Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Plaque-forming cells in mice after experimental infection with Brucella abortus. (1/1095)Cells producing antibody to brucella lipopolysaccharide were detected in spleens of mice infected with Brucella abortus 19 by a hemolytic plaque assay. The appearance of immunoglobulin M-producing cells preceded humoral antibodies. The primary plaques were observed 5 days after inoculation, and they were still present by day 70. (+info)
Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. (2/1095)The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response. (+info)
Characterization of anergic anti-DNA B cells: B cell anergy is a T cell-independent and potentially reversible process. (3/1095)Anti-single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) B cells are regulated in non-autoimmune mice. In this report we show that while both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are blocked in their ability to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells, other phenotypic and functional characteristics distinguish them from one another. Splenic anti-ssDNA B cells are found distributed throughout the B cell follicle, and are phenotypically mature and long-lived. On the other hand, splenic anti-dsDNA B cells are short-lived, exhibit an immature and antigen-experienced phenotype, and localize to the T-B interface of the splenic follicle. Functionally, anti-ssDNA B cells proliferate, albeit suboptimally, in response to anti-IgM, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CD40L/IL-4 + anti-IgM stimulation, and tyrosine phosphorylate intracellular proteins upon mIgM cross-linking. Anti-dsDNA B cells, on the other hand, are functionally unresponsive to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation, and do not phosphorylate intracellular proteins, including Syk, upon mIg stimulation. Importantly, anti-DNA B cell anergy is maintained in the absence of T cells since both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are as efficiently regulated in RAG2(-/-) mice as in their RAG2(+/+) counterparts. Interestingly, the severely anergic state of anti-dsDNA B cells is partially reversible upon stimulation with CD40 ligand and IL-4. In response to these signals, anti-dsDNA B cells remain viable, up-regulate cell surface expression of B7-2 and IgM, and restore their ability to proliferate and phosphorylate Syk upon mIg cross-linking. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-DNA B cell anergy encompasses distinct phenotypes which, even in its most severe form, may be reversible upon stimulation with T cell-derived factors. (+info)
Development of immunoglobulin and antibody-synthesizing cells after immunization with different doses of antigen. (4/1095)The kinetics of development of antibody-synthesizing cells and of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function were studied in rats immunized with different doses (0-1, 1, 10, 100 mg) of horse radish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, hen ovalbumin, or human IgG, which had been deaggregated or heat-aggregated. Each antigen was injected once or twice as a solution in saline. Antibody and immunoglobulin-producing cells were detected in draining lymph nodes by immunohistochemical staining. In the primary response a few antibody-synthesizing cells were found whatever the dose injected. No increase or some increase was found with the amount of antigen injected, according to the protein used, but with all doses of antigen injected, the population of cells remained small, except with human IgG where a relatively high number of positive cells was detected even after injection of 1 mg of antigen. In the secondary response a few antibody-forming cells were also detected with the lower doses of antigen, but this population increased after boosting with 100 mg of antigen. With human IgG a greater number of positive cells was induced withall the doses tested. A correlation between the number of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function and the amount of antigen injected was observed in the primary and secondary responses. The relative size of these two populations varied with the stage of immunity of the animals. In the primary response, the population of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function was larger than the population of antibody-forming cells. The same was true in the secondary response, but if after a booster injection the level of antibody-synthesizing cells exceeded that reached in the primary response, the increase of cells synthesizing Ig without antibody function was smaller than the increase in antibody-forming cells. In general the more immunogenic an antigen was, the smaller was the ratio between antibody-forming cells and cells producing immunoglobulin without antibody function. (+info)
Differential involvement of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in T cell-independent and -dependent B cell differentiation to plasma cells. (5/1095)Along humoral immune responses, different stimuli drive the differentiation of B lymphocytes to Ig-secreting plasma cells in discrete microenvironments. The Blimp-1 transcription factor is up-regulated early during the transition of mature B cells to IgM-secreting plasma cells. In the present study, we have examined the requirement of Blimp-1 in plasma cell formation after both T cell-independent (LPS) and -dependent (CD40 + IL-4, Th cell lines) stimulation of spleen B cells. B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp-1) was expressed early after in vitro LPS stimulation, mainly in a population of IgM+Syndecan+CD43+ preplasma cells. In contrast, the BSAP transcription factor expressed in mature B cells was down-regulated during the differentiation to plasma cells. Treatment of these cultures with Blimp-1-specific antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides suppressed both Blimp-1 protein levels and the emergence of IgM+Syndecan+ cells and plasma cells. However, T-B cell cocultures of spleen B cells from C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice and syngeneic autoreactive SR.10 Th2 cells submitted to the anti-Blimp-1 therapy did not show any significant reduction in IgM- and IgG1-secreting plasma cell formation. Spleen B cells treated with anti-CD40 mAb + IL-4 differentiated to IgG1-secreting cells without significant transcription of the Blimp-1 gene; anti-Blimp-1 treatment subsequently did not have any effect in the later cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that Blimp-1 transcription factor specifically promotes T cell-independent B cell differentiation to plasma cells, probably at preplasma cell stages. In contrast, T cell-dependent plasma cell formation likely evolves through Blimp-1-independent pathways. (+info)
Relaxed negative selection in germinal centers and impaired affinity maturation in bcl-xL transgenic mice. (6/1095)The role of apoptosis in affinity maturation was investigated by determining the affinity of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) and serum antibody in transgenic mice that overexpress a suppressor of apoptosis, Bcl-xL, in the B cell compartment. Although transgenic animals briefly expressed higher numbers of splenic AFCs after immunization, the bcl-xL transgene did not increase the number or size of germinal centers (GCs), alter the levels of serum antibody, or change the frequency of NP-specific, long-lived AFCs. Nonetheless, the bcl-xL transgene product, in addition to endogenous Bcl-xL, reduced apoptosis in GC B cells and resulted in the expansion of B lymphocytes bearing VDJ rearrangements that are usually rare in primary anti-NP responses. Long-lived AFCs bearing these noncanonical rearrangements were frequent in the bone marrow and secreted immunoglobulin G(1) antibodies with low affinity for NP. The abundance of noncanonical cells lowered the average affinity of long-lived AFCs and serum antibody, demonstrating that Bcl-xL and apoptosis influence clonal selection/maintenance for affinity maturation. (+info)
Partial IgA-deficiency with increased Th2-type cytokines in TGF-beta 1 knockout mice. (7/1095)Though it has been shown that TGF-beta 1 directs B cells to switch to IgA in vitro, no studies have assessed TGF-beta 1 effects on mucosal vs systemic immunity in vivo. When the B cell functions of TGF-beta 1 gene-disrupted (TGF-beta 1-/-) mice were analyzed, significantly decreased IgA levels and increased IgG and IgM levels in serum and external secretions were observed. Further, analysis of Ab forming cells (AFC) isolated from both mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissue showed elevated IgM, IgG, and IgE, with decreased IgA AFC. A lack of IgA-committed B cells was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Splenic T cells triggered via the TCR expressed elevated Th2-type cytokines and, consistent with this observation, a 31-fold increase in serum IgE was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice. Thus, uncontrolled B cell responses, which include elevated IgE levels, a lack of antiinflammatory IgA, and an excess of complement-binding IgG and IgM Abs, will promote inflammation at mucosal surfaces in TGF-beta 1-/- mice and likely contribute to pulmonary and GI tract lesions, ultimately leading to the early death of these mice. (+info)
Variegated expression of the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene in the absence of the intronic locus control region. (8/1095)The expression of chromosomally integrated transgenes usually varies greatly among independent transfectants. This variability in transgene expression has led to the definition of locus control regions (LCRs) as elements which render expression consistent. Analyses of expression in single cells revealed that the expression of transgenes which lack an LCR is often variegated, i.e., on in some cells and off in others. In many cases, transgenes which show variegated expression were found to have inserted near the centromere. These observations have suggested that the LCR prevents variegation by blocking the inhibitory effect of heterochromatin and other repetitive-DNA-containing structures at the insertion site and have raised the question of whether the LCR plays a similar role in endogenous genes. To address this question, we have examined the effects of deleting the LCR from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus of a mouse hybridoma cell line in which expression of the immunoglobulin mu heavy-chain gene is normally highly stable. Our analysis of mu expression in single cells shows that deletion of this LCR resulted in variegated expression of the mu gene. That is, in the absence of the LCR, expression of the mu gene in the recombinant locus could be found in either of two epigenetically maintained, metastable states, in which transcription occurred either at the normal rate or not at all. In the absence of the LCR, the on state had a half-life of approximately 100 cell divisions, while the half-life of the off state was approximately 40,000 cell divisions. For recombinants with an intact LCR, the half-life of the on state exceeded 50,000 cell divisions. Our results thus indicate that the LCR increased the stability of the on state by at least 500-fold. (+info)
A potent virus-specific antibody-secreting cell response to acute enterovirus 71 infection in children<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A potent virus-specific antibody-secreting cell response to acute enterovirus 71 infection in children. AU - Huang, Kuan Ying Arthur. AU - Lin, Jainn Jim. AU - Chiu, Cheng Hsun. AU - Yang, Shuan. AU - Tsao, Kuo Chien. AU - Huang, Yhu Chering. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. Methods: We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. Results: A potent EV71 genogroup B-and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral ...
Mac-1-negative B-1b phenotype of natural antibody-producing cells, including those responding to Galα1,3Gal epitopes α1,3...
Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67<sup>low</sup>, CD138<sup>high</sup>, CD31<sup>high</sup>, and CD38<sup>high<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary hepatitis a virus infection. AU - Hong, Seokchan. AU - Lee, Hyun Woong. AU - Chang, Dong Yeop. AU - You, Sooseong. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Park, Jun Yong. AU - Ahn, Sang Hoon. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Yoo, Ook Joon. AU - Shin, Eui Cheol. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis Avirus (HAV).We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38 high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during ...
We have recently reported on the accumulation of plasma cells (PCs) in the human thymus, starting several months after birth. This thymic PC niche includes clones specific to common viruses presumably generated through peripheral responses. Humans acquire humoral immunity to dietary antigens during the first 3 years of life. Here we investigated whether such immunity also resulted in the homing of specific PC to the thymus. Using ELISPOT assays, we tested for the presence of antibody-producing cells specific to known immunogenic food antigens among B cells isolated from discarded thymus specimens from 1 day to 3 years patients. Results revealed the presence of PC specific to cows milk, egg and wheat derived antigens in 2 out of 10 patients. Furthermore, the presence of thymic food antigen-specific PC was associated with high serum IgG titers to same antigens, indicative of an ongoing immune response. Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of antibody-secreting cells specific to ...
Patente US20030044398 - Methods for producing antibodies in mammals - Google Patentes
B Cell Biology and Engineering
The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man. AU - Jelinek, Diane F. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The relationship of B cell proliferation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was explored in vitro by examining the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of cellular DNA synthesis, on the generation of ISC from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). HU completely inhibited the capacity of PBM to generate ISC in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and other polyclonal B cell activators. Inhibition resulted from an effect on B cell proliferation, because HU also prevented the generation of ISC in cultures of purified B cells supplemented with either T cell supernatants or mitomycin C-treated T cells. Inhibiting B cell proliferation by treating them with mitomycin C before culture also abolished the generation of ISC. When ISC were enumerated after a 7-day incubation with PWM, the addition ...
Antibody-producing cells display 'historical record' of childhood infections | Emory University | Atlanta, GA
CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY IN MICE | JEM
The kinetics of the generation of primed IgM and IgG antibody-forming cell precursors, and of helper T-cell populations, were analyzed in mice whose primary responses to high and low doses of SRBC were arrested at intervals by the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide monohydrate and specific antibody. The extent to which immunological memory was established in these animals before blockade of the primary response was assessed by the hemolytic plaque assay following challenge 12 wk after priming. The presence of IgG B-memory cells and T-memory cells in suppressed mice was further investigated by the transfer into these animals of syngeneic SRBC-stimulated thymocytes or anti-θ-treated spleen cells.. It was found that the progenitors of secondary IgM-synthesizing cells were primed almost immediately after injection of antigen, and that early blockade of the primary response resulted in a raised IgM response after challenge. On the other hand, priming for a secondary IgG response took at least ...
Decoding Lupus : Emory Magazine
The immune system can produce many types of antibodies, directed against infectious viruses (good) or against human proteins as in lupus (harmful). Each antibody-secreting cell carries DNA rearrangements that reflect the makeup of its antibody product. With next-generation sequencing technology, scientists can use the DNA to identify and track that cell, like reading a bar code on an item in a supermarket.. Tipton, Sanz, and their colleagues have been using these DNA bar codes to deepen our understanding of immune responses in lupus. They obtained blood samples from eight patients experiencing lupus flares and compared them to eight healthy people who had recently been vaccinated against influenza or tetanus.. When the immune system is responding to something its seen before, such as when someone receives a booster vaccine, the bar codes of the antibody-producing cells look quite similar to each other. A set of just a few antibody-producing cells multiply and expand. By contrast, the ...
STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS | JEM
Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. More than 300 such cells were examined. In the lymph nodes, rosette-forming cells were all in the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories. In cells of the mouse spleen, macrophages were also found among the RFC, especially in the later days after immunization.. The great majority of the RFC, 70-100%, were of the lymphocytic category. These included small, medium, and large lymphocytes with fine gradations of differentiation, and blast forms with little heterochromatin. The endoplasmic reticulum of these cells occurred in short, very narrow pieces, usually in contact with a mitochondrion. The cells of the plasmacytic category also showed fine gradations from plasmablasts to typical mature plasma cells.. Plaque-forming cells of mouse and rabbit were also collected by micropipet. Of 162 such cells, ...
In Vitro Antibody Production - Current Protocols in Molecular Biology - Mond - Wiley Online Library
This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
"Clones of antibody-forming cells in pokeweed mitogen stimulated microc" by J Quintans and I Lefkovits
Detection and Enumeration of Immunocytes Producing Different Classes of Vibriolysins after Primary and Secondary Immunization...
The vibriolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay was used to study the kinetics of the primary and secondary immune responses of mice and rabbits immunized with heat-killed cholera vibrios. Immunocytes releasing IgG antibody could be detected as readily as those immunocytes secreting IgM antibody in spleens of BALB/c mice and New Zealand White rabbits after a single injection of vaccine. Peak numbers of indirect (IgG) PFC were detected 3 to 4 days after the peak direct (IgM) PFC response (12 to 14 days). In contrast, only direct vibriolytic PFC were detected in spleens of NIH Albino mice during the primary response to cholera antigens. After a second injection of vaccine, IgM, IgG, and IgA PFC were detected in both mouse strains with peak responses for each immunocyte class occurring within the first week after booster injection. Heat-killed vibrios or a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract, but not cholera exotoxin or E. coli LPS, inhibited the vibriolytic response. Furthermore, viable cholera ...
Myeloid cells limit production of antibody-secreting cells after immunization in the lymph node. - ORA - Oxford University...
News | Cryonics Institute
June 11, 2015. When exposed to a foreign agent, such as an immunogenic protein, B cells in lymphoid organs (such as the spleen) undergo germinal center (immune defense) reactions. The image on the left is an normal immunized mouse spleen with activated B cells (brown) that produce antibodies. At right, top: a scanning electron micrograph of synthetic porous synthetic immune organoids that enable rapid proliferation and activation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. At right, bottom: primary B cell viability and distribution is visible 24 hours following encapsulation of B cells from the mouse lymphoid organ into the synthetic organoids. (credit: Singh Lab). Cornell University engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organoid (a lab-grown ball of cells with some of the features of a normal organ) that produces antibodies. The engineered organ has implications for everything from rapid production of immune therapies to new frontiers in cancer or infectious disease ...
Monospecificity of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. - Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal...
"Antibody-forming cells with specificity for syngeneic and allogeneic (" by Y H. Mc hugh and B Bonavida
Emory University immunologists identify long-lived antibody-producing cells in bone marrow - http://cyto.blogs.sapo.pt
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive.. The cells keep a catalog of how an adults immune system responded to infections decades ago in childhood encounters with measles or mumps viruses. The results, published Tuesday, July 14 in , could provide vaccine designers with a goalpost when aiming for long-lasting antibody production.. "If youre developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcares Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program.. The findings could advance investigation of autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, by better defining the cells that produce auto-reactive antibodies.. Co-senior author of the Immunity paper is Iñaki Sanz, ...
Antibody-Secreting Cells with a Phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high Secrete Nonspecific IgM during Primary...
Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of HAV infection. Moreover, substantial numbers of ASCs were non-HAV-specific and dominantly secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific ASCs by staining with fluorochrome-tagged HAV-VP1 protein. As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67lowCD138highCD31highCD38high, demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype ...
Immunoglobulin A | The Chopra Library
We evaluated virus-specific B and T cell responses induced by the attenuated Wa (P1AG1) human rotavirus (AttHRV) oral 2-dose vaccine with or without Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) colonization in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. The AttHRV vaccinated and LA-fed pigs had a significantly higher magnitude of HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8+ T cell responses in ileum and spleen, IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cell responses in ileum, and serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibody and virus neutralizing antibody titers compared to the AttHRV vaccinated pigs without LA colonization ...
Pilot production of monoclonal antibodies - Stock Image G252/0076 - Science Photo Library
Scientist working with start-up flask of mammalian cell culture used for the commercial production of recombinant proteins or monoclonal antibodies. The initial stage of producing a culture of monoclonal antibodies involves the fusion of a normal antibody-producing cell (a lymphocyte) with a rapidly multiplying tumour cell. The resulting hybridoma cells are multiplied in fermenters to produce large numbers of genetically identical copies, each secreting the antibody produced by the original lymphocyte. In this way large amounts of specific antibodies can be produced for use in medicine as vaccines or in diagnostic tests. BRO 3.8 - Stock Image G252/0076
pub H-BRS | Search
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipokine mainly secreted by white fatty tissue, playing a major role in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. For cattle, AdipoQ data are largely limited to mRNA expression; to our knowledge, valid information about the AdipoQ protein in bovine tissues and body fluids is not available. Therefore, we have developed a monoclonal antibody against bovine AdipoQ. This study describes the preparation, application, and characterization of a monoclonal antibody for use in ELISA, Western blot, and histology. The antibody was developed by PEG fusion of the SP2/0 cell line with splenic B cells from AdipoQ immunized C57Bl/6 mice. Antibody-producing cells were identified by ELISA and specified by immunoblotting and immunostaining of bovine retroperitoneal adipose tissue. The novel antibody detects AdipoQ in histological samples, ELISA, and Western blots ...
Immunomodulatory effects of cinobufagin isolated from Chan Su on activation and cytokines secretion of immunocyte in vitro. |...
Cокращения, используемые в описании OBD-II (ОБД 2).
Style File: Cool Korean Beauty Products - Studio 5
South Korea is in the spotlight right now for the Winter Olympics, and we love tuning in. But this country is also known for their clever beauty products.. Megan Moore shares some of the biggest trends in K-Beauty that are making their way to the U.S.. Find more of Megans recommendations on her website, www.thebeautysnoop.com.. ...
Antibody-forming Cell Assays of Avian Paramyxoviruses: Immunization of Chickens Demonstrates Two Serotype Groups | Microbiology...
Summary Chickens were immunized with eight different serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (PMV). Ninety percent of splenic IgG antibody-forming cells (AFC) were serotype-specific with respect to the glycoprotein and nucleoprotein-polymerase antigens in an indirect immunoperoxidase binding system. The IgG AFCs which cross-reacted between serotypes divided the serotypes into two mutually exclusive super serogroups composed of PMV-1, -3, -4, -7 and -9, and PMV-2, -6 and -8. PMV-5 was not tested.
Enzyme-linked immunospot assays for direct ex vivo measurement of vaccine-induced human humoral immune responses in blood -...
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was originally developed to enumerate antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and has subsequently been adapted for various applications, including the detection cytokine-secreting cells. Owing to its exceptionally high sensitivity, the ELISPOT has proven to be especially useful for detecting discrete populations of active cells (e.g., antigen-specific cells). Because of its versatility, the ELISPOT assay is used for a wide range of applications, including clonal analyses of immune responses after vaccination or after immunotherapy. Here we describe standard protocols for the detection of human ASCs specific to virtually any vaccine antigen after enrichment of circulating plasmablasts. In addition, a protocol is described for the measurement of mucosal ASC responses after prior immunomagnetic enrichment of mucosally derived blood lymphocytes. The protocols described allow rapid (∼6-8 h) detection of specific ASCs in small (1-2 ml) samples of blood
The Multiple Myeloma Landscape - HealthWell Foundation
By Emily Burke, PhD, Director of Curriculum Development, BiotechPrimer.com. Editors Note: This article originally appeared in Biotech Primer Weekly. For more of the science behind the headlines, please subscribe.. Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. These cells are the antibody-producing cells of our immune system and play a critical role in our defense against infections. If they begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner, however, they form a plasmacytoma - a mass of cells within the bone marrow that no longer function in our defense but instead simply take up space and interfere with the functions of healthy cells. Instead of producing normal disease-fighting antibodies, plasmacytoma cells produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins, which dont provide any benefit to the body and crowd out normally functioning antibodies.. Easily Confused: Plasma Cells vs Blood Plasma. Plasma cells are specialized white blood cells that produce ...
Antibodies defend us against infections, so they often get described as weapons. And the cells that produce them could be weapon factories?. To understand recent research from immunologist Jerry Bosss lab, a more appropriate metaphor is the distinction between sprinting and long-distance running.. Graduate student Madeline Price in Bosss lab has been investigating how antibody-producing cells use glucose - the simple sugar- and how the cells patterns of gene activity reflect that usage. Cells can use glycolysis, which is inefficient but fast, analogous to sprinting, or oxidative phosphorylation, generating much more energy overall, more like long distance running.. As Boss and Price point out:. ...
Antibodies defend us against infections, so they often get described as weapons. And the cells that produce them could be weapon factories?. To understand recent research from immunologist Jerry Bosss lab, a more appropriate metaphor is the distinction between sprinting and long-distance running.. Graduate student Madeline Price in Bosss lab has been investigating how antibody-producing cells use glucose - the simple sugar- and how the cells patterns of gene activity reflect that usage. Cells can use glycolysis, which is inefficient but fast, analogous to sprinting, or oxidative phosphorylation, generating much more energy overall, more like long distance running.. As Boss and Price point out:. ...
Gentaur Molecular :Kamiya \ Mouse Anti SRBC IgG \ KT-574
Angiotensinogen secretion by single rat pituitary cells: detection by a reverse haemolytic plaque assay and cell identification...
A reverse haemolytic plaque assay (RHPA) for angiotensinogen was developed in rat hepatoma H4 cells and applied to investigate the possible secretion of angiotensinogen from rat pituitary cells in primary culture. Over a 24-hour incubation period in Cunningham chambers plaques with a mean area of 2,800 +/- 430 and 590 +/- 220 microns2/plaque (SD, n = 6) formed around all viable H4 cells and 2.8 +/- 0.59% of viable pituitary cells respectively. As a positive control PRL secretion from lactotrophs was routinely checked by the RHPA and shown to form plaques with a mean area of 4,050 +/- 1,850 microns2/plaque after a 4-hour incubation. By comparing plaque size in H4 cells with angiotensinogen release in cell culture, as quantified by radioimmunoassay, the secretion rate of angiotensinogen from pituitary cells was calculated as 22 +/- 8 ng/10(6) cells/24 h. Plaque-forming cells consisted of two morphologically distinct populations; 78% being small cells (less than 6 microns diameter) containing little
Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
JCI - Spec-seq unveils transcriptional subpopulations of antibody-secreting cells following influenza vaccination
Human peripheral blood isolation. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited to receive the 2014-2015 quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) Fluarix (GSK) at the University of Chicago with approval by the institutional review board (protocol 09-043A). Peripheral blood (40-80 ml) was drawn 7 days after immunization. B cells were enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the RosetteSep Human B cell Enrichment Kit (Stem Cell Technologies, catalog 15024), and treated and isolated with a Lymphoprep gradient (Corning, catalog 25-072). The 6 subjects with the highest vaccine-positive antibody-secreting cell frequency determined by ELISPSOT were selected for inclusion in our study.. ELISPOT. B cell-enriched PBMCs (0.25 × 106 to 1.0 × 106 cells) were transferred onto ELISPOT plates (Millipore, catalog MSHAN4B50). Plates were coated with goat anti-human immunoglobulin (whole IgG, IgM, and IgA, KPL, catalog 01-10-07) at 5 μg/ml or with the total administered QIV at 10 μl/ml both in PBS ...
The immune status of children with malignant disease in remission was assessed usingvarious immune function tests. Children with infections had significantlymore neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and impaired cell-mediated immune responses than those without. These two groups combined had much more absolute lymphopenia and impairment of both cell-mediated immunity and antibody-producing capacity thancontrol children with non-malignant conditions. Regular immunological evaluation isrecommended for children with malignant disease when new intensive treatment schedules are under trial and for individual patients particularly prone to develop infections during treatment. ...
Number of specific antibody-secreting cells in the peripheral blood among children with mycoplasma pneumonia<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Number of specific antibody-secreting cells in the peripheral blood among children with mycoplasma pneumonia. AU - Iseki, Mikiro. AU - Takahashi, Takao. AU - Kimura, Kyoko. AU - Yamashita, Ryoko. AU - Sasaki, Tsuguo. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the peripheral blond were enumerated with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay in 12 children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Those cells were detected in the acute phases and declined in number in the convalescent stage. The maximum numbers of M. pneumoniae-specific ASCs ranged from 0 to 478 for immunoglobulin G (IgG), 13 to 1,992 for IgM, and 0 to 53 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the total numbers (i.e., including both specific and nonspecific) of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (IgSCs) were as high as 4,000 for both IgG and IgM and 1,000 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Such a great increase in the numbers of total IgSCs in ...
Influence of route and dose of antigen on the migration inhibition and plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes in...
Reverse haemolytic plaque assay study of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin interaction in ovine...
Mechanism of interleukin-2 signaling: mediation of different outcomes by a single receptor and transduction pathway | Science
The T cell lymphokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), plays a pivotal role in an immune response by stimulating antigen-activated B lymphocytes to progress through the cell cycle and to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. An IL-2 inducible B lymphoma line, in which the growth and differentiation responses are uncoupled, provides a model system for dissecting the signaling mechanisms operating in each response. This system was used to show that both signals are initiated by IL-2 binding to a single, unifunctional receptor complex. Moreover, both signals are transduced by a pathway that does not involve any known second messenger system and that can be blocked by a second T cell lymphokine, interleukin 4. These findings suggest that the pleiotrophic effects of IL-2 are determined by different translations of the signal in the nucleus. ...
Potential effect of various immunocompetent cells from | Open-i
Recombinant Human Interleukin-6 | Cell Sciences
Sequential waves of functionally related proteins are expressed when B cells prepare for antibody secretion
Upon encounter with antigen, B lymphocytes differentiate into Ig-secreting plasma cells. This step involves a massive development of secretory organelles, most notably the endoplasmic reticulum. To analyze the relationship between organelle reshaping and Ig secretion, we performed a dynamic proteomi …
Why Darwinism is False
Darwin argued in The Origin of Species that the widespread occurrence of vestigial organs-organs that may have once had a function but are now useless-is evidence against creation. "On the view of each organism with all its separate parts having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable is it that organs bearing the plain stamp of inutility… should so frequently occur." But such organs, he argued, are readily explained by his theory: "On the view of descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect, and useless condition, or quite aborted, far from presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated in accordance with the views here explained."25. In The Descent of Man, Darwin cited the human appendix as an example of a vestigial organ. But Darwin was mistaken: The appendix is now known to be an important source of antibody-producing blood cells and thus an integral part ...
Gentaur Molecular :ICL \ anti-Sheep IgG h+l FITC A.P. Host Rabbit \ RGHL-35F
ELISPOT - Wikipedia
The Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay is a widely used method for monitoring cellular immune responses in humans and other animals, and has found clinical applications in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the monitoring of graft tolerance or rejection in transplant patients. The ELISPOT technique has proven to be among the most useful means available for monitoring cell-mediated immunity, due to its sensitive and accurate detection of rare antigen-specific T cells (or B cells) and its ability to visualize single positive cells within a population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The ELISPOT method was developed by Cecil Czerkinskys group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983, for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay. The ELISPOT assay has since been more widely adopted for the identification and enumeration of cytokine-producing cells at the single ...
Anti-Sheep IgG (H+L) - 60nm Gold NanoUrchins (0.5ml)
... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: ... They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
Polyclonal B cell response
B cell and T cell mutually activate each other 5. B cells differentiate into plasma cells to produce soluble antibodies ... with some B cell clones producing antibodies that bind strongly to the epitope, and others producing antibodies that bind ... The antibodies are soluble and do not require direct cell-to-cell contact between the pathogen and the B-cell to function. ... Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ...
When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's ... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with ... This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ...
The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... Like other antibodies, ixekizumab is probably degraded by proteolysis. Its elimination half-life is 13 days. Ixekizumab is a ... In the hinge region, a serine is replaced by a proline to reduce formation of half-antibodies and heterodimers in the ...
Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ... Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ...
Antibodies by nature are produced by immune cells. They 'bind' specifically to the antigens on the surface of viruses, bacteria ... and diseased cells to clear and to prevent health damages to the body. Since antibodies are highly specific proteins, binding ... To observe the reaction of the different antibodies to the sample, the chip is placed under a standard laboratory fluorescent ... US application 2010075865, Trau, Dieter; Liu, Wen-Tso & Johnson Ng, Kian Kok, "microarray system and a process for producing ...
Plasma cells produce immunoglobulins, which are commonly called antibodies. There are thousands of different antibodies, each ... resulting in overproduction of the specific antibody the original cell was generated to produce. Each type of antibody has a ... that is produced in excess by an abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, typically in multiple myeloma. Other terms ... Antibodies are typically grouped into five types: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. When someone contracts myeloma, a malignant ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ... The LE cell, it was determined, was a part of an anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) reaction; the body produces antibodies against its ... they named the antibody that causes one cell to ingest another the LE factor and the two nuclei cell result in the LE cell.[117 ... which promote the maturation of autoantibody-producing plasma cells and B memory cells. In the presence of autoreactive T cells ...
Talmage hypothesized that antigens bind to antibodies on the surface of antibody-producing cells and "only those cells are ... its counter-specific cell so that particular cell is induced to multiply (producing its clones) for antibody production. This ... In 1958, Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first ... After antigen binding the cell proliferates, forming a clone producing the same antibody. Later in the same year, Australian ...
... that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells after purification with a fluorescence-activated cell ... Cell Cycle 5:1940-1945, PMID 16940754. *^ MacPhail SH, Banáth JP, Yu Y, Chu E, Olive PL.Cell cycle-dependent expression of ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ... A flow cytometer is similar to a microscope, except that, instead of producing an image of the cell, flow cytometry offers high ...
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
These destroy excess antibody-producing cells in the thecal sac, thus alleviating the symptoms. A more sophisticated analysis ... a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 receptor on the surface of B cells, thus destroying the self-reactive B cells. ... These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain ... The cell subsequently lyses. Notably, this mechanism is unlikely as it causes the cell to die, which is inconsistent with ...
Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... B cell proliferation. The B cell waits for the TH cell to bind to the complex. This binding will activate TH cell and it ... Step 4: The activated T helper cell binds to a B cell in order to activate the B cell. Step 5: When the B cells are activated, ... These daughter cells either become plasma cells or memory cells. The memory B cells remain inactive here; later when these ...
Microbial symbiosis and immunity
Commensals promote the development of B cells that produce a protective antibody, Immunoglobulin A (IgA). This can neutralize ... The researchers found that compared to the CD4+ cells in the control mice, CD4+ cells in PSA-treated mice produced reduced ... The stimulus may be a microbe, a carcinogenic cell, a same species cell with different antigens, or cells from a different ... When mice are raised in germ-free conditions, they lack circulating antibodies, and cannot produce mucus, antimicrobial ...
"Exploiting highly ordered subnanoliter volume microcapillaries as microtools for the analysis of antibody producing cells". ... "Vaccinogen Enhances Patient-Derived Antibody Program with Revolutionary High-Throughput Single Cell Screening and Analysis ... It is currently developing a potential cancer immunotherapy called OncoVAX, where a patient's own tumor cells are used as the ... The patient is then administered two injections of these tumor cells mixed with the TICE strain of BCG via intradermal ...
This minimizes damage caused by the antibodies produced by the white blood cells. Often, this is treatment is combined with ... Retinal bipolar cells (cells in retina that transmit signals) react with the antibodies, leading to cell death. Although it is ... Autoimmune antibodies target proteins in retinal photoreceptor cells. The proteins targeted as antigenic are recoverin, α‐ ... After removal of the disease-associated antibodies, the blood cells and plasma are transfused back into the body. Response to ...
These potentially allosteric antibodies also produced more interferon gamma and showed dose-dependent increases in T cell CD25 ... Their foundational paper showed that it was possible to quickly capture a large mass of antibody-producing cells through ... June 1, 2006). "A microengraving method for rapid selection of single cells producing antigen-specific antibodies". Nat. ... Enumeral's antibodies caused higher T cell activation in ex vivo human assays than the currently marketed anti-PD-1 antibodies ...
These germinal centres are places where B memory cells are created and secretory antibody (IgA) is produced. Recent studies ... These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... Tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens produced ... have provided evidence that the tonsils produce T lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, in a manner similar to, but different ...
Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. Mol Immunol 2005;42:1311-9 ... In 2002 he became a member of the SIOPEN group and got involved in the clinical development of a monoclonal antibody directed ... Natural killer cell-mediated eradication of neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow by targeted interleukin-2 therapy. Blood ... Tumor-targeted IL-2 amplifies T cell-mediated immune response induced by gene therapy with single-chain IL-12. Proc Natl Acad ...
Small modular immunopharmaceutical
Genetically modified cells produce SMIPs as antibody-like dimers, which are about 30% smaller than real antibodies. Like ... a CD37 targeting potential treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell cancers. A monoclonal antibody targeting ... and the combined proteins are produced in genetically modified (transfected) cells and screened for clones with useful ... They are largely built from parts of antibodies (immunoglobulins), and like them have a binding site for antigens that could be ...
Michel C. Nussenzweig
He also produced the first dendritic cell-specific monoclonal antibody and cloned the first dendritic cell receptor. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.07.043. PMC 4163911 . PMID 25131989. Scheid, Johannes F.; et al. (28 July 2016). "HIV-1 antibody ... As a Ph.D. student, Nussenzweig was the first to show that dendritic cells present foreign antigens to initiate T cell immunity ... "Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice". Cell. 158 ...
... is a murine IgG2a lambda monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, produced in mammalian cells. ... Each time the labelled antibody was administered, it was always preceded by unlabelled antibody because early clinical trials ... additionally labelled antibody targeted tumors better in people pre-treated with unlabelled antibody. This drug combination was ... A first dose of labelled antibody was given once, and whole-body radiation was measured with a gamma camera over seven days. ...
The gastrointestinal immune system contains up to 70-80% of the antibody producing cells of the body. During embryonic ... including cell proliferation and cell death. After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases ... Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. The process of ... Clinical trials involving this antibody have yet to be employed, but the creation of this antibody offers alternative ...
Sercarz EE, Coons AH: The absence of antibody-producing cells during unresponsiveness to BSA in the mouse. J Immunol 1963; 90: ... Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and ... I considered that it might be easier to find the antigen than the antibody... The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with ... Coons AH: Fluorescent antibodies as histochemical tools. Fed Proc 1951; 10: 558-559. Coons AH: Fluorescent antibody methods. ...
Type II hypersensitivity
B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the foreign blood type are produced. IgG and IgM antibodies bind to ... which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell response, wherein antibodies are produced against the foreign ... Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting ... the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces. The antigens recognized in ...
B cells, and the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second ... Thus, humanized antibodies produced in vitro by cell culture are used instead if available. Immunization registry Influenza ... and if there are no B cells to produce more antibodies, they will disappear. Passive immunization occurs physiologically, when ... The antibodies can be produced in animals, called "serum therapy," although there is a high chance of anaphylactic shock ...
The plasma cells produce specific antibodies in response to the periodontal pathogens, which diffuse into the gingival ... They produce mainly IgG, with some IgA. It has been suggested that these gingival crevicular fluid antibody levels could be ... This is due to the suppression of serum IgG2 and antibody against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans found in smokers. ... These is also evidence they produce increased amounts IL-1α and IL-1β which cause osteoclastic bone resorption. These amounts ...
Genetic memory (biology)
Memory B cells capable of producing these antibodies form the basis for acquired immunological memory. Each individual ... Antibody genes in B and T lymphocytes are assembled from separate gene segments, giving each lymphocyte a unique antibody ... All cells in multicellular organisms are derived from a pluripotent zygote and contain the same genetic material (with a few ... Cells often employ epigenetic processes that affect DNA-protein interactions to record this cellular memory in the form of ...
Original antigenic sin
... the antibodies produced by these B cells generally ineffectively bind to the altered epitopes. In addition, these antibodies ... These memory B cells respond to specific epitopes on the surface of viral proteins in order to produce antigen-specific ... Antibody-dependent enhancement Cell mediated immunity Humoral immunity Polyclonal response FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation ... Juthathip Mongkolsapaya (2006). "T Cell Responses in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Are Cross-Reactive T Cells Suboptimal?". J. ...
In 1996, Lonza acquired Celltech Biologics and began producing mammalian cell cultures and monoclonal antibodies. In October ... Initially the company produced electricity used to manufacture chemicals such as calcium carbide. Lonza moved to neighbouring ... In 2010, they made a deal with GlaxoSmithKline to manufacture therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. In 2014, Lonza entered into an ...
Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ... "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. Some B cells will ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞，在对器官移植的
Type 2 diabetes
... due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood ... If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to ... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells. Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance. Insulin ...
... producing large amounts of virus in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts ... Researchers looking at slides of cultures of cells that make monoclonal antibodies. These are grown in a lab and the ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Thomas' work showed that bone marrow cells infused intravenously could repopulate the bone marrow and produce new blood cells. ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ...
Genetically modified tomato
When the cell wall proteins, polygalacturonase and expansin are prevented from being produced in fruits, they are less ... Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... As well as aiming to produce novel crops, scientists produce genetically modified tomatoes to understand the function of genes ... "The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187-1193. doi:10.2307/3869226. JSTOR 3869226. PMC 160085 . PMID 1821764.. ...
... make it useful for making cell lines that can be used to test serotyping antibodies. As a result, HLA-A1 and B8 produce some of ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association ... The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3. One of the ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3. Later it was ...
Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... and is produced in a tissue-selective manner based on expression of 5α-reductase. Tissues in which DHT forms at a high ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... The multimammate rat can quickly produce a large number of offspring, tends to colonize human settlements increasing the risk ... Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ...
... so nobody has yet succeeded in producing specific antibodies to them. But Mollon and Bowmaker did find that L cones and M cones ... In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision. ... Thus, interaction between at least two types of cone is necessary to produce the ability to perceive color. With at least two ... But very bright red light would produce a stronger response from L cones than from M cones, while not very intense yellowish ...
... which are specialized in facilitating peripheral B cell maturation, and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and ... A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ...
Antibody - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The system which produces antibodies in the blood plasma. Another system, cellular immunity, is done in the tissues by cells. ... These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes. The ... Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system ... The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... which also produce (1→3)β-D-glucan. This test can aid in the detection of Aspergillus, Candida, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ... One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast ( ...
Plasmin is produced in an inactive form, plasminogen, in the liver. Although plasminogen cannot cleave fibrin, it still has an ... FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). ... plasmin further stimulates plasmin generation by producing more active forms of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and ...
Artificial induction of immunity
In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... time required to kill a person is much less than is required by the immune system to recognize the toxin and produce antibodies ...
White blood cell
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
... cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine ... VSTs have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral ... natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell ... Absent B cells with a resultant severe reduction of all types of antibody: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (btk deficiency, or ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... NMDA receptor activation is essential to producing the activity-dependent molecular changes involved in the formation of new ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
It is now widely presumed that the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are responsible for the inflammation in GPA.[ ... Immunofluorescence pattern produced by binding of ANCA to ethanol-fixed neutrophils, from a person with GPA ... Mendenhall WM, Olivier KR, Lynch JW, Mendenhall NP (April 2006). "Lethal midline granuloma-nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma ... Seo P, Stone JH (July 2004). "The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides". The American Journal of ...
The phagocytosis theory is based on the notion that phagocytes are cells that have the power to englobe foreign bodies - and ... In Saigon Albert Calmette also created the first overseas branch of the Institute, where he produced an amount of smallpox and ... Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... By September 1914, the Institute was able to provide 670,000 doses of the needed vaccine and continued to produce it throughout ...
... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium. ... Antibodies raised against bcd fusion proteins recognize a 55-57 kd doublet band in Western blots of extracts of 0-4 hr old ... the female gamete produces an abundance of mRNA - transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein.[4 ... its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research. Embryology is ...
Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... Alirocumab and evolocumab, both monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, are specifically indicated as adjunct to diet and ... In response, the liver produces more LDL receptors, which remove circulating LDL from the blood. Statins effectively lower ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ...
Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile, while cold foods tended to produce phlegm. Seasons of the year, periods ... A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a ... modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and antibodies ... The blood was believed to be produced exclusively by the liver sanguine (enthusiastic, active, and social).:103-105 ...
ஏபிஓ குருதி குழு முறைமை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
குறிப்பாக, எச்.ஐ.வி உருவாக்கும் உயிரணு வரிசைகளில் (HIV-producing cell lines) வெளிப்படுத்தப்படும் குருதிவகை ... "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
The more rarely used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout ... In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. The oat beta-glucan health ... Intuitively, resolution of symptoms, normalization of histology, and normalization of coeliac antibodies should define response ... histology and coeliac antibodies can take several years to normalize.7. ...
... possibly due to the heavy transcription demands on these genes to produce enough ubiquitin for the cell. It has been proposed ... The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... "Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ...
Innate immune system
Like invertebrates, plants neither generate antibody or T-cell responses nor possess mobile cells that detect and attack ... On one hand, γδ T cells may be considered a component of adaptive immunity in that they rearrange TCR genes to produce ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ...
Beta-amiloide, a enciclopedia libre
A función normal do Aβ non se coñece ben. Aínda que algúns estudos animais mostraron que a ausencia de Aβ non produce ... Ray WJ, Yao M, Mumm J, Schroeter EH, Saftig P, Wolfe M, Selkoe DJ, Kopan R, Goate AM (December 1999). "Cell surface presenilin- ... and antibody response of active Aβ immunotherapy with CAD106 in patients with Alzheimer's disease: randomised, double-blind, ... Baruch-Suchodolsky R, Fischer B (May 2009). "Abeta40, either soluble or aggregated, is a remarkably potent antioxidant in cell- ...
Mac-1-negative B-1b phenotype of natural antibody-producing cells, including those responding to Galα1,3Gal epitopes α1,3...
Patente US20030044398 - Methods for producing antibodies in mammals - Google Patentes
... antibodies by transplanting a cell that produces an antibody of interest into a mammal and isolating the desired antibodies ... The invention also features methods of transplanting antibody-producing cells into a mammal. ... antibody-producing cell or the antibodies produced by the antibody-producing cell and administering the antibody-producing cell ... By "antibody-producing cell" is meant a cell that naturally produces an antibody, such as a B-cell, or a cell that is ...
B Cell Biology and Engineering
... differentiation of antibody-secreting cells will help us engineer a B cell therapy for protein replacement or treat antibody- ... B Cell Biology and Antibody Production Antibody secreting plasma cells are dedicated protein-producing machines that are ... First, these cells can produce protein indefinitely. Second, antibody-secreting B cells produce similar quantities of protein ... B Cell-Based Protein Delivery Could be a Lifelong Cure Antibody-secreting B cells exhibit two features that we think can be ...
Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67<sup>low</sup>, CD138<sup>high</sup>, CD31<sup>high</sup>, and CD38<sup>high<...
Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary ... Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary ... Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary ... Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary ...
STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS | JEM
STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS. Fred G. Gudat, T. N. Harris, Susanna Harris, Klaus Hummeler ... Cells producing plaques facilitated by antisera vs. IgG of the mouse or rabbit (7S) showed the same distribution between cell ... Cells producing rosettes which were resistant to lysis in the presence of complement, and were thus presumably producing 7S ... Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red ...
Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines | PNAS
Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines. R S Accolla, S Carrel, and J ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ...
Antibody-Producing Cells | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Antibody-Producing Cells" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antibody-Producing Cells" was a major or ... Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell ... c-Myb Exacerbates Atherosclerosis through Regulation of Protective IgM-Producing Antibody-Secreting Cells. Cell Rep. 2019 05 21 ... "Antibody-Producing Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
B cells produce antibodies 'when danger calls, but not when it whispers' | EurekAlert! Science News
But how do B cells know whether a threat is real and whether to start producing these weapons? An international team of life ... The immune systems B cells protect us from disease by producing smart bullets that target invaders such as pathogens and ... scientists shows in the May 16 issue of the journal Science how these cells respond only to true threats. ... B cells produce antibodies when danger calls, but not when it whispers The specialized immune cells only act when specific ...
Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming. -...
Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming.. ... Corrigendum: Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic ... a) Cell sorting of TT-specific B cells from bulk CD19+ BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced memory B cell culture using TT-PE staining. (b) ... cell surface B cell receptor (BCR)-positive, immunoglobulin-secreting B cells with features of germinal center B cells, ...
Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines...
Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines ... Screening of 311 cell lines using indirect immunofluorescence revealed 58 lines whose antibodies showed a highly selective ... From the spleen cells of these mice we established 755 permanent lymphoid cell lines using the hybridoma technique originally ... Radioimmunoassay showed 455 of these cell lines secreted antibodies which bound to component(s) contained in the antigen ...
A vaccine is a virus in latent form, forcing your B-cells to produce antibodies ... | Hacker News
A vaccine is a virus in latent form, forcing your B-cells to produce antibodies for it. So yeah, personally I never take a ... A vaccine does not do anything at all to our capacity to generate antibodies. All it does is take the exact same virus you ... It gives you a head start in making antibodies, but does not affect the generation of them in any way.. , And remember here ... Like, isnt it possible that with the prevalence of vaccines, our own capacity for generating antibodies gets affected?. And ...
Antibody-producing cells display 'historical record' of childhood infections | Emory University | Atlanta, GA
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone ... by the same authors examines antibody-producing cells in patients with lupus erythematosus; the auto-antibody producing cells ... In contrast, cells producing anti-influenza antibodies were found spread across three of the subsets. Because study ... Antibody-producing cells display historical record of childhood infections. By Quinn Eastman , Woodruff Health Sciences ...
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Characterization of N-Linked Glycosylation in a Monoclonal Antibody Produced in NS0 Cells...
... to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. The technique provides short analysis times, efficient ... Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular ... The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. ... All monoclonal antibodies were produced in mice myeloma NS0 cells and were purified to ≥99% by the Bioprocess Research and ...
Immunostimulation of antibody-producing cells and humoral antibody to fish bacterins by a biological response modifier
Natural Killer Cells Produce T Cell-Recruiting Chemokines in Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells | Cancer Research
Natural Killer Cells Produce T Cell-Recruiting Chemokines in Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells. Julie M. Roda, Robin ... Natural Killer Cells Produce T Cell-Recruiting Chemokines in Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells ... Natural Killer Cells Produce T Cell-Recruiting Chemokines in Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells ... Natural Killer Cells Produce T Cell-Recruiting Chemokines in Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells ...
Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor. |...
... and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were ... Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.. [ ... Sodium acetate, powder, BioReagent, for electrophoresis, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99% C2H3 ... Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we ...
Binding analysis of antibodies produced by precursor and branchpoint intermediates of an anti-influenza hemagglutinin B cell...
Binding analysis of antibodies produced by precursor and branchpoint intermediates of an anti-influenza hemagglutinin B cell ... Binding analysis of antibodies produced by precursor and branchpoint intermediates of an anti-influenza hemagglutinin B cell ... Binding analysis of antibodies produced by precursor and branchpoint intermediates of an anti-influenza hemagglutinin B cell ... Binding analysis of antibodies produced by precursor and branchpoint intermediates of an anti-influenza hemagglutinin B cell ...
Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients...
Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ...
TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody and chemotherapy agents produce cytotoxicity and activate apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells |...
TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody and chemotherapy agents produce cytotoxicity and activate apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells. ... TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody and chemotherapy agents produce cytotoxicity and activate apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells ... TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody and chemotherapy agents produce cytotoxicity and activate apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells ... TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody and chemotherapy agents produce cytotoxicity and activate apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells ...
The induction of antibody production by IL-6 is indirectly mediated by IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells | JEM
T cells that localizes in B cell follicles and provides help to B cells (31). Because follicular dendritic cells produce ... T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation. IL-21 production by CD4+ T cells is required for IL-6 to promote B cell antibody ... IL-6 is produced by APCs such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, but also by nonhematopoietic cells (e.g., ... T cells (Fig. 3 D). Thus, the effect of IL-6 on antibody production appears to be dependent on IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells. ...
Hybridoma Cell Line 500 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp80 | Office of Technology Transfer,...
Hybridoma Cell Line 500 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp80 ... Hybridoma Cell Line 715 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp70 ... Hybridoma Cell Line 273 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp70 ... Hybridoma cell line 500 expresses monoclonal antibody specific for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) gp80. Details may be ...
Generation of a serum free CHO DG44 cell line stably producing a broadly protective anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibody
... antibody-producing cell line for a steady supply of this mAb with low batch to batch variation. The CHO DG44 cell line, in ... Here, we report the development of a serum-free CHO DG44 cell line, stably producing a CR9114-like antibody with a potential to ... A study of monoclonal antibody-producing CHO cell lines: what makes a stable high producer? Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102(4):1182 ... Generation of a serum free CHO DG44 cell line stably producing a broadly protective anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibody. ...
Study of a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody by ATF or TFF external filter perfusion in a WAVE...
Study of a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody by ATF or TFF external filter perfusion in a WAVE ... was performed using a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a model system. ... perfusion, ATF, TFF, hollow fiber, cell separation, Chinese Hamster Ovary, wave bioreactor, high cell density National Category ... Major advantages of perfusion are high cell numbers and high total production in a relatively small size bioreactor. Moreover, ...
Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with...
Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with ... Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with ... Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with ... Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with ...
Beyond Germinal Center B Cells: Developing Memory and Antibody Producing Plasma Cells - Maine Biotechnology
These germinal center B cells go on to become memory B cells or antibody producing plasma cells. It should be noted that for ... The primary function of a B cell is to produce antibodies. As we have previously discussed, B cell development is linked to ... Plasma cells are antibody factories that are responsible for producing all of the antibodies in circulation. Most of the plasma ... While the short-term plasma cells remain locally to produce antibodies, memory cells are predominantly located in the spleen ...
Viral particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of...
However, relatively little is known about the fate of memory B cells upon Ag re-encounter. We have previously established a ... Extensive studies have been undertaken to describe naive B cells differentiating into memory B cells at a cellular and ... particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of antibodies.. ... particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of antibodies. ...
B Cell Differentiation: From Stem Cell to an Antibody Producing Plasma Cell - Maine Biotechnology
B Cell Differentiation: From Stem Cell to an Antibody Producing Plasma Cell. ... Plasma cells that are located in the spleen (or lymph node) are short-term plasma cells which only produce antibody for a ... This will generate B cells that can produce antibodies with increased specificity to the antigen and also memory B cells, which ... As we collect the spleen for isolating antibody producing cells for fusion, the B cells of interest (mostly the activated ...
STRUCTURAL CHANGES PRODUCED IN BROWN-PEARCE CARCINOMA CELLS BY MEANS OF A SPECIFIC ANTIBODY AND COMPLEMENT | Journal of...
STRUCTURAL CHANGES PRODUCED IN BROWN-PEARCE CARCINOMA CELLS BY MEANS OF A SPECIFIC ANTIBODY AND COMPLEMENT Bernard Kalfayan, ... Bernard Kalfayan, John G. Kidd; STRUCTURAL CHANGES PRODUCED IN BROWN-PEARCE CARCINOMA CELLS BY MEANS OF A SPECIFIC ANTIBODY AND ... Structural changes were regularly observed in Brown-Pearce rabbit carcinoma cells that had been brought into contact, in the ... Essentially they were characterized by the entrance of considerable quantities of fluid into the cell, together with swelling ...
Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development - Creative Biogene
Creative Biogenes gene editing CHO-K1 cells can save your precious time and effort with great performance in antibody ... Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development. Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications ... Therapeutic antibodies are mainly produced in mammalian host cell lines including NS0 murine myeloma cells and Chinese hamster ... Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development. Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications ...
Lack of IgA envelope-reactive antibody producing cells in terminal ileum in early and chronic HIV-1 infection | Retrovirology |...
Single plasma cells (PCs) and IgD- memory B cells were sorted from the ileum and/or blood of 7 EHI and 3 CHI. Antibodies were ... Lack of IgA envelope-reactive antibody producing cells in terminal ileum in early and chronic HIV-1 infection. ... and derives from a polyreactive memory B cell pool of gut flora-reactive IgG1 and IgA B cells. Whereas the IgG Env antibody ... Whereas CHI blood memory IgA+ B cells reactive with HIV-1 envelope ranged from 0.20-0.79%, only 0-0.07% of ileum IgA+ B cells ...
Antibody producing cells in transplantation immunity
Which Cells Produce Antibodies
Antibodies are specialized proteins that are produced by the body to bind to foreign substances that infect the body. They ... B-cells can be used as memory cells or can be activated to produce more plasma cells to create additional antibodies. The ... soluble antibodies and membrane-bound antibodies. The membrane-bound antibodies are attached to special cells called B-cells. ... How are these important proteins produced? Read on to find out.. The Production of Antibodies. Antibodies are produced by the ...
How cancer cells, or by producing antibodies- Term Papers Online
This type of cell is then subdivided into T cells and B cells. The B cells or B lymphocytes are what produce antibodies (Yamini ... This type of cell is then subdivided into T cells and B cells.. The B cells or B lymphocytes are what produce antibodies ( ... agents and cancer cells, or by producing antibodies (Britannica 1). White blood. cells are found in lots of places throughout ... by destroying infectious agents and cancer cells, or by producing antibodies (Britannica 1). White blood cells are found in ...
US Patent Application for METHODS FOR DEVELOPING ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELL LINES AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES...
... antibodies which include enriching an immunized cell population for GL7-positive cells and activating the enriched cells. The ... methods may be used to improve the efficiency of obtaining immortalized antigen-specific plasma cells or to improve the quality ... Disclosed are methods for producing class-switched, affinity-matured ... "plasma cell" may include immortalized antibody-producing cells and immortalized plasma cells. An antibody-producing cell or a ...
PhenotypeProteinProteinsSpleenMethodHumanFeaturesEvidenceAntigensProteinsImmunoglobulinMAbsSpecificityResponsesSerumHybridoma cellIdentifying a monoclonal antibodyGenesBacteriaBone marrowDifferentiationVitroMoleculesImmunityImmune responseAntigen-preseMacrophagesCellular cytotoxicityHelperTherapeutic antibodiesDendritic cellsGerminal center B cellsMurineSpecificMyeloma cell line2019HumoralAnti-influenzaInfectiousPolyclonalSpleenVaccinesMammalian cellIsotypeRecombinant antibodiesTypes of antibodiesCharacterizationElicitBody'sAffinity maturationGeneMouse monoclonalReceptorChinese HamstHumansPlasmaBroadlyReactCytotoxicityProduction of antibodyImmunologyIsotypesSoluble antibodiesTargets
- Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. (elsevier.com)
- As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67 low CD138 high CD31 high CD38 high , demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype typical of circulating plasmablasts. (elsevier.com)
- Antibody secreting plasma cells are dedicated protein-producing machines that are responsible for neutralizing viruses and bacteria, but also can cause disease. (seattlechildrens.org)
- One focus of the lab is to leverage this technology to build a cell therapy for protein delivery. (seattlechildrens.org)
- First, these cells can produce protein indefinitely. (seattlechildrens.org)
- Second, antibody-secreting B cells produce similar quantities of protein as industrial cell lines. (seattlechildrens.org)
- Our lab is currently focused on (1) identifying optimal conditions for differentiation of engineered human B cells into long-lived antibody-secreting cells, (2) assessing the impact of autophagy on plasma cell survival, and (3) determining the effect that a host immune system will have on engrafted engineered B cells. (seattlechildrens.org)
- The antibodies produced by B cells attack antigens -- molecules associated with pathogens, microbes and viruses. (eurekalert.org)
- The molecular weight of those antigens against which the monoclonal antibodies were directed was determined in SDS polyacrylamide gels. (nih.gov)
- While the short-term plasma cells remain locally to produce antibodies, memory cells are predominantly located in the spleen and bone marrow where they can be exposed to circulating antigens and rapidly respond if necessary. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- At this point the immature B cells are "tested" for auto-reactivity: if the immature B cell encounters an antigen and it generates a strong signal, indicating moderate to high affinity towards the antigen, then this would be a result of interacting with self antigens as these cells are only seeing self cells and serum proteins. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Without antibodies we would be constantly sick as our body would have no way of fighting of infectious antigens. (wanttoknowit.com)
- Then there are the T cells that destroy antigens that have been tagged by antibodies or cells that have been infected or somehow changed (Yamini 3). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
- B cells are white blood cells that differentiate into plasma B cells and produce antibodies specified for certain antigens. (reference.com)
- The system has been validated for globular protein antigens as well as for haptens and enables a fast and early stage selection and validation of monoclonal antibodies in one step. (hzg.de)
- In 13 of 16 allograft recipients, IgG antibodies against mismatched donor HLA antigens were observed, and donor-specific antibodies were sometimes produced in B-cell cultures when serum reactions were negative. (elsevier.com)
- IgM antibodies against HLA antigens were also identified in cultures from some transplant recipients. (elsevier.com)
- Our results suggest that analysis of B cells producing antibodies specific for donor antigens may be a useful tool for identifying and monitoring the humoral immune response in organ transplant recipients. (elsevier.com)
- Blood of the AB type has both A antigens and B antigens carried on red blood cells but lacks both A and B antibodies in its plasma. (reference.com)
- Because people with A, B or O blood types have antibodies in their blood plasma for one or both of the antigens carried on the red blood cells of AB blood, a person with AB type blood can donate red cells or whole blood only to another person with AB type blood. (reference.com)
- On the other hand, the plasma of AB type blood does not have antibodies to either A or B antigens - if it did, it would react to its own red blood cells. (reference.com)
- Because plasma from the AB blood type has no antibodies against the antigens of other types, it can be given to anyone without causing an immune reaction. (reference.com)
- However, antigens recognized by antibodies secreted from the immunocytes remain unknown. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- N-terminally biotinylated P. gingivalis antigens, Ag53 and four gingipain domains (Arg-pro, Arg-hgp, Lys-pro and Lys-hgp) were prepared by the cell-free protein synthesis system using wheatgerm extract. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- With the AlphaScreen method, antibodies against any one of the five P. gingivalis antigens were detected in 11 (55%) serum samples and 17 (85%) tissue extracts. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Using the enzyme-labeled antigen method on paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections of gingival tissue, plasma cells were labeled with any one of the five antigens in 17 (94%) of 18 specimens, in which evaluable plasma cells were detected. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Biotinylated bacterial antigens, Ag53, and four gingipain domains (Arg-pro, Arg-hgp, Lys-pro, and Lys-hgp) were prepared by the cell-free protein synthesis system using the wheat germ extract. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Mammalian display screening is employed to reveal that 37 antibodies (out of 132 candidates) derived from expanded plasma cell clonal lineages are specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens , including antibodies that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) with high affinity and exhibit potent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 . (bvsalud.org)
- The antibodies specifically bind to the antigens that induced the immune response. (cdc.gov)
- Here the authors show that activated CCR6 + CCR1 + GL7 - gut B cells retrieve lumen antigens from specialized M cells and transfer them across the subepithelial dome in the Peyer's patch to contribute to the maintenance of gut humoral immunity. (nature.com)
- Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- Specific or nonspecific recognition of the pathogen (because of its antigens) with its subsequent engulfing by B cells or macrophages . (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, the immune system directs antibodies against both the healthy tissue and the antigens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most red blood cell antigens are protein molecules found on the surface of red blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- These antibodies will target antigens and attack the foreign object, for example, the bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If a person receives red blood cells with antigens not normally present in their system, their body will reject and attack the new red blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The ABO blood group system is used to determine the different types of antigens in the red blood cells and antibodies in the plasma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The red blood cells have both A and B antigens, but the plasma does not contain anti-A/anti-B antibodies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The search for antigens and immunogens after one encounters an interesting antibody can be difficult. (pnas.org)
- Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. (frontiersin.org)
- The Immune system is a complex network of cells (such as lymphocytes) and organs that work together to defend the body against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, a virus or tumor cell. (chemocare.com)
- T lymphocytes are cells that are programmed to recognize, respond to and remember antigens. (chemocare.com)
- A macrophage is the first cell to recognize and engulf foreign substances (antigens). (chemocare.com)
- The B cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and Bcl-xL proteins are expressed in germinal center B cells and enable them to endure the proliferative and mutagenic environment of the germinal center. (nih.gov)
- Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines and partial character. (nih.gov)
- Examining bone marrow samples obtained from these volunteers, researchers divided plasma cells into four different groups based on the proteins found on their surfaces. (emory.edu)
- Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- CHO cells are the predominant host used to produce therapeutic proteins. (creative-biogene.com)
- About 70% of all recombinant proteins produced today are made in CHO cells . (creative-biogene.com)
- Antibodies are specialized proteins that are produced by the body to bind to foreign substances that infect the body. (wanttoknowit.com)
- They are large, Y-shaped proteins that can tag bacteria or viruses for attack by other antibodies. (wanttoknowit.com)
- How are these important proteins produced? (wanttoknowit.com)
- There are particular types of white blood cells, called plasma cells, which are responsible for the production of antibody proteins. (wanttoknowit.com)
- Her serum SM-406 antibodies reacted with crude myelin (moderate level), P0-proteins (moderate level) and MAG (moderate level) as assessed by ELISA [13,31, aswell much like the LK-1 glycolipid (high titre) . (bio-zentrum.com)
- Now, researchers at UC San Francisco have found a way to attack one of the most common drivers of lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer by targeting the proteins it produces on the outside of the cell. (ucsf.edu)
- Antibodies that recognize proteins on the surface of Ras-mutant cancer cells allow researchers to target cancer-killing drugs straight to the tumor. (ucsf.edu)
- Their study, published January 23, 2018 in the journal eLife , reveals that cancer-causing mutations in RAS, a family of genes found in all animal cell types, creates tell-tale changes in a community of proteins on the surface of cancer cells. (ucsf.edu)
- The researchers show that attacking these cells from the outside in - by targeting the altered proteins with antibodies - could be a viable therapeutic approach for previously undruggable cancer targets. (ucsf.edu)
- While there are intense efforts to target signaling pathways within the cell, very little is understood about how RAS signaling can regulate the set of proteins expressed on the surface of a cell at any time,' said senior author James Wells , PhD, professor of pharmaceutical chemistry and member of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCSF. (ucsf.edu)
- and Diana V. Hind Distinguished Professorship in Pharmaceutical Sciences at UCSF, began looking into the influence of RAS signaling on the proteins present on the surface of cells. (ucsf.edu)
- Using an analytical technique called mass spectrometry, his team studied a particular cell line called MCF10A and discovered a signature of surface proteins that change when cells are transformed with a KRAS mutation called KRAS G12V, and driven by MAPK pathway signaling. (ucsf.edu)
- Multiple myeloma features abnormal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, destructive bone lesions, and the production of abnormal proteins, specifically antibodies. (medicinenet.com)
- Background: Antiphospholipid antibodies are a family of autoantibodies that exhibit a broad range of target specificities and affinities, all recognizing various combinations of phospholipids, phospholipid binding proteins or both. (iospress.com)
- The immune system can produce many types of antibodies, directed against infectious viruses (good) or against human proteins as in lupus (harmful). (emory.edu)
- This is different from another autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, in which the autoantibody-producing cells attack a limited set of proteins found in the nervous system. (emory.edu)
- It does this by producing proteins called antibodies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Antibodies are infection-fighting proteins produced by immune cells. (aarp.org)
- Next, the team generated a toolkit of antibodies that target seven of these RAS-induced proteins. (eurekalert.org)
- Applying the antibodies to their targets revealed that five of the proteins are broadly distributed on cell lines harboring KRAS mutations. (eurekalert.org)
- A parallel study using a cell-surface CRISPRi screen - which uses CRISPR-Cas9 technology to temporarily switch off specific genes in order to investigate their function - later found that signaling proteins involved in integrin and Wnt signaling are critical to RAS-transformed cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Overall, we've presented a novel technological pipeline for the discovery and application of antibodies to surface proteins regulated by cancer-causing signaling pathways," Wells said. (eurekalert.org)
- This makes it difficult for them to survive, reproduce, and produce proteins that cause symptoms. (upstate.edu)
- It inhibits proteasomes, which causes more proteins to be in the cells. (upstate.edu)
- Because of these extra proteins, the cells eventually do not grow anymore. (upstate.edu)
- These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. (frontiersin.org)
- Perfusion operation mode is currently under fast expansion in mammalian cell based manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals, not only for labile drug protein but also for stable proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (avhandlingar.se)
- Plasma exchange, or plasmapheresis, is a treatment that helps remove from the body any harmful proteins (antibodies) that are interfering with nerve function. (medlineplus.gov)
- B lymphocytes produce antibodies - proteins (gamma globulins) that recognize foreign substances (antigen) and attach themselves to them. (chemocare.com)
- Microbial Cell Factories welcomes submissions to this thematic series, covering all aspects of methodologies aimed at analyzing the preservation of the structure, solubility, and functionality of purified proteins and antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
- An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Normally, the immune system is able to recognize and ignore the body's own healthy proteins, cells, and tissues, and to not overreact to non-threatening substances in the environment, such as foods. (wikipedia.org)
- Factors of the bone marrow microniche that support human plasma cell survival and immunoglobulin secretion. (harvard.edu)
- By introducing these genes into peripheral blood memory B cells and culturing these cells with two factors produced by follicular helper T cells, CD40 ligand (CD40L) and interleukin-21 (IL-21), we convert them to highly proliferating, cell surface B cell receptor (BCR)-positive, immunoglobulin-secreting B cells with features of germinal center B cells, including expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). (nih.gov)
- As we have previously discussed, B cell development is linked to immunoglobulin (antibody) gene rearrangement , and development of (high affinity) antibody specificity is generated through affinity maturation . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- The environment generated by this association yields rounds of proliferation and somatic hypermutation (of immunoglobulin genes) in the antigen specific B cells, which allows for the generation and selection of high affinity antibodies. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- A B-cell (plasmacyte, plasma cell) that synthesizes and secretes immunoglobulin. (oup.com)
- In the pro-B cells heavy chain (HC) immunoglobulin (Ig) rearrangement begins which is the beginning of antibody production. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- A study led by researchers at the University of Toronto, Canada, has found evidence that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are sustained for at least three months. (news-medical.net)
- A new multinational study has reported a very full account of the B lymphocytes that produce group E antibodies, also called IgE (Immunoglobulin E), that are behind allergic reactions, which are common in up to a third of the world's population. (news-medical.net)
- The immunoglobulin isotype produced by this clone was IgM, and Southern blot analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement showed a monoclonal pattern. (elsevier.com)
- An immunohistologic pattern comprising foci of T helper cells, associated immunoglobulin-bearing cells, and HLA-DR-expressing dendritic cells was not specific for rheumatoid arthritis or any other diagnosis, but was found in the biopsy samples from sites that macroscopically demonstrated maximal inflammatory activity. (nih.gov)
- Antibodies are secreted immunoglobulin molecules produced mainly by plasma cells. (nature.com)
- Early stages of B-cell differentiation can be identified by the status of the immunoglobulin genes and by the cell surface markers CD34, CD19, and surface immunoglobulin (sIg). (medscape.com)
- Infections begin once transferred maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been catabolized, typically at about 6 months of age. (medscape.com)
- Another procedure involves using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) to infuse a large amount of helpful antibodies directly into the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
- First, Professor Saltzman describes the host immune response to pathogen recognition, in terms of immunoglobulin release, T-cell activation, and memory cell production. (yale.edu)
- 11. The antibody as claimed in claim 10, wherein the antibody having a combination of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains inherent in a single human B lymphocyte. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Development of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as therapeutics in the biopharmaceutical industry, including biosimilar or biobetter versions of marketed mAbs has increased tremendously over the last ten years [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Additionally, many (commonly available) cell lines used for transient transfection are serum-dependent, resulting in contamination of produced mAbs by bovine IgGs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We previously characterized two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the O -polysaccharide (O antigen [OAg]) of F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Ab63, which targets a terminal epitope at the nonreducing end of OAg, and Ab52, which targets a repeating internal OAg epitope. (asm.org)
- We previously reported that anti- F. tularensis LPS mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can confer survival to BALB/c mice infected intranasally (i.n.) with an otherwise lethal dose of LVS ( 30 ). (asm.org)
- Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production[C]//MAbs. (creative-biogene.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly specific affinity reagents used for detecting and treating diseases. (justia.com)
- Successful development of antibodies requires the screening of many mAbs for affinity, specificity, cross-reactivity, immunogenicity, and platform compatibility. (justia.com)
- The standard method for creating mAbs to a particular antigen involves the creation of a fused cell called a "hybridoma. (justia.com)
- In addition, many of the clones generated may not produce mAbs that recognize the antigen of interest. (justia.com)
- A Phase 2 clinical trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of potential new therapeutics for COVID-19, including an investigational therapeutic based on synthetic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to treat the disease. (news-medical.net)
- The B cells that cannot compete will die, resulting in the selection of multiple B cell clones with increased specificity and affinity toward the antigen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell when they possess the desired antigen-specificity. (hzg.de)
- While viral-like particles (VLP)-gp41 constructs containing the MPER stimulated strong antibody responses, we observed that their anti-gp41 specificity was preferentially directed at the C-helix and away from the MPER. (grantome.com)
- In the transformation process of autoantibody-producing cells, it would be of advantage to preselect B cells with the desired specificity. (bio-zentrum.com)
- Culture supernatants were screened for HLA antibodies, and positive samples were analyzed using single antigen beads to determine antibody specificity. (elsevier.com)
- To date there is little known about the specificity of plasma cells in COVID-19 patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Here, we describe a technology pipeline that integrates single- cell antibody repertoire sequencing and high-throughput mammalian display screening to interrogate the specificity of plasma cells from 16 convalescent COVID-19 patients . (bvsalud.org)
- The study entitled: "Reprogramming the antigen specificity of B cells using. (uam.es)
- These immune cells are somewhat hard of hearing, which is appropriate because the powerful and potentially destructive immune responses should jump into action only when danger calls, not when it whispers," said Hoffmann. (eurekalert.org)
- He and his colleagues developed mathematical equations based on the molecular circuit and were then able to simulate, virtually, B cell responses. (eurekalert.org)
- Emory immunologists have found that these cells represent an archive of the immune system's responses to childhood infections. (emory.edu)
- Cells producing 68ld Abs dominated the 2 degree response of one BALB/c mouse, but were virtually absent from the primary (1 degree) and 2 degree responses of other BALB/c mice. (jimmunol.org)
- Treatment responses were compared in 2LMP, a TRA-8 sensitive subclone of the MDA-MB-231 cell line, LCC6, a subclone of the MDA-MB-435 cell line with intermediate sensitivity, and BT474 resistant cells, via protein expression changes detected by Western blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Regarding its function in the immune system, IL-6 is now thought of as an important link between innate and adaptive immunity, mediating several aspects of B and T cell responses ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
- Although some of the molecular mechanisms used by IL-6 to mediate these different responses are known, it is still unclear how these various effects on CD4 + T cells are orchestrated. (rupress.org)
- Likewise, B cell-specific deletion of STAT3 results in impaired plasma cell differentiation and diminished antibody responses ( 15 ), but this transcription factor is also activated by other cytokines. (rupress.org)
- These results support the use of a mouse model to discover protective B-cell epitopes for tularemia vaccines or prophylactic/therapeutic antibodies, and they present a general strategy for interrogating the antibody responses of patients and vaccinees to microbial carbohydrate epitopes that have been characterized in experimental animals. (asm.org)
- Memory is the hallmark of the acquired immunity, which allows for rapid expansion of T- and B-cell responses upon re-exposure to an immunogen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Antibody responses and the generation of memory are critical for the long-term protection of an individual. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- To determine HIV-1 IgA responses in gut, we isolated Env-reactive antibodies from ileum from patients in EHI and chronic HIV-1 infection (CHI). (biomedcentral.com)
- however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. (bioportfolio.com)
- Any of various white or colorless cells in the blood of vertebrate animals, many of which participate in the inflammatory and immune responses to protect the body against infection and to repair injuries to tissues. (dictionary.com)
- Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
- To evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the first 10 years of life. (frontiersin.org)
- Factors related to optimal B-cell responses including IL-21 and CXCL13 levels in plasma were measured at all-time points. (frontiersin.org)
- Our findings suggest that EBV carriage in the absence of CMV influences the B-cell compartment and the dynamics of antibody responses over time during steady state in the otherwise healthy host. (frontiersin.org)
- The "T cells" are responsible for a variety of other immune responses. (smore.com)
- producing substances called cytokines that direct responses and activities in other immune cells. (smore.com)
- Naïve ( A and B ) and activated ( C and D ) T cells were assayed for their chemotactic response to serum samples obtained from patients undergoing therapy with trastuzumab and IL-12. (aacrjournals.org)
- E, migration of activated T cells was measured in response to patient serum that had been pretreated with neutralizing concentrations of antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and MIP-1α or with isotype-matched control IgG. (aacrjournals.org)
- Here, we report the development of a serum-free CHO DG44 cell line, stably producing a CR9114-like antibody with a potential to become a useful influenza virus research tool. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Here, we decided to take advantage of a biotechnology-relevant production cell line, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44, to establish a serum-free, stable, CR9114-like (CR9114L, a generic version of CR9114) antibody-producing cell line for a steady supply of this mAb with low batch to batch variation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, the variation was only 2.3-fold for sequential serum samples from the same patient, indicating different distributions of terminal- versus internal-binding antibodies in different individuals. (asm.org)
- The Kelsoe group will analyze induction of germinal centers, Ig class switch recombination and hypermutation, affinity maturation of serum antibodies and germinal center B cells in response to MPER immunogens. (grantome.com)
- Finally, the stable manufacture of fully non-fucosylated antibodies with enhanced ADCC was confirmed using the converted cells in serum-free fed-batch culture. (biomedcentral.com)
- Such antibodies may sometimes not be detected in recipient serum. (elsevier.com)
- Peripheral blood B cells were obtained from 36 subjects, including 16 allograft recipients, 12 sensitized patients, three multiparous women with serum HLA antibodies, and five healthy non-transfused male subjects. (elsevier.com)
- Beneficial effect of 30Kc6 gene expression on production of recombinant interferon-β in serum-free suspension culture of CHO cells", Process Biochemistry, Feb. 2009, vol. 44, pp. 146-153. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In two cases, serum antibodies to Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp were AlphaScreen positive, whereas plasma cells were scarcely observed within the lesions. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Isolation and characterization of antibodies in COVID-19 patients has largely focused on memory B cells , however it is the antibody-secreting plasma cells that are directly responsible for the production of serum antibodies , which play a critical role in controlling and resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection . (bvsalud.org)
- Introduction: Naturally occurring antibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were detected with high frequency in serum samples obtained from umbilical cord blood of newborns (12 of 65 samples screened) and maternal peripheral blood serum samples from women at the end of gestation (seven of 56 cases tested). (unipi.it)
- We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
- They were cloned and established as permanent hybridoma cell lines. (pnas.org)
- Hybridoma cell line 500 expresses monoclonal antibody specific for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) gp80. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, hybridoma cell lines of interest must be separated through screening and subcloning. (justia.com)
- Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), mouse myeloma NS0 and SP2/0, and mouse hybridoma cell lines). (biomedcentral.com)
- Ten monoclonal antibody (Mab)-producing hybridoma cell lines were developed. (mdpi.com)
- Plasma cells differ from many other cells in the body in that they undergo changes in their DNA -- specifically, their antibody genes. (emory.edu)
- In the patients the researchers examined, antibody genes from subset D are much more diverse than those from other plasma cells. (emory.edu)
- We have a list of ready to use CHO-K1 cells targeting genes crucial in antibody production process. (creative-biogene.com)
- Antibodies were isolated by PCR amplification of Ig heavy chain V(D)J and light chain VJ genes and characterized by ELISA and Luminex. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus large phage libraries containing billions of different antibody genes can be generated, with each phage containing a single antibody gene. (justia.com)
- The antibody genes of the ASCs are then amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into a human cell line. (nih.gov)
- Genes required for B cell development. (medscape.com)
- This cluster of genes determines how white blood cells recognize targets to attack. (smore.com)
- These antibodies are responsible for remembering particular pathogens and keeping the body immune to that bacteria or virus. (wanttoknowit.com)
- Soluble antibodies are present in the blood and tissue fluids and they find and identify new bacteria and viruses. (wanttoknowit.com)
- CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. (reference.com)
- CD4 cells fight off bacteria and viruses before they weaken the body and cause illness. (reference.com)
- Antibodies to Ag53 were detected only in the nodes immunized with Ag53-positive bacteria. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Besides this, the white blood cells are perpetually waging war against the bacteria in our bodies. (dictionary.com)
- The war between the white blood cells and the bacteria is a bitter one. (dictionary.com)
- Some white blood cells act as scavengers by engulfing foreign particles (such as bacteria ) and destroying them. (dictionary.com)
- Antibodies help defend the body against infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. (cdc.gov)
- T cells -- immune cells that help your body fight germs like bacteria, as well as cancer -- are taken out of it. (webmd.com)
- induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
- Long-lived plasma cells have a distinctive "fried egg" appearance, containing bubble-like vacuoles or lipid droplets, which are generally rare in bone marrow cell samples. (emory.edu)
- Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive. (emory.edu)
- In addition, subset D cells have a distinct "fried egg" appearance, containing bubble-like vacuoles or lipid droplets, which are rare in bone marrow cell samples, and a tighter, more condensed nucleus than other white blood cells. (emory.edu)
- A few of the plasma cells will migrate to the bone marrow (Figure 2) and nestle into supportive niches where they are long-lived and may produce protective antibodies for decades 2 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- B cells differentiate from the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in the bone marrow. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Approximately 10-20 million B cells are estimated to be produced each day in the mouse bone marrow, however only about 10% of these B lymphocytes or B cells, leave the bone marrow and enter into circulation. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- All red blood cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) are differentiated from HSCs, and with the notable exception of T lymphocytes all of the differentiation occurs in the bone marrow. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- In adults, Burkitt's lymphoma frequently produces a bulky abdomen and may involve the liver, spleen, and bone marrow . (encyclopedia.com)
- Multiple myeloma is a cancer of certain cells of the bone marrow called plasma cells. (medicinenet.com)
- For many, there is thought to be a premalignant stage whereby plasma cells in the bone marrow produce a seemingly benign, single type of antibody for years. (medicinenet.com)
- White blood cells are formed mainly in the bone marrow, and unlike red blood cells, have a cell nucleus. (dictionary.com)
- White blood cells of the immune system that are derived from the bone marrow and spleen. (cdc.gov)
- It results from the abnormal growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. (upstate.edu)
- Peripheral stem cell transplant involves giving immature, healthy blood cells to replace bone marrow cells that are damaged by cancer. (upstate.edu)
- CHANGES IN PERIAPICAL TISSUE PRESSURE Investigations of bone marrow pressure have indicated that various pathological conditions usually produce a wide range of positive pressures (2, 3). (scribd.com)
- Secondary organs - sites where B and T cells induced to function (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, Peyer's patches). (brainscape.com)
- Of 10 RFC found in mitosis, all were in the lymphocytic category, in various stages of differentiation, the most advanced of which (in 2 of the 10 cells) was that of the transitional lymphocyte described here. (rupress.org)
- Overexpression of BCL6 and Bcl-xL confer a high proliferative capacity and fixed differentiation phenotype to peripheral blood CD27 + IgG + memory B cells ( a ) Flow cytometry identification of BCL6-transduced (ΔNGFR + ), Bcl-xL-transduced (GFP + ) and BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced (GFP + ΔNGFR + ) CD19 + B cells in culture with CD40L-L cells and IL-21 four days post transduction. (nih.gov)
- It was initially identified as a B cell growth factor and inducer of plasma cell differentiation in vitro and plays an important role in antibody production and class switching in vivo. (rupress.org)
- IL-6 influences T cell effector functions by promoting Th2 cell differentiation through up-regulation of NFATc2 and c-maf ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- It also blocks IFN-γ signaling through increased expression of silencer of cytokine signaling 1, thereby inhibiting Th1 cell differentiation ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
- In the presence of TGF-β, IL-6 promotes Th17 cell differentiation through STAT3-mediated up-regulation of the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt ( 6 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
- IL-6 was initially characterized as a factor that enhances antibody production in a B cell line ( 11 ), and overexpression of IL-6 in mice causes plasmocytosis, suggesting that IL-6 can promote the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
- The cytokine IL-21 has been shown to play a major role in antibody production by promoting the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells both in mice and humans ( 16 , 17 ). (rupress.org)
- What signals induce plasma cell versus memory differentiation is not clear. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Viral particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
- The different hematopoietic lineages (red cells, lymphocytes, myeloid cells) all require different microenvironments or niches that provide distinct cytokines and cellular support required for distinct differentiation programs to be regulated. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- CMP differentiation results in the production of: neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocyte/macrophages, erythrocytes (red blood cells) and myeloid dendritic cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- In these early differentiation stages, IL-7, stem cell factor, Flt3 ligand, and specific adhesion molecules are important to support growth and survival of the pro-B cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Role of Atg5-dependent cell death in the embryonic development of Bax/Bak double-knockout mice[J]. Cell Death & Differentiation , 2017. (creative-biogene.com)
- The effects of thymidine and its analogues on the differentiation of antibody-forming cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- What type of cell finishes differentiation in thymus? (brainscape.com)
- In the normal functioning organism, there is a balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. (avhandlingar.se)
- This thesis concerns the imbalance where there is too little cell death and cell differentiation with increased cell proliferation. (avhandlingar.se)
- In addition to basic techniques, a wide range of specialised practical protocols covering the following areas are included: cell proliferation and death, in-vitro models for cell differentiation, in-vitro models for toxicology and pharmacology, industrial application of animal cell culture, genetic manipulation and analysis of human and animal cells in culture. (springer.com)
- IL-21 production by CD4 + T cells is required for IL-6 to promote B cell antibody production in vitro. (rupress.org)
- In particular, the methods relate to the field of in vitro monoclonal antibody production. (justia.com)
- In an attempt to learn about possible mechanisms, we investigated antibody production by recipient B lymphocytes in vitro. (elsevier.com)
- Materials and methods: Mononuclear cells from cord blood samples of different newborns containing high titer anti-G-CSF Abs were infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro, and EBV-immortalized B-cell lines were isolated and characterized for specific anti-G-CSF Ab production. (unipi.it)
- Conclusion: The secreted Abs did not affect the in vitro generation of granulocyte colonies by human normal adult haemopoietic progenitor cells in soft agar clonogenic assays, suggesting that these Abs were not neutralizing. (unipi.it)
- Thymidine (Tdr) and its analogues 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdr) and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdr) inhibited the development of antibody-producing cells (PFC) in cultures of explants of rabbit spleen stimulated with sheep red cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
- For the method, use is made of in silico design synthetic immunogens, which are caused to act in vitro on human lymphocyte-containing cell populations. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Out of the 400 hybrids obtained, 2 secreted antibodies reacting specifically with two different antigenic determinants present on CEA molecules. (pnas.org)
- The immune system's B cells protect us from disease by producing antibodies, or "smart bullets," that specifically target invaders such as pathogens and viruses while leaving harmless molecules alone. (eurekalert.org)
- We have billions of B cells, and each one creates this threshold through a molecular circuit involving two molecules. (eurekalert.org)
- Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against self molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenstr?ms macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). (bio-zentrum.com)
- 4. The isolated cell of claim 3 , wherein said isolated cell is selected from the group consisting of an immortalized B cell, a hybridoma and a recombinant cell comprising one or more exogenous nucleic acid molecules that encode said antibody or antigen-binding fragment of said antibody. (google.ca)
- The heterogeneous polyclonal antibodies are distinct from monoclonal antibody molecules, which are identical and react against a single epitope only, i.e., are more specific. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the polyclonal response confers advantages on the immune system, in particular, greater probability of reacting against pathogens, it also increases chances of developing certain autoimmune diseases resulting from the reaction of the immune system against native molecules produced within the host. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunoregulatory molecules, including T cell hybridomas, will also be featured. (iospress.com)
- A majority of these complex molecules are produced by genetically modified mammalian cells in large-scale cell cultures. (avhandlingar.se)
- The results, published Tuesday, July 14 in Immunity , could provide vaccine designers with a goalpost when aiming for long-lasting antibody production. (emory.edu)
- As described in part of the Immunity paper, the researchers studied 11 older individuals (aged 43 to 70) who had not been immunized against measles or mumps, but who had antibodies in their blood indicating infection by those viruses in childhood. (emory.edu)
- In this way, antibodies help the body develop an immunity to disease. (news-medical.net)
- Antibodies are an essential component of our immune system, underpinning the effectiveness of both the primary immune response to microbial pathogens and the protective and long-lived immunity against. (bioportfolio.com)
- Plasma cell survival and the consequent duration of immunity vary widely with infection or vaccination. (bioportfolio.com)
- The progress of the disease may be broken down into three phases: an initial phase, characterized by a Type IV immune response (Cell-Mediated Immunity, delayed-hypersensitivity response), a second phase, characterized by a Type III response (Immune Complex), and a third phase where substantial tissue damage occurs. (angelfire.com)
- Lachmann outlines a scheme which attempts to account for most of the immunological findings in ROU and BS, and the shift from an early, predominantly lymphomonocytic infiltration (probably Type IV, cell- mediated immunity (CMI), delayed hypersensitivity) to a later PMNL infiltration with features associated with a Type III (immune complex) reaction. (angelfire.com)
- How herpesvirus-host interactions imprint on the immune system of otherwise healthy humans remains largely elusive, and contrary to the cellular immunity, the impact of EBV and CMV on the humoral immunity and B-cell compartment has received much less attention. (frontiersin.org)
- Here the authors show that PRL-3 is also detectable on cell surface, and can be recognized by PRL3-zumab to recruit immune cells into tumor to promote anti-tumor immunity, thereby implicating PRL-3 as a potential tumor antigen. (nature.com)
- a key feature of this response is the production of antibodies by B cells (or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity . (wikipedia.org)
- The benefit of this method of producing antibody is that it doesn't require initial infection, and through this route, many vaccinations confer immunity without causing illness. (livestrong.com)
- Their prophylactic and therapeutic protection ability was first discovered in the late nineteenth century by the passive transmission of antibodies from a diseased animal that provided immunity against diphtheria. (frontiersin.org)
- an antibody-secreting cell, derived from B cells, that plays a major role in antibody-mediated immunity. (dictionary.com)
- Our assertion that ANCA is a marker for a mucosal disease-related immune response predicts the existence of ANCA producing B cell clones in the lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) fraction of UC patients. (jimmunol.org)
- These findings indicate the existence of pANCA-producing B cell clones in mucosal lesions of UC patients and support our hypothesis that pANCA production is a consequence of a mucosal immune response specific to UC. (jimmunol.org)
- Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that. (google.com)
- The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate and a metal ion, thus achieving a metal cofactor assisted reaction. (google.com)
- Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals . (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, an effective immune response often involves the production of many different antibodies by many different B cells against the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- The Moderna vaccine produced an immune response in all 45 participants, ages 18 to 55 years old. (aarp.org)
- Two studies published July 20 in The Lancet show a vaccine candidate out of Oxford University and another from the Chinese company CanSino Biologics proved safe and produced an immune response in participants. (aarp.org)
- When the body discovers such a substance several kinds of cells go into action in what is called an immune response. (chemocare.com)
- Dendritic cells are known as the most efficient antigen-presenting cell type with the ability to interact with T cells and initiate an immune response. (chemocare.com)
- Dendritic cells are receiving increasing scientific and clinical interest due to their key role in the immune response and potential use with tumor vaccines. (chemocare.com)
- There are different types of white blood cells that are part of the immune response. (chemocare.com)
- A lymphocyte that originates from a B cell and produces antibodies as part of a humoral immune response. (dictionary.com)
- Interleukin (IL) 6 is a proinflammtory cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells and nonhematopoietic cells in response to external stimuli. (rupress.org)
- The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
- Activation of the T helper cells by antigen-presenting cells . (wikipedia.org)
- In cells of the mouse spleen, macrophages were also found among the RFC, especially in the later days after immunization. (rupress.org)
- IL-6 is produced by APCs such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, but also by nonhematopoietic cells (e.g., epithelial and endothelial cells, astrocytes, and fibroblasts) in response to external stimuli such as TNF-α, IL-1β, platelet-derived growth factor, or bacterial and fungal components. (rupress.org)
- These proinflammatory cytokines are produced by several different cell types, most importantly immune cells (for example, monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils), but also non-immune cells such as fibroblasts, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and neurons. (google.ca)
- When stimulated by the antigenic material presented by the macrophages, the T cells make lymphokines that signal other cells. (chemocare.com)
- Macrophages also produce substances called cytokines that help to regulate the activity of lymphocytes. (chemocare.com)
- So, the classes of T-cells: macrophages, natural killer cells, these are a class of cells that's particularly important called dendritic cells. (yale.edu)
- Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their interaction with Fc-receptors. (mdpi.com)
- FUT8(-/-) CHO-K1 cells which increases antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been widely used as hosts for antibody production. (creative-biogene.com)
- Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is greatly enhanced by the absence of the core fucose of oligosaccharides attached to the Fc, and is closely related to the clinical efficacy of anticancer activity in humans in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, IL-6 promotes antibody production by promoting the B cell helper capabilities of CD4 + T cells through increased IL-21 production. (rupress.org)
- B cells, follicular T helper cells (Tfh), and follicular dendritic cells come together upon activation by antigen to form the germinal center (Figure 1). (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Using "helper" T-cells instead of B-cells that target specific intruders, the new vaccine provokes the immune system to go after the virus with its own defenses. (healthline.com)
- 10. A human antibody or a population of human antibodies for binding coupled-fragments having a T-helper epitope and peptide fragments corresponding to the respective extracellular domains of the receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Therapeutic antibodies are mainly produced in mammalian host cell lines including NS0 murine myeloma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells . (creative-biogene.com)
- It is important to develop a stable antibody-producing cell line to meet the high dosage requirement of therapeutic antibodies for the growing cancer patient population. (creative-biogene.com)
- Unfortunately, all licensed therapeutic antibodies and almost all currently-developed therapeutic antibodies are heavily fucosylated and fail to optimize ADCC, which leads to a large dose requirement at a very high cost for the administration of antibody therapy to cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we explored the possibility of converting already-established antibody-producing cells to cells that produce antibodies fully lacking core fucosylation in order to facilitate the rapid development of next-generation therapeutic antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
- We also demonstrated that double knockdown of FUT8 and GMD in antibody-producing cells could serve as a new strategy for producing next-generation therapeutic antibodies fully lacking core fucosylation and with enhanced ADCC. (biomedcentral.com)
- This approach offers tremendous cost- and time-sparing advantages for the development of next-generation therapeutic antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we have applied this approach and used Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. (mdpi.com)
- 1. An antibody produced by a murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof. (google.ca)
- 3. An isolated cell that produces the 6E6 HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by the murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433. (google.ca)
- 5. An antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof wherein said antibody or fragment comprises the light chain CDRs (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) and the heavy chain CDRs (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of the 6E6 HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by the murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433. (google.ca)
- However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. (frontiersin.org)
- Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (harvard.edu)
- A sensor on the cell's surface is meant to recognize a specific antigen, and when the sensor encounters that antigen, it sends a signal that enables the body's army of B cells to respond rapidly. (eurekalert.org)
- We generated cloned lines of B cells specific for respiratory syncytial virus and used these cells as a source of antibodies that effectively neutralized this virus in vivo. (nih.gov)
- This method provides a new tool to study B cell biology and signal transduction through antigen-specific B cell receptors and for the rapid generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Because study participants were likely to have been exposed to influenza by annual vaccination or infection more recently than measles or mumps, the researchers inferred that cells specific to recent exposures can reside in multiple subsets while subset D represents the long-lived plasma cells. (emory.edu)
- In separate experiments, volunteers who were vaccinated against tetanus did have some plasma cells producing anti-tetanus antibodies within three weeks in several subsets, but over time tetanus-specific plasma cells were found in subset D. (emory.edu)
- The team proved that subset D cells were exclusively responsible for producing the measles- and mumps-specific antibodies in the blood of one of the older volunteers, through proteomics and RNA sequencing techniques. (emory.edu)
- Moreover, administration of IL-6 with inactive influenza virus enhances virus-specific antibody production, and importantly, this effect is dependent on IL-21. (rupress.org)
- Likewise, IL-6-deficient mice show reduced antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3 levels upon immunization with a T cell-dependent antigen, although IgM levels were not affected ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
- Western blot analysis using class-specific anti-human Ig secondary antibodies showed that both terminal- and internal-binding OAg antibodies were of the IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes. (asm.org)
- It should be noted that for each immunogen many germinal centers will be generated in the spleen or lymph nodes (or other secondary lymphoid tissue) which will increase the diversity of antigen specific B cell clones. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- We have previously established a system based on virus-like particles (VLPs), which allows tracking of VLP-specific B cells by flow cytometry as well as histology. (ox.ac.uk)
- Its because specific types of cells are associated with different illnesses which reflect the special function of that cell type in body defense (Britannica 6). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
- The methods may be used to improve the efficiency of obtaining immortalized antigen-specific plasma cells or to improve the quality of molecularly cloned Ig heavy and light chains. (justia.com)
- Typically, one hybridoma clone may be generated per 10 5 -10 6 splenocytes fused, thus most of the Ag-specific cells contained within the splenocyte population may be lost. (justia.com)
- The frequency of producing successful, Ag-specific B cell hybridomas may be on the order of one per 10 6 -10 8 starting cells. (justia.com)
- The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific screening method was established. (hzg.de)
- The establishment of B cell lines and clones would give a useful tool to review further the part and biological features of autoimmune myelin-specific B cells and would also facilitate research on BCT-cell relationships in the pathogenesis of PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
- Nevertheless, no attempts have already been made to make use of EBV transformation to review myelin-specific B cells in individuals with PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
- Biotinylated autoantigens and subsequent fluorescence activated cell sorting SM-406 showed a substantial enrichment of antigen-specific cells . (bio-zentrum.com)
- The aim of the present study was to establish a feasible technique to establish B cell lines from patients with MGUS, utilizing immunomagnetic enrichment of myelin-specific B cells followed by EBV-transformation. (bio-zentrum.com)
- METHODS and MATERIALS Patients P0-specific B cells had been isolated from peripheral bloodstream from two PN-MGUS SM-406 individuals, a 71-year-old female (TJ) and a 61-year-old guy (RG) with PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
- Donor-specific HLA antibodies have been associated with acute and chronic rejection. (elsevier.com)
- We describe herein a protocol for the production of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs). (nih.gov)
- Although previous methodologies to produce hmAbs, including B-cell immortalization or phage display, can be used to isolate the rare specific antibody even years after immunization, in comparison, these approaches are inefficient, resulting in few relevant antibodies. (nih.gov)
- The enzyme-labeled antigen method was applied to detecting plasma cells producing P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in biopsied gingival tissue of periodontitis. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- The A12 monoclonal antibody was specific for the p24 product of the HIV-1 gag gene. (elsevier.com)
- One Sentence SummarySingle- cell antibody repertoire sequencing and high-throughput screening identifies highly expanded plasma cells from convalescent COVID-19 patients that produce SARS-CoV-2 -specific antibodies capable of potent neutralization . (bvsalud.org)
- To investigate the Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific circulating antibody-secreting cell (ASC) response and Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific interferon (INF)-γ-secreting T cell response, along. (bioportfolio.com)
- A more subtle technique became possible once Wilson discovered that the immune system relies on specific antibodies known as IgA to fight the virus. (newscientist.com)
- The antigen-binding site of the antibody has a unique structure that allows it to bind antigen in a highly specific manner. (nature.com)
- Study of influenza virus transmission in humans provides evidence that hemagglutinin stalk-specific antibodies correlate with protection from infection. (nature.com)
- A multivalent vaccine that presents diverse influenza virus subtype H1 hemagglutinins on its surface induces broadly neutralizing antibodies in an animal model by displaying conserved epitopes at higher density than strain-specific epitopes. (nature.com)
- Anti-β2GP1 assay found to be more specific than aCL in antiphospholipid antibodies determination. (iospress.com)
- Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- Antibodies bind antigen with the help of a VHH fragment that can identify specific and unique conformational epitopes by the presence of its long complementary determining regions (CDR3). (frontiersin.org)
- Agglutination and precipitation: Clumping of bacterial cells by specific antibody. (brainscape.com)
- B-cells produce antibodies that go after specific invaders. (healthline.com)
- B lymphocytes (or B cells) are each programmed to make one specific antibody. (chemocare.com)
- Cells share signals with each other, and that leads to activation of a specific cell population if we're thinking about a vaccine that produces antibodies, for example, that leads to activation of B-cells, immature B-cells, which do two things. (yale.edu)
- An antibody-producing lymphocyte derived from a B cell upon reaction with a specific antigen. (dictionary.com)
- After vaccination with the polysaccharide vaccine, persons aged 5 years and older develop type-specific protective antibodies. (medscape.com)
- Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. (wikipedia.org)
- Spleen cells from mice immunized with purified carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an important tumor marker of human carcinomas, were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line P3-NSI/1-Ag4. (pnas.org)
- A hybridoma is produced by fusing together an established tumor cell line, such as a myeloma cell line, and an antibody-producing cell (such as a B-lymphocyte) from an animal that has previously been immunized with the antigen. (justia.com)
- Researchers in the U.S. have shown both preventive and treatment effects of an antibody cocktail in animal models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the agent that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (news-medical.net)
- A small study published in the journal JCI Insight on November 14, 2019, suggests that antibody treatment could help people with severe allergy to peanuts eat a small amount of peanut-containing food just two weeks later, without any ill effects. (news-medical.net)
- Interestingly, humans have more memory B cells than mice 3,4 , although this may be an artifact of mice being housed in pathogen-free facilities and therefore, are exposed to only a limited number of microbes and infectious agents. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Memory cells need to be recruited to lymph nodes if the infectious agent induces local inflammation. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- These cells defend the body against infection and disease by ingesting foreign materials and debris, by destroying infectious agents and cancer cells, or by producing antibodies (Britannica 1). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
- Objective: To evaluate the frequency of anticardiolipin (aCL) or anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I (anti -β2GPI) antibodies in a cohort of patients with primary (PAPS) and secondary (SAPS) antiphospholipid syndrome and other rheumatic and infectious conditions. (iospress.com)
- Using an antibody generated by the immune system of a recovered COVID-19 patient gives us a jump start on finding a safe and effective therapeutic," Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) said in a statement. (aarp.org)
- Yet with billions of dollars of research funds, all the infectious disease industry could do this flu season is produce a vaccine that was only 36% effective . (lewrockwell.com)
- The antibodies thus produced in a polyclonal response are known as polyclonal antibodies . (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- In recent years, the development of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody by means of laboratory animals has become a vital approach to protect against a number of pathogenic contagions ( Marasco and Sui, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
- From the spleen cells of these mice we established 755 permanent lymphoid cell lines using the hybridoma technique originally developed by Köhler and Milstein (1975). (nih.gov)
- The immature B cells that successfully make it through this process (only about 10%) enter into the bloodstream and migrate to the spleen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- The immature B cells have both IgM and IgG (BCRs) expressed on their surface at this point and once they enter into the spleen are called transitional type 1 (T1) B cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Antibody-producing cells typically are obtained from the animal's spleen, lymph nodes, or lymph tissue (e.g., splenocytes or lymphocytes). (justia.com)
- CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell made in the spleen, thymus gland and lymph nodes. (reference.com)
- Like, isn't it possible that with the prevalence of vaccines, our own capacity for generating antibodies gets affected? (ycombinator.com)
- The development of alternative vaccines and of immunotherapeutics must take into account both the T- and B-cell components that contribute to immune protection against F. tularensis ( 7 - 12 ). (asm.org)
- Polysaccharide vaccines produce antibodies primarily through T-cell-independent methods. (medscape.com)
- The presence of this core fucose is largely due to the fact that the antibodies are produced by rodent mammalian cell lines with intrinsic fucosyltransferase activity (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
- Comparison of multivariate data analysis techniques to improve glucose concentration prediction in mammalian cell cultivations by Raman spectroscopy. (bioportfolio.com)
- monoclonal antibody producing mammalian cell cultivations. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this study, four mammalian cell cultivation runs were followed with Raman spectroscopy and the spectra were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively as well. (bioportfolio.com)
- Migration of naïve ( A ) or activated ( B ) T cells was measured in response to supernatants derived from costimulated NK cells (trastuzumab-coated tumor and IL-12) that had been preincubated with neutralizing concentrations of antibodies to MIP-1α, RANTES, and/or IL-8 or isotype-matched control antibodies ( Iso Ctl ). (aacrjournals.org)
- None of the HIV-1 reactive ileum antibodies were of the IgA isotype. (biomedcentral.com)
- Antibodies of the human IgG1 isotype containing two biantennary complex-type N -linked oligosaccharides in the constant region (Fc) [ 1 ] are commonly used therapeutically. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. (bioportfolio.com)
- These antibodies, which have relatively high-affinities and can be produced in unlimited amounts, will be useful both for the immunochemical characterization of CEA and as a standard reagent for the identification of this antigen in human tissues and body fluids. (pnas.org)
- Phenotypic and genomic characterization is shown for B cell lines from a patient with PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
- To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. (bioportfolio.com)
- Isolation and molecular characterization of these subpopulations of mammary cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- One very clever way to elicit production of antibody is to expose an individual to parts of a virus or bacterium without exposing them to the entire living pathogen. (livestrong.com)
- A preferred receptor is human CD152, particularly the regions of CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 that elicit antibodies serving as antagonist, inverse agonist and agonist, respectively. (freepatentsonline.com)
- B cells are like the body's military intelligence that seek out targets and send defense to destroy them (Yamini 2). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
- Researchers have known that a powerful T-cell response plays a role in the body's ability to do so. (healthline.com)
- These autoantibodies attack the body's own healthy cells, tissues, and/or organs, causing inflammation and damage. (wikipedia.org)
- We have also examined intraclonal affinity maturation by generating Abs inferred to have been produced by the unmutated precursors and branchpoint intermediates of the largest 68ld clone. (jimmunol.org)
- Affinity maturation takes place in the germinal center and the result of this process is the generation of B cell populations that produce antibodies and memory. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- In this article, we will explore what happens to activate memory and antibody production following the affinity maturation in the germinal center. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- MAb CR9114 is using the V H 1-69 germline gene and compared to other broadly neutralizing antibodies has a relatively small number of somatic mutations [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In recombinant cell lines, exogenous dhfr (together with the gene of interest, (GOI)) is provided by a vector used for transfection, making additional supplementation by HT unnecessary. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It is from the CLP from which B cells arise (see Figure 1), commitment to the B cell lineage is a result of contact with the stromal cells as well as growth factor and cytokine production that results in initiating gene regulation that drives B cell commitment. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Once HC Ig gene rearrangement has successfully initiated, the cells become precursor B (or pre-B) cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- During the pre-B cell stage (which can be divided into different phases) HC Ig gene rearrangement is completed and tested (I'll get back to this in a moment) and light chain (LC) gene rearrangement takes place to generate a fully functional B cell receptor (BCR, which is a membrane bound antibody). (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Once the LC gene is rearranged and produced it also must pair with the HC and be transported to the plasma membrane and interact with all the appropriate components signaling a fully formed BCR. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Our scientists have years of experience at performing gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9, and have generated series of gene knockout CHO-K1 cell lines developed by CRISPR/Cas9 system. (creative-biogene.com)
- Our gene editing CHO-K1 cells can save your precious time and effort with great performance in antibody production. (creative-biogene.com)
- In 1982, researchers discovered an oncogene (a gene that can release cells from growth constraints, possibly converting them into tumors) in 90% of patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. (encyclopedia.com)
- The C- myc onco-gene appears to stimulate the HMG-I/Y gene, which then triggers the changes in normal B-cells that cause them to multiply rapidly and form tumors. (encyclopedia.com)
- The CAR gene is added to your T cells. (webmd.com)
- Because viruses deliver DNA into human cells they are invaluable to gene therapists. (newscientist.com)
- Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming. (nih.gov)
- We show that IL-6 is sufficient and necessary to induce IL-21 production by naive and memory CD4 + T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation. (rupress.org)
- However, expression of the transgene is not restricted to B cells, leaving open the possibility that other cells may require a functional gp130 receptor. (rupress.org)
- B cell receptor signaling has been implicated and the strength of the signal may be the determining factor 3 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- For the design of the construct we combined the transmembrane domain of the EGF-receptor with a hemagglutinin epitope and a biotin acceptor peptide and performed a transposon-mediated transfection of myeloma cell lines. (hzg.de)
- Since LPS is a costimulatory immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), these results suggest a mechanism for the selective pressure that leads to clonality of these B-cell clusters and opens the possibility that infection and the attendant exposure to LPS plays a role in the chronic rejection of human kidney transplants. (pnas.org)
- LPS is an immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). (pnas.org)
- We talked about host cells that are perhaps infected with a virus, displaying pieces of that virus, antigenic pieces of that virus in the context of a surface receptor called MHC-1, presenting that. (yale.edu)
- This mechanism is similar to that of another anti-psoriasis antibody, brodalumab, which binds to the interleukin-17 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Secondly, we successfully developed an effective short hairpin siRNA tandem expression vector that facilitated the double knockdown of FUT8 and GMD , and we converted antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to fully non-fucosylated antibody producers within two months, and with high converting frequency. (biomedcentral.com)
- The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Antibodies to the F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to be protective against respiratory tularemia in BALB/c, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6, and C57BL/10 mice, and F. tularensis antibodies, most of which are directed to LPS, have been shown to ameliorate tularemia in humans ( 13 - 22 ). (asm.org)
- My review will be focused primarily on mouse B cell development (although there are great similarities with humans), as that has been the primary focus of my work as well as the host for monoclonal antibody development here at MBS. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Why do humans need cells? (reference.com)
- Now, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals says its COVID-19 antibody-drug cocktail under development prevented and treated the disease in monkeys and hamsters, showing promise that it may work in humans. (news-medical.net)
- Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans. (frontiersin.org)
- The cells of the plasmacytic category also showed fine gradations from plasmablasts to typical mature plasma cells. (rupress.org)
- Of 162 such cells, fine gradations were also found throughout the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories, but in this case the great majority were in the plasmacytic group, and more plasma cells showed amorphous nuclear chromatin. (rupress.org)
- a ) Phenotype of BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced CD27 + memory B cells (6XL, black histogram line) compared to tonsil GC cells (GC, CD38 + CD20 + , shaded grey), tonsil naïve and memory cells (N/M, CD38 − CD20 low , red histogram), and tonsil plasma cells (PC, CD38 ++ CD20 low , blue histogram). (nih.gov)
- Antibodies in the blood have a half-life of just a few weeks, so researchers thought these individuals had long-lived plasma cells, or white blood cells secreting antibodies, dating from the childhood infection. (emory.edu)
- It is believed that a vast number of the B cells selected in the germinal center go on to become plasmablasts which differentiate into antibody producing plasma cells 1 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Plasma cells are antibody factories that are responsible for producing all of the antibodies in circulation. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Most of the plasma cells will remain locally (Figure 2) to produce antibodies for the recognition, targeting, and removal of the inducing pathogen 1 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- These are typically referred to as short-lived plasma cells as they are only maintained while the pathogen is present and will die off once the infection is cleared. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- will rapidly proliferate, differentiate into plasma cells, and induce the generation of a germinal center 3 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Development of Memory B cells & Antibody Producing Plasma cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Therefore the germinal center "reaction" allows for the development of diversity and affinity and beyond the activation in the germinal center memory B cells and antibody producing plasma cells are generated for both short-term and long-term protection. (mainebiotechnology.com)
- Single plasma cells (PCs) and IgD- memory B cells were sorted from the ileum and/or blood of 7 EHI and 3 CHI. (biomedcentral.com)
- Loss of IgA in plasma after acute HIV-1 infection is paralleled by the loss of IgA+ B cells in ileum, and is likely a consequence of HIV-1-induced ileum germinal center apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- B-cells can be used as memory cells or can be activated to produce more plasma cells to create additional antibodies. (wanttoknowit.com)
- In conjunction with Projects 1- 3, kinetics of memory B cell and long-lived plasma cell populations will be ascertained and optimized. (grantome.com)
- These characteristics make the AB blood type the most restricted with regard to red cell transfusions but a universal donor for plasma transfusions. (reference.com)
- Blood has four components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (reference.com)
- Plasma cells normally produce our antibodies. (medicinenet.com)
- Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. (medicinenet.com)
- Histologocally, the gingival tissue in periodontitis shows dense infiltration of plasma cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- The enzyme-labeled antigen method was applied to visualize plasma cells producing antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis, flora of the human oral cavity. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- In paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections of rat lymph nodes experimentally immunized with Ag53-positive and Ag53-negative P. gingivalis, plasma cells were labeled with biotinylated Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- In two of eight lesions of gingival radicular cyst with inflammatory infiltration, CD138-positive plasma cells in frozen sections were signalized for Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- This is largely because plasma cells lack surface antibody expression, which complicates their screening . (bvsalud.org)
- They are the precursors for the antibody-secreting plasma cells and they also take up antigen, particularly antigen for which they bear-specifi. (bioportfolio.com)
- Plasma cells: the programming of an antibody-secreting machine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Metabolic and Transcriptional Modules Independently Diversify Plasma Cell Lifespan and Function. (bioportfolio.com)
- Natural regulatory plasma cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- B cells can generate several types of antibody-secreting cells, including plasmablasts that divide and are short lived, as well as plasma cells that do not proliferate and can persist for extended tim. (bioportfolio.com)
- B cells develop into plasma cells, which produce antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- In a mouse model of herpes simplex 2 virus infection, circulating memory B cells-rather than plasma cells-are shown to be the source of antibody secretion in the vaginal lumen following secondary infection. (nature.com)
- Their soluble forms which carry out these functions are produced by plasma B cells , a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Blood consists of cells and a yellow watery liquid known as plasma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The surface of the red blood cells contains A antigen, and the plasma has anti-B antibody that would attack any foreign B antigen containing red blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- As these abnormal or malignant plasma cells multiply, they produce large quantities of abnormal antibodies. (upstate.edu)
- As the plasma cell tumor grows, it also destroys the bone around it. (upstate.edu)
- Plasma is the liquid part of the blood that does not contain cells. (upstate.edu)
- Without mature B lymphocytes, antibody-producing plasma cells are also absent. (medscape.com)
- This involves removing blood plasma that contains the antibodies . (medlineplus.gov)
- When a B cell comes across its triggering antigen it gives rise to many large cells known as plasma cells. (chemocare.com)
- Each plasma cell is essentially a factory for producing antibody. (chemocare.com)
- The cells of such tumors resemble very closely the type of plasma cell . (dictionary.com)
- in 2012 in a study describing broadly neutralizing human antibodies against influenza B virus strains [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- With that said, three of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNABs) isolated from human B cells (4E10, 2F5, Z13e1) are directed at the uniquely accessible yet highly conserved segment of gp41 known as the membrane proximal ectodomain region (MPER). (grantome.com)
- Only one group ("subset D", CD19-, CD38high, CD138+) contained the cells that produce antibodies that react with measles or mumps virus. (emory.edu)
- iv) Many individuals with PN-MGUS without antimyelin antibodies may still react to immunosuppressive treatment . (bio-zentrum.com)
- We now show that the antibodies produced by these B-cells react strongly with the core carbohydrate region of LPS. (pnas.org)
- For example, we have known about the presence of oligoclonal antibodies in the spinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis for almost fifty years, yet the nature of the antigen(s) with which the antibodies react remains unproven ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
- Adriamycin or Velcade, a proteosome inhibitor, in combination with TRA-8 produced additive cytotoxicity against TRA-8 sensitive 2LMP breast cancer cells and synergism against LCC6 cells and the BT474 resistant line. (aacrjournals.org)
- In summary, TRA-8 in combination with Adriamycin or Velcade produced additive or synergistic cytotoxicity and activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9 in breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- If you're developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcare's Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program. (emory.edu)
- Four groups of investigators plan to utilize their collective talents in structural immunology, vaccinology, inflammation research, biomaterials and B cell biology to deliver lipid-embedded MPER nanoparticles for vaccination of animals in order to generate BNABs. (grantome.com)
- Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. (frontiersin.org)
- These mice are unable to activate STAT3 upon IL-6 exposure and show reduced levels of most antibody isotypes after immunization with a T-dependent antigen ( 14 ). (rupress.org)
- There are five different antibody isotypes that are responsible for different parts of the immune system reaction to foreign matter. (wanttoknowit.com)
- More studies in this area would help us understand how mutations in RAS signaling drive malignancy, and may point to novel targets for antibody and cellular-therapy-based treatment in RAS-driven cancers. (ucsf.edu)
- Two herpesviruses often contracted during childhood are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which establishes latent infection in the memory B-cell (MBC) compartment ( 1 , 2 ), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), which has a number of latency targets including CD34 + and CD33 + hematopoietic cells ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Trinchieri had already shown that the drug Interleukin-12 targets only TH2 cells but leaves the rest of the immune system intact. (newscientist.com)
- This means your immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells and tissues in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- The Foundation has awarded Dr. Sainz both for his strong career path and for the strength of his proposal, a promising approach that has the ultimate goal of fighting pancreatic cancer by identifying new therapeutic targets associated with cancer stem cells, which represent between 1 and 5% of the total tumor mass. (uam.es)