Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Plaque-forming cells in mice after experimental infection with Brucella abortus. (1/1095)

Cells producing antibody to brucella lipopolysaccharide were detected in spleens of mice infected with Brucella abortus 19 by a hemolytic plaque assay. The appearance of immunoglobulin M-producing cells preceded humoral antibodies. The primary plaques were observed 5 days after inoculation, and they were still present by day 70.  (+info)

Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. (2/1095)

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response.  (+info)

Characterization of anergic anti-DNA B cells: B cell anergy is a T cell-independent and potentially reversible process. (3/1095)

Anti-single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) B cells are regulated in non-autoimmune mice. In this report we show that while both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are blocked in their ability to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells, other phenotypic and functional characteristics distinguish them from one another. Splenic anti-ssDNA B cells are found distributed throughout the B cell follicle, and are phenotypically mature and long-lived. On the other hand, splenic anti-dsDNA B cells are short-lived, exhibit an immature and antigen-experienced phenotype, and localize to the T-B interface of the splenic follicle. Functionally, anti-ssDNA B cells proliferate, albeit suboptimally, in response to anti-IgM, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CD40L/IL-4 + anti-IgM stimulation, and tyrosine phosphorylate intracellular proteins upon mIgM cross-linking. Anti-dsDNA B cells, on the other hand, are functionally unresponsive to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation, and do not phosphorylate intracellular proteins, including Syk, upon mIg stimulation. Importantly, anti-DNA B cell anergy is maintained in the absence of T cells since both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are as efficiently regulated in RAG2(-/-) mice as in their RAG2(+/+) counterparts. Interestingly, the severely anergic state of anti-dsDNA B cells is partially reversible upon stimulation with CD40 ligand and IL-4. In response to these signals, anti-dsDNA B cells remain viable, up-regulate cell surface expression of B7-2 and IgM, and restore their ability to proliferate and phosphorylate Syk upon mIg cross-linking. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-DNA B cell anergy encompasses distinct phenotypes which, even in its most severe form, may be reversible upon stimulation with T cell-derived factors.  (+info)

Development of immunoglobulin and antibody-synthesizing cells after immunization with different doses of antigen. (4/1095)

The kinetics of development of antibody-synthesizing cells and of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function were studied in rats immunized with different doses (0-1, 1, 10, 100 mg) of horse radish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, hen ovalbumin, or human IgG, which had been deaggregated or heat-aggregated. Each antigen was injected once or twice as a solution in saline. Antibody and immunoglobulin-producing cells were detected in draining lymph nodes by immunohistochemical staining. In the primary response a few antibody-synthesizing cells were found whatever the dose injected. No increase or some increase was found with the amount of antigen injected, according to the protein used, but with all doses of antigen injected, the population of cells remained small, except with human IgG where a relatively high number of positive cells was detected even after injection of 1 mg of antigen. In the secondary response a few antibody-forming cells were also detected with the lower doses of antigen, but this population increased after boosting with 100 mg of antigen. With human IgG a greater number of positive cells was induced withall the doses tested. A correlation between the number of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function and the amount of antigen injected was observed in the primary and secondary responses. The relative size of these two populations varied with the stage of immunity of the animals. In the primary response, the population of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function was larger than the population of antibody-forming cells. The same was true in the secondary response, but if after a booster injection the level of antibody-synthesizing cells exceeded that reached in the primary response, the increase of cells synthesizing Ig without antibody function was smaller than the increase in antibody-forming cells. In general the more immunogenic an antigen was, the smaller was the ratio between antibody-forming cells and cells producing immunoglobulin without antibody function.  (+info)

Differential involvement of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in T cell-independent and -dependent B cell differentiation to plasma cells. (5/1095)

Along humoral immune responses, different stimuli drive the differentiation of B lymphocytes to Ig-secreting plasma cells in discrete microenvironments. The Blimp-1 transcription factor is up-regulated early during the transition of mature B cells to IgM-secreting plasma cells. In the present study, we have examined the requirement of Blimp-1 in plasma cell formation after both T cell-independent (LPS) and -dependent (CD40 + IL-4, Th cell lines) stimulation of spleen B cells. B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp-1) was expressed early after in vitro LPS stimulation, mainly in a population of IgM+Syndecan+CD43+ preplasma cells. In contrast, the BSAP transcription factor expressed in mature B cells was down-regulated during the differentiation to plasma cells. Treatment of these cultures with Blimp-1-specific antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides suppressed both Blimp-1 protein levels and the emergence of IgM+Syndecan+ cells and plasma cells. However, T-B cell cocultures of spleen B cells from C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice and syngeneic autoreactive SR.10 Th2 cells submitted to the anti-Blimp-1 therapy did not show any significant reduction in IgM- and IgG1-secreting plasma cell formation. Spleen B cells treated with anti-CD40 mAb + IL-4 differentiated to IgG1-secreting cells without significant transcription of the Blimp-1 gene; anti-Blimp-1 treatment subsequently did not have any effect in the later cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that Blimp-1 transcription factor specifically promotes T cell-independent B cell differentiation to plasma cells, probably at preplasma cell stages. In contrast, T cell-dependent plasma cell formation likely evolves through Blimp-1-independent pathways.  (+info)

Relaxed negative selection in germinal centers and impaired affinity maturation in bcl-xL transgenic mice. (6/1095)

The role of apoptosis in affinity maturation was investigated by determining the affinity of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) and serum antibody in transgenic mice that overexpress a suppressor of apoptosis, Bcl-xL, in the B cell compartment. Although transgenic animals briefly expressed higher numbers of splenic AFCs after immunization, the bcl-xL transgene did not increase the number or size of germinal centers (GCs), alter the levels of serum antibody, or change the frequency of NP-specific, long-lived AFCs. Nonetheless, the bcl-xL transgene product, in addition to endogenous Bcl-xL, reduced apoptosis in GC B cells and resulted in the expansion of B lymphocytes bearing VDJ rearrangements that are usually rare in primary anti-NP responses. Long-lived AFCs bearing these noncanonical rearrangements were frequent in the bone marrow and secreted immunoglobulin G(1) antibodies with low affinity for NP. The abundance of noncanonical cells lowered the average affinity of long-lived AFCs and serum antibody, demonstrating that Bcl-xL and apoptosis influence clonal selection/maintenance for affinity maturation.  (+info)

Partial IgA-deficiency with increased Th2-type cytokines in TGF-beta 1 knockout mice. (7/1095)

Though it has been shown that TGF-beta 1 directs B cells to switch to IgA in vitro, no studies have assessed TGF-beta 1 effects on mucosal vs systemic immunity in vivo. When the B cell functions of TGF-beta 1 gene-disrupted (TGF-beta 1-/-) mice were analyzed, significantly decreased IgA levels and increased IgG and IgM levels in serum and external secretions were observed. Further, analysis of Ab forming cells (AFC) isolated from both mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissue showed elevated IgM, IgG, and IgE, with decreased IgA AFC. A lack of IgA-committed B cells was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Splenic T cells triggered via the TCR expressed elevated Th2-type cytokines and, consistent with this observation, a 31-fold increase in serum IgE was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice. Thus, uncontrolled B cell responses, which include elevated IgE levels, a lack of antiinflammatory IgA, and an excess of complement-binding IgG and IgM Abs, will promote inflammation at mucosal surfaces in TGF-beta 1-/- mice and likely contribute to pulmonary and GI tract lesions, ultimately leading to the early death of these mice.  (+info)

Variegated expression of the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene in the absence of the intronic locus control region. (8/1095)

The expression of chromosomally integrated transgenes usually varies greatly among independent transfectants. This variability in transgene expression has led to the definition of locus control regions (LCRs) as elements which render expression consistent. Analyses of expression in single cells revealed that the expression of transgenes which lack an LCR is often variegated, i.e., on in some cells and off in others. In many cases, transgenes which show variegated expression were found to have inserted near the centromere. These observations have suggested that the LCR prevents variegation by blocking the inhibitory effect of heterochromatin and other repetitive-DNA-containing structures at the insertion site and have raised the question of whether the LCR plays a similar role in endogenous genes. To address this question, we have examined the effects of deleting the LCR from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus of a mouse hybridoma cell line in which expression of the immunoglobulin mu heavy-chain gene is normally highly stable. Our analysis of mu expression in single cells shows that deletion of this LCR resulted in variegated expression of the mu gene. That is, in the absence of the LCR, expression of the mu gene in the recombinant locus could be found in either of two epigenetically maintained, metastable states, in which transcription occurred either at the normal rate or not at all. In the absence of the LCR, the on state had a half-life of approximately 100 cell divisions, while the half-life of the off state was approximately 40,000 cell divisions. For recombinants with an intact LCR, the half-life of the on state exceeded 50,000 cell divisions. Our results thus indicate that the LCR increased the stability of the on state by at least 500-fold.  (+info)

*Autoantibody

Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ... Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ...

*CD154

The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40, causing B cell activation. The T cell also produces IL-4, which directly ... NK cells, B lymphocytes, as well as non-haematopoietic cells (smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells). ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

... can affect T cell functions directly and indirectly via cells such as Treg cells. CD8 cells can be suppressed by B cells ... Humanised antibodies are produced by grafting murine hypervariable regions on amino acid domains into human antibodies. This ... Monoclonal antibodies can target tumor cells or abnormal cells in the body that are recognized as body cells, but are ... Tumor vasculature helps tumors preferentially recruit other immune cells over T cells, in part through endothelial cell (EC)- ...

*Trifunctional antibody

These two cell types are hybridised, yielding hybrid-hybridomas or quadromas, which produce hybrid (trifunctional) antibody as ... in eliminating tumor cells than conventional antibodies. These drugs evoke the removal of tumor cells by means of (i) antibody- ... natural killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells to the tumor cells, leading to their destruction. ... At first, mouse hybridoma cells whose monoclonal antibodies target one of the desired antigens are produced. Independently, rat ...

*Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

These destroy excess antibody-producing cells in the thecal sac, thus alleviating the symptoms. A more sophisticated analysis ... a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 receptor on the surface of B cells, thus destroying the self-reactive B cells. ... These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain ... The cell subsequently lyses. Notably, this mechanism is unlikely as it causes the cell to die, which is inconsistent with ...

*Vaccinogen

"Exploiting highly ordered subnanoliter volume microcapillaries as microtools for the analysis of antibody producing cells". ... "Vaccinogen Enhances Patient-Derived Antibody Program with Revolutionary High-Throughput Single Cell Screening and Analysis ... It is currently developing a potential cancer immunotherapy called OncoVAX, where a patient's own tumor cells are used as the ... The patient is then administered two injections of these tumor cells mixed with the TICE strain of BCG via intradermal ...

*Lymphotoxin alpha

The gastrointestinal immune system contains up to 70-80% of the antibody producing cells of the body. During embryonic ... including cell proliferation and cell death. After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases ... Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. The process of ... Clinical trials involving this antibody have yet to be employed, but the creation of this antibody offers alternative ...

*Albert Coons

Sercarz EE, Coons AH: The absence of antibody-producing cells during unresponsiveness to BSA in the mouse. J Immunol 1963; 90: ... Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and ... I considered that it might be easier to find the antigen than the antibody... The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with ... Coons AH: Fluorescent antibodies as histochemical tools. Fed Proc 1951; 10: 558-559. Coons AH: Fluorescent antibody methods. ...

*Flow cytometry

Julius MH, Masuda T, Herzenberg LA (1972). "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells ... Cell adherence (for instance, pathogen-host cell adherence) Cell pigments such as chlorophyll or phycoerythrin Cell surface ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ... A flow cytometer is similar to a microscope, except that, instead of producing an image of the cell, flow cytometry offers high ...

*Michael Neuberger

... a cancer of antibody-producing cells, at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, on 26 October 2013. "Prof Michael Neuberger, FRS ... He supervised students reading the Natural Sciences Tripos in the fields of cell biology and biochemistry. He was also joint ... He also received the Novartis medal in 2002 and delivered the Novartis medal lecture, entitled "Antibodies: a Paradigm for the ... "Replacing the complementarity-determining regions in a human antibody with those from a mouse". Nature. 321 (6069): 522-525. ...

*Testicular immunology

... since these are the antibody-producing cells of the immune system. Since anti-sperm antibodies can cause infertility, it is ... B-lymphocytes take part in the adaptive immune response and produce antibodies. These cells are not normally found in the ... These cells were isolated from the testis, then added to transplants of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islets of ... Non-immune cells of the testis such as Sertoli cells and Leydig cells also able to respond to bacteria. During a bacterial ...

*Mast cell

As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune ... Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ... connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. The activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. Mast cells are ... "Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at the single-cell level". Cell Stem Cell. 6: 361-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*NS0 cell

As myeloma cells, they are naturally antibody producing suspension cells. Gene amplication is typically performed using GS- ... Several therapeutic antibody products are produced using the NS0 cell line including daclizumab and eculizumab. Barnes, LM; ... The cell line is a cholesterol-dependent cell line that was generated from a subline of NSI/1 which produced only the light ... From this tumor, the P3K cells were isolated and developed into two cell lines, 289-16 and P3-X63. The 289-16 cell line ...

*Gordon Ada

From 1962 he focused on immune reactions, demonstrating that antigens are not present in antibody-producing cells, in support ... during his period of leadership the school became an international centre for the analysis of T cell-mediated immunity. He was ...

*AL amyloidosis

The disease is caused when a person's antibody-producing cells do not function properly and produce abnormal protein fibers ... The most effective treatment is autologous bone marrow transplants with stem cell rescues. However many patients are too weak ... A combination of melphalan and dexamethasone has been found effective in those who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation ... amyloidosis who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation". Blood. 103 (8): 2936-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-08-2788. PMID ...

*Memory cell

as Memory B cell, an antibody producing cell Memory T cell, an infection fighting cell. ... Memory cell may refer to: Memory cell (computing), a building block of computer data storage Memory cells (motor cortex), found ...

*Antibody

B cells differentiate into either antibody-producing cells called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody or memory cells ... most antibodies are produced by hybridoma cell lines through immortalization of antibody-producing cells by chemically-induced ... causing the cell to divide and differentiate into an antibody-producing cell called a plasma cell. In this activated form, the ... interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody ...

*Jerry Adams

... a malignancy of antibody-producing cells, called "B lymphocytes". It was in Adams' lab that his PhD student, David Vaux, made ... Their research first looked into how lymphocytes could produce so many different antibodies, providing insights into the ... also led to the discovery that antibody genes encode as bits and pieces, that can recombine in a myriad of ways to help fight ... arbiters of cell survival". Science. 281 (5381): 1322-6. doi:10.1126/science.281.5381.1322. PMID 9735050. ...

*Enumeral

These potentially allosteric antibodies also produced more interferon gamma and showed dose-dependent increases in T cell CD25 ... Their foundational paper showed that it was possible to quickly capture a large mass of antibody-producing cells through ... June 1, 2006). "A microengraving method for rapid selection of single cells producing antigen-specific antibodies". Nat. ... Enumeral's antibodies caused higher T cell activation in ex vivo human assays than the currently marketed anti-PD-1 antibodies ...

*Artificial immune system

This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where antibodies (or antibody producing cells) ... Dendritic Cell Algorithms: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is an example of an immune inspired algorithm developed using a ... Negative selection refers to the identification and deletion (apoptosis) of self-reacting cells, that is T cells that may ... from the molecular networks present within the cell to the behaviour exhibited by a population of cells as a whole. Within the ...

*Lymphokine

... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: Interleukin 2 ... They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...

*Philip Leder

Leder's work on antibody genes was later extended to research into Burkitt's lymphoma, a tumour of antibody-producing cells, ... The main focus of this inquiry was the question of how the enormous diversity of antibody molecules are formed by a limited ... His research into the structure of genes which carry the code for antibody molecules was of pioneering significance. ...

*Prostaglandin EP4 receptor

... inhibit antibody-producing B cells from proliferating; d) suppresses the development of Atherosclerosis plaques by promoting ... trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal cells of the eye; and gingival fibroblasts ... Its activation also: a) supports the development of Regulatory T cells (i.e. suppressor T cells that modulate the immune system ... cell growth, and cell survival (see NF-κB#Structure). The activation of these pathways lead to variety of different types of ...

*Clonal selection

Talmage hypothesized that antigens bind to antibodies on the surface of antibody-producing cells and "only those cells are ... its counter-specific cell so that particular cell is induced to multiply (producing its clones) for antibody production. This ... In 1958, Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first ... After antigen binding the cell proliferates, forming a clone producing the same antibody. Later in the same year, Australian ...

*Computational immunology

Immunogenicity is due to responses of an IgE antibody-producing B cell and/or of a T cell to a particular allergen. Therefore, ... Mehr R, Segel L, Sharp A, Globerson A (October 1994). "Colonization of the thymus by T cell progenitors: models for cell-cell ... Pappalardo F, Pennisi M, Ricupito A, Topputo F, Bellone M (2014). "Induction of T cell memory by a dendritic cell vaccine: a ... Jacob J, Baltimore D (June 1999). "Modelling T-cell memory by genetic marking of memory T cells in vivo". Nature. 399 (6736): ...

*Phage display

... always limited by the inability of most prokaryotes in producing post-translational modifications present in eukaryotic cells ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...

*Holger Lode

Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. Mol Immunol 2005;42:1311-9 ... In 2002 he became a member of the SIOPEN group and got involved in the clinical development of a monoclonal antibody directed ... Natural killer cell-mediated eradication of neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow by targeted interleukin-2 therapy. Blood ... Tumor-targeted IL-2 amplifies T cell-mediated immune response induced by gene therapy with single-chain IL-12. Proc Natl Acad ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A potent virus-specific antibody-secreting cell response to acute enterovirus 71 infection in children. AU - Huang, Kuan Ying Arthur. AU - Lin, Jainn Jim. AU - Chiu, Cheng Hsun. AU - Yang, Shuan. AU - Tsao, Kuo Chien. AU - Huang, Yhu Chering. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. Methods: We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. Results: A potent EV71 genogroup B-and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary hepatitis a virus infection. AU - Hong, Seokchan. AU - Lee, Hyun Woong. AU - Chang, Dong Yeop. AU - You, Sooseong. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Park, Jun Yong. AU - Ahn, Sang Hoon. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Yoo, Ook Joon. AU - Shin, Eui Cheol. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis Avirus (HAV).We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38 high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during ...
The invention provides methods for producing antibodies by transplanting a cell that produces an antibody of interest into a mammal and isolating the desired antibodies from the mammal. The invention also features methods of transplanting antibody-producing cells into a mammal.
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive.
The kinetics of the generation of primed IgM and IgG antibody-forming cell precursors, and of helper T-cell populations, were analyzed in mice whose primary responses to high and low doses of SRBC were arrested at intervals by the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide monohydrate and specific antibody. The extent to which immunological memory was established in these animals before blockade of the primary response was assessed by the hemolytic plaque assay following challenge 12 wk after priming. The presence of IgG B-memory cells and T-memory cells in suppressed mice was further investigated by the transfer into these animals of syngeneic SRBC-stimulated thymocytes or anti-θ-treated spleen cells.. It was found that the progenitors of secondary IgM-synthesizing cells were primed almost immediately after injection of antigen, and that early blockade of the primary response resulted in a raised IgM response after challenge. On the other hand, priming for a secondary IgG response took at least ...
The immune system can produce many types of antibodies, directed against infectious viruses (good) or against human proteins as in lupus (harmful). Each antibody-secreting cell carries DNA rearrangements that reflect the makeup of its antibody product. With next-generation sequencing technology, scientists can use the DNA to identify and track that cell, like reading a bar code on an item in a supermarket.. Tipton, Sanz, and their colleagues have been using these DNA bar codes to deepen our understanding of immune responses in lupus. They obtained blood samples from eight patients experiencing lupus flares and compared them to eight healthy people who had recently been vaccinated against influenza or tetanus.. When the immune system is responding to something its seen before, such as when someone receives a booster vaccine, the bar codes of the antibody-producing cells look quite similar to each other. A set of just a few antibody-producing cells multiply and expand. By contrast, the ...
Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. More than 300 such cells were examined. In the lymph nodes, rosette-forming cells were all in the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories. In cells of the mouse spleen, macrophages were also found among the RFC, especially in the later days after immunization.. The great majority of the RFC, 70-100%, were of the lymphocytic category. These included small, medium, and large lymphocytes with fine gradations of differentiation, and blast forms with little heterochromatin. The endoplasmic reticulum of these cells occurred in short, very narrow pieces, usually in contact with a mitochondrion. The cells of the plasmacytic category also showed fine gradations from plasmablasts to typical mature plasma cells.. Plaque-forming cells of mouse and rabbit were also collected by micropipet. Of 162 such cells, ...
This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
Quintans, J and Lefkovits, I, "Clones of antibody-forming cells in pokeweed mitogen stimulated microcultures. II. Estimation of the frequency of precursor cells and the average clone size." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 816 ...
The vibriolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay was used to study the kinetics of the primary and secondary immune responses of mice and rabbits immunized with heat-killed cholera vibrios. Immunocytes releasing IgG antibody could be detected as readily as those immunocytes secreting IgM antibody in spleens of BALB/c mice and New Zealand White rabbits after a single injection of vaccine. Peak numbers of indirect (IgG) PFC were detected 3 to 4 days after the peak direct (IgM) PFC response (12 to 14 days). In contrast, only direct vibriolytic PFC were detected in spleens of NIH Albino mice during the primary response to cholera antigens. After a second injection of vaccine, IgM, IgG, and IgA PFC were detected in both mouse strains with peak responses for each immunocyte class occurring within the first week after booster injection. Heat-killed vibrios or a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract, but not cholera exotoxin or E. coli LPS, inhibited the vibriolytic response. Furthermore, viable cholera ...
June 11, 2015. When exposed to a foreign agent, such as an immunogenic protein, B cells in lymphoid organs (such as the spleen) undergo germinal center (immune defense) reactions. The image on the left is an normal immunized mouse spleen with activated B cells (brown) that produce antibodies. At right, top: a scanning electron micrograph of synthetic porous synthetic immune organoids that enable rapid proliferation and activation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. At right, bottom: primary B cell viability and distribution is visible 24 hours following encapsulation of B cells from the mouse lymphoid organ into the synthetic organoids. (credit: Singh Lab). Cornell University engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organoid (a lab-grown ball of cells with some of the features of a normal organ) that produces antibodies. The engineered organ has implications for everything from rapid production of immune therapies to new frontiers in cancer or infectious disease ...
Scientists have identified the gene essential for survival of antibody-producing cells, a finding that could lead to better treatments for diseases where these cells are out of control, such as myeloma and chronic immune ...
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Neoplasm:, Organs:, Serology: Antigen,, Types of Tumors:, Transplantable Tumors: P815, EL 4, LSTRA, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), BALB/C, C57BL/6, NZB. ...
... definition, Anatomy. an antibody-secreting cell, derived from B cells, that plays a major role in antibody-mediated immunity. See more.
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive.. The cells keep a catalog of how an adults immune system responded to infections decades ago in childhood encounters with measles or mumps viruses. The results, published Tuesday, July 14 in , could provide vaccine designers with a goalpost when aiming for long-lasting antibody production.. "If youre developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcares Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program.. The findings could advance investigation of autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, by better defining the cells that produce auto-reactive antibodies.. Co-senior author of the Immunity paper is Iñaki Sanz, ...
Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of HAV infection. Moreover, substantial numbers of ASCs were non-HAV-specific and dominantly secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific ASCs by staining with fluorochrome-tagged HAV-VP1 protein. As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67lowCD138highCD31highCD38high, demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype ...
We evaluated virus-specific B and T cell responses induced by the attenuated Wa (P1A[8]G1) human rotavirus (AttHRV) oral 2-dose vaccine with or without Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) colonization in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. The AttHRV vaccinated and LA-fed pigs had a significantly higher magnitude of HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8+ T cell responses in ileum and spleen, IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cell responses in ileum, and serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibody and virus neutralizing antibody titers compared to the AttHRV vaccinated pigs without LA colonization ...
Scientist working with start-up flask of mammalian cell culture used for the commercial production of recombinant proteins or monoclonal antibodies. The initial stage of producing a culture of monoclonal antibodies involves the fusion of a normal antibody-producing cell (a lymphocyte) with a rapidly multiplying tumour cell. The resulting hybridoma cells are multiplied in fermenters to produce large numbers of genetically identical copies, each secreting the antibody produced by the original lymphocyte. In this way large amounts of specific antibodies can be produced for use in medicine as vaccines or in diagnostic tests. BRO 3.8 - Stock Image G252/0076
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xiao-Liang Wang, Guang-Hou Zhao, Jin Zhang, Qi-Yun Shi, Wei-Xiao Guo, Xiu-Li Tian, Jia-Zhang Qiu, Li-Zi Yin, Xu-Ming Deng, Yu Song].
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The contribution of cord blood B lymphocytes to the immune response has been under considerable investigation. Cord blood B cells produce almost no antibodies except of the immunoglobulin (Ig)M isotype, indicating immaturity of the cells or the environment they reside in. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of circulating IgA-, IgM-, IgG-, and IgE-producing cells in cord blood in comparison to adult peripheral blood using the ELISPOT method. Moreover, we studied the effect of transformation with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on the proportion of cells producing different isotypes with or without interleukin (IL)-4. Cord blood had IgM-producing cells circulating predominantly, but also some IgA- and IgG-producing cells, whereas adult peripheral blood contained high amounts of circulating IgA-producing cells and some IgM- and IgG-producing cells. No circulating IgE-producing cells were found in either group. Transformation by EBV caused significant expansion of IgA-, IgM-, and ...
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was originally developed to enumerate antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and has subsequently been adapted for various applications, including the detection cytokine-secreting cells. Owing to its exceptionally high sensitivity, the ELISPOT has proven to be especially useful for detecting discrete populations of active cells (e.g., antigen-specific cells). Because of its versatility, the ELISPOT assay is used for a wide range of applications, including clonal analyses of immune responses after vaccination or after immunotherapy. Here we describe standard protocols for the detection of human ASCs specific to virtually any vaccine antigen after enrichment of circulating plasmablasts. In addition, a protocol is described for the measurement of mucosal ASC responses after prior immunomagnetic enrichment of mucosally derived blood lymphocytes. The protocols described allow rapid (∼6-8 h) detection of specific ASCs in small (1-2 ml) samples of blood
By Emily Burke, PhD, Director of Curriculum Development, BiotechPrimer.com. Editors Note: This article originally appeared in Biotech Primer Weekly. For more of the science behind the headlines, please subscribe.. Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. These cells are the antibody-producing cells of our immune system and play a critical role in our defense against infections. If they begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner, however, they form a plasmacytoma - a mass of cells within the bone marrow that no longer function in our defense but instead simply take up space and interfere with the functions of healthy cells. Instead of producing normal disease-fighting antibodies, plasmacytoma cells produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins, which dont provide any benefit to the body and crowd out normally functioning antibodies.. Easily Confused: Plasma Cells vs Blood Plasma. Plasma cells are specialized white blood cells that produce ...
Antibodies defend us against infections, so they often get described as weapons. And the cells that produce them could be weapon factories?. To understand recent research from immunologist Jerry Bosss lab, a more appropriate metaphor is the distinction between sprinting and long-distance running.. Graduate student Madeline Price in Bosss lab has been investigating how antibody-producing cells use glucose - the simple sugar- and how the cells patterns of gene activity reflect that usage. Cells can use glycolysis, which is inefficient but fast, analogous to sprinting, or oxidative phosphorylation, generating much more energy overall, more like long distance running.. As Boss and Price point out:. ...
Three mouse myeloma cell lines were cloned in soft agar and screened by an antiserum overlay method for variants defective in secretion of the myeloma protein. Variants that had lost the capacity to synthesize heavy chains arose spontaneously at a high rate of about 10-3 per cell per generation. Such variants lost the capacity to produce light chains at a similarly high rate. After cells were treated with the acridine half mustard ICR-191, variants occurred with an even higher incidence, and some of these synthesized heavy chains differing from that of the parent. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Mouse Anti_SRBC IgG \ KT-574 for more molecular products just contact us
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Human peripheral blood isolation. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited to receive the 2014-2015 quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) Fluarix (GSK) at the University of Chicago with approval by the institutional review board (protocol 09-043A). Peripheral blood (40-80 ml) was drawn 7 days after immunization. B cells were enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the RosetteSep Human B cell Enrichment Kit (Stem Cell Technologies, catalog 15024), and treated and isolated with a Lymphoprep gradient (Corning, catalog 25-072). The 6 subjects with the highest vaccine-positive antibody-secreting cell frequency determined by ELISPSOT were selected for inclusion in our study.. ELISPOT. B cell-enriched PBMCs (0.25 × 106 to 1.0 × 106 cells) were transferred onto ELISPOT plates (Millipore, catalog MSHAN4B50). Plates were coated with goat anti-human immunoglobulin (whole IgG, IgM, and IgA, KPL, catalog 01-10-07) at 5 μg/ml or with the total administered QIV at 10 μl/ml both in PBS ...
The immune status of children with malignant disease in remission was assessed usingvarious immune function tests. Children with infections had significantlymore neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and impaired cell-mediated immune responses than those without. These two groups combined had much more absolute lymphopenia and impairment of both cell-mediated immunity and antibody-producing capacity thancontrol children with non-malignant conditions. Regular immunological evaluation isrecommended for children with malignant disease when new intensive treatment schedules are under trial and for individual patients particularly prone to develop infections during treatment. ...
ASC2兔多克隆抗体(ab47092)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 沙鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Number of specific antibody-secreting cells in the peripheral blood among children with mycoplasma pneumonia. AU - Iseki, Mikiro. AU - Takahashi, Takao. AU - Kimura, Kyoko. AU - Yamashita, Ryoko. AU - Sasaki, Tsuguo. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the peripheral blond were enumerated with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay in 12 children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Those cells were detected in the acute phases and declined in number in the convalescent stage. The maximum numbers of M. pneumoniae-specific ASCs ranged from 0 to 478 for immunoglobulin G (IgG), 13 to 1,992 for IgM, and 0 to 53 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the total numbers (i.e., including both specific and nonspecific) of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (IgSCs) were as high as 4,000 for both IgG and IgM and 1,000 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Such a great increase in the numbers of total IgSCs in ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Influence of route and dose of antigen on the migration inhibition and plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes in the lizard, Calotes versicolor. by Swaminathan Jayaraman et al.
We acknowledge the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation, the traditional owners and custodians of the land on which the Garvan Institute of Medical Research is located. We pay respects to Elders, past, present and future, and recognise the continuing connection and contribution to this land. ...
We have analyzed a pair of human myeloma immunoglobulins (biclonal proteins) of the IgG and IgA classes from a single patient, GR. The light chains are identical in amino-acid sequence over 40 residues at their NH2-terminus, whereas the heavy chains are identical throughout 45 residues of their NH2-terminus. Additional chemical and serological studies suggest the light chains and variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) are very similar, if not identical. The implications of these and of other published studies are discussed with regard to (i) the association of one VH region with multiple constant regions of the heavy chain (CH regions), (ii) two alternative types of V-C joining mechanisms, (iii) the differentiation of antibody-producing cells, and (iv) three categories of biclonal immunoglobulins. ...
The T cell lymphokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), plays a pivotal role in an immune response by stimulating antigen-activated B lymphocytes to progress through the cell cycle and to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. An IL-2 inducible B lymphoma line, in which the growth and differentiation responses are uncoupled, provides a model system for dissecting the signaling mechanisms operating in each response. This system was used to show that both signals are initiated by IL-2 binding to a single, unifunctional receptor complex. Moreover, both signals are transduced by a pathway that does not involve any known second messenger system and that can be blocked by a second T cell lymphokine, interleukin 4. These findings suggest that the pleiotrophic effects of IL-2 are determined by different translations of the signal in the nucleus. ...
Potential effect of various immunocompetent cells from ascitic fluid on overall survival calculated using Cox proportional-hazards regression model
Myeloma is a cancer of the antibody-producing cells. It occurs spontaneously in humans and mice, and can be induced by injecting some substances such as mineral oil, pristane, or viruses into the peritoneum. Myeloma cells continue to secrete immunoglobulins in a normal fashion but exhibit uncontrolled growth. Plasmacytomas have been cloned from myelomas, yielding cell lines that produce a completely homogeneous population of myeloma immunoglobulin bearing a single heavy chain isotype and a single light chain type.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) acts as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig-secreting cells.
Darwin argued in The Origin of Species that the widespread occurrence of vestigial organs-organs that may have once had a function but are now useless-is evidence against creation. "On the view of each organism with all its separate parts having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable is it that organs bearing the plain stamp of inutility… should so frequently occur." But such organs, he argued, are readily explained by his theory: "On the view of descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect, and useless condition, or quite aborted, far from presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated in accordance with the views here explained."25. In The Descent of Man, Darwin cited the human appendix as an example of a vestigial organ. But Darwin was mistaken: The appendix is now known to be an important source of antibody-producing blood cells and thus an integral part ...
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The Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay is a widely used method for monitoring cellular immune responses in humans and other animals, and has found clinical applications in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the monitoring of graft tolerance or rejection in transplant patients. The ELISPOT technique has proven to be among the most useful means available for monitoring cell-mediated immunity, due to its sensitive and accurate detection of rare antigen-specific T cells (or B cells) and its ability to visualize single positive cells within a population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The ELISPOT method was developed by Cecil Czerkinskys group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983, for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay. The ELISPOT assay has since been more widely adopted for the identification and enumeration of cytokine-producing cells at the single ...
Crosslinking membrane IgD on B cells with unconjugated anti-IgD antibody induces B cell proliferation at µg/ml concentrations. By contrast, anti-IgD dextran induces vigorous B cell proliferation at ng/ml. Furthermore, in contrast to unconjugated anti-IgD, anti-IgD-dex-activated B cells undergo substantial Ig class switching and differentiation into Ig-secreting cells in the presence of various second signals, including cytokines and Toll-like receptor ligands. Thus, Anti-IgD-dex is an efficient and potent polyclonal B cell activator for studying a wide range of B cell functions.. Fina Biosolutions provides anti-IgD and anti-IgM dextran conjugates, targeting mouse and human.. Streptavidin-dextran can be used to prepare multivalent polymer conjugates using a biotinylated species (i.e., antibody, TCR, antigen, etc.). References. ...
Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles, high caloric intake, genetics and environmental factors. Studies have shown that obesity is linked with multiple co-morbid pathologies, including increases in the incidence of some cancers. We have studied the effect of a nutrient-dense environment upon the mast cell, a pro-inflammatory immunocyte. Our recently published work shows that these immunocytes are sites for ectopic lipid deposition (steatosis) under conditions that mimic high nutrient availability and hyperinsulineamia. Moreover, the steatotic phenotype is associated with phenotypic change in the mast cells, with relative over-production of bioactive eicosanoids and other pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, but suppression of some aspects of the acute Type I hypersensitivity pathway. In the current study we sought to further explore the impact of nutrient abundance upon the cell biology of the mast cell. ...
... (Gold NanoUrchin Protein Conjugates). Affinity isolated anti-sheep IgG antibody produced in rabbit and coupled to 60nm gold nanourchins (0.5 ml, OD3).
I need some help. I have a ASC case where the MD did a cystourethroscopy w/ bilaterial retrograde ureterograms. He also did Litholapaxy with the extra
0070] As SLE serum induces monocytes to become DCs able to activate T cells, we next asked whether SLE DCs might contribute to enhance B cell responses. Interestingly, while equally adept at inducing proliferation and generating total PBs, SLE-DCs were more efficient than IFN-DCs at generating IgG- and particularly IgA-PBs from naive B cells. This finding was consistent with the superior capacity of SLE-DCs to induce class-switching toward these isotypes. SLE-DC-mediated IgG- and IgA-secreting B cell responses were not limited to naive B cells, but extended to CD19+IgD+CD27+, CD19+IgD-CD27+ B cell subsets. Our data suggest that IFNα is not the sole factor in SLE serum promoting B cell responses by acting on monocytes. Indeed, while BAFF is known to be IFN-inducible, we found that SLE serum upregulates APRIL expression on monocytes in an IFN-independent manner (Patel et al., manuscript in preparation). The pathogenic role of IgG auto-antibodies is relatively well understood, but that of IgA is ...
The enrichment analysis was conducted on nine data subsets from four data sets containing transcriptomic data from naïve B cells and plasma cells. The analysis yielded total of 142 enriched terms, out of which seven were chosen for closer inspection to see which genes comprise them. Four genes, SBH1, GPD2, TRX1 and TRX2, were selected to be overexpressed and knocked out in antibody-secreting yeast. The results on the secretion of antibody were analysed by ELISA ...
... (Anti-Sheep Gold Conjugates). Affinity isolated anti-sheep IgG antibody produced in rabbit and coupled to 50nm gold nanoparticles (0.5ml, OD3).
Principal Investigator:NISHIOKA Yuichi,宮本 昭正, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:内科学一般
... Secondary Antibody from Invitrogen for ELISA applications. Supplied as 1 mg purified secondary antibody (4.4 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.4.
Goat polyclonal SRBC antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
There are no specific protocols for Rabbit Anti-Sheep IgM H&L (Alkaline Phosphatase) (ab112761). Please download our general protocols booklet
Dr. Nigel Sharrock will present the prestigious Gaston Labat Award Lectureship on April 8th at the Excellence in ASRA Awards Luncheon, held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting in San Francisco, CA.. ASRA bestows the Gaston Labat Award annually to an individual who has demonstrated outstanding contributions to the development, teaching, and practice of regional anesthesia in the tradition of Gaston P. Labat, MD (1843-1908).. Dr. Sharrock has spent the last 40 years focusing on regional anesthesia, both as a clinician and innovator, and was instrumental in the transformation of the practice at Hospital for Special Surgery into a world-renowned center for regional anesthesia.. Professor Quinn H. Hogan, MD, wrote in his nomination, "Dr. Sharrock is known for his leadership in clinical practice, having been the director at Hospital for Special Surgery, where he initiated its justifiably famous outcomes-based clinical approach to anesthesia." He ...
Using fluorescein-labelled antibodies against γ, μ and α chains, Ig-containing cells* in palatine tonsils were studied in 120 patients. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequently repeated typical findings as regards the numbers and localisation of these cells in tonsils and to confront the data obtained with the concept that tonsils are a component of the local immunity system. The preponderance of IgG over IgA cells was confirmed, both cell types being preferentially localized in extrafollicular tissue whereas IgM was mostly found in germinal centres. Together with progressing tonsillar atrophia, the frequency of positive findings of IgM decreased, whereas the numbers of IgG and IgA cells were proportional to the amount of remaining lymphoid tissue. IgA cells were not preponderant in tonsils and their localization in the surface layer of epithelium was rather exceptional, SC antigen could not be demonstrated unequivocally and the morphological picture in germinal centres was
Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly: clinical and immunological characteristics. Isotype distribution of anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective analysis of a series of 100 patients
Cardiac amyloidosis. Section through a heart from a person affected by primary systemic amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is characterised by a build-up of the protein amyloid. Primary systemic amyloidosis, or amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, is caused by malfunctioning antibody-producing cells that produce abnormal protein fibres (light chains), which clump together to form amyloid deposits in the bodys organs. There is no cure for amyloidosis, but the production of amyloid in the body can be slowed down by certain medications. - Stock Image C023/5511
We have investigated the systemic antibody response to sperm whale myoglobin (SWMb) antigenic sites in three strains of inbred mice using an inhibition of plaque assay. Sperm whale myoglobin was attached to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) via rabbit anti-SRBC Fab fragments. Inhibition of lysis was obtained with synthetic peptides representing the purported five antigenic sites but not with a peptide whose sequence was unrelated to SWMb and synthetic peptides of SWMb from outside the antigenic sites gave minimal or no inhibition. The results of our studies show that the pattern of response to the five antigenic sites differs in each strain, but that almost total inhibition is obtained in all strains with these five sites. The antigenic dominance of these sites supports the concept of discrete antigenic sites on soluble proteins. They also suggest a reason for contrary reports in the literature based on hybridoma technology.
3. Nivolumab (anti PD-1 monoclonal antibody) in post-transplant relapse: Hodgkins lymphoma is an ideal model for immune checkpoint modulation due to high immunocyte infiltration around the tumor cells. There is a Phase 1 study with up to 80% response rate in heavily pretreated patients (including patients previously treated with Brentuximab Vedotin). This is the most exciting result in lymphoma in this ASH 2014 (NEJM On-line first). ...
Rhodamine Conjugated Affinity Purified Anti-SHEEP IgG F(ab)2 (RABBIT), Rhodamine Conjugated Affinity Purified anti-Sheep IgG F(ab )2 [Rabbit]; N/A Rhodamine Conjugated Affinity Purified Anti-SHEEP IgG F(ab)2 (RABBIT)IGHG1
HIV-1 Env-reactive monoclonal antibodies isolated from colostrum are IgG1 isotypeThe isotype distribution of HIV-1 Env-reactive (left) and nonreactive (right) a
Authors: Claudia Loetsch, Joanna Warren, Adrienne Laskowski, Rodrigo Vazquez-Lombardi, Christoph Jandl, David B Langley, Daniel Christ, David R Thorburn, David K Ryugo, Jonathan Sprent, Marcel Batten, Cecile King

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS | JEMSTUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS | JEM

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS. Fred G. Gudat, T. N. Harris, Susanna Harris, Klaus Hummeler ... Cells producing plaques facilitated by antisera vs. IgG of the mouse or rabbit (7S) showed the same distribution between cell ... Cells producing rosettes which were resistant to lysis in the presence of complement, and were thus presumably producing 7S ... Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/132/3/448

Antibody-producing cells display historical record of childhood infections | Emory University | Atlanta, GAAntibody-producing cells display 'historical record' of childhood infections | Emory University | Atlanta, GA

Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone ... by the same authors examines antibody-producing cells in patients with lupus erythematosus; the auto-antibody producing cells ... In contrast, cells producing anti-influenza antibodies were found spread across three of the subsets. Because study ... Antibody-producing cells display historical record of childhood infections. By Quinn Eastman , Woodruff Health Sciences ...
more infohttp://news.emory.edu/stories/2015/07/plasma_cells_childhood_infections/campus.html

Immunostimulation of antibody-producing cells and humoral antibody to fish bacterins by a biological response modifierImmunostimulation of antibody-producing cells and humoral antibody to fish bacterins by a biological response modifier

... Journal ... Immunostimulation of antibody-producing cells and humoral antibody to fish bacterins by a biological response modifier. ...
more infohttps://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1014014

Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines...Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines...

Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines ... Screening of 311 cell lines using indirect immunofluorescence revealed 58 lines whose antibodies showed a highly selective ... From the spleen cells of these mice we established 755 permanent lymphoid cell lines using the hybridoma technique originally ... Radioimmunoassay showed 455 of these cell lines secreted antibodies which bound to component(s) contained in the antigen ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6777121?dopt=Abstract

antibody-producing cell - oiantibody-producing cell - oi

antibody-producing cell can also refer to... antibody-producing cell Immunization of mice with Lactobacillus casei expressing ... Gr1+IL-4-producing innate cells are induced in response to Th2 stimuli and suppress Th1-dependent antibody responses ... IL-18 together with anti-CD3 antibody induces human Th1 cells to produce Th1- and Th2-cytokines and IL-8 ... CD95-Mediated control of anti-citrullinated protein/peptides antibodies (ACPA)-producing plasma cells occurring in rheumatoid ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110810104352446

The potentiality of antibody-producing cells. I Bispecific cel...The potentiality of antibody-producing cells. I Bispecific cel...

I Bispecific cell occurrence in double stimulated cultures of syngeneic or allogeneic spleen cells of the mouse.: ... The potentiality of antibody-producing cells. I Bispecific cell occurrence in double stimulated cultures of syngeneic or ... cells recovered. In DBA/2 cell cultures bispecific PFC were found in half the cultures (2-5--8-3/10(6) cells) and in C57Bl cell ... Bispecific haemolytic plaque-forming cells (PFC) were detected in almost all cultures of individual Swiss mice cells with a ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/potentiality-antibody-producing-cells-i-bispecific-cell-occurrence-double-stimulated-cultures-syngeneic-allogeneic-sple-ccb22a85

Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development - Creative BiogeneAntibody-Producing Cell Lines Development - Creative Biogene

Creative Biogenes gene editing CHO-K1 cells can save your precious time and effort with great performance in antibody ... Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development. Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications ... Therapeutic antibodies are mainly produced in mammalian host cell lines including NS0 murine myeloma cells and Chinese hamster ... Antibody-Producing Cell Lines Development. Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/support/Antibody-Producing-Cell-Lines-Development.html

Antibody-Producing Cells - Atlas of Human Anatomy - CentralxAntibody-Producing Cells - Atlas of Human Anatomy - Centralx

Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they ... Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. ... Antibody-Producing Cells. Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called ... Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they ...
more infohttp://atlas.centralx.com/p/image/hemic-and-immune-systems/immune-system/antibody-producing-cells/

Lack of IgA envelope-reactive antibody producing cells in terminal ileum in early and chronic HIV-1 infection | Retrovirology |...Lack of IgA envelope-reactive antibody producing cells in terminal ileum in early and chronic HIV-1 infection | Retrovirology |...

Single plasma cells (PCs) and IgD- memory B cells were sorted from the ileum and/or blood of 7 EHI and 3 CHI. Antibodies were ... Lack of IgA envelope-reactive antibody producing cells in terminal ileum in early and chronic HIV-1 infection. ... and derives from a polyreactive memory B cell pool of gut flora-reactive IgG1 and IgA B cells. Whereas the IgG Env antibody ... Whereas CHI blood memory IgA+ B cells reactive with HIV-1 envelope ranged from 0.20-0.79%, only 0-0.07% of ileum IgA+ B cells ...
more infohttps://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4690-9-S2-P201

Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming.  -...Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming. -...

Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming.. ... Corrigendum: Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic ... a) Cell sorting of TT-specific B cells from bulk CD19+ BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced memory B cell culture using TT-PE staining. (b) ... cell surface B cell receptor (BCR)-positive, immunoglobulin-secreting B cells with features of germinal center B cells, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023635

B cells produce antibodies when danger calls, but not when it whispers | EurekAlert! Science NewsB cells produce antibodies 'when danger calls, but not when it whispers' | EurekAlert! Science News

But how do B cells know whether a threat is real and whether to start producing these weapons? An international team of life ... The immune systems B cells protect us from disease by producing smart bullets that target invaders such as pathogens and ... scientists shows in the May 16 issue of the journal Science how these cells respond only to true threats. ... B cells produce antibodies when danger calls, but not when it whispers The specialized immune cells only act when specific ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-05/uoc--bcp051514.php

Emory University immunologists identify long-lived antibody-producing cells in bone marrow - http://cyto.blogs.sapo.ptEmory University immunologists identify long-lived antibody-producing cells in bone marrow - http://cyto.blogs.sapo.pt

In contrast, cells producing anti-influenza antibodies were found spread across three of the subsets. Because study ... Emory University immunologists identify long-lived antibody-producing cells in bone marrow. Published on July 16, 2015 at 2:40 ... Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone ... Only one group ("subset D", CD19-, CD38high, CD138+) contained the cells that produce antibodies that react with measles or ...
more infohttp://cyto.blogs.sapo.pt/emory-university-immunologists-identify-132639

US Patent Application for METHODS FOR DEVELOPING ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELL LINES AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES...US Patent Application for METHODS FOR DEVELOPING ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELL LINES AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES...

... antibodies which include enriching an immunized cell population for GL7-positive cells and activating the enriched cells. The ... methods may be used to improve the efficiency of obtaining immortalized antigen-specific plasma cells or to improve the quality ... Disclosed are methods for producing class-switched, affinity-matured ... "plasma cell" may include immortalized antibody-producing cells and immortalized plasma cells. An antibody-producing cell or a ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/20130177987

Beyond Germinal Center B Cells: Developing Memory and Antibody Producing Plasma Cells - Maine BiotechnologyBeyond Germinal Center B Cells: Developing Memory and Antibody Producing Plasma Cells - Maine Biotechnology

These germinal center B cells go on to become memory B cells or antibody producing plasma cells. It should be noted that for ... The primary function of a B cell is to produce antibodies. As we have previously discussed, B cell development is linked to ... Plasma cells are antibody factories that are responsible for producing all of the antibodies in circulation. Most of the plasma ... While the short-term plasma cells remain locally to produce antibodies, memory cells are predominantly located in the spleen ...
more infohttps://mainebiotechnology.com/beyond-germinal-center-b-cells-developing-memory-antibody-producing-plasma-cells/

B Cell Differentiation: From Stem Cell to an Antibody Producing Plasma Cell - Maine BiotechnologyB Cell Differentiation: From Stem Cell to an Antibody Producing Plasma Cell - Maine Biotechnology

B Cell Differentiation: From Stem Cell to an Antibody Producing Plasma Cell. ... Plasma cells that are located in the spleen (or lymph node) are short-term plasma cells which only produce antibody for a ... This will generate B cells that can produce antibodies with increased specificity to the antigen and also memory B cells, which ... As we collect the spleen for isolating antibody producing cells for fusion, the B cells of interest (mostly the activated ...
more infohttp://mainebiotechnology.com/b-cell-differentiation/

A vaccine is a virus in latent form, forcing your B-cells to produce antibodies ... | Hacker NewsA vaccine is a virus in latent form, forcing your B-cells to produce antibodies ... | Hacker News

A vaccine is a virus in latent form, forcing your B-cells to produce antibodies for it. So yeah, personally I never take a ... A vaccine does not do anything at all to our capacity to generate antibodies. All it does is take the exact same virus you ... It gives you a head start in making antibodies, but does not affect the generation of them in any way.. , And remember here ... Like, isnt it possible that with the prevalence of vaccines, our own capacity for generating antibodies gets affected?. And ...
more infohttps://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=4125799

Pharmaceuticals  | Free Full-Text | Characterization of N-Linked Glycosylation in a Monoclonal Antibody Produced in NS0 Cells...Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Characterization of N-Linked Glycosylation in a Monoclonal Antibody Produced in NS0 Cells...

... to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. The technique provides short analysis times, efficient ... Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular ... The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. ... All monoclonal antibodies were produced in mice myeloma NS0 cells and were purified to ≥99% by the Bioprocess Research and ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/6/3/393/htm

Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor. |...Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor. |...

... and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were ... Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.. [ ... Sodium acetate, powder, BioReagent, for electrophoresis, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99% C2H3 ... Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25117428

Which Cells Produce AntibodiesWhich Cells Produce Antibodies

Antibodies are specialized proteins that are produced by the body to bind to foreign substances that infect the body. They ... B-cells can be used as memory cells or can be activated to produce more plasma cells to create additional antibodies. The ... soluble antibodies and membrane-bound antibodies. The membrane-bound antibodies are attached to special cells called B-cells. ... How are these important proteins produced? Read on to find out.. The Production of Antibodies. Antibodies are produced by the ...
more infohttps://wanttoknowit.com/which-cells-produce-antibodies/

Hybridoma Cell Line 500 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp80 | Office of Technology Transfer,...Hybridoma Cell Line 500 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp80 | Office of Technology Transfer,...

Hybridoma Cell Line 500 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp80 ... Hybridoma Cell Line 715 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp70 ... Hybridoma Cell Line 273 Producing Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Murine Leukemia Virus gp70 ... Hybridoma cell line 500 expresses monoclonal antibody specific for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) gp80. Details may be ...
more infohttps://www.ott.nih.gov/technology/b-059-1994-0

Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients...Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients...

Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ... Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are spontaneously produced by mucosal B cells of ulcerative colitis patients ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/155/6/3262?ijkey=0f7fa179dd3ad2aacfa601ca0a7c24a9fa8c0f2f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines | PNASMonoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines | PNAS

Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines. R S Accolla, S Carrel, and J ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/77/1/563?ijkey=ae507f1527f9d88d588c19afb724e67a8a2813b3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Study of a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody by ATF or TFF external filter perfusion in a WAVE...Study of a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody by ATF or TFF external filter perfusion in a WAVE...

Study of a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody by ATF or TFF external filter perfusion in a WAVE ... was performed using a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a model system. ... perfusion, ATF, TFF, hollow fiber, cell separation, Chinese Hamster Ovary, wave bioreactor, high cell density National Category ... Major advantages of perfusion are high cell numbers and high total production in a relatively small size bioreactor. Moreover, ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:500688

Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylars by B Rihova, H Tlaskalova et al."Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylars" by B Rihova, H Tlaskalova et al.

Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylarsonic group by haemolytic plaque assay. ... Rihova, B; Tlaskalova, H; and Riha, I, "Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylarsonic group by ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1980/259/
  • Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications, including recombinant protein. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Currently, stable cell lines have been widely used in various research applications, including recombinant protein and antibody production, screening of experimental drugs, functional study of gene, assay development and so on. (creative-biogene.com)
  • We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The B cells that cannot compete will die, resulting in the selection of multiple B cell clones with increased specificity and affinity toward the antigen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • It should be noted that for each immunogen many germinal centers will be generated in the spleen or lymph nodes (or other secondary lymphoid tissue) which will increase the diversity of antigen specific B cell clones. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Our assertion that ANCA is a marker for a mucosal disease-related immune response predicts the existence of ANCA producing B cell clones in the lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) fraction of UC patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings indicate the existence of pANCA-producing B cell clones in mucosal lesions of UC patients and support our hypothesis that pANCA production is a consequence of a mucosal immune response specific to UC. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The establishment of B cell lines and clones would give a useful tool to review further the part and biological features of autoimmune myelin-specific B cells and would also facilitate research on BCT-cell relationships in the pathogenesis of PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • In a parallel system of clonal B cell expansion, in which autoantibodies may occur, we have immortalized the malignant clones of several B-type chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients and compared these to their normal counterparts . (bio-zentrum.com)
  • If you're developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcare's Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program. (emory.edu)
  • That is what the B cell does when deciding whether it confronts something that is truly pathogenic or harmless. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other mechanisms Thus, aside from the IgM monoclonal antibodies, could be mixed up in pathogenic process. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Granulocytes are the most numerous of the white blood cells that rid the body of large pathogenic organisms such as protozoans or helminthes and are also key mediators of allergy and other forms of inflammation (Britannica 4). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which causes the microscopic strokes in the brain, retina, and inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to develop a stable antibody-producing cell line to meet the high dosage requirement of therapeutic antibodies for the growing cancer patient population. (creative-biogene.com)
  • CD27 + memory peripheral blood cells acquire a stable GC-like phenotype following transduction with BCL6 and Bcl-xL and subsequent culture. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the generation of all of these lineages the HSC, CMP, and CLP all undergo self-renewal to provide a stable stem cell population for continual renewal of all of the leukocyte (and erythrocyte) cell populations throughout the life of the host. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Emory immunologists have found that these cells represent an archive of the immune system's responses to childhood infections. (emory.edu)
  • As described in part of the Immunity paper, the researchers studied 11 older individuals (aged 43 to 70) who had not been immunized against measles or mumps, but who had antibodies in their blood indicating infection by those viruses in childhood. (emory.edu)
  • Memory is the hallmark of the acquired immunity, which allows for rapid expansion of T- and B-cell responses upon re-exposure to an immunogen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Like, isn't it possible that with the prevalence of vaccines, our own capacity for generating antibodies gets affected? (ycombinator.com)
  • Furthermore, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, drugs used to eliminate dysfunctional immune cells, have been shown to be successful second-line treatments in patients where first-line immunotherapy has failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have billions of B cells, and each one creates this threshold through a molecular circuit involving two molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Total nuclear protein from the embryonic D. melanogaster cell line Kc and crude hydroxyapatite fractions thereof were used for immunization of mice. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Phenotype of BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced CD27 + memory B cells (6XL, black histogram line) compared to tonsil GC cells (GC, CD38 + CD20 + , shaded grey), tonsil naïve and memory cells (N/M, CD38 − CD20 low , red histogram), and tonsil plasma cells (PC, CD38 ++ CD20 low , blue histogram). (nih.gov)
  • A comparison between Alternating Tangential Flow (ATF) and Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) was performed using a recombinant CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a model system. (diva-portal.org)
  • The CHO DG44 cell line, in which both alleles are dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) negative, was created in 1980ies by ionizing radiation [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this post I will provide an overview of B cell development with the goal of providing an understanding of how antibodies are generated in vivo . (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Because of the broad neutralization and in vivo protection across influenza A and influenza B virus strains, monoclonal antibody CR9114 is widely used in influenza virus research as a positive control in many experiments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the lymph nodes, rosette-forming cells were all in the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories. (rupress.org)
  • Memory cells need to be recruited to lymph nodes if the infectious agent induces local inflammation. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • This system is made up of lymph nodes that work like filters to remove any germs that could make you sick, in this case it's a clear fluid called lymph that contains leukocytes (white blood cells) inside of it (article 2 pg.1). (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • Overexpression of BCL6 and Bcl-xL confer a high proliferative capacity and fixed differentiation phenotype to peripheral blood CD27 + IgG + memory B cells ( a ) Flow cytometry identification of BCL6-transduced (ΔNGFR + ), Bcl-xL-transduced (GFP + ) and BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced (GFP + ΔNGFR + ) CD19 + B cells in culture with CD40L-L cells and IL-21 four days post transduction. (nih.gov)
  • d ) CD19 + cells from non-sorted double transduced cultures were analyzed for CD38, HLA-DR, and surface Ig kappa (IgL-κ) or lambda (IgL-λ) light chain expression. (nih.gov)
  • B cell receptor signaling has been implicated and the strength of the signal may be the determining factor 3 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, also known as NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, is an acute form of brain inflammation that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that there are more NMDA-receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid than would be predicted given the expected quantities of total IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methotrexate (MTX) is an inhibitor of DHFR, often used to provide an amplification pressure to force cells into increasing the copy numbers of dhfr and GOI. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The B cells make their response only when a rather high threshold is reached, Hoffmann and his colleagues report. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is seen in newborns who have a high white blood cell count that gradually to the adult level during childhood. (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • demonstrated that 53 out of 58 patients with the condition had at least partially preserved BBBs, whilst having a high concentration of antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)