rabbit Monoclonal recombinant, expressed in HEK 293 cells; find Sigma-Aldrich-ZRB1295 ... Specificity. Clone 1H2 is a ZooMAb® rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibody that specifically detects human T-cell surface ... ZooMAb® antibodies represent an entirely new generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies.. Each ZooMAb® antibody is ... Each antibody is validated for high specificity and affinity across multiple applications, including its most commonly used ...
Usefulness in clinical practice of a point-of-care rapid test for simultaneous detection of nontreponemal and Treponema...
... immunochromatographic dual test for the simultaneous detection of both nontreponemal and Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies ... nontreponemal antibodies; point-of-care; rapid test; sensitivity; specificity. ... The sensitivity, the specificity, and its concordance to gold standard serology of treponemal line were high, around 90%. The ... Keywords: Syphilis; Treponema pallidum; Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies; diagnosis; ...
Production and specificity of mono and polyclonal antibodies against microcystins conjugated through N-methyldehydroalanine<...
Production and specificity of mono and polyclonal antibodies against microcystins conjugated through N-methyldehydroalanine. ... Production and specificity of mono and polyclonal antibodies against microcystins conjugated through N-methyldehydroalanine. I ... Production and specificity of mono and polyclonal antibodies against microcystins conjugated through N-methyldehydroalanine. / ... Production and specificity of mono and polyclonal antibodies against microcystins conjugated through N-methyldehydroalanine. ...
Antibody - Wikipedia
Specificity designationsEdit. An antibody can be called monospecific if it has specificity for the same antigen or epitope, ... Antibody fragments, such as Fab and nanobodies are not considered as antibody mimetics. Common advantages over antibodies are ... Antibody mimeticEdit. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds, like antibodies, that can specifically bind antigens. They ... Asymmetrical antibodiesEdit. Heterodimeric antibodies, which are also asymmetrical antibodies, allow for greater flexibility ...
Mouse IgG2a kappa chain Isotype Control Antibody [MOPC-173] (ab18413) | Abcam
Specificity. This Balb/c myeloma derived clone has unknown specificity and was chosen as an isotype control after screening on ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... The anti-IL6 antibody ab9324 is a mouse monoclonal IgG2a. Therefore, you will need to use a mouse monoclonal IgG2a isotype ... One is IgG2a and the second is IgG1 and she is looking for one isotype control for IHC-P that will fit both primary antibodies ...
Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities<...
Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. In: ... Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. / Mahdi, ... title = "Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities", ... Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. ...
PKA C (pan) Antibody - Pan Specific (AF4175): Novus Biologicals
Antibody - Pan Specific (AF4175). Validated Applications: WB. Validated Species: Human, Mouse, Rat. Sample size available. ... Specificity. Detects recombinant human PKA C alpha , C beta , and C gamma , and endogenous human PKA C isoforms in Western ... Diseases for PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). Discover more about diseases related to PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). ... PTMs for PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). Learn more about PTMs related to PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). ...
Mouse BCMA/TNFRSF17 Biotinylated Antibody BAF593: R&D Systems
Specificity. Detects mouse BCMA in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 0.2% cross-reactivity with ... Reviews for Mouse BCMA/TNFRSF17 Biotinylated Antibody. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review ... Have you used Mouse BCMA/TNFRSF17 Biotinylated Antibody?. Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.. $25/€18/£15/$25CAN ... Citation for Mouse BCMA/TNFRSF17 Biotinylated Antibody. R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains ...
Nature Reviews Chemistry
Non-specificity as the sticky problem in therapeutic antibody development While antibodies have a remarkable track record in ... This Review discusses the physicochemistry of non-specificity, with a focus on surface patches as a key challenge, and outlines ... therapeutics, achieving sufficient specificity remains an issue. ...
CD70 Antibody | Cell Signaling Technology
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, CD70 Antibody (CST #72094) is ready to ship. ... Polyclonal Antibody for studying CD70. Cited in 1 publication. Validated for Western Blotting. ... Specificity / Sensitivity. CD70 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total CD70 protein.. Species Reactivity:. Human ... Primary Antibody Incubation. *Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent as recommended in ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Specificity & cross reactivity of anti-RNA antibodies reactive with mammalian RNA in systemic lupus...
Alexa Fluor® 647-Fab Goat Anti-Human IgM, Fc5µ Secondary Antibody | JIR
Specializing in Secondary Antibodies and Conjugates - For Western Blotting, IHC, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and other ... Antibody Format: Fab Fragment. Specificity: IgM, Fc5μ fragment specific. Conjugate: Alexa Fluor® 647. Product Category: ... The antibody may cross-react with IgM from other species. Fab fragment antibodies are generated by papain digestion of whole ... To complex with primary antibody in solution, use 1:1 weight ratio of Fab:primary antibody (15:1 molar ratio). Vortex and ...
MBS536288 | Complement C1q antibody | MyBiosource | Gentaur
Complement C1q antibody. Cat# MBS536288. Supplier: MyBiosource. Available at Gentaur Genprice in 5 to 7 Working Days. Place ... Specificity: N/A. Purity: N/A. Form: GBS, with 0.1% EACA, 0.01% benzamidine, 1mM EDTA, and 0.099% NaN3. ... MBS536288 , Complement C1q antibody MyBiosource Antibodies MBS536288 , Complement C1q antibody. (No reviews yet) Write a Review ... MyBiosource Antibodies. MBS536288 , Complement C1q antibody. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ( ...
MLL2 Antibody - Cat. No. 45-890 | ProSci
45-890) can be used to detect Human MLL2 Antibody in ELISA and other applications. ... SPECIFICITY: The immunizing peptide was designed from NP_003473.1. Since then the sequence has changed in the databases and ... Custom Antibody Services Speak to one of our custom antibody specialists to discuss your next custom antibody project. ... Pair your antibody with a Lysate, Peptide, Control, & /OR Secondary Antibody.. Contact our Customer Care Team for more ...
Myasthenia Gravis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy
... is a relatively rare autoimmune disorder in which antibodies form against acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors at the ... The anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test for diagnosing MG has the following characteristics:. * High specificity ( ... Assays for the following antibodies may also be useful:. * Anti-MuSK antibody (present in about half of patients with negative ... Antibody response in MG is polyclonal. In an individual patient, antibodies are composed of different subclasses of IgG. In ...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in screening for autoimmune diabetes: influence of comorbidity, age, and sex on...
... and sex on specificity and treshold values. In: Clinical Chemistry. 1999 ; Vol. 45, No. 12. pp. 2269-2272. ... Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in screening for autoimmune diabetes: influence of comorbidity, age, and sex on ... Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in screening for autoimmune diabetes: influence of comorbidity, age, and sex on ... Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in screening for autoimmune diabetes: influence of comorbidity, age, and sex on ...