Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

Plaque-forming cells in mice after experimental infection with Brucella abortus. (1/1095)

Cells producing antibody to brucella lipopolysaccharide were detected in spleens of mice infected with Brucella abortus 19 by a hemolytic plaque assay. The appearance of immunoglobulin M-producing cells preceded humoral antibodies. The primary plaques were observed 5 days after inoculation, and they were still present by day 70.  (+info)

Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. (2/1095)

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response.  (+info)

Characterization of anergic anti-DNA B cells: B cell anergy is a T cell-independent and potentially reversible process. (3/1095)

Anti-single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) B cells are regulated in non-autoimmune mice. In this report we show that while both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are blocked in their ability to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells, other phenotypic and functional characteristics distinguish them from one another. Splenic anti-ssDNA B cells are found distributed throughout the B cell follicle, and are phenotypically mature and long-lived. On the other hand, splenic anti-dsDNA B cells are short-lived, exhibit an immature and antigen-experienced phenotype, and localize to the T-B interface of the splenic follicle. Functionally, anti-ssDNA B cells proliferate, albeit suboptimally, in response to anti-IgM, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CD40L/IL-4 + anti-IgM stimulation, and tyrosine phosphorylate intracellular proteins upon mIgM cross-linking. Anti-dsDNA B cells, on the other hand, are functionally unresponsive to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation, and do not phosphorylate intracellular proteins, including Syk, upon mIg stimulation. Importantly, anti-DNA B cell anergy is maintained in the absence of T cells since both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are as efficiently regulated in RAG2(-/-) mice as in their RAG2(+/+) counterparts. Interestingly, the severely anergic state of anti-dsDNA B cells is partially reversible upon stimulation with CD40 ligand and IL-4. In response to these signals, anti-dsDNA B cells remain viable, up-regulate cell surface expression of B7-2 and IgM, and restore their ability to proliferate and phosphorylate Syk upon mIg cross-linking. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-DNA B cell anergy encompasses distinct phenotypes which, even in its most severe form, may be reversible upon stimulation with T cell-derived factors.  (+info)

Development of immunoglobulin and antibody-synthesizing cells after immunization with different doses of antigen. (4/1095)

The kinetics of development of antibody-synthesizing cells and of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function were studied in rats immunized with different doses (0-1, 1, 10, 100 mg) of horse radish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, hen ovalbumin, or human IgG, which had been deaggregated or heat-aggregated. Each antigen was injected once or twice as a solution in saline. Antibody and immunoglobulin-producing cells were detected in draining lymph nodes by immunohistochemical staining. In the primary response a few antibody-synthesizing cells were found whatever the dose injected. No increase or some increase was found with the amount of antigen injected, according to the protein used, but with all doses of antigen injected, the population of cells remained small, except with human IgG where a relatively high number of positive cells was detected even after injection of 1 mg of antigen. In the secondary response a few antibody-forming cells were also detected with the lower doses of antigen, but this population increased after boosting with 100 mg of antigen. With human IgG a greater number of positive cells was induced withall the doses tested. A correlation between the number of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function and the amount of antigen injected was observed in the primary and secondary responses. The relative size of these two populations varied with the stage of immunity of the animals. In the primary response, the population of cells synthesizing immunoglobulins without antibody function was larger than the population of antibody-forming cells. The same was true in the secondary response, but if after a booster injection the level of antibody-synthesizing cells exceeded that reached in the primary response, the increase of cells synthesizing Ig without antibody function was smaller than the increase in antibody-forming cells. In general the more immunogenic an antigen was, the smaller was the ratio between antibody-forming cells and cells producing immunoglobulin without antibody function.  (+info)

Differential involvement of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in T cell-independent and -dependent B cell differentiation to plasma cells. (5/1095)

Along humoral immune responses, different stimuli drive the differentiation of B lymphocytes to Ig-secreting plasma cells in discrete microenvironments. The Blimp-1 transcription factor is up-regulated early during the transition of mature B cells to IgM-secreting plasma cells. In the present study, we have examined the requirement of Blimp-1 in plasma cell formation after both T cell-independent (LPS) and -dependent (CD40 + IL-4, Th cell lines) stimulation of spleen B cells. B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp-1) was expressed early after in vitro LPS stimulation, mainly in a population of IgM+Syndecan+CD43+ preplasma cells. In contrast, the BSAP transcription factor expressed in mature B cells was down-regulated during the differentiation to plasma cells. Treatment of these cultures with Blimp-1-specific antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides suppressed both Blimp-1 protein levels and the emergence of IgM+Syndecan+ cells and plasma cells. However, T-B cell cocultures of spleen B cells from C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice and syngeneic autoreactive SR.10 Th2 cells submitted to the anti-Blimp-1 therapy did not show any significant reduction in IgM- and IgG1-secreting plasma cell formation. Spleen B cells treated with anti-CD40 mAb + IL-4 differentiated to IgG1-secreting cells without significant transcription of the Blimp-1 gene; anti-Blimp-1 treatment subsequently did not have any effect in the later cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that Blimp-1 transcription factor specifically promotes T cell-independent B cell differentiation to plasma cells, probably at preplasma cell stages. In contrast, T cell-dependent plasma cell formation likely evolves through Blimp-1-independent pathways.  (+info)

Relaxed negative selection in germinal centers and impaired affinity maturation in bcl-xL transgenic mice. (6/1095)

The role of apoptosis in affinity maturation was investigated by determining the affinity of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) and serum antibody in transgenic mice that overexpress a suppressor of apoptosis, Bcl-xL, in the B cell compartment. Although transgenic animals briefly expressed higher numbers of splenic AFCs after immunization, the bcl-xL transgene did not increase the number or size of germinal centers (GCs), alter the levels of serum antibody, or change the frequency of NP-specific, long-lived AFCs. Nonetheless, the bcl-xL transgene product, in addition to endogenous Bcl-xL, reduced apoptosis in GC B cells and resulted in the expansion of B lymphocytes bearing VDJ rearrangements that are usually rare in primary anti-NP responses. Long-lived AFCs bearing these noncanonical rearrangements were frequent in the bone marrow and secreted immunoglobulin G(1) antibodies with low affinity for NP. The abundance of noncanonical cells lowered the average affinity of long-lived AFCs and serum antibody, demonstrating that Bcl-xL and apoptosis influence clonal selection/maintenance for affinity maturation.  (+info)

Partial IgA-deficiency with increased Th2-type cytokines in TGF-beta 1 knockout mice. (7/1095)

Though it has been shown that TGF-beta 1 directs B cells to switch to IgA in vitro, no studies have assessed TGF-beta 1 effects on mucosal vs systemic immunity in vivo. When the B cell functions of TGF-beta 1 gene-disrupted (TGF-beta 1-/-) mice were analyzed, significantly decreased IgA levels and increased IgG and IgM levels in serum and external secretions were observed. Further, analysis of Ab forming cells (AFC) isolated from both mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissue showed elevated IgM, IgG, and IgE, with decreased IgA AFC. A lack of IgA-committed B cells was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Splenic T cells triggered via the TCR expressed elevated Th2-type cytokines and, consistent with this observation, a 31-fold increase in serum IgE was seen in TGF-beta 1-/- mice. Thus, uncontrolled B cell responses, which include elevated IgE levels, a lack of antiinflammatory IgA, and an excess of complement-binding IgG and IgM Abs, will promote inflammation at mucosal surfaces in TGF-beta 1-/- mice and likely contribute to pulmonary and GI tract lesions, ultimately leading to the early death of these mice.  (+info)

Variegated expression of the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene in the absence of the intronic locus control region. (8/1095)

The expression of chromosomally integrated transgenes usually varies greatly among independent transfectants. This variability in transgene expression has led to the definition of locus control regions (LCRs) as elements which render expression consistent. Analyses of expression in single cells revealed that the expression of transgenes which lack an LCR is often variegated, i.e., on in some cells and off in others. In many cases, transgenes which show variegated expression were found to have inserted near the centromere. These observations have suggested that the LCR prevents variegation by blocking the inhibitory effect of heterochromatin and other repetitive-DNA-containing structures at the insertion site and have raised the question of whether the LCR plays a similar role in endogenous genes. To address this question, we have examined the effects of deleting the LCR from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus of a mouse hybridoma cell line in which expression of the immunoglobulin mu heavy-chain gene is normally highly stable. Our analysis of mu expression in single cells shows that deletion of this LCR resulted in variegated expression of the mu gene. That is, in the absence of the LCR, expression of the mu gene in the recombinant locus could be found in either of two epigenetically maintained, metastable states, in which transcription occurred either at the normal rate or not at all. In the absence of the LCR, the on state had a half-life of approximately 100 cell divisions, while the half-life of the off state was approximately 40,000 cell divisions. For recombinants with an intact LCR, the half-life of the on state exceeded 50,000 cell divisions. Our results thus indicate that the LCR increased the stability of the on state by at least 500-fold.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A potent virus-specific antibody-secreting cell response to acute enterovirus 71 infection in children. AU - Huang, Kuan Ying Arthur. AU - Lin, Jainn Jim. AU - Chiu, Cheng Hsun. AU - Yang, Shuan. AU - Tsao, Kuo Chien. AU - Huang, Yhu Chering. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. Methods: We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. Results: A potent EV71 genogroup B-and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral ...
Rationale: Furthermore to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or noninfectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. response 88) signaling. deficiency correlated with an enhanced accumulation of regulatory/antiinflammatory macrophages in Mtb-infected lungs. Conclusions: Mouse monoclonal to PTK7 Type I IFN produced by Mtb-stimulated B cells favors macrophage polarization toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory phenotype during Mtb contamination. in an innate manner to create type I IFN to eventually modulate the polarization of macrophages toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory profile and in contaminated lungs. This pathway was seen in a murine style of TB and in B cells isolated from sufferers with TB. Our observations reveal B cells as book regulators of immunity to TB through type I IFNCmediated polarization of myeloid cells. Infections with (Mtb) qualified prospects to the forming of lung lesions, the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mac-1-negative B-1b phenotype of natural antibody-producing cells, including those responding to Galα1,3Gal epitopes α1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-secreting cells with a phenotype of Ki-67low, CD138high, CD31high, and CD38high secrete nonspecific IgM during primary hepatitis a virus infection. AU - Hong, Seokchan. AU - Lee, Hyun Woong. AU - Chang, Dong Yeop. AU - You, Sooseong. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Park, Jun Yong. AU - Ahn, Sang Hoon. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Yoo, Ook Joon. AU - Shin, Eui Cheol. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis Avirus (HAV).We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38 high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during ...
We have recently reported on the accumulation of plasma cells (PCs) in the human thymus, starting several months after birth. This thymic PC niche includes clones specific to common viruses presumably generated through peripheral responses. Humans acquire humoral immunity to dietary antigens during the first 3 years of life. Here we investigated whether such immunity also resulted in the homing of specific PC to the thymus. Using ELISPOT assays, we tested for the presence of antibody-producing cells specific to known immunogenic food antigens among B cells isolated from discarded thymus specimens from 1 day to 3 years patients. Results revealed the presence of PC specific to cows milk, egg and wheat derived antigens in 2 out of 10 patients. Furthermore, the presence of thymic food antigen-specific PC was associated with high serum IgG titers to same antigens, indicative of an ongoing immune response. Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of antibody-secreting cells specific to ...
The invention provides methods for producing antibodies by transplanting a cell that produces an antibody of interest into a mammal and isolating the desired antibodies from the mammal. The invention also features methods of transplanting antibody-producing cells into a mammal.
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Finding factors important for differentiation of antibody-secreting cells will help us engineer a B cell therapy for protein replacement or treat antibody-mediated disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man. AU - Jelinek, Diane F. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The relationship of B cell proliferation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was explored in vitro by examining the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of cellular DNA synthesis, on the generation of ISC from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). HU completely inhibited the capacity of PBM to generate ISC in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and other polyclonal B cell activators. Inhibition resulted from an effect on B cell proliferation, because HU also prevented the generation of ISC in cultures of purified B cells supplemented with either T cell supernatants or mitomycin C-treated T cells. Inhibiting B cell proliferation by treating them with mitomycin C before culture also abolished the generation of ISC. When ISC were enumerated after a 7-day incubation with PWM, the addition ...
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive.
The kinetics of the generation of primed IgM and IgG antibody-forming cell precursors, and of helper T-cell populations, were analyzed in mice whose primary responses to high and low doses of SRBC were arrested at intervals by the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide monohydrate and specific antibody. The extent to which immunological memory was established in these animals before blockade of the primary response was assessed by the hemolytic plaque assay following challenge 12 wk after priming. The presence of IgG B-memory cells and T-memory cells in suppressed mice was further investigated by the transfer into these animals of syngeneic SRBC-stimulated thymocytes or anti-θ-treated spleen cells.. It was found that the progenitors of secondary IgM-synthesizing cells were primed almost immediately after injection of antigen, and that early blockade of the primary response resulted in a raised IgM response after challenge. On the other hand, priming for a secondary IgG response took at least ...
The immune system can produce many types of antibodies, directed against infectious viruses (good) or against human proteins as in lupus (harmful). Each antibody-secreting cell carries DNA rearrangements that reflect the makeup of its antibody product. With next-generation sequencing technology, scientists can use the DNA to identify and track that cell, like reading a bar code on an item in a supermarket.. Tipton, Sanz, and their colleagues have been using these DNA bar codes to deepen our understanding of immune responses in lupus. They obtained blood samples from eight patients experiencing lupus flares and compared them to eight healthy people who had recently been vaccinated against influenza or tetanus.. When the immune system is responding to something its seen before, such as when someone receives a booster vaccine, the bar codes of the antibody-producing cells look quite similar to each other. A set of just a few antibody-producing cells multiply and expand. By contrast, the ...
Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. More than 300 such cells were examined. In the lymph nodes, rosette-forming cells were all in the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories. In cells of the mouse spleen, macrophages were also found among the RFC, especially in the later days after immunization.. The great majority of the RFC, 70-100%, were of the lymphocytic category. These included small, medium, and large lymphocytes with fine gradations of differentiation, and blast forms with little heterochromatin. The endoplasmic reticulum of these cells occurred in short, very narrow pieces, usually in contact with a mitochondrion. The cells of the plasmacytic category also showed fine gradations from plasmablasts to typical mature plasma cells.. Plaque-forming cells of mouse and rabbit were also collected by micropipet. Of 162 such cells, ...
This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface expression and synthesis of I-A and I-E/C encoded molecules by B lymphocytes and Ig-secreting cells. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Cook, R. G.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - Splenocytes from recombinant mice were radiolabeled before or after deletion of subpopulations by cytotoxic anterisera (+C) directed against I-A, I-E/C, IgM, or Ig. Examination of the lysates of the surviving cells by immunoprecipitation demonstrated that 1) virtually all I-A and I-E/C molecules are co-expressed and synthesized by Ig+, IgM+ lymphocytes, 2) I-A, I-E/C, and IgM molecules are present on many of the cells secreting IgM and IgG, and 3) populations of bearing or Ig secreting cells that lack detectable I-A and I-E/C antigens can be identified in spleen cell populations. The co expression of I-A and I-E/C on most cells of the B cell lineage is discussed in terms of our present concepts of Ir gene control of immune responses.. AB - Splenocytes from recombinant mice were radiolabeled before or ...
Quintans, J and Lefkovits, I, Clones of antibody-forming cells in pokeweed mitogen stimulated microcultures. II. Estimation of the frequency of precursor cells and the average clone size. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 816 ...
The vibriolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay was used to study the kinetics of the primary and secondary immune responses of mice and rabbits immunized with heat-killed cholera vibrios. Immunocytes releasing IgG antibody could be detected as readily as those immunocytes secreting IgM antibody in spleens of BALB/c mice and New Zealand White rabbits after a single injection of vaccine. Peak numbers of indirect (IgG) PFC were detected 3 to 4 days after the peak direct (IgM) PFC response (12 to 14 days). In contrast, only direct vibriolytic PFC were detected in spleens of NIH Albino mice during the primary response to cholera antigens. After a second injection of vaccine, IgM, IgG, and IgA PFC were detected in both mouse strains with peak responses for each immunocyte class occurring within the first week after booster injection. Heat-killed vibrios or a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract, but not cholera exotoxin or E. coli LPS, inhibited the vibriolytic response. Furthermore, viable cholera ...
Ab-secreting cell (ASC) expansion and survival are important processes in optimizing vaccines and controlling autoimmunity. The microenvironment of the medullary cords is positioned to control these key processes. Previously, we imaged and characterized ASC differentiation and migration by
June 11, 2015. When exposed to a foreign agent, such as an immunogenic protein, B cells in lymphoid organs (such as the spleen) undergo germinal center (immune defense) reactions. The image on the left is an normal immunized mouse spleen with activated B cells (brown) that produce antibodies. At right, top: a scanning electron micrograph of synthetic porous synthetic immune organoids that enable rapid proliferation and activation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. At right, bottom: primary B cell viability and distribution is visible 24 hours following encapsulation of B cells from the mouse lymphoid organ into the synthetic organoids. (credit: Singh Lab). Cornell University engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organoid (a lab-grown ball of cells with some of the features of a normal organ) that produces antibodies. The engineered organ has implications for everything from rapid production of immune therapies to new frontiers in cancer or infectious disease ...
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Neoplasm:, Organs:, Serology: Antigen,, Types of Tumors:, Transplantable Tumors: P815, EL 4, LSTRA, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), BALB/C, C57BL/6, NZB. ...
Plasma cell definition, Anatomy. an antibody-secreting cell, derived from B cells, that plays a major role in antibody-mediated immunity. See more.
Immunologists from Emory University have identified a distinct set of long-lived antibody-producing cells in the human bone marrow that function as an immune archive.. The cells keep a catalog of how an adults immune system responded to infections decades ago in childhood encounters with measles or mumps viruses. The results, published Tuesday, July 14 in , could provide vaccine designers with a goalpost when aiming for long-lasting antibody production.. If youre developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen, says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcares Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program.. The findings could advance investigation of autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, by better defining the cells that produce auto-reactive antibodies.. Co-senior author of the Immunity paper is Iñaki Sanz, ...
Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of HAV infection. Moreover, substantial numbers of ASCs were non-HAV-specific and dominantly secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific ASCs by staining with fluorochrome-tagged HAV-VP1 protein. As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67lowCD138highCD31highCD38high, demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype ...
We evaluated virus-specific B and T cell responses induced by the attenuated Wa (P1A[8]G1) human rotavirus (AttHRV) oral 2-dose vaccine with or without Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) colonization in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. The AttHRV vaccinated and LA-fed pigs had a significantly higher magnitude of HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8+ T cell responses in ileum and spleen, IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cell responses in ileum, and serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibody and virus neutralizing antibody titers compared to the AttHRV vaccinated pigs without LA colonization ...
Scientist working with start-up flask of mammalian cell culture used for the commercial production of recombinant proteins or monoclonal antibodies. The initial stage of producing a culture of monoclonal antibodies involves the fusion of a normal antibody-producing cell (a lymphocyte) with a rapidly multiplying tumour cell. The resulting hybridoma cells are multiplied in fermenters to produce large numbers of genetically identical copies, each secreting the antibody produced by the original lymphocyte. In this way large amounts of specific antibodies can be produced for use in medicine as vaccines or in diagnostic tests. BRO 3.8 - Stock Image G252/0076
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipokine mainly secreted by white fatty tissue, playing a major role in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. For cattle, AdipoQ data are largely limited to mRNA expression; to our knowledge, valid information about the AdipoQ protein in bovine tissues and body fluids is not available. Therefore, we have developed a monoclonal antibody against bovine AdipoQ. This study describes the preparation, application, and characterization of a monoclonal antibody for use in ELISA, Western blot, and histology. The antibody was developed by PEG fusion of the SP2/0 cell line with splenic B cells from AdipoQ immunized C57Bl/6 mice. Antibody-producing cells were identified by ELISA and specified by immunoblotting and immunostaining of bovine retroperitoneal adipose tissue. The novel antibody detects AdipoQ in histological samples, ELISA, and Western blots ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xiao-Liang Wang, Guang-Hou Zhao, Jin Zhang, Qi-Yun Shi, Wei-Xiao Guo, Xiu-Li Tian, Jia-Zhang Qiu, Li-Zi Yin, Xu-Ming Deng, Yu Song].
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South Korea is in the spotlight right now for the Winter Olympics, and we love tuning in. But this country is also known for their clever beauty products.. Megan Moore shares some of the biggest trends in K-Beauty that are making their way to the U.S.. Find more of Megans recommendations on her website, ...
Summary Chickens were immunized with eight different serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (PMV). Ninety percent of splenic IgG antibody-forming cells (AFC) were serotype-specific with respect to the glycoprotein and nucleoprotein-polymerase antigens in an indirect immunoperoxidase binding system. The IgG AFCs which cross-reacted between serotypes divided the serotypes into two mutually exclusive super serogroups composed of PMV-1, -3, -4, -7 and -9, and PMV-2, -6 and -8. PMV-5 was not tested.
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was originally developed to enumerate antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and has subsequently been adapted for various applications, including the detection cytokine-secreting cells. Owing to its exceptionally high sensitivity, the ELISPOT has proven to be especially useful for detecting discrete populations of active cells (e.g., antigen-specific cells). Because of its versatility, the ELISPOT assay is used for a wide range of applications, including clonal analyses of immune responses after vaccination or after immunotherapy. Here we describe standard protocols for the detection of human ASCs specific to virtually any vaccine antigen after enrichment of circulating plasmablasts. In addition, a protocol is described for the measurement of mucosal ASC responses after prior immunomagnetic enrichment of mucosally derived blood lymphocytes. The protocols described allow rapid (∼6-8 h) detection of specific ASCs in small (1-2 ml) samples of blood
By Emily Burke, PhD, Director of Curriculum Development, Editors Note: This article originally appeared in Biotech Primer Weekly. For more of the science behind the headlines, please subscribe.. Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. These cells are the antibody-producing cells of our immune system and play a critical role in our defense against infections. If they begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner, however, they form a plasmacytoma - a mass of cells within the bone marrow that no longer function in our defense but instead simply take up space and interfere with the functions of healthy cells. Instead of producing normal disease-fighting antibodies, plasmacytoma cells produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins, which dont provide any benefit to the body and crowd out normally functioning antibodies.. Easily Confused: Plasma Cells vs Blood Plasma. Plasma cells are specialized white blood cells that produce ...
Antibodies defend us against infections, so they often get described as weapons. And the cells that produce them could be weapon factories?. To understand recent research from immunologist Jerry Bosss lab, a more appropriate metaphor is the distinction between sprinting and long-distance running.. Graduate student Madeline Price in Bosss lab has been investigating how antibody-producing cells use glucose - the simple sugar- and how the cells patterns of gene activity reflect that usage. Cells can use glycolysis, which is inefficient but fast, analogous to sprinting, or oxidative phosphorylation, generating much more energy overall, more like long distance running.. As Boss and Price point out:. ...
Antibodies defend us against infections, so they often get described as weapons. And the cells that produce them could be weapon factories?. To understand recent research from immunologist Jerry Bosss lab, a more appropriate metaphor is the distinction between sprinting and long-distance running.. Graduate student Madeline Price in Bosss lab has been investigating how antibody-producing cells use glucose - the simple sugar- and how the cells patterns of gene activity reflect that usage. Cells can use glycolysis, which is inefficient but fast, analogous to sprinting, or oxidative phosphorylation, generating much more energy overall, more like long distance running.. As Boss and Price point out:. ...
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A reverse haemolytic plaque assay (RHPA) for angiotensinogen was developed in rat hepatoma H4 cells and applied to investigate the possible secretion of angiotensinogen from rat pituitary cells in primary culture. Over a 24-hour incubation period in Cunningham chambers plaques with a mean area of 2,800 +/- 430 and 590 +/- 220 microns2/plaque (SD, n = 6) formed around all viable H4 cells and 2.8 +/- 0.59% of viable pituitary cells respectively. As a positive control PRL secretion from lactotrophs was routinely checked by the RHPA and shown to form plaques with a mean area of 4,050 +/- 1,850 microns2/plaque after a 4-hour incubation. By comparing plaque size in H4 cells with angiotensinogen release in cell culture, as quantified by radioimmunoassay, the secretion rate of angiotensinogen from pituitary cells was calculated as 22 +/- 8 ng/10(6) cells/24 h. Plaque-forming cells consisted of two morphologically distinct populations; 78% being small cells (less than 6 microns diameter) containing little
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TUESDAY, May 25, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Mild cases of COVID-19 leave people with long-term antibody protection against reinfection, according to a new study that challenges previous findings.. Last fall, there were reports that antibodies wane quickly after infection with the virus that causes COVID-19, and mainstream media interpreted that to mean that immunity was not long-lived, said study senior author Ali Ellebedy, an associate professor of pathology and immunology, medicine and molecular microbiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.. But thats a misinterpretation of the data. Its normal for antibody levels to go down after acute infection, but they dont go down to zero; they plateau, Ellebedy said in a university news release. Here, we found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for the rest of peoples lives. Thats strong evidence for long-lasting immunity.. The study included 77 ...
Human peripheral blood isolation. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited to receive the 2014-2015 quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) Fluarix (GSK) at the University of Chicago with approval by the institutional review board (protocol 09-043A). Peripheral blood (40-80 ml) was drawn 7 days after immunization. B cells were enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the RosetteSep Human B cell Enrichment Kit (Stem Cell Technologies, catalog 15024), and treated and isolated with a Lymphoprep gradient (Corning, catalog 25-072). The 6 subjects with the highest vaccine-positive antibody-secreting cell frequency determined by ELISPSOT were selected for inclusion in our study.. ELISPOT. B cell-enriched PBMCs (0.25 × 106 to 1.0 × 106 cells) were transferred onto ELISPOT plates (Millipore, catalog MSHAN4B50). Plates were coated with goat anti-human immunoglobulin (whole IgG, IgM, and IgA, KPL, catalog 01-10-07) at 5 μg/ml or with the total administered QIV at 10 μl/ml both in PBS ...
The immune status of children with malignant disease in remission was assessed usingvarious immune function tests. Children with infections had significantlymore neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and impaired cell-mediated immune responses than those without. These two groups combined had much more absolute lymphopenia and impairment of both cell-mediated immunity and antibody-producing capacity thancontrol children with non-malignant conditions. Regular immunological evaluation isrecommended for children with malignant disease when new intensive treatment schedules are under trial and for individual patients particularly prone to develop infections during treatment. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Number of specific antibody-secreting cells in the peripheral blood among children with mycoplasma pneumonia. AU - Iseki, Mikiro. AU - Takahashi, Takao. AU - Kimura, Kyoko. AU - Yamashita, Ryoko. AU - Sasaki, Tsuguo. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the peripheral blond were enumerated with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay in 12 children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Those cells were detected in the acute phases and declined in number in the convalescent stage. The maximum numbers of M. pneumoniae-specific ASCs ranged from 0 to 478 for immunoglobulin G (IgG), 13 to 1,992 for IgM, and 0 to 53 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the total numbers (i.e., including both specific and nonspecific) of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (IgSCs) were as high as 4,000 for both IgG and IgM and 1,000 for IgA per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Such a great increase in the numbers of total IgSCs in ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Influence of route and dose of antigen on the migration inhibition and plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes in the lizard, Calotes versicolor. by Swaminathan Jayaraman et al.
We acknowledge the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation, the traditional owners and custodians of the land on which the Garvan Institute of Medical Research is located. We pay respects to Elders, past, present and future, and recognise the continuing connection and contribution to this land. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small and large B cells respond differently to T-cell-derived B cell growth and differentiation factors. AU - Layton, J. E.. AU - Krammer, P. H.. AU - Hamaoka, T.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - A major in B cell biology is the determination of the roles played by helper T (T(H)) cells vs cytokines in the activation, replication, and differentiation of B lymphocytes. There is general agreement that activated B cells in cycle can replicate and terminally differentiate when provided with appropriate T cell-derived lymphokines. There is considerable controversy, however, as to whether cytokines can induce resting G0 B cells to secrete IgM. Some reports claim that T(H) cells are required before cytokines can act. In contrast, other reports claim that some T cell-derived supernatants (SN) have the capacity to activate resting B cells to become immunoglobulin-secreting cells. In the ...
The T cell lymphokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), plays a pivotal role in an immune response by stimulating antigen-activated B lymphocytes to progress through the cell cycle and to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. An IL-2 inducible B lymphoma line, in which the growth and differentiation responses are uncoupled, provides a model system for dissecting the signaling mechanisms operating in each response. This system was used to show that both signals are initiated by IL-2 binding to a single, unifunctional receptor complex. Moreover, both signals are transduced by a pathway that does not involve any known second messenger system and that can be blocked by a second T cell lymphokine, interleukin 4. These findings suggest that the pleiotrophic effects of IL-2 are determined by different translations of the signal in the nucleus. ...
Potential effect of various immunocompetent cells from ascitic fluid on overall survival calculated using Cox proportional-hazards regression model
A cytological, cytochemical, and cytometric study of plasma cells from 195 cases of multiple myeloma showed that, contrary to earlier reports, flaming cells, thesaurocytes, and intranuclear inclusions are not confined to IgA-secreting cases but are common also in IgG and Bence Jones varieties of myeloma. IgA-secreting cells are not larger, nor do they have a lower nuclear cytoplasmic ratio than other myeloma cells. On average, for a given mass of tumour, Bence-Jones, IgG, and IgA varieties of myeloma produce amounts of paraprotein in the ratio 1 to 1-6 to 2-7. ...
The effect of neonatal infection with Friend virus (FV) and Rowson-Parr virus (RPV) on the maturation of the capacity to respond to sheep red cells, as measured by the numbers of hemolytic plaque-forming cells in the spleen, was investigated in BALB/c mice. Both viruses affected immunological maturation but there were significant differences between their effects. The development with age of the ability to produce plaque-forming cells in response to antigen was virtually abolished by FV and only slightly impaired by RPV. Furthermore, FV also suppressed the development of background plaque-forming cells, whereas RPV did not. ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) acts as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig-secreting cells.
Upon encounter with antigen, B lymphocytes differentiate into Ig-secreting plasma cells. This step involves a massive development of secretory organelles, most notably the endoplasmic reticulum. To analyze the relationship between organelle reshaping and Ig secretion, we performed a dynamic proteomi …
The frequency of mitogen-reactive B cells yielding an IgG plaque-forming cell (PFC) response has been determined in vitro by limiting dilution analysis under cu
Darwin argued in The Origin of Species that the widespread occurrence of vestigial organs-organs that may have once had a function but are now useless-is evidence against creation. On the view of each organism with all its separate parts having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable is it that organs bearing the plain stamp of inutility… should so frequently occur. But such organs, he argued, are readily explained by his theory: On the view of descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect, and useless condition, or quite aborted, far from presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated in accordance with the views here explained.25. In The Descent of Man, Darwin cited the human appendix as an example of a vestigial organ. But Darwin was mistaken: The appendix is now known to be an important source of antibody-producing blood cells and thus an integral part ...
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The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... Like other antibodies, ixekizumab is probably degraded by proteolysis. Its elimination half-life is 13 days. Ixekizumab is a ... In the hinge region, a serine is replaced by a proline to reduce formation of half-antibodies and heterodimers in the ...
"Anticancer antibodies produced from human cells". New Scientist. Vol. 93, no. 1291. IPC Magazines. 4 February 1982. p. 305. ... 1990 The cancer cell (with Gerard Evan and James Watson), 1991 Human genetic therapy (with Jonathan Harris), 1994 Cancer: a ... 1984 Monoclonal Antibodies (with Howard Smedley), 1984 Molecular Biology and Human Disease (with Sandy McCleod), 1984 Cancer - ...
Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ... Many autoimmune diseases (notably lupus erythematosus) are associated with such antibodies. Antibodies are produced by B cells ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ...
... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: Interleukin 2 ... They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
Antibodies by nature are produced by immune cells. They 'bind' specifically to the antigens on the surface of viruses, bacteria ... and diseased cells to clear and to prevent health damages to the body. Since antibodies are highly specific proteins, binding ... In 2016 Andreas Schmidt stepped down from the CEO position, later becoming the CEO of Proteona, a single cell analysis and ... To observe the reaction of the different antibodies to the sample, the chip is placed under a standard laboratory fluorescent ...
Plasma cells produce immunoglobulins, which are commonly called antibodies. There are thousands of different antibodies, each ... resulting in overproduction of the specific antibody the original cell was generated to produce. Each type of antibody has a ... that is produced in excess by an abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, typically in multiple myeloma or Monoclonal ... Antibodies are typically grouped into five types: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. When someone has myeloma, a malignant clone, a ...
... they isolated four plasma cells that produced an identical antibody, which they called FI6. This antibody binds all 16 HA ... The antibody binds to the F domain HA trimer, and prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell. The antibody has been ... Science Magazine: A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A ... Scientists screened 104,000 peripheral-blood plasma cells from eight recently infected or vaccinated donors for antibodies that ...
... which are the B cells and the T cells. B cells are wandering cells that are antibody factories. They are capable of producing ... For example, where one cell produces antibody against one of the many viral causes of a cold, another cell's antibodies will ... Special forms of B cell called plasma cells produce antibodies; little versions of the specialized B cells, called memory B ... Plasma cells: Plasma cells are derived from B-lymphocytes and produce antibodies against a specific antigen. They have a ...
These destroy excess antibody-producing cells in the thecal sac, thus alleviating the symptoms. A more sophisticated analysis ... a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 receptor on the surface of B cells, thus destroying the self-reactive B cells. ... These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain ... The cell subsequently lyses. Notably, this mechanism is unlikely as it causes the cell to die, which is inconsistent with ...
When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's ... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with ... This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ...
... antibodies for each allergen. The antibodies will cause cells in the body to produce histamine. This histamine will act on ... The immune system will produce immunoglobulin E, IgE, ... to produce symptoms of an allergic reaction. The allergic ...
Antibodies are produced and secreted by B cells. When B cells are produced in the bone marrow, the genes that encode the ... B cells display B-cell receptors on their cell surface, which is just the antibody anchored to the cell membrane. When the B- ... Therefore, every B cell produces antibodies that bind specifically to different antigens. A strong diversity in the antibody ... the neutralizing antibody response is more rapid due to the existence of memory B cells that produce antibodies specific to the ...
As myeloma cells, NSo cells are naturally antibody-producing suspension cells with a lymphoblast morphology. Gene amplification ... Several therapeutic antibody products are produced using the NS0 cell line including daclizumab and eculizumab. Barnes, LM; ... The cell line is a cholesterol-dependent cell line that was generated from a subline of NSI/1 which produced only the light ... From this tumor, the P3K cells were isolated and developed into two cell lines, 289-16 and P3-X63. The 289-16 cell line ...
... is a murine monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 antigen produced in mammalian cell. It was combined with ... additionally labelled antibody targeted tumors better in people pre-treated with unlabelled antibody.: 21 Following a first ... 14-15 Each time the labelled antibody was administered, it was always preceded by unlabelled (non-radioactive) antibody. Early ... Drugs that are a monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibodies, GSK plc brands). ...
"Exploiting highly ordered subnanoliter volume microcapillaries as microtools for the analysis of antibody producing cells". ... "Vaccinogen Enhances Patient-Derived Antibody Program with Revolutionary High-Throughput Single Cell Screening and Analysis ... It is currently developing a potential cancer immunotherapy called OncoVAX, where a patient's own tumor cells are used as the ... The patient is then administered two injections of these tumor cells mixed with the TICE strain of BCG via intradermal ...
This minimizes damage caused by the antibodies produced by the white blood cells. Often, this is treatment is combined with ... Retinal bipolar cells (cells in retina that transmit signals) react with the antibodies, leading to cell death. Although it is ... Autoimmune antibodies target proteins in retinal photoreceptor cells. The proteins targeted as antigenic are recoverin, α‐ ... After removal of the disease-associated antibodies, the blood cells and plasma are transfused back into the body. Response to ...
1996: acquired Celltech Biologics and began producing mammalian cell cultures and monoclonal antibodies. 1999 Lonza de-merged ... mRNA Cell & Gene: cell and gene technologies, personalized medicine, bioscience Capsules & Health Ingredients: capsules, health ... At the start of World War II, Lonza was contracted by the Swiss government to produce synthetic fuel, which it did by ... Initially the company produced electricity. The following year, calcium carbide manufacture began using the electricity to heat ...
These potentially allosteric antibodies also produced more interferon gamma and showed dose-dependent increases in T cell CD25 ... Their foundational paper showed that it was possible to quickly capture a large mass of antibody-producing cells through ... "A microengraving method for rapid selection of single cells producing antigen-specific antibodies". Nat. Biotechnol. 24 (6): ... Enumeral's antibodies caused higher T cell activation in ex vivo human assays than the currently marketed anti-PD-1 antibodies ...
Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. Mol Immunol 2005;42:1311-9 ... In 2002 he became a member of the SIOPEN group and got involved in the clinical development of a monoclonal antibody directed ... Natural killer cell-mediated eradication of neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow by targeted interleukin-2 therapy. Blood ... Tumor-targeted IL-2 amplifies T cell-mediated immune response induced by gene therapy with single-chain IL-12. Proc Natl Acad ...
IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially before they undergo class switching. Healthy B cells efficiently ... In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because can not switch to a different antibody. This ... sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells ... Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells ...
Genetically modified cells produce SMIPs as antibody-like dimers, which are about 30% smaller than real antibodies. Like ... a CD37 targeting potential treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell cancers. A monoclonal antibody targeting ... and the combined proteins are produced in genetically modified (transfected) cells and screened for clones with useful ... They are largely built from parts of antibodies (immunoglobulins), and like them have a binding site for antigens that could be ...
IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially before they undergo class switching. Healthy B cells efficiently ... In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because can not switch to a different antibody. This ... IgE and IgA types since the antibody producing B cells can not carry out the gene recombination steps necessary to class switch ... sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells ...
IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially before they undergo class switching. Healthy B cells efficiently ... In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because can not switch to a different antibody. This ... sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells ... Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells ...
He also produced the first dendritic cell-specific monoclonal antibody and cloned the first dendritic cell receptor. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.07.043. PMC 4163911. PMID 25131989. Scheid, Johannes F.; et al. (28 July 2016). "HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 ... As a Ph.D. student, Nussenzweig was the first to show that dendritic cells present foreign antigens to initiate T cell immunity ... "Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice". Cell. 158 ...
The gastrointestinal immune system contains up to 70-80% of the antibody producing cells of the body. During embryonic ... including cell proliferation and cell death. After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases ... Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. The process of ... Clinical trials involving this antibody have yet to be employed, but the creation of this antibody offers alternative ...
Sercarz EE, Coons AH: The absence of antibody-producing cells during unresponsiveness to BSA in the mouse. J Immunol 1963; 90: ... Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and ... I considered that it might be easier to find the antigen than the antibody... The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with ... Coons AH: Fluorescent antibodies as histochemical tools. Fed Proc 1951; 10: 558-559. Coons AH: Fluorescent antibody methods. ...
IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially before they undergo class switching. Healthy B cells efficiently ... In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because can not switch to a different antibody. This ... In this type, Immature B cells cannot receive signal 2 from helper T cells which is necessary to mature into mature B cells. ... sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells ...
B cells, and the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second ... Thus, humanized antibodies produced in vitro by cell culture are used instead if available. Immunizations impose what is known ... and if there are no B cells to produce more antibodies, they will disappear. Passive immunization occurs physiologically, when ... The antibodies can be produced in animals, called "serum therapy," although there is a high chance of anaphylactic shock ...
Using cellulose sulphate technology, scientists have successfully encapsulated antibody producing hybridoma cells and ... autologous cells), from another donor (allogeneic cells) or from other species (xenogeneic cells). The use of autologous cells ... He suggested that these artificial cells produced by a drop method not only protected the encapsulated cells from ... The cell type chosen for this technique depends on the desired application of the cell microcapsules. The cells put into the ...
... or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood ... Acquired immunity depends upon the interaction between antigens and a group of proteins called antibodies produced by B cells ... Normally antibodies can detect and differentiate molecules from outside of the body and those produced inside the body as a ... Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. The ...
... which means that it can weaken the immune response by decreasing the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies. This ... It is known that the most frequently colonized sites are epithelial cell surfaces and red and white blood cells inside of the ... Since M. incognitus is a mycoplasma, it does not have a cell wall, which means that it is naturally immune to many different ... This mycoplasma acts by entering into the individual cells of the body where it can lie dormant for 10, 20, or 30 years. If the ...
... always limited by the inability of most prokaryotes in producing post-translational modifications present in eukaryotic cells ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... Adalimumab, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody to achieve annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and to produce a phage ...
Bile salts are produced by the liver in response to eating fatty foods, and they help with the absorption of consumed lipids. ... FUT2 fucosyltransferase transfers a fucose sugar to the end of the ABO(H) precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva glands ... Tests such as ELISA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially, but lack specificity ... The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ...
The N protein's properties of being well conserved, not appearing to recombine frequently, and producing a strong T-cell ... The N protein is highly immunogenic and antibodies to N are found in patients recovered from SARS and Covid-19. The coronavirus ... Coronaviruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell through various mechanisms. In several coronaviruses, including SARS- ... N also has additional functions in manipulating the cell cycle of the host cell. ...
The cause is unknown but it is theorized that antibodies are produced against endothelial cells in tiny arteries which leads to ... The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which ...
... which produced the highest T cell response rates, and the MMM combination. The MMM regimen produced the highest antibody- ... GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or recombinant viruses to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) in the person ...
... sites of accumulated neoplastic cells with features combining those of nerve and hormone-producing cells including in ... cytokeratin 5/6 antibodies that detect two markers of myoepithelial cells, cytokeratin 5 and keratin 6A); 3) the presence of a ... These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ...
... in particular the role of factors produced by myeloid cells and fibroblasts in mediating resistance to VEGF inhibitors.[ ... At Genentech, he discovered VEGF-and made the first anti-VEGF antibody-which suppresses growth of a variety of tumors. These ...
... a mediator produced by B cells. The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ...
Scientists report that a COVID-19 treatment made from nanobodies, a version of antibodies produced by llamas and camels in ... BBC News reports that Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust are trialling a therapy using a patient's own blood cells to ... Antibody tests are to be made widely available in the UK for the first time as part of a government study to determine how much ... Analysis produced by the BBC suggests 4.5 million people may be asked to self-isolate before the rules in England change for ...
... chloride channels contribute to the maintenance of cell resting potential and help to regulate cell volume. Voltage-gated ... Ca2+ channels produce action potentials similarly to Na+ channels in some neurons. They also play a role in neurotransmitter ... "Inhibition of inactivation of single sodium channels by a site-directed antibody". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... In most cells, Ca2+ channels regulate a wide variety of biochemical processes due to their role in controlling intracellular ...
Yeast expression platforms offer a desirable alternative to mammalian cell cultures for the genetic manipulation of cells for ... Auchincloss's company produced enzymes for use in the brewing, food-packaging and textile industries. Auchincloss was looking ... Biocon is Asia's largest insulin producer, and has the largest perfusion-based antibody production facilities. As of 2014, ... "Biocon to invest in cell for innovation at ISB". Business Line. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2014. Panthry, Pallavee ...
Cell fractions representing different parts of the cell (nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Golgi bodies, cytosol ... While immunologically-based enzyme assays which uses enzyme specific antibodies to directly detect enzymes suffers from the ... may require larger aliquots of a sample so that the amount of the coloured soluble products produced is large enough to colour ... Furthermore, zymoblots can be very helpful in cytochemodissection studies aiming at localising enzymes within cells. ...
... and new cell mass. Anaerobic processes occur in the absence of oxygen and produce less cell mass than aerobic processes. An ... Then further tests can be performed to confirm the presence of the bacteria, such as serology tests that find antibodies formed ... Now, as the non-target bacteria interact with the additional enzymes, they will produce colors that distinguish them from the ... Control over these natural plant processes should be achieved to prevent food spoilage, sprouting or growth of produce during ...
... which direct B cells to produce antibodies. CureVac attempted to evade immune detection by altering the RNA sequence in a way ... is more stable inside cells and produces higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in animals. The manufacturer currently ... "mRNA based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate CVnCoV induces high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies and mediates protection in ... Unmodified mRNA inhibits immunogenicity by triggering the production of interferons that block the generation of T helper cells ...
The budding yeast cells formed in infected tissues are small (about 2-4 µm) and are characteristically seen forming in clusters ... It is potentially sexual, and its sexual state, Ajellomyces capsulatus, can readily be produced in culture, though it has not ... of the resident population have an antibody reaction to H. capsulatum, probably indicating prior subclinical infection. ... An African phylogenetic species, H. duboisii, often forms larger yeast cells to 15 µm. H. capsulatum is "distributed worldwide ...
... namely the concurrent administration of orlistat and the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, can induce cell death in breast ... 2-dimethylhydrazine produced significantly higher numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) colon lesions than did the carcinogen ... in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional ... an enzyme involved in the proliferation of cancer cells but not normal cells. However, potential side effects of orlistat, such ...
Detection of a past infection is possible with serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response to ... The SARS-CoV-2 virus can infect a wide range of cells and systems of the body. COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper ... Several laboratories and companies have developed serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response ... The cells of the central nervous system, the microglia, neurons, and astrocytes, are also involved in the release of pro- ...
Moreover, galectin-9 contributed to tumorigenesis by tumor cell transformation, cell-cycle regulation, angiogenesis, and cell ... is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (27): 16976-84. doi: ... "Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB-targeting antibodies". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 211 (7): ... an interaction with CD40 on T-cells induced their proliferation inhibition and cell death. Galectin-9 also has important ...
... cells, and antibodies, for the field of plant disease The comparability between transactions requires a comparison of the ... Mechanical royalties for music produced outside of the United States are negotiated - there being no compulsory licensing - and ... Sub-publishers who produce and market a product retain 10-15% of the marked retail price and remit the balance to the main ...
The immune system takes some time to produce antibodies in quantity. After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics. As antibody levels are ...
... can be achieved by making the body produce more red blood cells itself using drugs, giving blood transfusions ... The antigens are labeled with secondary antibodies, which are conjugated with phycoerythrin to label IgG or IgM-coated RBCs and ... Because such blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an ... Blood doping is a form of doping in which the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream is boosted in order to enhance ...
... which are produced at the low energies of 50 to 500 electron volts. Eventually, stable ground state 125Te is produced as the ... In medical applications, the internal conversion and Auger electrons cause little damage outside the cell which contains the ... 125I is a preferred isotope for tagging antibodies in radioimmunoassay and other gamma-counting procedures involving proteins ... with the remaining global supply produced at the reactor based in Uzbekistan. Annually, the McMaster reactor produces enough ...
September 2022). "Oncometabolite d-2HG alters T cell metabolism to impair CD8+ T cell function". Science. 377 (6614): 1519-1529 ... Capper D, Zentgraf H, Balss J, Hartmann C, von Deimling A (November 2009). "Monoclonal antibody specific for IDH1 R132H ... The isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme as stated above produces alpha-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH + H+/NADPH + H+. ... showed that such high concentrations of D-2HG could act as a direct inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase in mouse T cells. ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... or which are produced/released during cellular damage - damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLRs are homologous to ... "Role of the MyD88 transduction signaling pathway in endothelial activation by antiphospholipid antibodies". Blood. 101 (9): ... connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay signals inside the cell. In innate ...
... make it useful for making cell lines that can be used to test serotyping antibodies. As a result, HLA-A1 and B8 produce some of ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association with ... DR3 is found to correlate with anti-Ro/La antibodies in SLE. HLA-DR3 has been consistently observed at high frequencies in ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3. Later it was found ...
IL-25 is produced by many cell types. These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, basophils, ... A 2018 study found that after using a non-neutralizing antibody against IL-25, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 decreased, and the number ... Th9 cells can arise not only from naive T cells but also from differentiated Th2 cells. Another function of IL-25 is the ... eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth cells. This cytokine can induce NF-κB activation, and stimulate the production of IL-8 ...
Announces A Successful Completion Of Virbac's Unique Monoclonal Antibody Discovery Project Through Cooperation With In-Cell-Art ... is a life-science company which produces and supplies biotech products and services for early drug discovery and development, ... Apart from S protein antibodies, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to assist ... "Creative Biolabs Updates Its Antibody Humanization Service to Further Accelerate Your Monoclonal Antibody Research". EIN ...
Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ... The multimammate mouse can quickly produce a large number of offspring, tends to colonize human settlements, increasing the ... These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
It then undergoes an enzyme-catalysed cyclisation to produce lanosterol, which can be elaborated into other steroids such as ... One possibility is that MF59 affects the cell behaviour by changing the lipid metabolism, namely by inducing accumulation of ... "Gulf War illnesses: Questions About the Presence of Squalene Antibodies in Veterans Can Be Resolved" (PDF). U.S. Government ... However, blue-green algae and some bacteria do not produce squalene. Squalene is biosynthesised by coupling two molecules of ...
The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific ... based on an artificial cell surface construct by which secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell ... protein antigens as well as for haptens and enables a fast and early stage selection and validation of monoclonal antibodies in ... with a hemagglutinin epitope and a biotin acceptor peptide and performed a transposon-mediated transfection of myeloma cell ...
Process physiology of antibody producing mammalian cell lines in batch and extended batch cultures ... on cell line physiology were investigated. GS-CHO 42 cell lines a high monoclonal antibody producer with low passage number (4 ... The increasing usage of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), often expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, for human therapy, ... In contrast, concentrated feed supplements did not help to increase the cell concentration and antibody titre. Amongst the ...
A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J ... Details for: A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type ... Fluorescent antibody techniqueNLM classification: QW 127.5.C5 ...
Electron microscopic study on the role of delayed hypersensitivity & antibody producing cells in protection against herpes ... Electron microscopic study on the role of delayed hypersensitivity & antibody producing cells in protection against herpes ...
Immune system: The cells, tissues and organs that assist the body to resist infection and disease by producing antibodies and/ ... B-cell (B-lymphocyte): White blood cells of the immune system that are derived from the bone marrow and spleen. B cells develop ... Antibody: A specialized serum protein (immunoglobulin or gamma globulin) produced by B lymphocytes in the blood in response to ... Antigen: Any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens are often foreign substances such as ...
Without mature B lymphocytes, antibody-producing plasma cells are also absent. As a consequence, the reticuloendothelial and ... At birth, cord blood samples can be tested for a decrease in CD19+ B cells and for an increase in mature T cells via ... BTK is critical to the maturation of pre-B cells to differentiating mature B cells. The BTK gene defect has been mapped to the ... The major block occurs in the development of pro-B cells to pre-B cells and then to mature lymphocytes. Patients can have pre-B ...
ITP occurs when certain immune system cells produce antibodies against platelets. Platelets help your blood clot by clumping ... The antibodies attach to the platelets. The body destroys the platelets that carry the antibodies. ...
Antibody-Producing Cells. en. dc.subject.mesh. Infant. en. dc.subject.mesh. Seroepidemiologic Studies. en. ...
Here, we found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies ... New study finds mild COVID creates lasting antibody producing cells. May 26, 2021 admin ... "people still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-10". The researchers ... Its normal for antibody levels to go down after acute infection, but they dont go down to zero; they plateau. ...
1. B Cells produce antibodies. When the naive B cells attack the antigen and bind with the antigen, produces plasma cells and ... Antibodies are produced by Plasma B cells.. They are also known as Effector B cells or plasmocytes.. These plasma cells are B ... memory cells... Again the plasma cells are divided into antibodies.... 2. These antibodies having effector function to fight ... 3. Memory cells are involved in keeping memory when the person again attacked by same disease.... ...
Re: Engineered B cells in Mice produce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies « Reply #1 on: June 15, 2022, 10:47:59 am » ... Re: Engineered B cells in Mice produce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies « Reply #2 on: June 20, 2022, 10:26:34 am » ... Engineered B cells in Mice produce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies « on: June 15, 2022, 10:46:53 am » ... Author Topic: Engineered B cells in Mice produce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (Read 1300 times) ...
Categories: Antibody-Producing Cells Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Polysaccharide vaccines produce antibodies primarily through T-cell-independent methods. Because these systems are not fully ... Responses to these antigens are developed using T-cell-dependent mechanisms. These antibodies induce immunologic memory, reduce ... Children with sickle cell disease, asplenia, chronic heart or lung disease, diabetes mellitus, CSF leak, cochlear implant, HIV ... Children with sickle cell disease, asplenia, chronic heart or lung disease, diabetes mellitus, CSF leak, cochlear implant, HIV ...
Analysis of immunotoxicity by enumeration of antibody-producing B cells. Authors. Anderson SE; Munson AE; Mead BJ ... Programmed cell clearance: s-nitrosylation of aminophospholipid translocase regulates macrophage engulfment of target cells. ...
The same spleen from chickens immunized in vivo and cultured in two types of media produced cells with different morphology. ... Heterogeneity of Antibody Producing Cells and Antibodies as a Result of Environmental Alterations in Tissue Culture1 Roy ... Roy Patterson, Irena M. Suszko, Mary F. Orr; Heterogeneity of Antibody Producing Cells and Antibodies as a Result of ... The same spleen from chickens immunized in vivo and cultured in two types of media produced cells with different morphology. ...
... technology to boost the antibodys ADCC anti-tumor activity.The GlymaxX® technology for production of afu... ... Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity; Fucose; Sugars; Antibodies; Glycoproteins; Glycosylation; Cell Line; Antibody-Producing ... to the N-linked antibody carbohydrate part by antibody producing cells. The absence of fucose enhances ADCC (antibody-dependent ... modified cell line is sufficient to produce both, completely fucosylated or afucosylated antibodies and those with an ...
The end result is that the immune cells produce "neutralising" antibodies which seek and destroy coronavirus. ... Each one of our cells produces thousands of copies of mRNA every second. These are the recipes our cells use to cook up the ... If that were true, you should see the same effect in women whove had COVID because they produce antibodies to the spike ... Elizabeth Finkel explains why the vaccines were so quickly produced and deployed at a global scale. *. Share ...
For constant antibody supply, hybridoma cells (∼106) either producing mAb IN-1 (Caroni and Schwab, 1988) or anti-HRP antibodies ... The application method via antibody-producing hybridoma cells involves a certain variability; however, we found a detectable ... Because of the Ab delivery strategy (via hybridoma cells used), the time of IN-1 antibody supply was limited to ∼10 d; ... 1990) Axonal regeneration in the rat spinal cord produced by an antibody against myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors. ...
Illustration of an antibody-producing B cell. New research suggests our immune system can remember how to produce antibodies ... This means these memory B cells could still rapidly produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 eight months post-infection, if the ... Both of these cells can generate "memory". Well talk about B cells first. They make antibodies, which latch onto and destroy ... What about T cells? These are cells that bind directly to infected human cells within the body and destroy them. All infected ...
We found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for ...
Nucleic acids and vectors encoding the antibodies or portions thereof, recombinant cells that contain the nucleic acids, and ... The invention also provides therapeutic and diagnostic methods which employ the antibodies and antigen-binding fragments. ... Antibodies and antigen-binding fragments of antibodies that bind human CXCR3 are disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the ... compositions comprising the antibodies or antigen-binding fragments are also disclosed. ...
In healthy individuals, plasma cells produce proteins called "polyclonal immunoglobulins." These are a collection of antibodies ... Myeloma cells produce many copies of its immunoglobulin. The most common type of myeloma is IgG, occurring in approximately 50 ... Increased numbers (more than 10 percent) of malignant plasma cells (myeloma cells) in a bone marrow biopsy sample or any ... which can reveal whether myeloma cells are affecting normal blood cell development, and a blood chemistry test, which can ...
One antibody-independent function of B cells is to produce cytokines. In this review we describe the identification of IL-10- ... Recent experiments have revealed that B cells can regulate the course of immune responses to pathogens and autoantigens by ... B cells as well as IFNgamma-producing effector Bel cells and IL-4-producing effector Be2 cells. We discuss the roles of ... One antibody-independent function of B cells is to produce cytokines. In this review we describe the identification of IL-10- ...
There, they may become plasma cells, producing antibodies to combat infections. If you dont have enough healthy blood cells, ... LPL can resemble other B-cell lymphomas with similar types of plasma cell differentiation. These include:. *mantle cell ... Stem cell transplants. ACS. says that stem cell transplant may be an option for younger people with LBL. ... This also leads to lower production of new healthy blood cells. B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, typically move from your ...
Antibodies (or Igs) are produced by plasma B cells. They are defined as IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE isotypes according to heavy ... Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity: immunotherapy strategies enhancing effector NK cells. Immunol Cell Biol (2017) 95:347-55 ... Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC). Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is the process when ... anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 ...
Inactivated PHK cell-derived vaccine made from the P-3 strain is more immunogenic, produces a better heterologous antibody ... Efficacy Of Inactivated JE Vaccine Produced In Hamster Kidney Cells. Inactivated JE Vaccine Produced in Hamster Kidney Cells/2 ... Two doses of inactivated PHK cell derived vaccine, given one week apart, produces a LNI ,50 (equivalent antibody titer of ,1:5 ... Burke DS, Nisalak A, Lorsomrudee W, Ussery MA, Laorpongse T. Virus- specific antibody-producing cells in blood and ...
  • In healthy individuals, plasma cells produce proteins called "polyclonal immunoglobulins. (
  • The main function of RNA is to produce proteins using a process called protein synthesis, which consists of two phases, transcription and translation. (
  • Messenger proteins transmit signals to coordinate biological processes that occur between different cells, tissues and organs. (
  • Structural proteins provide structure and support for cells. (
  • They saw that all 20 of the blood donors had produced antibodies-proteins that recognize and help fight pathogens the body has encountered before-to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • She and her team also detected two types of T cells that sprung into action when viral proteins were near. (
  • While the T cells reacted most strongly to the spike protein, they also recognized several other proteins from SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Ramirez and her colleagues also investigated how immune cells from stored blood samples that had been collected between 2015 and 2018-well before the novel coronavirus appeared on the scene-reacted to the viral proteins. (
  • The immune system is composed of a variety of different cell types and proteins. (
  • The immune system is a wonderful collaboration between cells and proteins that work together to provide defense against infection. (
  • These cells and proteins do not form a single organ like the heart or liver. (
  • The proteins may be made by immune cells or other organs such as the liver. (
  • Some immune proteins circulate in the bloodstream, while others are made by immune cells and act on the organs and tissues near where the proteins are produced. (
  • The liver is the major organ responsible for producing proteins of the complement system. (
  • Blood is contained within the circulatory system that carries cells and proteins of the immune system from one part of the body to another. (
  • Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PI) can affect a single component of the immune system or multiple cells and proteins. (
  • These cells include neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and a set of proteins known as the complement proteins. (
  • Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that form the first line of defense against an infection or perceived invader, such as a vaccine. (
  • Opa proteins inhibits T Helper cells (CD4+ cells) so antigens presented on MCHII is not recognized so B cells are not activated and cytokines are not released. (
  • Meso Scale Discovery of Gaithesburg, Md., offers a multiplex platform in which proteins are captured by antibodies deposited onto built-in electrodes. (
  • During this primary immune response , immune cells encounter spike proteins and, as a defense, they produce antibodies, "memory" cells and T-cells that can kill infected cells to prevent the virus from multiplying. (
  • Lymph fluid is composed of water, proteins (antibodies) and lymphocytes. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins bind to antigenic subunits - the parts of the cell that provoke an immune response - and bring them to the surface of the macrophage to be passed along to T cells . (
  • A protein within T cells , called a T cell receptor (TCR), recognizes the MHC proteins produced by the macrophages . (
  • Several cancers produce proteins that are physiologically expressed in utero by embryonic and fetal cells but not expressed by normal adult cells. (
  • VxP Biologics, a division of VxP Pharma, can produce therapeutic proteins and antibodies from mammalian cell culture and microbial fermentation. (
  • In a healthy immune response, the immune system creates lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and antibodies (protective proteins) that identify unfamiliar substances called antigens and attack them to protect the body. (
  • The synthetic mRNA material, wrapped in an oily bubble coating made of lipid nanoparticles, delivers instructions to cells to make spike proteins to fight the virus. (
  • When synthetic mRNA enters the human patient, the material fuses to cells and cell's molecules start to decode the genomic sequence to build the spike proteins. (
  • In both cases, RBD-directed antibodies are acquired from the immune system's recognition and response to viral spike proteins. (
  • In the Moodboard several scenes used for the development of the medical animation videos can be observed, among them the parasite in the form of promastigote, the production of a large number of antibodies against Leishmania that together with the parasitic proteins from circulating immunocomplexes that are deposited in tissues and organs, and the production of anti-protein Q antibodies. (
  • Immune cells, together with cytokines and complement proteins, are activated and cause parasite lysis. (
  • Vaccination with LetiFend produces anti-protein Q antibodies and stimulates the formation of memory cells.If the dog comes into contact with the parasite after vaccination, complement proteins are activated and attack the parasite more effectively. (
  • Through parasite lysis, its proteins remain exposed and are captured by the anti-protein Q antibodies which eliminate them. (
  • Muscle cells in an inoculated animal assemble these two proteins to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) studded with numerous copies of Env on their surface. (
  • The Env proteins produced in the mice from the mRNA instructions closely resembled those in the whole virus, an improvement over previous experimental HIV vaccines. (
  • ProMab has been dedicated to developing SARS-CoV-2 Research Products which includes proteins, antibodies, and diagnostic research reagents. (
  • In addition to these ready to use proteins, we offer custom development such as producing stable cell lines and lentivirus. (
  • This review summarizes some immunological factors involved in the development and control of this oral disease, such as: the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation, the synthesis of chemotaxis proteins with activation of the complement system and a range of antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, cathelicidin and saposins. (
  • The small intestines allows properly digested fats, proteins and starches to pass through the cells in order to be used by the body while providing a barrier to keep out foreign substances, large undigested molecules and bacterial products. (
  • Without mature B lymphocytes, antibody-producing plasma cells are also absent. (
  • These plasma cells are B Lymphocytes that are specialized to produce antibodies in response to an antigen. (
  • Those cultured in normal chicken serum had cells with the appearance of macrophages, large and small lymphocytes, plasma cells and monocytes. (
  • Cultures of the same spleen in egg white contained small cells with the appearance of either small lymphocytes or small plasma cells. (
  • In lymphoma, white blood cells called B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes grow out of control because of a mutation. (
  • In LPL, abnormal B lymphocytes reproduce in your bone marrow and displace existing healthy blood cells. (
  • B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, typically move from your bone marrow to your spleen and lymph nodes. (
  • White blood cells, specifically B lymphocytes, produce antibodies. (
  • In the latter group we found that loss of smell and taste predominantly affects individuals with a 'young immune system,' measured by the number of immune cells -- T lymphocytes -- that have recently emigrated from the thymus gland," said Winfried F. Pickl, a co-author of the study from the Medical University of Vienna. (
  • They start by becoming immature white blood cells known as lymphoblasts, then mature into lymphocytes. (
  • The two types of lymphocytes that are usually involved in leukemia are B cells and T cells. (
  • First, lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that are destined to become T cells leave the bone marrow and find their way to the thymus where they are then "educated" to become mature T cells. (
  • An organ located in the chest which instructs immature lymphocytes to become mature T cells. (
  • These lymphocytes arise in the bone marrow and differentiate into plasma cells which in turn produce immunoglobulins (antibodies). (
  • These lymphocytes mature in the thymus and are responsible for killing cells infected with viruses. (
  • These specialized lymphocytes help other T cells and B cells to perform their functions. (
  • Cells that produce antibodies are called B lymphocytes which mature in the bone marrow. (
  • It consists of many parts, most notably lymph nodes, white blood cells, and lymphocytes. (
  • If the white blood cells cannot handle the infection, lymph nodes create lymphocytes, which attack the infection with renewed force, and help prevent infection in the future (Human Biology 149). (
  • Lymphoid stem cells produce T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. (
  • T lymphocytes, also commonly known as T cells, are cells involved in fighting specific pathogens in the body. (
  • Natural killer cells, also known as NK cells, are lymphocytes that are able to respond to a wide range of pathogens and cancerous cells. (
  • The first step involves the capture and processing of antigens (an antigen is a substance that is foreign to the host, such as a piece of a bacterium or a viral protein).Once processed (ie, broken into small peptides), these antigens are transported to cell surfaces, where they can be recognized by lymphocytes carrying receptors for antigens. (
  • Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize. (
  • Lymphocytes are the white blood cells responsible for producing antibodies. (
  • These nodes house many lymphocytes, which process antigen for antibody production. (
  • White blood cells apart from some lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow. (
  • If your body encounters the same germ again, the T-lymphocytes recognize the familiar germ and the B-lymphocytes can produce antibodies to fight off infection. (
  • However, it typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes after vaccination. (
  • Despite the important role the antibody-producing B lymphocytes play both in protection from infection and in autoimmunity, we know remarkably little about these B-cells," said Lund, of the research, which is published in the journal Immunity . (
  • The immune system includes B and T lymphocytes that produce factors to protect the body from pathogens. (
  • B lymphocytes, or B-cells, have to go through a developmental change as they transform from B-cells to antibody-secreting cells. (
  • The most important aspect of the platform is that it should allow for dendritic cells to recruit T lymphocytes and induce Th1 cell polarization that if feasible will also induce a cytotoxic T cell response and thus clearance of SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell when they possess the desired antigen-specificity. (
  • The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific screening method was established. (
  • The critical issue in the development of antigen-specific hybridomas is the lack of any direct connection between the hybridoma cell and the released antibody. (
  • The picture (reprinted by permission from Springer Nature 10 ) shows the process of monoclonal antibody generation via conventional hybridoma technology ( A ) and via the new selection approach using transgenic fusion cell lines ( B ). The fusion with transgenic myeloma cells allows a fast and efficient hybridoma screening in an isotype- or antigen-specific manner and allows an early screening for possible cross-reactivities. (
  • When the naive B cells attack the antigen and bind with the antigen, produces plasma cells and memory cells . (
  • Antibodies and antigen-binding fragments of antibodies that bind human CXCR3 are disclosed. (
  • Nucleic acids and vectors encoding the antibodies or portions thereof, recombinant cells that contain the nucleic acids, and compositions comprising the antibodies or antigen-binding fragments are also disclosed. (
  • The invention also provides therapeutic and diagnostic methods which employ the antibodies and antigen-binding fragments. (
  • The invention relates to antibodies and antigen-binding fragments of antibodies, such as human monoclonal antibodies, which bind human CXCR3. (
  • In certain embodiments, the antibodies and antigen-binding fragments can also bind ligand-binding variants of human CXCR3 and/or fragments of human CXCR3. (
  • In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof binds an extracellular loop of human CXCR3. (
  • In another embodiment, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof inhibits the binding of a ligand (e.g. (
  • In other embodiments, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment inhibits binding of at least 3 ligands, such as IP-10, MIG and I-TAC, to human CXCR3. (
  • In other embodiments, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment inhibits ligand-induced activity of CXCR3. (
  • In particular embodiments, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment competitively inhibits binding of human mAb 5H7 or human mAb 7H5 to CXCR3, or has the epitopic specificity of human mAb 5H7 or human mAb 7H5. (
  • In some embodiments, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment comprises one, two or three heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR1, HCDR2 and/or HCDR3) having the amino acid sequences of heavy chain CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 of human mAb 5H7. (
  • The antibody or antigen-binding fragment can further comprise one, two or three light chain complementarity determining regions (LCDR1, LCDR2 and/or LCDR3) having the amino acid sequences of light chain CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 of human mAb 5H7. (
  • We discuss the roles of antigen, pathogen-derived molecules and T cell and dendritic cell-derived factors in regulating the differentiation of mature B cells into cytokine-producing effector B cells. (
  • Antibodies stick around in the body after they're created in case the particular antigen they were designed to hunt shows back up. (
  • Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules. (
  • The MHC-antigen complex is also recognized by the helper cell's CD4 co-receptor, which recruits molecules inside the T cell (e.g. (
  • Helper T cells have a weaker association with the MHC-antigen complex than that observed for killer T cells, meaning many receptors (around 200-300) on the helper T cell must be bound by MHC-antigen in order to activate the helper cell, while killer T cells can be activated by engagement of a single MHC-antigen molecule. (
  • The white blood cells produce an antibody to the antigen called immunoglobulin E, or IgE. (
  • When the antibody comes in contact with the antigen, it promotes release of certain chemicals called mediators into affected tissues. (
  • As a result of immunotherapy, the white blood cells no longer respond as strongly to the antigen, and less production of the immunoglobulin E antibody to this antigen occurs. (
  • After an infection, memory T cells persist in the body to provide a faster reaction to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (
  • After an infection, memory B cells persist in the body to quickly produce antibodies to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (
  • A secondary antibody to a different epitope on the cytokine is then added to produce an antibody-antigen-antibody sandwich. (
  • Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (
  • Several types of cells work together to form the correct antibody to fight a specific antigen . (
  • Any antibody, including a blocking antibody, is specific to an antigen, meaning it will only work against that particular antigen. (
  • The first cells to interact with the antigen are called macrophages . (
  • Once the TCR has recognized the antigen, there are several different ways a T cell can act in order to destroy the invading cells. (
  • The T cells that help to produce antibodies, called T-helper cells, stimulate B cells to produce the blocking antibody specific to the antigen. (
  • When a B cell binds to the antigen, it cannot immediately produce the correct antibody. (
  • Instead, it first degrades the antigen and presents it to a T-helper cell. (
  • The T-helper cell then produces a chemical that stimulates the B cell to produce the antibody specific to that antigen. (
  • In the specific case of a blocking antibody, the antibody does not produce any visible reaction with the antigen. (
  • Thus, a blocking antibody can prevent a harmful organism from infecting a host cell, because once the antigen is bound to the antibody it cannot bind to anything else. (
  • To eliminate scFv antibodies that would interfere with the intended therapeutic function, we used anti-coagulant protein C-related antigen (PAR-1) as a negative selection model. (
  • Though there was a trend of higher insulin antibody in IDDM patients with retinopathy, there was no association between insulin antibody and HLA antigen which some authors have reported. (
  • Atopy, meaning "strange disease," was used by Coca to describe antigen-specific reactions with apparent immunological specificity for which no precipitating antibodies could be identified in plasma. (
  • Once the particles enter the body, the immune system recognizes those particles as foreign (an antigen) and stimulates an antibody reaction. (
  • The antigens (either dietary related or microbial or viral) pass through the weakened junctional complex(JC), they are presented by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) to the T-cells (a lymphocyte produced by the Thymus gland). (
  • Once intestinal permeability is increased and a leaky gut is present, the antigen enters the body and stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. (
  • The system has been validated for globular protein antigens as well as for haptens and enables a fast and early stage selection and validation of monoclonal antibodies in one step. (
  • Antibodies are well known as universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their corresponding antigens and have found, therefore, widespread use in very many different areas of biology and medicine 1 . (
  • The antibodies specifically bind to the antigens that induced the immune response. (
  • These are a collection of antibodies that protect the body against all kinds of different invading viruses, bacteria or other infectious agents (antigens). (
  • Studies investigating the presence of autoantibodies in depression have focused in those targeting peripheral organs like the thyroid and intracellular antigens such as antinuclear antibodies and ribosomal-P antibodies ( 21 - 25 ). (
  • When everything is working normally, antibodies arrive on the scene shortly after antigens -- bacteria, viruses or other unwanted invaders -- are detected in the body. (
  • Antibodies hunt them down and bind themselves to the antigens. (
  • Once locked on, T-cells -- the immune system's 'killer cells' -- arrive and destroy the antigens. (
  • These responses involve T cells and B cells, two cell types that require training or education to learn how to fight invaders (antigens) and not to attack our own cells. (
  • IgD is a transmembrane protein of B cells and its function is to help the activation of B Cells by antigens. (
  • Dendritic cells are responsible for the detection of pathogenic antigens which are used to activate T cells and B cells. (
  • Thus, millions of cells have the potential to recognize millions of antigens. (
  • To ensure that only foreign antigens trigger adaptive immunity, cells with receptors that bind and respond to normal body "self" antigens are selectively killed early in their development. (
  • The body identifies antigens as dangerous and stimulates antibodies to attack them. (
  • Rather, T-bet acts to prevent B-cells from assuming an alternate inflammatory effector cell fate in response to interferon-gamma, the cytokine that is produced in response to some, but not all, pathogens and auto-antigens. (
  • Onset of scleroderma and SLE could be related to production of antinuclear antibody (ANA), because antigens normally restricted to connective tissues are expressed aberrantly in cancer. (
  • Typically, the immune system can tell the difference between the body's own cells and tissues and potentially harmful intruders such as viral and bacterial antigens. (
  • Wayne A. Marasco, MD, PhD, and his colleagues isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) for influenza viruses by culturing and activating 237 H3-reactive memory B cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 7 healthy donors that were specific to antigens CD19+ and CD27+. (
  • Also, it's possible that mRNA delivery may change the way antigens are presented to the immune system, leading to differences in the antibodies that get produced. (
  • Amongst the three media tested, CD-CHO medium was found to be the best culture medium for GS-CHO 42 passage number 4 based upon the cell density, viability and Immunoglobulin (IgG) titre produced. (
  • Early stages of B-cell differentiation can be identified by the status of the immunoglobulin genes and by the cell surface markers CD34, CD19, and surface immunoglobulin (sIg). (
  • Infections begin once transferred maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies have been catabolized, typically at about 6 months of age. (
  • The major immunoglobulin containing antibody in the chicken serum cultures and egg white cultures appeared to differ when studied by autoradiographic immunoelectrophoresis. (
  • In myeloma, large amounts of a single antibody are noted as a "monoclonal immunoglobulin spike" or "monoclonal spike" (M spike), indicating that the protein came from cells that originally started as single, malignant cell. (
  • Myeloma cells produce many copies of its immunoglobulin. (
  • The next most common type is light chain myeloma in which no intact immunoglobulin is produced. (
  • The most common type of LPL is Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) , which is characterized by abnormal production of immunoglobulin (antibodies). (
  • XLA can be detected through screening tests that measure immunoglobulin levels or the number of B cells in the blood. (
  • Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is a life-long and life-saving treatment that restores some of the missing antibodies. (
  • Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • [3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine . (
  • Unlike conventional B-1a (cB-1a) cell-produced IgM natural Ab, IgM Ab produced by sB-1a cells has high Ag affinity owing to immunoglobulin V-region mutations induced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). (
  • She said, "Last fall, there were reports that antibodies wane quickly after infection with the virus that causes COVID-19, and mainstream media interpreted that to mean that immunity was not long-lived. (
  • Their close contacts, family, and friends they regularly interact with, are also immune [see T-cell immunity found in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and close contacts who never experienced detectable infection ]. (
  • And if we consider the results of two other studies, Our immune system evolves to fight coronavirus variants and New study: T-cells induced by COVID infection can respond to new SARS-CoV-2 variants , then we can heave a sigh of relief as new variants will no longer threaten us. (
  • This was because several early studies showed antibodies seemed to wane after the first few months post-infection. (
  • Whenever we fight a bacterial or viral infection we leave behind certain cells that remember exactly what this invader looks like. (
  • This means these memory B cells could still rapidly produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 eight months post-infection, if the person were to be exposed to the virus again (although this work has not yet been peer-reviewed so should be treated with caution). (
  • New research suggests our immune system can remember how to produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at least eight months after infection, and probably even longer. (
  • T cells help alert other immune cells to the presence of infection or fight infection directly. (
  • Upon vaccination or infection with COVID-19, your body produces two types of protective immune responses. (
  • After performing their tasks of clearing the infection or the spike protein of the virus, the antibody-producing B cells and killer T cells get converted into what are called memory cells . (
  • When these cells encounter the same protein from the virus, they recognize the threat immediately and mount a robust response that helps prevent an infection. (
  • Antibodies begin mobilizing within the first few days following an infection with COVID-19 or after receiving the vaccine. (
  • When an infection is spotted, white blood cells swarm it and attack it. (
  • Natural killer cells are a type of white blood cell that helps to protect the body against infection. (
  • B cells are responsible for producing the antibodies that the immune system relies on to fight off infection. (
  • When a baby is first born, it is protected from infection by IgG antibodies that are passed through the placenta from the mother. (
  • Neutrophils use chemotaxis to detect chemicals produced by infectious agents and quickly move to the site of infection. (
  • NK cells travel within the blood and are found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and red bone marrow where they fight most types of infection. (
  • The protein stimulates the baby's immature immune cells so they produce antibodies to the HIB sugars, protecting the child from HIB infection. (
  • Mice with the correct IgA cells survived, but mice without the cells were unable to prevent infection. (
  • By simply removing the IgA cells from the meninges, and without affecting any other immune cells, this fungus went from being a controlled pathogen to causing a fatal brain infection," says McGavern. (
  • The spike protein, which resembles a stem with three buds on the end, is what enables the actual virus to invade cells and cause infection. (
  • That is it is trying to build antibodies to fight the infection in your jaw. (
  • EBV is frequently detected in PTLD cells, and PTLD risk is highest among children and recipients who are EBV seronegative at the time of transplantation (pointing to the importance of primary EBV infection after transplantation) ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • The immune system uses your white blood cells to fight infection. (
  • they can produce antibodies to fight off infection. (
  • The key controlling factor is needed for memory B-cells to respond to a second, subsequent infection by a pathogen. (
  • T-bet was also required for differentiation of the influenza-specific memory B-cell into antibody-secreting cells following an influenza challenge-infection in mice. (
  • Although influenza infection causes T helper-1 cells to produce interferon-gamma and promote up-regulation of T-bet by the B-cells and their differentiation into antibody secreting cells, not all pathogens induce T helper-1 cell development. (
  • For example, the skin and mucus membranes help prevent harmful germs from entering the body, and the organs and tissues of the lymphatic system (including the spleen, tonsils, thymus gland, bone marrow, and lymph nodes) create and store the white blood cells that fight infection. (
  • If the vaccinated subject is subsequently exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, its T-cell protection and neutralising antibodies are expected to inhibit the viral spike protein from binding to the usual human cell surface of the ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), thus possibly attenuating or stopping the SARS-CoV-2 infection that triggers COVID-19. (
  • Now, a new NIH-supported study shows that the answer to this question will vary based on how an individual's antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were generated: over the course of a naturally acquired infection or from a COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • The new evidence shows that protective antibodies generated in response to an mRNA vaccine will target a broader range of SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying "single letter" changes in a key portion of their spike protein compared to antibodies acquired from an infection. (
  • Specifically, antibodies elicited by the mRNA vaccine were more focused to the RBD compared to antibodies elicited by an infection, which more often targeted other portions of the spike protein. (
  • Importantly, the vaccine-elicited antibodies targeted a broader range of places on the RBD than those elicited by natural infection. (
  • It's not entirely clear why these differences in vaccine- and infection-elicited antibody responses exist. (
  • They are produced naturally by the body as part of its immune response, and their production is caused by both infection and vaccination against infections. (
  • Individuals with mild or asymptomatic infection tend to have lower antibody levels than those with severe disease. (
  • Some studies have suggested that waning of antibody levels occurs within several months after infection in some individuals. (
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (
  • Lack of a good night's sleep will also reduce antibodies and cells that fight infection. (
  • Typical HUS is related to bacteria, with more than 90% following a gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). (
  • GLM is a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody produced by a murine hybridoma cell line with recombinant DNA technology. (
  • Nucala is a humanized interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (
  • Detection of circulating monoclonal antibody produced by the tumor plasma cells is a hallmark of both PCN subtypes ( 10 ). (
  • These included the kind of antibodies that are typically associated with long-term immunity to viruses, Ramirez says. (
  • Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the public has widely and mistakenly believed that antibodies provide the bulk of protective immunity, while not recognizing the important role of killer T cells . (
  • Immune system can be classified broadly in two sub-systems, the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell mediated immunity. (
  • Adaptive immune responses are of two major types, antibody (humoral) immunity directed against extracellular invaders and cell-mediated immunity directed against intracellular invaders. (
  • In the first case, the RNA vaccine stimulates immunity by providing exclusively human cells with instructions to produce a part of the virus, the spike protein, which will induce the production of specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. (
  • The California based biotech plans to use a well-known replicating cell line (human erythroleukemia, K562) to integrate the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 or its S1 domain onto the cell membrane simulating that the viral protein is introduced on a decoy cell surface to evoke T cell and B cell immunity to COVID-19. (
  • Sorrento is currently working to prove the capacity of I-Cells inside an animal model to build defensive T-cell and B-cell immunity. (
  • Antibodies help defend the body against infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. (
  • They make antibodies, which latch onto and destroy disease-causing agents such as viruses and bacteria. (
  • Antibodies bind to foreign particles (eg, viruses, bacteria) to protect the body. (
  • The immune system of patients with this disease is not capable of producing appropriate antibodies when a new virus or bacteria penetrates the body. (
  • B cells produce the antibodies responsible for attacking bacteria and viruses that invade the body. (
  • In addition, it contains large numbers of phagocytic cells (a specific type of white blood cell) that ingest bacteria in the blood as it passes through the liver. (
  • The nonspecific part of the immune system uses cells that kill (natural killer cells) and eat (phagocytes) harmful particles such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. (
  • Each time a new virus, bacteria, etc. is encountered by the human body, the specific (adaptive) immune system takes time to create the specific T or B cells to the invader. (
  • As long as a small portion of specific T and B cells still exists in the body, the second time the body encounters the foreign particle, it can much more quickly get rid of it before the virus or bacteria has time to multiple in the body and cause widespread harm. (
  • When the body is exposed to a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria, the cells of the GALT produce antibodies which help to fight off the invader. (
  • X-Linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency in which the body is unable to produce the antibodies needed to defend against bacteria and viruses. (
  • These mice did not have cells that produced IgA near the brain, potentially because the gut IgA cells could not learn how to recognise harmful gut bacteria. (
  • When they replaced the gut bacteria of the mice, brain IgA was produced again, which shows a very strong correlation between the gut microbiome and brain defence. (
  • These approaches are based on information about the diseases the vaccine will prevent, such as how germs infect cells, how the immune system responds to it, regions of the world where the vaccine would be used, the strain of a virus or bacteria and environmental conditions. (
  • Toxoid vaccines prevent diseases caused by bacteria that produce toxins (poisons) in the body. (
  • The B lymphocyte produces antibodies, which bind to viruses and bacteria and target those pathogens for elimination. (
  • In T-cell development, T-bet activates inflammatory gene programmes that allow the T-cells to become T helper-1, or Th1, cells that can kill viruses and bacteria. (
  • An antibody is a protein produced by the immune system in response to a foreign invader, such as bacteria and viruses. (
  • These are cells that bind directly to infected human cells within the body and destroy them. (
  • Much like a lock and key, antibodies can directly bind to a virus - or to the spike protein of COVID-19 , in the case of the mRNA vaccines - and prevent it from gaining entry into cells. (
  • Using a method called deep mutational scanning, the Seattle group's previous study mapped out all possible mutations in the RBD that would change the ability of the virus to bind ACE2 and/or for RBD-directed antibodies to strike their targets. (
  • Both are monoclonal antibodies that bind to IL-17, blocking its ability to bind to its receptor. (
  • Both exercise and happiness lead to increased production of antibodies , which are a special type of protein produced by the immune system. (
  • These are patients with a mild antibody deficiency or reduced function in the production of antibodies. (
  • Lymphnodes become very active in the production of antibodies for a diseased organ which it receives the lymph drainage from. (
  • This vaccine works by prompting a person's cells to produce the spike protein, thereby launching an immune response and the production of antibodies. (
  • The group's research involves the systematic integration of model-based tools, such as sensitivity analysis, design of experiments and optimisation, with experimentation on mammalian cell culture systems with a focus on metabolism and protein glycosylation. (
  • White blood cells of the immune system that are derived from the bone marrow and spleen. (
  • They'll order blood work and possibly a bone marrow or lymph node biopsy to look at the cells under a microscope. (
  • Most develop in the bone marrow, the spongy interior of bones that contains immature stem cells. (
  • Leukemia occurs when the DNA (the genetic instructions that control cell activity) of a bone marrow stem cell mutates at some point in its development. (
  • The cell becomes cancerous, begins multiplying rapidly and crowds out healthy cells in the blood and bone marrow. (
  • The bone marrow is the location where all cells of the immune system begin their development from stem cells. (
  • The bone marrow and thymus represent training grounds for two cells of the adaptive immune system (B cells and T cells, respectively). (
  • The development of all cells of the immune system begins in the bone marrow with a hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cell (Figure 1:2) . (
  • Because of its ability to generate an entire immune system, this is the cell that is most important in a bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Red bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue containing many stem cells that produce blood cells. (
  • All of the leukocytes, or white blood cells, of the immune system are produced by red bone marrow. (
  • Clinically, two diagnostic categories of PCN are recognized: multiple myeloma, which arises in the bone marrow, and plasmacytoma, which presents as a solitary tumor of plasma cells ( 10 ). (
  • Origination - pluripotent stem cells (fetal liver & bone marrow of animal host) Pluripotent- not yet committed to differentiate. (
  • Any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. (
  • In its most basic form, a "capture" antibody on a solid support, generally one well of a 96-well plate, pulls cytokines out of a biological fluid such as serum. (
  • Titers of 64 for IgG and 32 for IgM analysis, and a negative control was created by using an in patient serum specimens were considered evidence of irrelevant monoclonal mouse antibody. (
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Olfactory receptor 4C5(OR4C5) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (
  • The immune system is comprised of highly specialized q The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and cells, tissues, and organs that give the human body the do not necessarily represent the views of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (
  • Hemoglobin is a transport protein in red blood cells that is used to carry oxygen from the lungs to other tissues. (
  • disease in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues, causing pain and loss of function. (
  • Monocytes also develop into dendritic cells in healthy tissues of the skin and mucous membranes. (
  • Blood plasma also diffuses through the thin capillary walls and penetrates into the spaces between the cells of the tissues. (
  • Full-thickness human skin from fetuses was grafted onto rodents while simultaneously co-engrafting the same fetus's lymphoid tissues and hematopoietic stem cells from the liver, so that the rodent models were humanized with organs and skin from the same child. (
  • Lupus, however, is a systemic disease in which abnormal antibodies are produced throughout the body, inflaming a variety of tissues and organs, including the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys and brain. (
  • The red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues, and the animal cannot survive without adequate oxygenation of the tissues. (
  • Unfortunately, in some cases these antibodies cross-react with normal tissues and destroy them, which may result in a paraneoplastic disorder. (
  • If you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system mistakenly attacks your body's healthy cells, tissues, and organs. (
  • In people with autoimmune conditions, the immune system gets confused and produces autoantibodies, a type of antibody that attacks healthy cells and tissues. (
  • After vaccination with the polysaccharide vaccine, persons aged 5 years and older develop type-specific protective antibodies. (
  • In general, patients with a mild antibody deficiency produced as many antibodies after vaccination as a person without an immune disorder. (
  • Some of these antibodies and T-cells from the primary immune response persist over time, though they decrease during the first month after vaccination, while memory cells last much longer. (
  • This finding has important practical implications as we might be able, someday, to manipulate these inflammatory signals to increase antibody-producing B-cell responses following vaccination or suppress the inflammatory signals to decrease antibody responses in the setting of autoimmune disease," continued Lund, who is professor and chair of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Microbiology, in the UAB School of Medicine . (
  • Dr Marasco and his colleagues recommended a vaccination development strategy that specifically targets the HA stem pathway, in order to enhance the longevity of memory B cells such as 3114, and to encourage greater expansion of their antiviral activity. (
  • The chosen cell line was used safely in cancer vaccination programmes and is well defined (clinical trials utilising the colony-stimulating factor K562 expressing granulocyte-macrophage were used as a tumour vaccine). (
  • The cells may be delivered as a vaccination by intramuscular injection following irradiation to avoid cell replication. (
  • A gene signature seen in antibody-producing cells in the blood of vaccinated study participants could expedite vaccine development. (
  • A clinical study of the Moderna vaccine showed that antibody levels remain strong after six months as well. (
  • adalimumab decreases effects of rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • alefacept decreases effects of rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • A vaccine, from the University of Oxford against the coronavirus, has begun to give positive results and produce antibodies and T cells, that can fight coronavirus, the experiment was carried out on 1,077 people. (
  • Sorrento Therapeutics has launched its breakthrough I-Cell™ COVID-19 Cellular Vaccine Program and is currently engaged in intensive consultations with the FDA to accelerate development, with the intention of starting human clinical trials by the summer of 2020. (
  • Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: SRNE) confirmed on Wednesday that it has been developing a new COVID-19 cell decoy vaccine (STI-6991) and is in talks with the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Review under IND#019724 about the necessary IND-enabling trials, CMC (chemistry, manufacturing and controls), clinical procedure and future rapid approval endpoints. (
  • Sorrento anticipates that its current cGMP cell therapy facilities should be able to manufacture sufficient quantities of drug substance to satisfy the requirement of the final drug product (the COVID-19 Cellular Vaccine) for millions of monthly doses if approved. (
  • What's more, antibodies acquired with the help of a vaccine may be more likely to target new SARS-CoV-2 variants potently, even when the variants carry new mutations in the RBD. (
  • From 3DforScience , we produced a 3D scientific animation explaining the importance and the mode of action of LetiFend®: vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, based on a recombinat protein. (
  • Their results, published in Nature Medicine , show that the novel vaccine was safe and prompted desired antibody and cellular immune responses against an HIV-like virus. (
  • In studies with mice, two injections of the VLP-forming mRNA vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in all animals, the investigators report. (
  • The details of the vaccine regimen differed among subgroups of vaccinated animals but involved priming the immune system with a vaccine modified to optimize antibody creation. (
  • Although the doses of mRNA delivered were high, the vaccine was well tolerated and produced only mild, temporary adverse effects in the macaques, such as loss of appetite. (
  • In addition to neutralizing antibodies, the VLP mRNA vaccine also induced a robust helper T-cell response. (
  • But on Sunday, a statement by the Health Ministry outlining preliminary findings of antibodies and vaccine efficacy has given room for misinterpretations, according to public health experts who say it would be dangerous to make a hasty conclusion. (
  • A severemalaria syndrome in which infected red blood cells obstruct blood circulation in the small blood vessels in the brain and/or release cytokines that disrupt normal brain function. (
  • One antibody-independent function of B cells is to produce cytokines. (
  • We also review the recent experiments showing that B cell-derived cytokines play pathologic as well as protective roles in immune responses to autoantigens, and demonstrate that cytokine-producing B cells play unexpectedly complex and potentially opposing roles in autoimmune disease. (
  • But "mRNA really tells you about the ability to produce cytokines, rather than what's actually being produced," says Fred Finkelman of the University of Cincinnati. (
  • Ready-made kits for a variety of human, mouse, and (to a lesser extent) other species' cytokines exist and are generally optimized for compatibility of the antibodies with each other and the assay format. (
  • As a result, much of the immune system is devoted to the production of regulatory cells and cytokines whose function is to ensure that immune responses only occur under appropriate circumstances. (
  • Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (
  • The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that presents either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role by stimulating the secretion of a great variety of antibody subtypes and the activation of mechanisms of controlling the disease, such as the regulatory T cells. (
  • sB-1a cells resemble memory B2 cells, as they are stimulated within 1 h of immunization and depend on T helper cytokines-uniquely IL-4 from hepatic iNKT cells-for activation and rapid migration from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen to secrete IgM antibody (Ab) and Ab-derived free light chains (FLCs) by only 1 day after immunization. (
  • The lymph node will capture the draining fluid from an infected organ and process the foreign material to use to make antibodies to protect the body. (
  • All infected cells smuggle out bits of the invading pathogen onto their surface, as a kind of "SOS" signal that allows T cells to find the hidden enemy. (
  • B cells can produce antibodies that attach to the pathogen so that the virus can no longer penetrate the cells. (
  • Every cell can perceive a pathogen and trigger a response, but that cell isn't isolated from the rest of the plant," explains Dr Christine Faulkner. (
  • However, when a rapidly mutating pathogen infects a host, successful control of the invasion requires shifting the production of plasma cells from strain-specific to broadly reactive. (
  • Once B cells have been activated by contact with a pathogen, they form plasma cells that produce antibodies. (
  • A neutralising antibody is an antibody that is responsible for defending cells from the pathogen, which are organisms that cause diseases. (
  • Because Cpn is an intracellular pathogen, PCR testing may be negative unless infected cells containing the DNA of the organism are directly tested. (
  • Researchers from the University of Oxford published a study in September showing memory T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Recent experiments have revealed that B cells can regulate the course of immune responses to pathogens and autoantigens by antibody-independent mechanisms. (
  • The spike is really a fantastic protein because it's able to trigger both antibody immune responses and T cell immune responses," says Alba Grifoni, an immunologist at the La Jolla Institute and another coauthor of the new research. (
  • Innate immune responses are those that rely on cells that require no additional training to do their jobs. (
  • But the Faulkner lab at the John Innes Centre is filling the gaps in our understanding of how cells communicate and coordinate their responses when they sense danger. (
  • Building on this, the group has since found that chitin, a fungal material, triggers different responses in the membrane that lines the plasmodesmal tunnels, compared to those it triggers in the membrane around the rest of the cell. (
  • Th2 cells are critical in maintaining both the state of chronic and relapsing eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the acute hypersensitivity responses characteristic of the atopic diseases. (
  • IgE-induced mast cell degranulation in vivo is often followed by a late-phase reaction (LPR), a second wave of hypersensitivity responses occurring many hours after the acute reaction and dependent upon eosinophils. (
  • Evidence in humans and animal models suggests that IgE-mediated mast cell activation gives rise to both the acute and late-phase responses. (
  • Acute responses are accompanied by evidence of mast cell activation and mediator release. (
  • DCs are potent APCs that initiate T cell-dependent immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • Induction of immunogenic cell demise (ICD) is anticipated to draw immune cell populations that promote innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • for elicitation of the delayed onset and late-occurring classical T cell-mediated responses. (
  • They are also known as Effector B cells or plasmocytes. (
  • In this review we describe the identification of IL-10-producing 'regulatory' B cells as well as IFNgamma-producing 'effector' Bel cells and IL-4-producing 'effector' Be2 cells. (
  • In T lymphocyte cells, which are needed to help induce the B-cell immune response, T-bet regulates the activation, proliferation, differentiation, lifespan and effector functions of those immune cells. (
  • In fact, B-cells that have a genetic mutation and are unable to efficiently express T-bet are transformed into inflammatory effector cells following activation with Th1 cells. (
  • In CS and DTH, sB-1a IgM Ag affinity is sufficiently high to mediate complement activation for generation of C5a that, together with vasoactive mediators such as TNF-α released by FLC-sensitized mast cells, activate local endothelium for extravascular recruitment of effector T cells. (
  • Researchers observed that people who recover from COVID-19 carry immune cells in their blood called T cells that target the novel coronavirus. (
  • The coronavirus that causes Covid-19 could kill the powerful immune cells that are supposed to kill the virus instead, scientists have warned. (
  • To the surprise of the scientists, the T cell became a prey to the coronavirus in their experiment. (
  • COVID-19 Coronavirus Antibody Serology Test This bucket a blood test It is designed to detect antibodies immunoglobulins IgG and IgM against the coronavirus. (
  • If the antibodies later encounter the actual coronavirus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness. (
  • A key issue as we move closer to ending the pandemic is determining more precisely how long people exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 virus, will make neutralizing antibodies against this dangerous coronavirus. (
  • Many important biopharmaceuticals, such as therapeutic antibodies with commercial sales in the billions of pounds are glycoproteins. (
  • To evaluate the therapeutic potential of these antibodies, we used an in vitro culture model of prostate cancer cells. (
  • Abstract Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. (
  • Polysaccharide vaccines produce antibodies primarily through T-cell-independent methods. (
  • Elizabeth Finkel explains why the vaccines were so quickly produced and deployed at a global scale. (
  • While the researchers from Australia saw a drop in circulating antibodies against the virus after two months in the blood of the 25 patients they looked at, they found memory B cells against two important parts of the virus: the spike protein (what most vaccines are designed to target) and the "nucleocapsid", another structural protein of the virus. (
  • This explains why multiple doses of COVID-19 vaccines that increase the number of memory B cells prevent reinfection - or breakthrough infections - better when compared with a single dose. (
  • With the focus lately on the use of aborted fetal cell lines in vaccines, I thought it would be helpful to walk through what is really going on, to show why some pro-life Catholics are so concerned about the passive acceptance of aborted children in research. (
  • The memory B cells chosen already had a high affinity to hemagglutinin (HA), a primary target for the development of vaccines that neutralize several types of group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. (
  • The high binding affinity of bnAbs for multiple type A subtypes, particularly those from group 2, may have important clinical implications for the potential creation of vaccines drawn from memory B cells as opposed to those developed traditionally from long-lived plasma cells that produce neutralizing antibodies in response to original virus. (
  • That makes RBD a prime target for both naturally acquired antibodies and those generated by vaccines. (
  • By binding itself to the part of the bacterium or virus that is used to attach to host cells, the blocking antibody makes it difficult or impossible for the invader to harm its host. (
  • The binding process allows the blocking antibody to make it difficult for the invader to harm its host. (
  • The immune system recognizes the spike protein as a foreign invader and produces antibodies against it. (
  • By week 58, all vaccinated macaques had developed measurable levels of neutralizing antibodies directed against most strains in a test panel of 12 diverse HIV strains. (
  • The same spleen from chickens immunized in vivo and cultured in two types of media produced cells with different morphology. (
  • These diseased cells can also gather in specific parts of the body, including the liver, lymph nodes, spleen and skin. (
  • Lymph nodes and the spleen provide structures that facilitate cell-to-cell communication. (
  • The spleen is a collection of B cells, T cells, and monocytes. (
  • Because the spleen is responsible for removing many of the antibody targeted red cells, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) may benefit some animals after initial treatment and stabilization. (
  • Although TLR ligands induced in situ migration of spleen cDC into the T cell area, spleen pDCs formed clusters in the marginal zone and in the outer T cell area 6 h after injection of TLR9 and TLR7 ligands, respectively. (
  • PCNs derive from plasma cells, which are mature, terminally differentiated B-cells responsible for antibody production. (
  • A plant's immune system involves receptors on both the surface and inside its cells that sense molecules from microbe threats. (
  • These receptors trigger a set of molecular and chemical defences inside the cells. (
  • A male patient has antibodies against FSH RECEPTORS. (
  • Interleukin-17 receptors are increased on the surface of synovial cells. (
  • For example, an antibody of the invention can inhibit CXCR3-mediated signal transduction, intracellular calcium (Ca++) release, more specifically the induction of a rapid and transient increase in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium [Ca 2+ ], (calcium flux), chemotaxis, cell differentiation or cell proliferation that is induced upon ligand binding. (
  • LPL can resemble other B-cell lymphomas with similar types of plasma cell differentiation. (
  • Key control points for this differentiation in B-cells, or other immune cells, are transcription factors. (
  • However, for T helper-2-induced B-cell response, the researchers found that T-bet was not required for B-cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. (
  • Immune mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), also known as auto-immune mediated hemolytic anemia (AIHA), is a disease in which the body's immune system, which is designed to attack and kill germs, attacks and kills the body's own red blood cells. (
  • According to the Mayo Clinic website, "Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. (
  • Energy Homeostasis also play a critical role in the immune system Immune system The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. (
  • Unfortunately, though, in order to keep the body's immune system from identifying the introduced islet cells as foreign bodies that must be neutralized, the patient has to take immunosuppressive drugs on an ongoing basis. (
  • The islet cells produce the body's insulin. (
  • The use of monoclonal antibodies is ubiquitous in science and biomedicine but the generation and validation process of antibodies is nevertheless complicated and time-consuming. (
  • Monocytes are agranular leukocytes that can form 2 types of cells: macrophages and dendritic cells. (
  • Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) has been suggested to influence the type of immune response induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • The body destroys the platelets that carry the antibodies. (
  • The new technique utilizes type B white blood cells that would be genetically engineered inside the patient's body to secrete anti-HIV antibodies in response to the virus. (
  • A team of researchers from Australia, led by Menno van Zelm at Monash University, published a preliminary study last week showing the body can generate memory B cells specific to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Exercise also directly increases the number of T-cells in your body. (
  • The body produces millions of blood cells each day. (
  • Lymph nodes are collections of B cells and T cells throughout the body. (
  • The site in the body where most of the cells of the immune system develop from hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • The Immune System, which the cell attacks, is responsible for warding off enemies from the body. (
  • Laughter can increase antibody-producing cells in your body. (
  • The white blood cell act to protect the body from disease. (
  • White blood cells are the policemen of the body. (
  • Therefore, T-bet-expressing B-cells play an important role in protecting the body from viral infections. (
  • When a tumor arises, the body may produce antibodies to fight it by binding to and destroying tumor cells. (
  • These mutations occur in response to an infectious agent and help B cells create specific antibodies that can target specific infectious or foreign materials in the body. (
  • The immune system is a network of cells and organs that work together to fight infections and protect the body against diseases. (
  • With Type 1 diabetes, the body has an auto-immune response, usually following an illness (I had the flu), and starts making anti-bodies that attack and destroy the Islet of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. (
  • Insulin is required for nutrients to pass from the blood into the body cells. (
  • With the destruction of the islet cells, insulin has to be introduced into the body artificially. (
  • I have a cousin who is a diabetes research doctor, and he spent many years studying ways to implant new islet cells in the body where the anti-bodies would not locate and destroy them. (
  • If your sleep is less than optimum, your body will produce less of them. (
  • When the junctional complex is disrupted, the epithelial cells separate and allow particles into the body without policing them. (
  • The attack begins when antibodies, which are molecules made by the immune system to target germs, instead attach to and target the animal's own red blood cells for destruction. (
  • Cachexia is thought to be caused by bioactive molecules produced by the tumor, such as alpha-lymphotoxin (tumor necrosis factor [TNF] alpha), peptides, and nucleotides, which are able to affect metabolism. (
  • The technology employs natural post translational modifications found in human cells to site specifically create one or more aldehyde tags on protein molecules. (
  • B cells develop into plasma cells, which produce antibodies. (
  • Again the plasma cells are divided into antibodies. (
  • In some myeloma patients, the coordinated process of making and attaching light chains and heavy chains fails in the malignant plasma cells. (
  • There, they may become plasma cells, producing antibodies to combat infections. (
  • Strain-specific plasma cells are capable of producing neutralizing antibodies that are essential for clearance of challenging pathogens. (
  • Understanding the contribution of these factors to emergence of breadth may assist in boosting broadly reactive plasma cells production. (
  • article{osti_1606751, title = {Mathematical model of broadly reactive plasma cell production}, author = {Erwin, Samantha and Childs, Lauren M. and Ciupe, Stanca M.}, abstractNote = {Strain-specific plasma cells are capable of producing neutralizing antibodies that are essential for clearance of challenging pathogens. (
  • We examine scenarios that lead to germinal centers that are composed of B-cells that come from a single strain-specific clone, a single broadly reactive clone or both clones. (
  • We find that the initial B-cell clonal composition, T-follicular helper cell signaling, increased rounds of productive somatic hypermutation, and B-cell selection strength are among the mechanisms differentiating between strain-specific and broadly reactive plasma cell production during infections. (
  • The investigators used multiple virus variants to preferentially activate antibodies against the more conserved "shared" regions of the Env-the target of broadly neutralizing antibodies-rather than the more variable regions that differ in each virus strain. (
  • They found a unique structure in the virus' spike protein that apparently triggered the fusion of a viral envelope and cell membrane when they came into contact. (
  • Researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Centers for Disease Control have identified a germline gene in human memory B cells that appear to resist multiple strains of influenza A virus, and more importantly, that can evolve to protect against changes in the viral strains that become active in any given year. (
  • The decoy cell "looks like" the virus to the immune system of a healthy human, as the viral protein is released as a surface marker. (
  • The lymphatic tissue of these organs filters and cleans the lymph of any debris, abnormal cells, or pathogens. (
  • Macrophages are phagocytes able to consume pathogens, destroyed cells, and debris by phagocytosis. (
  • T cells may act as helpers of other immune cells or attack pathogens directly. (
  • Antibodies then neutralize the pathogens until other immune cells can destroy them. (
  • Antibody-secreting cells are the cells that produce antibodies to fight invading pathogens like viruses. (
  • These people have congenital defects in the functioning of their immune system and therefore make few, if any, antibodies to protect themselves against infections. (
  • Basophils are active in producing inflammation during allergic reactions and parasitic infections. (
  • Understandably, the gut microbiome helps gut IgA learn to defend against infections that may enter our stomach and intestine, but these two IgA share an origin, which means brain IgA cells share the same training ground. (
  • We must be sent to recurrent sinopulmonary infections in suspected, igm test full form of antibody test and provide the. (
  • T cells are a key component of the immune system's ability to fend off infectious diseases. (
  • They suppress the immune system's attack on the red cells. (
  • When antibodies fail, it is the killer T cells that are responsible for preventing the more severe outcomes of COVID-19 , such as hospitalization and death. (
  • And a similar increase in memory killer T cells prevents severe disease and hospitalization. (
  • MCD or HFD induced the histological features of NASH in mice, including significant vacuolated hepatocytes, marked inflammatory cell infiltration and severe micro‑ and macro‑vesicular steatosis. (
  • Nucala reduces severe asthma attacks by reducing the levels of blood eosinophils- a type of white blood cell that contributes to the development of asthma. (
  • Common variable immunodeficiency is the most common severe antibody deficiency affecting both invent and adults. (
  • Juvenile diabetics have severe loss of beta cell function and require replacement therapy with insulin. (
  • In tests performed on diabetic rats, the NICHE reportedly restored normal blood glucose levels and eliminated Type 1 diabetes symptoms for over 150 days, without producing any severe side effects. (
  • An immunoglobulins test measures the levels of certain antibodies in your. (
  • 9] For example, antibodies or T cells directed against the tumor may mistakenly attack normal nerve cells. (
  • This RBD is especially important because the virus uses this part of its spike protein to anchor to another protein called ACE2 on human cells before infecting them. (
  • IgE antibodies (but not other isotypes) are capable of passive transfer of both acute and LPR sensitivity to allergen challenge. (
  • Acremonium is a common allergen, can produce a trichothecene mycotoxin, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (
  • The absence of fucose enhances ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) activity for antibodies directed against cancer and infectious diseases. (
  • We also do not know whether or not the antibodies work against the new variant of the virus," Dr Prabhat Adhikari, infectious disease and critical care expert, told the Post. (
  • COVID-19, the incubation period lasts about 7 days when infectious diseases such as measles, diarrhoea, measles- the antibodies are not yet developed. (
  • One important aspect of the specific (adaptive) immune system is antibodies. (
  • The adaptive immune system acts through a series of steps that must occur sequentially for either an antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immune response to occur. (
  • As a consequence, the reticuloendothelial and lymphoid organs in which these cells proliferate, differentiate, and are stored are poorly developed. (
  • In a healthy person, these immature stem cells first become either lymphoid stem cells or myeloid stem cells. (
  • Lymphoid stem cells develop into white blood cells, which are immune system cells. (
  • While there are many types of leukemia, they are typically classified by the type of stem cell that has turned cancerous, either lymphoid or myeloid. (
  • ALL is an aggressive form of leukemia that develops from immature lymphoid stem cells. (
  • AML is an aggressive type of leukemia developing from lymphoid stem cells. (
  • Scientific studies have shown that yeast-derived Beta-Glucan can interact with certain immune cells, including those present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (
  • NOW Beta Glucan works by interacting with certain immune cells, including those present in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (
  • This bioactive carbohydrate derived from yeast has been shown in scientific studies to interact with certain immune cells present in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (
  • Leukocytes can be further broken down into 2 groups based upon the type of stem cells that produces them: myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells. (
  • Abstract: In this work, the design and execution of a mechanistic metabolic model is presented that is capable of simulating extracellular metabolite concentration profiles, particularly cell density and antibody titer, throughout the course of a recombinant protein producing CHO fed-batch culture. (
  • Macrophages are white blood cells that swallow up and digest germs, plus dead or dying cells. (
  • This is when the immune system calls into action another type of immune cell known as killer T cells , which act as the second line of defense. (
  • These neutralizing antibodies also function as a main defense against disease establishment in a host. (
  • People with a mild antibody deficiency (lgG SPAD). (
  • This project involves glycoengineering of CHO cells to both control and homogenize glycosylation patterns. (
  • To confer this basic principle to the hybridoma technique would require to capture the synthesized antibody on the surface of the synthesizing hybridoma cell (Fig. 1B ). (
  • These results demonstrate the potential of our single cell sequencing workflow to discover clinically relevant mutations from single CTCs that may aid in monitoring disease progression and guiding treatment. (
  • Identification of in vitro formed single-chain Fv antibodies as clinically viable therapeutics. (
  • We screened a library of approximately 2 x 10(9) scFv sequences for high affinity binding to several clinically relevant targets (HER2, CD20, and human growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-expressing tumor cell lines). (
  • Chronic leukemia involves mature or partially mature cells. (
  • The first type involves B cells, which produce antibodies. (
  • This is in part because antibodies are easy to detect, whereas killer T-cell detection is complex and involves advanced technology. (
  • According to Derry, understanding the disease involves two kinds of white-blood cells, T cells and B cells, that are key players in the extremely complex immune system. (
  • One alternative involves harvesting islet cells from a deceased donor and transplanting them into the patient's liver. (
  • A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J. Torres-Anjel, Hans P. Riemann, and Che C. Tsai. (
  • This second antibody is the key to cytokine detection and quantitation. (
  • Alternatively, the antibody is conjugated to a ligand such as biotin, which can capture a streptavidin-coupled detection reagent. (
  • Secondary antibodies labeled with ruthenium organometallic complexes enable detection of the bound cytokine by a proprietary reader, which applies current to the electrodes and reads the resulting electrochemiluminescence. (
  • The detection of paraneoplastic anti-neural antibody was first reported in 1965. (
  • EOSINOPHILS Have granules that stain red with eosin Y. Mediate late phase of allergic response, active in immune response to parasites & tumors (antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). (
  • A study by Dr. Adi Barzel and PhD student Alessio Nehmad used CRISPR gene-editing genetically engineered type B white blood cells (with one coding for Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (saCas9) and the other for 3BNC117, an anti-HIV bNAb) to produce neutralizing antibodies against HIV in mice and lab dishes. (
  • Surprisingly, unlike T-cells, where T-bet turns on the inflammatory gene program, T-bet repressed or turned off more than 2,000 genes in the Th1-activated B-cells. (
  • The researchers found that the expression of the inflammatory gene programme in B-cells prevents the B-cells from differentiating into antibody-secreting cells. (
  • Researchers have discovered a germline gene in memory B cells that appear to resist multiple strains of influenza A virus. (
  • The researchers also say that such cells could persist for a long time. (
  • Other researchers from the United States showed memory B cells lasted at least six months , in a preliminary study also released last week. (
  • According to the researchers, increased levels of antibody-producing immune cells were detected in the blood of recovered patients. (
  • Stanford Medicine researchers tracked kids' well-being as they transitioned to phone ownership and found no connection between the age kids got their first cell phone and their sleep, grades, or mental health. (
  • The researchers first found these cells in mice then confirmed that IgA was also present in human cells they collected from the meninges during surgery. (
  • But studies after the six-month mark have been mixed, with reports of waning antibody levels leaving some researchers concerned that a booster shot strategy is essential. (
  • However, the researchers found that T-bet in the B cells acts through a mechanism greatly different from that of T-bet in T-cells. (
  • However, the killer T cells can recognize a virus-infected cell and immediately destroy the cell before the virus gets a chance to replicate. (
  • Antibodies must recognize the native cytokine, for example, and should not compete for the same epitope. (
  • Myeloid stem cells also develop into white blood cells. (
  • The myeloid stem cells first become immature white blood cells known as myeloblasts. (
  • Myeloid stem cells produce monocytes and the granular leukocytes-eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. (