Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Antibody Specific Information[edit]. *Anti-D is the only preventable form of HDN. Since the 1968 introduction of Rho-D ... In contrast to antibodies to A and B antigens, Rhesus antibodies are generally not produced from exposure to environmental ... and these IgG antibodies are able to cross the placenta. For unknown reasons, the incidence of maternal antibodies against type ... one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta. Among these antibodies are some ...
Studies with domain-specific antibodies". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (8): 5105-14. PMID 3988746.. ... specific granule lumen. • tertiary granule lumen. • ficolin-1-rich granule lumen. • extracellular region. ... Chao J, Miao RQ, Chen V, Chen LM, Chao L (January 2001). "Novel roles of kallistatin, a specific tissue kallikrein inhibitor, ...
In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies». J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17276-80. PMID 11278964. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Ye, Q; Hu Y F, Zhong H, Nye A C, Belmont A S, Li R (2001). «BRCA1-induced large-scale chromatin unfolding and allele-specific ... Zheng, L; Pan H, Li S, Flesken-Nikitin A, Chen P L, Boyer T G, Lee W H (2000). «Sequence-specific transcriptional corepressor ... Yu, X; Baer R (2000). «Nuclear localization and cell cycle-specific expression of CtIP, a protein that associates with the ...
Specific antibody markers may be elevated in ulcerative colitis. Specifically, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic ... Specific types of probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle have been shown to induce remission in some people for up to a ... antibodies (pANCA) are found in 70 percent of cases of UC.[17] Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be present, but ... Jess T, Gamborg M, Munkholm P, Sørensen TI (March 2007). "Overall and cause-specific mortality in ulcerative colitis: meta- ...
Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved ... It can also be used for site-specific glycosylation profiling.[12] NMR spectroscopy To identify specific sugars, their sequence ... Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets Analysis[edit]. A variety of methods used in detection, ... some patients can evolve antibodies to recognise the HIV glycans and almost all so-called 'broadly neutralising antibodies ( ...
Some patients have eTG-specific antibodies instead of tTG-specific cross-reactive antibodies and the relationship between ... The B cell receptor (membrane bound antibody; BCR) is specific to the tTG portion of the complex. The B cell endocytoses the ... Thus, the B cell presents the foreign peptide (modified gliadin) but produces antibodies specific for the self-antigen (tTG). ... IgA epidermal transglutaminase antibodies, or IgA endomysial antibodies).[26] These tests should be performed before the ...
Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Mentioned in On the Formation of Specific Anti-Bodies in the Blood, Following Upon Treatment with the Sera of Different Animals ... Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Its aspects involving antibodies are often called antibody-mediated immunity. The study of the molecular and cellular ...
... and an online antibody store, including phospho-specific and secondary antibodies. The company provides commercialization ... It also offers cell-type-specific marker antibodies for neuroscience; suites of products for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's ... CRP), based in Denver, Pennsylvania, offers antibody products and antibody-development services to the research community. CRP ... In May 2006 it acquired Signet Laboratories, Inc., a provider of monoclonal antibodies used in the research of cancer, ...
CTCs are usually (in 2011) captured from the vasculature by using specific antibodies able to recognize specific tumoral marker ... Biological methods are separation based on antigen-antibody bindings. Antibodies against tumor specific biomarkers including ... All nucleated cells, including normal white blood cells and CTCs, are exposed to fluorescent-tagged antibodies specific for ... and on the use of an analyzer to take images of isolated cells upon their staining with specific fluorescent antibody ...
"C15orf39 Gene - GeneCards , CO039 Protein , CO039 Antibody". Retrieved 2018-02-19. "C15orf39 - Antibodies - ... April 20, 2018.[permanent dead link] "GPS 3.0 - Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Site Prediction". Retrieved ... "RPLP1 Gene - GeneCards , RLA1 Protein , RLA1 Antibody". Retrieved 2018-05-06. Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, ... "EIF4ENIF1 Gene - GeneCards , 4ET Protein , 4ET Antibody". Retrieved 2018-05-06. Boldt K, van Reeuwijk J, Lu ...
"PPP3R2 Gene - GeneCards , CANB2 Protein , CANB2 Antibody". Retrieved 2015-09-08. Mukai H, Chang CD, Tanaka H ... 1991). "cDNA cloning of a novel testis-specific calcineurin B-like protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 179 (3): 1325-30. ...
The specificity of human ZNF337 antibody was verified on a Protein Array containing target protein plus 383 other non-specific ... "ZNF337 Antibody". Novus Biologicals. Retrieved 2020-05-03. "PSORT WWW Server". Retrieved 2020-05-03. "GPS 5.0 - ... It is specifically important during embryonic development, where it acts as a direct repressor of a placental-specific ... An antibody was developed against a recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids: ...
In the 1990s and 2000s the roles of antibodies in the condition became more clear. SPS patients generally have GAD antibodies, ... There is no specific laboratory test that confirms its presence. Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis are common. The presence of ... It is also unknown whether these antibodies are pathogenic. The amount of GAD antibody titers found in SPS patients does not ... Most SPS patients with high-titer GAD antibodies also have antibodies that inhibit GABA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP). ...
The solution structure of the ADAR2 dsRBM-RNA complex reveals a sequence specific readout of the minor groove. Cell 2010;143 (2 ... "GRIA2 Gene - GeneCards , GRIA2 Protein , GRIA2 Antibody". Stefl R, Oberstrass FC, Hood JL, Jourdan M, Zimmermann M, Skrisovska ... ADARs deaminate adenosine bases to inosine bases in a site-specific manner in double-stranded RNA substrates (dsRNA). ADAR2 has ...
Distinguishing a lupus antibody from a specific coagulation factor inhibitor (e.g.: factor VIII) is normally achieved by ... Anticardiolipin antibodies[edit]. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... Thus, anti-annexin A5 antibodies increase phospholipid-dependent coagulation steps.[8] The Lupus anticoagulant antibodies are ...
Antibody-based treatments[edit]. Antibody specific to select immune components can be added to immunosuppressive therapy. The ... Antibody[edit]. Secreted by an activated B cell, then called plasma cell, an antibody molecule is a soluble immunoglobulin (Ig ... to remove antibody molecules specific to the transplanted tissue. Marrow transplant[edit]. Bone marrow transplant can replace ... a transplant recipient can have specific antibody crossreacting with the donor tissue upon the transplant event, a secondary ...
"The human testis-specific proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling". MHR: Basic science of reproductive ... In males, the sex-specific gene SRY that is found on the Y-chromosome initiates sex determination by downstream regulation of ... In fact, he is capable of making antibodies against them.. Injection of sperm antigens causes inflammation of the testis (auto- ... The testis-specific proteins that show the highest level of expression are protamines. ...
The influenza-specific memory B-cells reach their maxima at day 14-21. The secreted antibodies are specific to the vaccine ... antibody-related side-effects in humans. They can potentially be used to develop passive antibody therapy against influenza ... is functionally conserved and vulnerable to neutralizing antibodies such as monoclonal antibody b12. Recent findings show that ... Antigenic variation can result from gene conversion,[1] site-specific DNA inversions,[2] hypermutation,[3] or recombination of ...
"Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling". Journal of Histochemistry & ... Other specific proteins that help lubricate the inner surface of esophagus are mucins such as MUC21 and MUC22. Many genes with ... The corresponding esophagus-specific proteins are mainly involved in squamous differentiation such as keratins KRT13, KRT4 and ... Some 250 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the esophagus with less than 50 genes being highly specific. ...
"Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling". Journal of Histochemistry & ... There are less than 100 genes that are specific for the skin, and these are expressed in the epidermis.[16] An analysis of the ... Skin with high permeability allowed quantum dots with an antibody attached to the surface for active targeting to successfully ... May 2003). "Real-Time Vital Optical Imaging of Precancer Using Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies Conjugated to ...
"The lung-specific proteome defined by integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling". The FASEB Journal. 28 (12 ... The highest expression of lung specific proteins are different surfactant proteins,[18] such as SFTPA1, SFTPB and SFTPC, and ... The corresponding specific proteins are expressed within different cellular compartments such as pneumocytes in alveoli, and ... less than 200 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the lung with less than 20 genes being highly lung specific. ...
"Monoclonal antibodies specific and inhibitory to human cytochromes P450 2C8, 2C9, and 2C19". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. ... The specific problem is: broken links; fragmented paragraph. Please help improve this section if you can. (September 2016) ( ... Other specific CYP functions[edit]. Steroid hormones[edit]. Steroidogenesis, showing many of the enzyme activities that are ... "Cytochrome P450 Mediated Drug and Carcinogen Metabolism using Monoclonal Antibodies". Retrieved 2018-04-02 ...
Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... May 2003). "Recombinant VP7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Colorado ...
Serology includes two types of antibody test: Nontreponemal antibody test and Treponemal antibody test (specific test).[12] The ... The Treponemal antibody test (specific test) confirms with FTA-ABS (Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption).[13] Brain ... Specific tests for treponemal antibody are typically more expensive because the earliest anitbodies bind to spirochetes. These ... This stage can be diagnosed through specific tests in serology. The nonspecific tests may be negative. At this point, there is ...
The research focuses on the specific determination of autoantibodies involved in the mechanism of PNP. Specifically, antibodies ... Polymorphic mucocutaneous eruption Concurrent internal tumor Serum antibodies with a specific immunoprecipitation pattern Minor ... intraepidermal antibodies as well as along the dermoepidermal junction. Patients with low concentration of antibodies only ... Demonstration of certain antibodies in the serum was named as the basis for diagnosis of PNP. This piece labeled PNP as a " ...
The body responds to these toxins by making antibodies to those specific toxins. However, those antibodies do not completely ... The antibodies which the person's immune system developed to attack the Group A Streptococci are in these cases also able to ... The specific association of scarlet fever with the group A streptococci had to await the development of Lancefield's ... The rapid antigen detection test is a very specific test but not very sensitive. This means that if the result is positive ( ...
The lysate is arrayed onto the microarray and probed with antibodies against the target protein of interest. These antibodies ... In addition, it also needs to display minimal non-specific binding in order to minimize background noise in the detection ... Chang TW (December 1983). "Binding of cells to matrixes of distinct antibodies coated on solid surface". J. Immunol. Methods. ... Antibody characterization is characterizing cross-reactivity, specificity and mapping epitopes. Treatment development involves ...
In 2012, his lab demonstrated that the activation of a specific sub-population of mouse hippocampal neurons, labelled during a ... In experiments beginning in 1976, Tonegawa showed that genetic material rearranges itself to form millions of antibodies. ... Gillies, S. D., Morrison, S. L., Oi, V. T., & Tonegawa, S. (1983). A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located ... This demonstrated for the first time that memory information is stored in specific cellular ensembles in the hippocampus, now ...
"C4orf51 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody - TA335924 , OriGene". Retrieved 2019-05-03. "GPS 3.0 - Kinase-specific ... Per Origene, migration of a C4orf51 rabbit polyclonal antibody in gel resulted in a band at 23 kDa and at ~44-46 kDa, ...
Nucleic acid aptamers are nucleic acid species (next-gen antibody mimics) having selectivity at par of antibodies for a given ... Jeong S, Han SR, Lee YJ, Lee SW (March 2010). "Selection of RNA aptamers specific to active prostate-specific antigen". ... antibodies. In addition to their discriminate recognition, aptamers offer advantages over antibodies as they can be engineered ... Aptamers have been used to create hot start functions in PCR enzymes to prevent non-specific amplification during the setup and ...
In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ... Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... CMV Primary Infection Is Associated With Donor-Specific T Cell Hyporesponsiveness and Fewer Late Acute Rejections After Liver ...
PCSK9 inhibitors[5][6] are monoclonal antibodies for refractory cases. They are used in combination with statins. ... In studies using standard doses, statins have been found to lower LDL-C by 18% to 55%, depending on the specific statin being ...
If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to ... "other specific types of diabetes").[10][13] These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and ...
The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ... IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ...
... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... "Scientists discover why a specific cancer drug is so effective". KurzweilAI. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. Archived from ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... People who would like to be tested for a specific family member or friend without joining any of the bone marrow registry data ... using the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). The HCT-CI was derived and validated by ... "Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-specific comorbidity index: a new tool for risk assessment before allogeneic HCT" ...
Maximum effect from a specific dose can take up to six weeks to occur.[1] ... people with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, people with symptoms of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5-10 mIU ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... When geraniol synthase from lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum) was expressed in tomato fruits under a fruit-specific promoter, 60% ...
... and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood.[3][11] Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... then the more specific Western blot is run.[109] The immune system takes some time to produce antibodies in quantity. After ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ...
Side effects of antiandrogens depend on the type of antiandrogen and the specific antiandrogen in question. In any case, common ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... This may have clinical implications in the specific context of prostate cancer treatment.[57][84] As an example, steroidal AR ... in the specific case of acne treatment, topical AR antagonists have been found much less effective compared to established ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... particularly for non-specific manifestations of Lassa fever.[7] In cases with abdominal pain, in countries where Lassa is ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... All three products showed minor differences compared to the normal human plasma A1AT, and are introduced during the specific ...
When combined with a specific color, a locus-specific probe mixture is used to detect very specific translocations. Special ... Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... Locus-specific probes are made for one side of the breakpoint and the other intact chromosome. In normal cells, the secondary ... It was developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s[1] to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA ...
4,0 4,1 Levitt, P. (1984). A monoclonal antibody to limbic system neurons. Science 223: 299-301. ... Identification of positive and negative regulatory elementsgoverning cell-type-specific expression of the neural cell adhesion ...
... so nobody has yet succeeded in producing specific antibodies to them. But Mollon and Bowmaker did find that L cones and M cones ... the pigment is most likely to produce a cellular response when it is hit by a photon with the specific wavelength to which that ...
A problem of infections in the elderly is that they frequently present with non-specific signs and symptoms, and clues of focal ... A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ... "Age-associated accumulation of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1 ... and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction ...
Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; this works like a lock and key. ... The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen.[1][2] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody ... These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.[9] The ... Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β- ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ...
1992). "The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2.". J. Immunol. ... Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ... 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ...
Lykins J, Li X, Levigne P, Zhou Y, et al «Rapid, inexpensive, fingerstick, whole-blood, sensitive, specific, point-of-care test ... for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd. ... Comparative proteomic analysis of virulent and avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii reveals strain-specific patterns» (en ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... For treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy, the treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs and non-specific anti ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... This led to the conclusion that CNK1 couples specific Rho exchange factors to the JNK MAP kinase pathway, providing specificity ... Finally, Ral mutants unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching ... interacts with two Rho-specific GEFs (Net1 and p115RhoGEF) and two kinases of the JNK MAP kinase pathway (MLK2 and MKK7). He ...
... such as antibodies) may also be attached to fluorescein, allowing biologists to target the fluorophore to specific proteins or ... Fluorescein-labelled probes can be imaged using FISH, or targeted by antibodies using immunohistochemistry. The latter is a ...
Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... 14 subtypes or genotypes are recognised each associated with a specific geographical region. Three are found in Europe (a, b ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ...
In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... Using experiments based on this theory, which posited that specific microorganisms cause specific diseases, Pasteur isolated ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... Artificial induction of immunity is the artificial induction of immunity to specific diseases - making people immune to disease ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
... and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis ... Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ... For people with COPD, the use of cardioselective (heart-specific) beta-blocker therapy does not appear to impair respiratory ... Fingernail clubbing is not specific to COPD and should prompt investigations for an underlying lung cancer.[40] ...
... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... For instance, an antibody deficiency can be diagnosed in the presence of low immunoglobulins, recurrent infections and failure ... Virus-specific T-Lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that ... These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days by using specific cytokines from adult donors or virus-naive cord ...
A novel caspase-7 specific monoclonal antibody.. Gregorc U, Dobersek A, Salvesen GS, Turk V, Turk B, Kopitar-Jerala N. ...
Phospho-specific antibodies by design. [Nat Biotechnol. 2013]. *Molecular engineering: Antibodies, made to order. [Nat Methods ... PTM-specific mAbs by engineering a motif-specific hot spot into an antibody scaffold. Inspired by a natural phosphate-binding ... Nature-inspired design of motif-specific antibody scaffolds.. Koerber JT1, Thomsen ND, Hannigan BT, Degrado WF, Wells JA. ... detection and quantification of PTMs for diagnostic or biomarker applications often require PTM-specific monoclonal antibodies ...
... Siddhartha S Mitra ssmitra at Mon Jun 12 21:24:40 EST 2000 *Previous ... preferably by using phospho serine and threonine specific antibodies. If , , anyone has experience using commercial phospho ... Hello, I have been using New england biolab antibodies and they seem to be working pretty well. but the best way to check for ... antibodies, I would , , appreciate your recommendations. , , , , Ruth. , , , , -- , , , , , , , , , , Ruth McMahon, Ph.D., Tel ...
Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to ... The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or ... diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin receptor. ... Formation of Anti-Transferrin Receptor Antibody Conjugate with Anti-Amyloid Antibody. Anti-amyloid antibodies or antibody ...
... user at user at Wed Sep 27 16:10:04 EST 1995 *Previous ... Hello, I am looking for a source(s) of antibodies specific for Enterocytozoon bieneusi. I would be testing the feasibility of ... Both polyclonal (any host species) and monoclonal antibodies are desired. Any helpful leads would be greatly appreciated. Matt ...
Site-specific antibody-drug conjugates. Jun Y. Axup, Krishna M. Bajjuri, Melissa Ritland, Benjamin M. Hutchins, Chan Hyuk Kim, ... Site-specific antibody-drug conjugates. Jun Y. Axup, Krishna M. Bajjuri, Melissa Ritland, Benjamin M. Hutchins, Chan Hyuk Kim, ... Synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates using unnatural amino acids Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates using unnatural amino acids. Jun Y. Axup, Krishna M. Bajjuri, Melissa ...
Pathogen-specific antibody typically mediates its effects through the ability of its Fc constant region to act as a bridge to ... Possible direct effects of specific antibody on pathogen activity. The work of McClelland et al. (. 2. ) suggests multiple ... Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents ... have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents ... have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects ... have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that ... However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, ...
The selected antibody will be optimized using antibody engineering techniques to increase its ability to bind and remove alpha- ... By antibody engineering we will learn about the importance of the strength of antibody binding to alpha-synuclein, and ... Optimized versions of the parent antibody will be tested in models. The most efficacious antibody will be further tested for ... Project Description: Antibodies binding to alpha-synuclein have been selected in cell models. One of them has shown positive ...
These antibodies eliminate the need to perform manual marking and estimation of molecular weight in Western blot applications. ... Anti-BLUE and Anti-RAINBOW monoclonal antibodies detect pre-stained molecular-weight markers from different commercial sources ... MABC1691H, HRP conjugated antibody. Anti-Blue antibody, Clone 2D2-F11, is a unique monoclonal antibody that detects prestained ... we have introduced new antibodies specific for MW marker dyes. These unique monoclonal antibodies detect pre-stained molecular ...
Some patients have normal levels of immunoglobulins and all forms of IgG, but do not produce sufficient specific IgG antibodies ... Diagnosis of Specific Antibody Deficiency. Problems with specific antibody production may be suspected in children and adults ... If these other components work well, some patients with low specific antibody levels may rarely get sick. Antibodies of certain ... Specific IgG antibodies are important in fighting off infections; however, other components of our immune system also work to ...
Based on the results of the rodent testing, the team then selected a mixture of two Sudan-specific monoclonal antibodies for ... First-ever experimental Sudan virus specific antibody treatment protects animals US Army Medical Research Institute of ... First-ever experimental Sudan virus specific antibody treatment protects animals. US Army Medical Research Institute of ... Development of an antibody cocktail for treatment of Sudan virus infection. https:/. /. www.. pnas.. org/. cgi/. doi/. 10. ...
Scientists hope that new findings about variations in HIV antibody profiles may help in the search for a successful vaccine to ... People who produce powerful HIV antibodies have specific immunological profile. Published Sunday 31 July 2016 Published Sun 31 ... "People who produce powerful HIV antibodies have specific immunological profile." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 31 Jul ... Brazier, Y. (2016, July 31). "People who produce powerful HIV antibodies have specific immunological profile." Medical News ...
... antibody fragments or Fc-fusion proteins. Also provided ... site-specifically cross-linking two or more antibodies, ... Methods are provided for making bispecific antibodies and antibody conjugates comprising ... One or both of the antibodies may comprise an antibody or at least a portion of an antibody that is a mammalian antibody. One ... One or both of the antibodies of the bispecific antibody or antibody conjugate may comprise an antibody or at least a portion ...
Rabbit polyclonal Prostate Specific Antigen antibody. Validated in ELISA and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Prostate Specific Antigen antibody. See all Prostate Specific Antigen primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Prostate Specific Antigen antibody (ab19554) ELISA Protein - Recombinant Human Prostate Specific Antigen ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ...
Rabbit polyclonal Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody. See all Ovary-specific acidic protein primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Anti-Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody (ab123577) at 1/100 dilution + A549 cell line lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band size ...
Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44. Suping Zhang, Christina C ... Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44 ... We found that a humanized mAb specific for CD44 (RG7356) was directly cytotoxic for leukemia B cells, but had little effect on ...
Fab fragment of Der p 1 specific antibody 10B9. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4POZ/pdb ... light chain of Fab fragment of 10B9 antibody. C. 211. Mus musculus. Mutation(s): 0 ... heavy chain of Fab fragment of 10B9 antibody. D. 222. Mus musculus. Mutation(s): 0 ... Epitopes for these two Der p 1-specific Abs are located in different, nonoverlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. ...
... J Mol Biol. 2012 May 4;418(3-4):134-44. ... A crystal structure of the linear-linkage-specific antibody Fab fragment in complex with linear diubiquitin provides molecular ... We therefore engineered a linear-linkage-specific antibody that is functional in Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and ... We use the antibody to demonstrate that linear polyUb is up-regulated upon tumor necrosis factor α stimulation of cells, ...
... If confirmed, finding may someday help diagnose, guide ... But pinpointing specific antibodies has been difficult, with some studies showing relevance but others failing to repeat the ... But this antibody did.". Still, Hemmer said, not everyone with MS had high levels of KIR4.1 antibodies, meaning there are ... "The antibodies are like Velcro. They bind to proteins or antigens in different tissues," she added. "Many antibodies dont bind ...
Agglutination of RhO(D) erythrocytes by specific antiserum was inhibited by crude and crystalline N-acetylneuraminic acid, less ...
Specific Antibody Deficiency was presented by Dr. Kenneth Paris, MD, MPH on June 26, 2015. ... IDF 2015 National Conference session, "IgG Subclass & Specific Antibody Deficiency" was presented by Dr. Kenneth Paris, MD, MPH ...
... the specific antibodies for cancer biomarkers and other important diagnostic targets. Major applications of validation for ... UltraMAB®, the Ultra Specific Antibody. Validated against , 10,000 human antigens. Some commonly used diagnostic antibodies ... the ultra specific antibodies for cancer biomarkers and other important diagnostic targets. Major applications of validation ... and ERCC1 diagnostic antibody (View publication on the validation of ERCC1 antibodies). This protein microarray technology has ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about SUMO1/sentrin specific peptidase 1, Mouse, Polyclonal Antibody, Abnova ...
Influenza Virus-Specific Human Antibody Repertoire Studies. James E. Crowe Jr.. J Immunol January 15, 2019, 202 (2) 368-373; ... Influenza Virus-Specific Human Antibody Repertoire Studies Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Epitope-specific human influenza antibody repertoires diversify by B cell intraclonal sequence divergence and interclonal ... Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies. J. Virol. 87: ...
These antibodies can then be used to study the role of the different morphologies in the progression of Parkinsons, and more ... Sierks is working on isolating antibodies that can control the assembly of these different structures. In this propose we will ... isolate antibodies that specifically recognize these various different morphologies of a-synuclein. ... These antibodies can then be used to study the role of the different morphologies in the progression of Parkinsons, and more ...
Specific Host Defences: The Immune ResponseThe Immune Response Immunity: Immunity: ³Free from burden´. Ability of an organism ... Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. Antibodies are ... Consequences of Antigen-Antibody Binding AntigenAntigenAntigen-Antibody Complex: Formed when an Complex: antibody binds to an ... but vary from one antibody to another. . (Fab). Identical on the same antibody.Antibody Structure Monomer: Monomer: 2 A ...
GenScript provides customizable phospho-specific polyclonal and phosphor monoclonal antibody services with a success rate of ... Key Features of Phospho-Specific Antibody Services. (Highly Specific Antibodies for Protein Phosphorylation Detection). * ... Phosphorylation-Specific Antibody Production Services. (Custom Antibodies for Detection of Protein Phosphorylation). REQUEST ... Ordering Process for Protein Phosphorylation-Specific Antibody Services. Read protein phosphorylation-specific package protocol ...
  • A crystal structure of the linear-linkage-specific antibody Fab fragment in complex with linear diubiquitin provides molecular insight into the nature of linear chain specificity. (
  • OriGene is proud to announce the development of High-Density Protein Microarray for antibody specificity testing. (
  • Using this microarray spotted with 17,000 different over-expressed proteins, we have validated the specificity of existing HER2 ( view case studies ) and ERCC1 diagnostic antibody ( View publication on the validation of ERCC1 antibodies ). (
  • The high specificity and high sensitivity of our protein phosphorylation-specific antibodies is made possible by technological innovations including our advanced OptimumAntigen design tool , proprietary immunization adjuvant, optimized specificity screening and antibody purification. (
  • Our OptimumAntigen design tool and intelligent Antigen Strategy increase specificity and affinity of antibodies. (
  • A murine monoclonal IgM erythrocyte antibody appeared to have anti-P (anti-globoside) specificity. (
  • Using Type 3 antibodies, Bio-Rad's team demonstrate increased sensitivity and specificity across several assay formats and quantify monovalent antibody fragments such as ranibizumab, which is difficult to achieve with commonly used LBAs like bridging assays. (
  • Results with your primary antibody may vary and specificity should be confirmed prior to performing two-color detection. (
  • Jackson ImmunoResearch anti-mouse IgG, subclass specific antibodies offer specificity to the 5 individual mouse IgG subclasses. (
  • Dot blot showing the specificity of goat anti-mouse IgG, Fcγ subclass specific antibodies. (
  • After probing with Peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse subclass specific antibodies, the strips were developed with TMBM substrate from Moss, Inc. The grid of positive signals shows the specificity of each subclass directed antibody. (
  • Understanding the molecular details of how ICOS exercises its critical influence may allow scientists to manipulate antibody specificity to design better vaccines and create novel treatments for autoimmune disorders. (
  • Testing antibodies in pathway- and cell type-specific experiments helps provide end-users with peace of mind regarding the specificity of the antibodies they purchase from us. (
  • The binding specificity of antibodies to PSCA-expressing prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, was analyzed by flow cytometry. (
  • IgG-switched memory B cells in IL-6 knock-in mice displayed a diverse antibody repertoire and high specificity against immunized antigen. (
  • Hi Samm, the concept of using some form of pan-specific capture antibody for a STAT, (or against whatever specificity you are looking at) followed by a detect of a generic phospho antibody (as Richard mentioned) is something that we have tried once before. (
  • Due to the specialized and unique amino acid sequence of the HV region, an antibody has the ability to recognize and bind a specific antigen with higher affinity than different antigens-a property called specificity. (
  • The specificity and long half-lives of antibodies are valuable features to their therapeutic effect. (
  • These antibodies can be subdivided according to their specificity, and each subset has different propensities for specific disorders. (
  • Ability of an organism to recognize and defend itself against specific pathogens or antigens. (
  • Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (
  • The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens. (
  • Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (
  • The study found that the mothers of children with autism were more than 21 times as likely to have the specific MAR antibodies in their systems that reacted with fetal brain proteins, or antigens, than were the mothers of children who did not have autism. (
  • To identify the exact antigens targeted by the mothers' antibodies, Van de Water and her colleagues conducted the research in Northern California using blood samples from 246 mothers of children with autism and of a control group of 149 mothers of children without autism to examine their reactivity with the candidate antigens. (
  • The study found that the mothers with antibodies that reacted with any one of these antigens, either individually or in combination with other antigens, were more than three times as likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder. (
  • The specific antigens identified in the study are lactate dehydrogenase A and B, cypin (guanine deaminase), stress-induced phosphoprotein 1, collapsing response mediator proteins 1 and 2, and Y-box binding protein. (
  • Once in the fetal bloodstream, the antibodies then may enter the brain and attack cells that have corresponding proteins that act as antigens. (
  • The principal objectives of this study is to produce a panel of high quality of monoclonal antibodies specific to individual O antigens and cholera toxin. (
  • This can be achieved by preparation of purified antigens from V. cholerae, immunization of mice with purified antigens, fusion of the splenocytes of immunized mice with myeloma cells to generate hybrids, screening of antibody producing clones from these hybrids and characterization of these monoclonal antibodies. (
  • My question has to do with antibodies and antigens, and if it is a D.N.A. process when the. (
  • Typically, cells are fixed with formaldehyde to stabilize the cell membrane, and then permeabilized with detergent or alcohol to allow antibodies against intracellular antigens access to stain intracellularly. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies targeting such antigens (other than the TCR or CD3) can therefore bind to several antigen-expressing cell types. (
  • The differences in location and the noncoalescence of bands formed against larval and adult test antigens indicate differences in the two antigen-antibody systems. (
  • Absorptions of the sera with appropriate dilutions of adult or larval antigens removed the homologous but not the heterologous antibodies. (
  • In normal individuals, the immune system produces antibodies to foreign proteins (antigens) but not to human proteins (autoantigens). (
  • In some cases, antibodies to human antigens are produced. (
  • These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign proteins (antigens), producing antibodies that bind to these antigens. (
  • Sometimes, however, this process malfunctions and antibodies are produced against human antigens, which may lead to autoimmune disease. (
  • Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally identified as antibody targets in people with autoimmune disorders. (
  • It is frequently followed by Western blotting, which involves transfer of proteins to a membrane and their subsequent detection with antibodies coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore. (
  • Anti-BLUE (MABC1691) and anti-RAINBOW (MABC1690) mouse monoclonal antibodies bind the dyes used in molecular markers for Western blot, enabling simultaneous detection of target proteins and the molecular standard, by chemiluminescence or other detection methods. (
  • Anti-RAINBOW antibody detects all marker proteins in commercially available "Rainbow" markers, while lacking cross-reactivity with unstained proteins in whole cell lysates from a variety of species. (
  • Anti-Blue antibody, Clone 2D2-F11, is a unique monoclonal antibody that detects prestained Precision Plus Protein marker proteins and has been tested for use in Western blotting. (
  • T-cells, complement proteins and IgA antibodies (to name a few) are parts of our immune system that work together during a complete immune response. (
  • Antibodies of certain IgG subclasses interact readily with the complement system, while others interact poorly, if at all, with the complement proteins. (
  • Scientists can design proteins, called antibodies, and combine them into "cocktails" to treat a particular type of infectious disease. (
  • Methods are provided for making bispecific antibodies and antibody conjugates comprising site-specifically cross-linking two or more antibodies, antibody fragments or Fc-fusion proteins. (
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein two or more antibodies, antibody fragments, and/or Fc-fusion proteins are crosslinked. (
  • Some commonly used diagnostic antibodies perform well in applications but cross-react with other unrelated proteins. (
  • A panel of AHL compounds conjugated to carrier proteins are used for sheep immunization and a phage display antibody library is constructed using the immune repertoire of sheep as a source of antibody genes. (
  • Hoogenboom HR, Griffiths AD, Johnson KS, Chiswell DJ, Hudson P, Winter G (1991) Multi-subunit proteins on the surface of filamentous phage: methodologies for displaying antibody (Fab) heavy and light chains. (
  • UC Davis MIND Institute researchers have identified the specific antibodies that target fetal brain proteins in the blood of a subset of women whose children are diagnosed with autism. (
  • The research, "Autism-specific maternal autoantibodies recognize critical proteins in developing brain," is published online today in Translational Psychiatry, a Nature journal. (
  • Understanding which proteins and which pathways are implicated in MAR autism can help elucidate the causes of autism and possibly lead to new therapies, such as administering 'antibody blockers' to the mother during pregnancy to prevent damage to the developing fetal brain, Van de Water said. (
  • Proteins harvested from E. coli cultures were run on SDS-page gel for western blot analysis using alkaline phosphatase conjugated goat anti-human IgG (chain specific) at a concentration of 1:10000 for the secondary. (
  • Anti-Human IgG (γ-chain specific)-Alkaline Phosphatase antibody is specific for human IgG when tested against human IgA, IgG, IgM, and Bence Jones κ, and λ myeloma proteins. (
  • They have been adsorbed against human, bovine and rabbit serum proteins to minimize interference from cross-reactivity with tissue immunoglobulins, adherent bovine IgG on cultured cells and rabbit primary antibodies. (
  • Phospho-specific antibody flow cytometric analysis of phosphorylated proteins allows researchers a quick and effective way to measure signaling cascades in individual cells. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • Complex biopharmaceutical proteins in development are becoming more and more the norm with the advent of new antibody formats, unique VLP structures and biopharmaceutical proteins that need additional processing. (
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers antibodies specific for phosphorylated amino acids tyrosine, serine and threonine in addition to 311 monoclonal antibodies and 1,223 polyclonal antibodies specific for phosphorylated proteins. (
  • Antibodies directed to phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are of value in determining whether various proteins become phosphorylated in response to different inducing agents, whereas site specific phospho-specific antibodies provide information regarding activation of target proteins at specific phosphorylation sites. (
  • To characterize the family of proteins, a panel of subtype-selective antibodies was generated against recombinant muscarinic receptor proteins and shown to bind specifically to each of the cloned receptors. (
  • The immobilization 8 × 10 −5 mg/mm 2 of viral proteins on the surface of the chip was optimal for detection of antibodies. (
  • Antibodies are large proteins produced by the immune system against an invader substance called antigen. (
  • Each of these antibody subtypes binds to different proteins or protein complexes within the nucleus. (
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (
  • ELISA titer of ≥1:64,000 for phospho-specific pAb and mAb. (
  • HRP-conjugated GST-ABD (HRP-GST-ABD) is successfully used as an alternative to secondary antibodies to amplify target-specific signals in both ELISA and immunohistochemistry regardless of the target molecules and origin of primary antibodies used. (
  • GST-ABD also successfully serves as an anchoring adaptor on the surface of GSH-coated plates for immobilizing antigen-capturing antibodies in an orientation-controlled manner for sandwich-type indirect ELISA through simple molecular recognition without any complicated chemical modification. (
  • Most immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, commonly use two different types of antibodies or immunoglobulins (Igs), those are, primary and secondary antibodies. (
  • In recent years, techniques for detection of HLA antibodies have become more sensitive with the introduction of solid-phase assays, including ELISA. (
  • In the presented project we propose to use the antibody 1 5B3 to further develop diagnostic methods for human and bovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as a capture ELISA. (
  • Based on ELISA and flow cytometry, this antibody reacts with the heavy chain of mouse IgG 2a . (
  • Anti-Human IgG (γ-chain specific)-Alkaline Phosphatase antibody is suitable for use in ELISA (at 1:2500 and 1:10,000 dilutions). (
  • IgG was detected in human serum by Elisa using alkaline phosphatase conjugated goat anti-human IgG (gamma-chain specific) diluted 1:5000 in 0.25% BSA/PBS. (
  • 372 sera of 148 stage IV melanoma patients and 119 sera of non-melanoma patients were screened for B-Raf, B-Raf V599E and C-Raf specific antibodies by an ELISA assay. (
  • 5 , 6 Several reports demonstrated that antigen-specific human IgG can be detected in humanized mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • To examine their binding properties, antibody-containing hybridoma supernatants were incubated with CD4 + T cells prepared from peripheral blood (PB) which were subsequently analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and cytofluorometric analyses ( 6 ). (
  • I would be interested in finding out if this works or not, as many companies go to great lengths to create phospho-specific ELISA assays and detection systems. (
  • About 200 samples positive and negative blood sera of patients were tested who were previously tested by ELISA and created combined pools with varying degrees load of antibodies to studied virus. (
  • The infected and control dogs were bled every 5 days for 75 days from the time of infection and the sera were stored at -70°C. Sera were tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to E. granulosus scolex excretory/secretory (ES) antigen, protoscolex antigen and oncosphere antigen. (
  • Antigen: Antigen: Molecules from a pathogen or foreign organism that provoke a specific immune response. (
  • Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (
  • This antigen-antibody response is an important defense against foreign invaders, such as bacteria or viruses, but is not normally directed against oneself. (
  • Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Antibody-Drug Conjugate (PSMA ADC) 1301 is an open-label, dose-escalation phase 1 study of PSMA ADC administered IV in subjects with progressive, castration-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer that has progressed after prior taxane therapy. (
  • The structural resemblance between molecules of an antigen and molecules of the corresponding antibody may be visualized as analogous to the relationship between a mould and its replica or casting. (
  • If the antigen molecule is small and contains only one combining site, then only one antibody molecule can combine with each such antigen molecule (though 2 antigen molecules may combine with each antibody molecule since antibody molecules are typically bivalent). (
  • Such antigen-antibody combinations are small and soluble. (
  • The more complex the form of the antigen molecule, the more recognition sites there are for specific combination with antibody,and the larger, more stable and insoluble the combination is. (
  • What relevance do antigen-antibody reactions have in blood transfusion? (
  • In order to produce antibodies against a molecule, one first needs a large enough amount of the molecule in question, or antigen. (
  • However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (
  • 2 ⇓ - 4 However, the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses by human B cells is still a major challenge. (
  • Although antigen-specific human IgM antibody responses are generated, the achievement of affinity maturation and class-switching from the IgM to the IgG isotype has been particularly difficult. (
  • With synthetic antigen of a carrier protein that has prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) modified residues, specific pupylation antibodies are able to be generated with our excellent High-Affi™ technology. (
  • Antibodies to scolex ES antigen and protoscolex antigen were detected in the sera of infected dogs within 2 weeks of infection. (
  • Fc receptors for IgG (FcγR) link innate and adaptive immunity by their ability to mediate effector cell interactions with antigen-antibody (Ab) complexes and Ab-coated target cells ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • but the best way to check for phosphorylation at a very low level I have found is if you are able to label with 32-P ATP immunoprep with antibody of yr favorite protein run it on a gel and do a phosphoimaging. (
  • They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. (
  • report myriad responses to mAb binding, including upregulation of fatty acid-synthesis genes, activation of lipid biosynthesis, reduced cellular metabolism, reduced expression of protein synthesis genes, diminished protein phosphorylation, and increased sensitivity to the antifungal drug amphotericin B. Further elucidation of the biochemical and cell-biological consequences of antibody binding may lead to rational design of microbicidal antibodies. (
  • The rationale for this project is that a therapeutic antibody against alpha-synuclein will be able to block its harmful effects, clearing this protein, and thereby preventing the disease from spreading. (
  • By neutralizing the toxic forms of the protein the antibody has the potential to delay the progression of the disease and prevent spreading of the disease from one brain region to another. (
  • The aim of this study was to test the ability of a therapeutic antibody -- a protein that sticks to alpha-synuclein -- to block alpha-synuclein's harmful effects, remove it from the brain and thereby prevent the spread of PD. (
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the first antibody, first antibody fragment or first Fc-fusion protein and the second antibody, second antibody fragment or second Fc-fusion protein are the same. (
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, corresponding to a region within C terminal amino acids 175-204 of Human Ovary-specific acidic protein (NP_116012.2). (
  • Nearly half of them had the antibody, and the protein in the brain identified as a target for this antibody is known to be important for nerve functioning. (
  • This protein microarray technology has also been applied to identify UltraMAB ® , the ultra specific antibodies for cancer biomarkers and other important diagnostic targets. (
  • Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human SENP1 protein. (
  • Our affinity-purified phospho-specific antibodies detect specific protein phosphorylation from complex cellular protein mixtures with high sensitivity. (
  • Read protein phosphorylation-specific package protocol details . (
  • mAbs specific for only 2,4-TDI-conjugated protein did not recognize 2,6-TDI-HSA, mNCO-HSA or other dNCO-HSAs. (
  • Although secondary antibodies are widely used for antibody-mediated target detection and signal amplification, the mass production of secondary antibodies requires expensive animal use as well as high manufacturing costs and time compared to those of recombinant protein production with bacterial overexpression systems. (
  • Protein A full length protein and extracellular domain of Fcγ receptors have been used as templates for developing recombinant secondary antibody mimics, because they have an antibody-binding capability. (
  • 4539). This antibody recognizes an epitope in the invariant N-terminal region of all CD44 protein isoforms. (
  • Second, we verify that phosphorylation-specific staining is observed only in cell types in which the protein is expressed, and not in cell types in which the protein is not expressed. (
  • This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes NSE protein. (
  • The antibody was raised in mouse using NSE protein and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of NSE protein. (
  • To locate any antibody of interest, either refer to the functional grouping listed below or go to our Search page to locate antibodies by product name, catalog number, keyword, gene, protein name or chromosome location. (
  • Creative Biolabs can offer advanced protein engineering platform for your specific project, including high-scale expression, crystallization and characterization. (
  • Creative Biolabs has established custom membrane protein and membrane protein antibody production platforms for antibody discovery. (
  • Creative Biolabs provides affinity isolated anti-pupylation antibodies which are qualified in detection, validation, and quantification of protein pupylation. (
  • Creative Biolabs has developed high-quality antibody set for protein pupylation sites. (
  • Specific pupylation antibodies purified by protein A and affinity chromatography are available to be used in multiple applications (WB, IP, IHC-P, IF-IC, E-P, ChIP). (
  • 7. A method of claim 2 wherein the antibody portion of said conjugate comprises a biologically functional antibody fragment. (
  • p -Acetylphenylalanine was site-specifically incorporated into an anti-Her2 antibody Fab fragment and full-length IgG in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, respectively. (
  • The precipitated PrP can then also be shown to be partially protease-resistant i.e. upon proteinase K digestion the prion-specific fragment of 27-30 kDa is observed. (
  • Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies are one of the most popular formats of the recombinant antibodies [ 20 ]. (
  • Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of the EPR antibody (the 9E5(Fab) fragment) in the presence and absence of EPR. (
  • The present invention relates to antibodies that specifically bind to human BNP and immunoassays using said antibodies in the quantification of human BNP or a fragment of human BNP in a test sample. (
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) allow selective targeting of cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells presenting tumor-associated surface markers, thereby minimizing systemic toxicity. (
  • Also provided are compositions and uses for the bispecific antibodies and antibody conjugates. (
  • IRDye 800CW secondary antibodies are supplied as purified immunoglobulin conjugates, lyophilized in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4. (
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have emerged as a promising class of targeted anticancer therapy, and it is distinguished from traditional chemotherapeutic approaches by its potential to kill cancer cells with limited side effects. (
  • This chapter describes a computational method for the generation of antibody-drug conjugates as PDB files through site-specific cysteine conjugation, given the PDB files of a drug, a linker, and an antibody. (
  • A class of targeted anticancer therapy (TAT), that utilizes the best qualities of antibodies and cytotoxins by combining them in one molecule, is antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). (
  • Target bands were visualized using a goat anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody conjugated to HRP and a chemiluminescence detection system. (
  • We construct a novel recombinant secondary antibody mimic, GST-ABD, which can bind to the Fc regions of target-bound primary antibodies and acquire multiple HRPs simultaneously. (
  • On the other hand, the secondary antibodies recognize and bind to the target-bound primary antibodies regardless of the target molecules. (
  • The secondary antibodies are generally conjugated with enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidases (HRP), which repeatedly convert undetectable substrates to detectable products, resulting in significant signal amplification for the detection of low abundance target molecules. (
  • However, it is possible to replace enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies if there are simple secondary antibody mimics that can specifically bind to the Fc region of the primary antibodies and provide sites for the conjugation of signal-amplifying enzymes simultaneously. (
  • Moreover, universal secondary antibody mimics that can broadly bind to the Fc region of the primary antibodies derived from multiple species such as mouse, rabbit, and rat are particularly useful because they would eliminate the need to prepare individual primary-secondary antibody pairs. (
  • BioMag secondary antibody particles can be used with a wide variety of antibodies. (
  • IRDye 800CW Goat anti-Mouse IgG2a-Specific Secondary Antibody. (
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 2 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human CD44 s Pan Specific Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # BBA10) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF018 ). (
  • The following information is provided to help you decide which secondary antibody may be best for your particular application. (
  • Secondary antibodies are polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that bind to primary antibodies or antibody fragments, such as the Fc or Fab regions. (
  • Secondary antibodies targeting multiple host's IgG are conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. (
  • 9. Apply the diluted anti-rabbit HRP conjugated secondary antibody in blocking buffer (as per manufacturers instructions) and incubate 1 hour at room temperature. (
  • Hello all, I have had difficulties with my secondary antibodies staining the nucleus (faintly), and the nucleoli (medium intensity) in Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • Human Prostate (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) stained with KLK3 antibody ABIN462157 followed by biotinylated anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody ABIN481714, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. (
  • Abstract Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders in which the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is impaired by one or more specific mechanisms. (
  • Each primary antibody binds to its own specific target molecules with extremely high affinity and selectivity, thus ensuring the accuracy and precision of the assay. (
  • Isolation of specific antibodies was accomplished by affinity chromatography on mouse IgG 2a covalently linked to agarose. (
  • Tfh cells control the whole process of generating high affinity antibodies, and ICOS is a receptor molecule strongly required for Tfh cells to work. (
  • While most B cells have a low affinity for pathogens, which might effectively fend off a relatively mild virus, Tfh (with the stimulation of ICOS) allows the select few that produce highly specific and more strongly reactive antibodies to proliferate and outcompete their less specific brethren. (
  • Kong and Crotty's team discovered that ICOS recruits the signaling TBK1 enzyme, which activates certain genes in Tfh cells, thus beginning the whole process of high-affinity antibody production. (
  • Small and high affinity single chain antibodies (scFv) have been introduced as effective agents for cancer immunotargeting approaches. (
  • For the development as a therapeutic antibody, MAX.16H5 IgG 1 was selected because of its high affinity to CD4 ( 9 ). (
  • The selected antibody will be optimized using antibody engineering techniques to increase its ability to bind and remove alpha-synuclein. (
  • Many antibodies don't bind in the brain, so they are unlikely to have relevance in MS. But this antibody did. (
  • GST-ABD is effectively conjugated with 3 HRPs per molecule on an average and selectively bind to the Fc region of primary antibodies derived from three different species (mouse, rabbit, and rat). (
  • Antibody-mediated transplant rejection involves B cell and plasma cell activation resulting in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA), which bind to HLA and/or non-HLA molecules on the endothelium. (
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. (
  • In this study, researchers screened the blood serum of two sets of patients with MS and compared it to the serum of people without MS. About 47 percent of the nearly 400 people with MS had high levels of KIR4.1 antibodies, while none of the non-MS control participants did. (
  • Antiserum: Antiserum: Serology: Serology: Gamma Globulins: Globulins: Fraction of serum that contains most of the antibodies. (
  • For collection and purification of antibodies from separated animals, a total of 2 ml of pre-immune serum (1 ml from each of the 2 animals) are provided. (
  • For antibody purification from pooled serum, 1 ml of pre-immune serum is provided. (
  • Currently, antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 uses ence no. 2002/201 and Clinical Immunology Service serum or plasma collected by venipuncture. (
  • Three matched samples were from SARS-CoV-2 studies is limited by logistic challenges, resources, serum antibody-negative volunteers. (
  • The remaining and costs, as well as the risk for SARS-CoV-2 expo- samples were from SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody-un- sure from direct patient contact. (
  • Should I order for serum specific IgE antibodies for dust mites? (
  • Therefore the answer is yes, you should order for serum specific antibodies to dust mites and cockroaches extracts because he is a candidate for mite specific immunotherapy. (
  • We first evaluated Ad5 seroprevalence in 42 paired mother-infant serum samples from Liberia to assess the magnitude of passively acquired maternal antibodies. (
  • However, detection and quantification of PTMs for diagnostic or biomarker applications often require PTM-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which are challenging to generate using traditional antibody-selection methods. (
  • Therefore, the appropriate primary antibodies should be chosen to guarantee the successful detection and accurate quantification of target molecules in immunoassays. (
  • Furthermore, detection of PrPSc by immuno-precipitation with antibody 15B3 will allow the omission of proteinase K digestion for the detection of the disease-specific form. (
  • Dried blood spot (DBS) samples can be used for the established method for detecting antibodies against detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona- virus 2 spike antibodies. (
  • COVID-19) depends on the detection of RNA lence has not been fully explored, and knowledge from the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory regarding the recovery of antibody from the DBS is syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (
  • Subclass specific antibodies are not necessary for general detection of mouse monoclonal antibodies in single-labeling experiments or in multiple-labeling experiments involving one mouse monoclonal and primary antibodies from other species. (
  • The aim of this work is develop and characteristics of biosensor chips for detection specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus in patients' blood sera. (
  • Thus, in this study biosensor chip for detection of specific antibodies to HSV-1 and EBV was successfully developed for express diagnostic of these pathogens. (
  • Recombinant antibodies have recently shown great promise in the replacement of monoclonal antibodies in different medical areas such as immunotherapy against human malignancies [ 16 - 19 ]. (
  • CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) immunotherapy is effective for lymphoma and autoimmune disease. (
  • Our motif-specific scaffold strategy may provide a general solution for rapid, robust development of anti-PTM mAbs for signaling, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (
  • These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. (
  • The studies outlined in the current proposal are designed to generate the most efficacious form of a therapeutic antibody for the treatment of PD. (
  • At the same time, we designed several other antibodies to alpha-synuclein as additional therapeutic candidates. (
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (
  • Our new antibodies will be used as the basis for highly sensitive anthrax diagnosis and will contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches. (
  • However, B-Raf specific antibodies emerge at rather late stages of melanoma progression and are present only with a low frequency indicating that spontaneous B-Raf specific antibodies are not an early marker for melanoma, but rather may serve as a therapeutic target. (
  • Advantages of scFvs over the intact antibodies including smaller size, fast penetration and tight binding to target tissue, fast clearance from the body, and better pharmacokinetic properties as well as fully human origin have offered scFvs as desirable tools for both the imaging and therapeutic purposes [ 21 - 24 ]. (
  • Moreover, this review illustrates the various attempts towards the development of anti-PrP antibody compounds and discusses therapeutic candidates that modulate PrP expression. (
  • In the past, several therapeutic strategies using CD4-directed antibodies were investigated for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases [reviewed in Wofsy ( 3 ) and Burmester et al. (
  • Antibodies can also be manufactured and used as standalone therapeutic agents for a number of diseases including cancer. (
  • However, the performance of manufactured antibodies as standalone therapeutic agents is impeded by their limited potency. (
  • Finally we will discuss the possible functions and protective mechanisms of this antibody response in the context of protecting breastfed infants and children, and the potential for extracting these antibodies from donor milk as a COVID-19 therapeutic. (
  • These highly specific antibodies are designed to distinguish between two or more different subclass of mouse IgG in multiple labeling experiments, or for mouse IgG subclass determination. (
  • A second antibody (named 6H4) recognizes PrPc or denatured PrPSc from different species on Western blots. (
  • In each case, the subclass specific antibody only recognizes its specific target in the presence of additionally blotted subclasses. (
  • The production of well characterized TDI-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) will allow for the development of standardized immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessment. (
  • Accurate serotyping and rapid identification of CT producing strains of V. cholerae by using monoclonal antibody based immunoassays are critical in clinical service due to the threat of the disease. (
  • These antibodies will be useful to both research and commercial markets for development of immunoassays for serotyping and identification of CT producing strains of V. cholerae. (
  • The present invention relates to antibodies that recognize unique epitopes of human BNP, methods for producing said antibodies and immunoassays for human BNP that employ said antibodies. (
  • Here we outline a general strategy for producing synthetic, PTM-specific mAbs by engineering a motif-specific 'hot spot' into an antibody scaffold. (
  • Crystal structures of the phospho-specific mAbs revealed two distinct modes of phosphoresidue recognition. (
  • 50 phospho- and target-specific mAbs against 70% of target peptides. (
  • Previous research has indicated that monoclonal antibodies, or mabs, can protect against HIV infection in monkeys. (
  • The mAbs produced can differentiate between specific dNCO in a carrier independent fashion and may be useful as hapten-specific reagents for immunoassay development and research into dNCO related diseases. (
  • The paper published in the journal mAbs discusses antibodies that recognize the drug only when bound to its target. (
  • Thus, isotype-specific mAb interactions with distinct FcγRs contribute significantly to the effectiveness of CD20 mAbs in vivo, which may have important clinical implications for CD20 and other mAb-based therapies. (
  • B cell depletion is CD20 mAb isotype specific, with IgG2a/c mAbs exhibiting the greatest potency ( 16 ). (
  • These Ab isotype-specific effects are clinically important because the antitumor effect of CD20 mAbs in humans depends in part on FcγR-dependent immune activation ( 18 ), and a chimeric CD20 mAb of an isotype different than that used clinically does not deplete normal B cells in nonhuman primates ( 19 ). (
  • Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific monoclonal antibodies: production and epitope mapping. (
  • Altogether, this provides a rationale for epitope‐specific or IgG4‐specific treatment strategies for MuSK MG and emphasizes the importance of the development of different experimental models. (
  • Select appropriate Acetylation Specific antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (
  • Because methanol can destroy the epitope recognized by some antibodies, ideally surface staining would be performed at the beginning of the protocol with a methanol-resistant fluorochrome (like eFluor 450 , FITC , and eFluor 660 ). (
  • Design of antiidiotypic and epitope-specific antibody proteases, the next generation antibody therapeutics. (
  • 1. A method for delivering a therapeutically effective amount of nerve growth factor across the blood brain barrier of a mammal comprising administering antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier of the mammal in a pharmaceutically active form and in a therapeutically effective amount. (
  • 2. A method of claim 1 wherein the antibody portion of said conjugate comprises a monoclonal antibody which binds to transferrin receptor on brain capillary endothelial cells. (
  • 8. A method for treating a neurological disorder in a mammal comprising administering of a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a pharmaceutically active form which thereby alleviates the neurological disorder. (
  • 11. A method for supporting the growth of cholinerigc neurons in the brain of a mammal comprising administering of an effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a physiologically active form which thereby supports the growth of cholinergic neurons. (
  • But in rodents, the antibody binds to and damages brain cells that are known to be important to neurological function, according to the study. (
  • Patients who otherwise produce normal immunoglobulin levels but who lack the ability to produce protective IgG molecules against the types of organisms that cause upper and lower respiratory infections are said to have Specific Antibody Deficiency (SAD). (
  • We call these molecules "specific antibodies," and they are usually formed in response to natural exposure to bacteria and viruses, or through exposure to vaccines. (
  • A patient with a specific antibody deficiency cannot produce IgG molecules to the polysaccharides in encapsulated bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , and Haemophilus influenzae ). (
  • Anti-Mouse IgG, subclass specific antibodies are available conjugated to Alexa Fluor® and Cyanine™ Fluorescent dyes, Biotin-SP™, and horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase reporter molecules. (
  • We seek to determine the long-term durability and kinetics of the vaccine-induced HPV-type-specific antibody and CMI responses in HIV-infected children that were, and are being, immunized in P1047. (
  • These antibodies regulate immunological responses to allergy and pathogenic infections. (
  • Tfh cells have recently been recognized as important players in the immune system, and we now know they are essential for almost all antibody responses,' said Crotty. (
  • B-Raf specific antibody responses did not correlate with clinical parameters but in some cases, B-Raf antibodies emerged during disease progression. (
  • Next, our early findings regarding the antibody response in milk to SARS-CoV-2 following recovery from COVID-19 will be presented, including the range of responses in our cohort, the types of antibodies present in milk, and the levels of each antibody type. (
  • The recommended evaluation usually includes measurement of total immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses and antibody titers to specific bacteria such as tetanus, diphtheria, and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • Some patients have low antibody titers to Streptococcus pneumoniae during the initial evaluation, and this finding usually requires vaccination and additional testing. (
  • Antibody titers are measured again four to six weeks later to determine if adequate protective antibody titers were produced. (
  • We assessed neutralizing antibody titers to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and six rare adenovirus serotypes, serotypes 11, 35, 50, 26, 48, and 49, in pediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • We observed a clear age dependence of Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. (
  • Antibody titers rose rapidly and remained at a high level until the dogs were killed 75 days after infection. (
  • High sensitivity single chain antibody fragments (scFv) are isolated from the library using "smart selection strategies" and reformatted into single chain antibodies (scAbs). (
  • Hayhurst A, Harris WJ (1999) Escherichia coli skp chaperone coexpression improves solubility and phage display of single-chain antibody fragments. (
  • By antibody engineering we will learn about the importance of the strength of antibody binding to alpha-synuclein, and interaction between the antibody and the patient's immune system. (
  • We then improved this antibody, making it less likely than the original antibody to be destroyed by the immune system. (
  • These antibodies were designed to be virtually invisible to the immune system, which makes the rejection very unlikely. (
  • The most promising antibody candidates were selected based on the ease of production and the likelihood of rejection by the immune system. (
  • Thus, an inability to produce antibodies of a specific subclass or mild deficiencies of other arms of the immune system may render the individual susceptible to certain kinds of infections but not others. (
  • These factors must be taken into account before an individual immune system is considered to be abnormal, either by virtue of having a low IgG subclass level or an inability to make a specific type of antibody. (
  • As the virus spreads through the body, the immune system will launch an attack by HIV antibodies to fight the virus. (
  • Their theory is that in people with this particular immune system profile, the activity of antibody-producing immune cells, known as B cells, could be less restricted. (
  • Still, Hemmer said, not everyone with MS had high levels of KIR4.1 antibodies, meaning there are almost certainly other aspects of the immune system involved. (
  • Future research should seek to determine if MS patients with the antibodies fare better or more poorly than others, Coetzee said, as well as what other antibodies and elements of the immune system might be involved. (
  • defence against bacteria.Duality of Immune System I. . antibodies and are called plasma cells. (
  • Some patients with specific antibody deficiency are asymptomatic because other components of their immune system are still functional. (
  • The maternal antibodies stay in the baby's bloodstream for about 6 months after birth, after which the baby's own immune system takes over. (
  • Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. (
  • The correlation between immunity (reduction in parasite load) and an increased humoral antibody response suggests a key role of antibody in the immune response. (
  • The antibody was a relatively weak cold agglutinin, but a strong haemolysin and its reactivity with red cells was markedly enhanced by enzyme treatment. (
  • This antibody has been tested by dot blot and/or solid-phase adsorbed to ensure minimal cross-reactivity with mouse IgM, IgG 1 , IgG 2b , IgG 3 , and IgA, pooled human sera, and purified human paraproteins. (
  • In addition, specific IgE to Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 10 and Bla g 7 will also help to define cross reactivity between mites and cockroaches. (
  • Development of an antibody cocktail for treatment of Sudan virus infection. (
  • The results suggest that bNAb production may correlate with specific differences in individual immune functions, and that these differences could occur when HIV infection is not kept under control. (
  • However, these antibody levels were 30-50% lower than those achieved in children without HIV infection. (
  • This concern is supported by some evidence that naturally acquired HPV-specific antibody might decline to a level that will permit re-infection. (
  • Comparative persistence data for HPV-specific antibody is available for 5-6 years after vaccination of almost 1000 children without HIV infection (manufacturer's data, unpublished), but there is no such information available from HIV-infected vaccinees. (
  • To determine the HPV-type specific antibody levels at 2, 3.5, and 5 years after completion of the QHPV vaccine schedule for each of the arms in P1047 and compare them to published levels of QHPV-induced antibody levels present in age-similar children IMPAACT P1085 without HIV infection at these time intervals after QHPV vaccination. (
  • Blocking QS using antibodies is an attractive strategy for infection control as this process takes a central role in P. aeruginosa infections. (
  • They are found in many disorders including autoimmunity, cancer and infection, with different prevalences of antibodies depending on the condition. (
  • Incidence and clinical significance of de novo donor specific antibodies after kidney transplantation. (
  • AK104 is a potential next-generation, first-in-class humanized IgG1 tetrameric bi-specific antibody drug candidate that is developed in house by Akeso,Inc., is designed to achieve preferential binding to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes rather than normal peripheral tissue lymphocytes. (
  • Unexpectedly, the production of anti-TT antibodies (predominately IgG1) was three-fold higher in the atorvastatin group 15 days post-vaccination (2306 +/- 468 versus 713+/-21 units, p = 0.008). (
  • Traditionally, the drug is conjugated nonselectively to cysteine or lysine residues in the antibody. (
  • Preformed antibodies increase the chances of immunological failure of the allograft by causing positive crossmatches and, thereby, result in the exclusion of donors. (
  • Some patients have normal levels of immunoglobulins and all forms of IgG, but do not produce sufficient specific IgG antibodies that protect us from some viruses and bacteria. (
  • The presence of pre-formed and de novo (newly formed) DSA, specific to donor/recipient mismatches are major risk factors for antibody-mediated rejection, which results in both acute and chronic transplant injury and is the primary cause of accelerated early and late allograft loss. (
  • Can I use BioMag particles with any specific primary antibody? (
  • Dilute primary antibody in the blocking buffer per recommendation on the data sheet. (
  • Apply primary antibody to each section and incubate overnight in the humidified chamber (4C). (
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal primary antibodies are focused on cell biology, neurobiology and molecular biology. (
  • 7. Dilute anti-Gli3 primary antibody in blocking buffer and incubate 1 hour at room temperature. (
  • Complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and risk of primary graft failure in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • I found that all of these in the absence of primary antibody, stained the nucleus faintly and the nucleolus with medium intensity, giving crisp outlines. (
  • Together, these studies implicate CTGF as a new target in pancreatic cancer and suggest that inhibition of CTGF with a human monoclonal antibody may control primary and metastatic tumor growth. (
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (
  • These unique monoclonal antibodies detect pre-stained molecular markers from different commercial sources without the need to perform manual marking of membranes and estimation of molecular weights. (
  • An immunoassay is a biochemical method that uses antibodies to detect the presence of specific biomolecules of interest and to measure their concentrations in a complex biological sample. (
  • Called Type 3 antibodies, these antibodies differ from other anti-idiotypic antibodies that specifically detect free antibody drug by binding the paratope of the drug (Type 1) or total drug by binding outside the paratope of the drug (Type 2). (
  • This will allow us to detect human, bovine, mouse, or sheep PrPsc on Western blots with the same antibody. (
  • When directed against one's own tissue, the antibodies are known as autoantibodies. (
  • Moreover, significant false positive results can be produced due to non-HLA antibodies, autoantibodies and nonspecific IgM antibodies. (
  • Transglutaminase 2-specific celiac disease autoantibodies cause bowel changes in mice. (
  • Interestingly, mice injected with celiac patient TG2-antibodies showed changes to small-intestinal mucosa, increased lamina propria cellular infiltration and disease-specific autoantibodies in the small bowel, but did not show any clinical signs of celiac disease. (
  • Thus, celiac patient-derived TG2-specific autoantibodies seem to be enough to trigger small-bowel mucosal changes in mice, but probably not enough to trigger clinical features on their own. (
  • Selection and characterization of pSer-, pSer/pThr-, and pTyr-specific scaffolds. (
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., a global leader of life science research and clinical diagnostic products, has published new findings on the generation and characterization of drug-target complex-specific antibodies for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of biotherapeutics. (
  • By describing the generation and characterization of Type 3 specificities for the development of LBAs, the authors demonstrate the advantages of these antibodies as tools for drug quantification. (
  • Retrieved on August 26, 2019 from (
  • It is expected that a panel of high quality of monoclonal antibodies will be developed in Phase I and can be used for further characterization in Phase II. (
  • Although relevant for designing immunotherapeutic tools, the characterization of key antibody parameters shaping the molecular mechanism of the PrP C to PrP Sc conversion remains elusive. (
  • The Fast Track Designation of AK104 is another significant milestone in the development of this innovative bispecific antibody. (
  • Winter G, Griffiths AD, Hawkins RE, Hoogenboom HR (1994) Making antibodies by phage display technology. (
  • Antibodies are produced by phage display technology with a Pup engineered peptide. (
  • Maternal antibodies are known to cross the placenta during pregnancy and can be detected in a fetus as early as 13 weeks. (
  • During pregnancy, anti-Ro antibodies can cross the placenta and cause heart block and neonatal lupus in babies. (
  • The bodies of some patients who live with HIV naturally produce a type of antibody known as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). (
  • Each individual IgG molecule is uniquely designed to protect against a specific pathogen. (
  • Epitopes for these two Der p 1-specific Abs are located in different, nonoverlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. (
  • Kaufmann GF, Park J, Mee JM, Ulevitch RJ, Janda KD (2008) The quorum quenching antibody RS2-1G9 protects macrophages from the cytotoxic effects of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signalling molecule N -3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone. (
  • Specifically, the study published in the May issue of Nature Immunology and led by La Jolla Institute Professor Shane Crotty, Ph.D., and Instructor Kok-Fai Kong, Ph.D., reported that an enzyme called TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) controls the maturation of antibodies by associating with a key signaling molecule known as Inducible T cell Co-Stimulator or ICOS. (
  • Specific Antibody Deficiency - Department of Immunology. (
  • We offer Erythrocyte Specific Antibodies for use in common research applications: Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry-Frozen. (
  • Please refer to our table ( Antibody Clone Performance Following Fixation/Permeabilization ) to evaluate the performance of numerous clones in the methanol-based buffer system. (
  • 4 )]. In this context, the human CD4 + T-cell clone 2C11 was generated ( 5 ) for immunization of BALB/c mice to produce the monoclonal anti-human CD4 antibody MAX.16H5 (initial name 30F16H5) ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The concept that Richard proposed is something that i tried once, using one of our products and the well known phos-tyr antibody (I forget the clone name, but Upstate carries it). (
  • A ) Pathogen-specific antibody typically mediates its effects through the ability of its Fc constant region to act as a bridge to other host defense mechanisms (e.g., complement, phagocytes, and NK cells). (
  • They promote the proliferation of B cells that produce highly selective antibodies against invading pathogens while weeding out those that generate potentially harmful ones. (
  • In this propose we will isolate antibodies that specifically recognize these various different morphologies of a-synuclein. (
  • However, please recognize that surface staining before stimulation can have undesired effects due to activation of the cell caused by antibody binding. (
  • The researchers were then able to obtain monoclonal antibodies from these immunized mice. (
  • In addition, immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) induced OVA-specific B cells only in human IL-6 knock-in mice. (
  • Because many aspects of mammalian biological systems, particularly their immune systems, are species specific, 1 small-animal models that more closely recapitulate human immunity, such as "humanized" mice, are currently required. (
  • These antibodies can then be used to study the role of the different morphologies in the progression of Parkinson's, and more importantly, they can also be used as potential therapeutics when expressed inside nerve cells to either prevent formation of the toxic structures or to facilitate clearance. (
  • This improvement made the new antibody eligible for human clinical trials. (
  • The paper describes the successful generation of Type 3 antibodies directed against several approved antibody drugs using Bio-Rad's innovative custom antibody generation service, based on the Human Combinatorial Antibody Library (HuCAL ® ) technology and Cys-Display ® , a modified phage display method. (
  • Our Erythrocyte Specific Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Since the antibody 1 5B3 reacts with bovine, human and mouse PrPSc we will be able to develop the methods in the mouse scrapie system with the prospect of their application to humans with CJD. (
  • A specific band was detected for CD44 at approximately 156 kDa (as indicated) using 20 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human CD44 s Pan Specific Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # BBA10). (
  • Human IgGs are glycoprotein antibodies that contain two equivalent light chains and a pair of identical heavy chains. (
  • Human neurone-specific enolase is mapped to chromosome 12p13. (
  • These OVA-specific antibodies displayed the highest frequency of somatic mutation, further suggesting that human IL-6 is important for efficient B-cell activation and selection. (
  • An anti-human CD4 antibody (MAX.16H5) was applied intravenously in clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) and acute late-onset rejection after transplantation of a renal allograft. (
  • However, as the possibility of developing immune reactions against the murine IgG 1 Fc-part remains, the murine antibody was chimerized, inheriting CD4-directed variable domains of the MAX.16H5 IgG 1 connected to a human IgG 4 backbone. (
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of Acetylation Specific antibodies. (
  • The finding is the first to pinpoint a specific risk factor for a significant subset of autism cases, as well as a biomarker for drug development and early diagnosis. (
  • 2, 3 Although these patterns are not specific for a particular disease type, the information may aid diagnosis. (
  • The results suggest that in a disease similar to infectious mononucleosis without heterophil antibodies testing of transient E.B. virus-specific IgM antibodies makes a rapid aetiological diagnosis possible and that in clinically well-defined cases viruses other than E.B. virus and cytomegalovirus are unlikely to be causal agents. (
  • The unique properties of antibody 1 5B3 make it an extremely valuable tool with respect to diagnosis and maybe even therapy. (