Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies[edit]. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ... with some B cell clones producing antibodies that bind strongly to the epitope, and others producing antibodies that bind ... The antibodies thus produced in a polyclonal response are known as polyclonal antibodies. The heterogeneous polyclonal ... that the antibodies produced against it will also bind to the mimicked native proteins. The antibodies will attack the self- ...
... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein ... mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have ...
The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ... was a part of an anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) reaction; the body produces antibodies against its own tissue. This discovery led ... In SLE, the body's immune system produces antibodies against itself, particularly against proteins in the cell nucleus. SLE is ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ...
Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by ... When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and ... Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism even after viruses have managed to gain entry to the host cell. A ... Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21). Proceedings of the National Academy ...
The components are chimeric monoclonal antibody c13C6 from a previously existing antibody cocktail called "MB-003" and two ... To produce the drug, genes coding for the chimeric mAbs were inserted into viral vectors, and tobacco plants are infected with ... first chimerized the three antibodies comprising ZMAb, then tested combinations of MB-003 and the chimeric ZMAb antibodies in ... Such antibodies have been used in the treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases and are intended to attack the ...
... is a fusion protein produced by recombinant DNA. It fuses the TNF receptor to the constant end of the IgG1 antibody ... Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. It ... Finally, they expressed the linked DNA to produce a protein that links the protein for TNF receptor 2 to the protein for IgG1 ...
Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation.[2][3] Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, RNA, and proteins). ... "Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ... engineering aglycosylated full-length IgG antibodies for human therapy". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 22 (6): 858-67. doi: ...
Tobacco plants have been modified to produce therapeutic antibodies.[147]. Biofuel[edit]. Algae is under development for use in ... Transgenic carrots have been used to produce the drug Taliglucerase alfa which is used to treat Gaucher's disease.[60] In the ... Companies that produce Bt seed are introducing strains with multiple Bt proteins. Monsanto did this with Bt cotton in India, ... Global estimates are produced by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and can be ...
Tobacco plants have been modified to produce therapeutic antibodies.[155] Biofuel[edit]. Algae is under development for use in ... Redesigned crops could produce far more fuel *^ Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ... The first plant produced in that way came in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[38] The first field trials occurred ... In November 2014, the USDA approved a potato that prevents bruising and produces less acrylamide when fried.[99][100] They do ...
humanized monoclonal antibody HER2/neu (erbB2) antagonist ustekinumab Stelara psoriasis humanized monoclonal antibody IL-12 and ... Produced by recombinant DNA[edit]. See also: Biologics for immunosuppression. As indicated the term "biologics" can be used to ... Monoclonal antibodies. These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist alefacept Amevive chronic plaque psoriasis immunoglobin G1 fusion protein incompletely ...
IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's reaction to foreign pathogens. The IgE antibodies identify ... This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ...
Lymphocytes produce antibodies targeting three different thyroid proteins: Thyroid peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb), Thyroglobulin ... Weetman, A. P.; A. M. McGregor; H. Lazarus; R. Hall (April 1982). "Thyroid Antibodies are Produced by Thyroid- Derived ... Doctors may check Thyroglobulin Antibodies (TgAb) also, whenever a thyroglobulin test is performed to see if the antibody is ... therefore producing special antibodies that target the thyroid's cells, thereby destroying it. It may present with ...
... each producing a different antibody. If a cell is stimulated, it will go on to produce more antibodies (a plasma cell) or act ... B cells produce antibodies. Each antibody has a single predetermined target, an antigen, that it can bind to. These circulate ... Each B cell produces different antibodies, and this process is driven in lymph nodes. B cells enter the bloodstream as "naive" ... Some B cells will immediately develop into antibody secreting plasma cells, and secrete IgM. Other B cells will internalize the ...
... inhibit antibody-producing B cells from proliferating; d) suppresses the development of Atherosclerosis plaques by promoting ... Activation of EP4 suppresses the production of IL-12p70 and increases IL-23 thereby promoting development of IL-17-producing ...
Plasmin is produced in an inactive form, plasminogen, in the liver. Although plasminogen cannot cleave fibrin, it still has an ... FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). ... plasmin further stimulates plasmin generation by producing more active forms of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and ...
Tumors causing bowel obstruction produce higher CEA levels. Aneuploid tumors produce more CEA than diploid tumors. Liver ... Because even monoclonal antibodies to CEA tend to have some degree of cross-reactivity, occasionally giving false positive ... CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. Therefore ... Regions of high CEA levels in the body can be detected with the monoclonal antibody arcitumomab.[clarification needed] ...
... given the right monoclonal antibody). The host produces antibodies against the parasitic enzyme indicating a low sequence ... 1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92 (2): 313-324. doi:10.1017/ ... Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [EC 4.1.2.13] catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis and energy production and is produced by ... Li Y, Ning YS, Li L, Peng DD, Dong WQ, Li M (2005). "Preparation of a monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum ...
Thus, the B cell presents the foreign peptide (modified gliadin) but produces antibodies specific for the self-antigen (tTG). ... Some patients have eTG-specific antibodies instead of tTG-specific cross-reactive antibodies and the relationship between ... These antibodies cross-react with eTG, and IgA/eTG complexes deposit within the papillary dermis to cause the lesions of ... Neutrophils produce pus in the dermal papillae, generating characteristic blisters. IL-31 accumulation at the blisters may ...
... in which the body produces antibodies to the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone. (Antibodies to thyroglobulin and to the ... These TSI antibodies cause the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormones.[1] The diagnosis may be suspected based on ... Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... These antibodies cause hyperthyroidism because they bind to the TSHr and chronically stimulate it. The TSHr is expressed on the ...
All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. These, together with electronic ...
In 1988 the first human antibodies were produced in plants.[27] In 1987, the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae became ... to produce industrial or consumer products (fibres for multiple uses);. *to produce products intended for human therapeutic use ... The project ended in 2012.[102][103] These pigs produced the enzyme phytase, which breaks down the indigestible phosphorus, in ... Genetically modified bacteria are used to produce the protein insulin to treat diabetes.[49] Similar bacteria have been used to ...
On antibody-antigen binding a chemiluminescence reaction produces light. Detection is by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. ... The biochip is used to simultaneously analyze a panel of related tests in a single sample, producing a patient profile. The ... In this approach, large batches of identical sensors can be produced; sensors from each batch are then combined and assembled ... For example, a K+ sensor was produced by incorporating valinomycin into a thin membrane. In 1953, Watson and Crick announced ...
The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... Like other antibodies, ixekizumab is probably degraded by proteolysis. Its elimination half-life is 13 days. Ixekizumab is a ... In the hinge region, a serine is replaced by a proline to reduce formation of half-antibodies and heterodimers in the ...
"An Addressable Antibody Nanoarray Produced on a Nanostructured Surface". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 126 (21): ...
His technique for cloning native human antibodies has been used to produce mAbs capable of neutralizing botulism toxin and ... "High efficiency creation of human monoclonal antibody-producing hybridomas." J Immunol Methods 291 (1-2): 109-22. Adekar SP, ... "High efficiency creation of human monoclonal antibody-producing hybridomas." J Immunol Methods 291 (1-2): 109-122. doi:10.1016/ ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ...
... but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second.[7] This prolific production of antibodies is an ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ... Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ...
... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody ... collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ...
Trifunctional Antibody Catumaxomab Triggers Vaccination Effect Against Cancer - read this article along with other careers ... The trifunctional antibodies are produced at TRIONs site in Munich, Germany , and are based on a proprietary platform ... Triomab ®: Trifunctional antibodies. Triomab® antibodies bind to cancer-associated surface antigens and recruit both T cells as ... trifunctional antibody worldwide. It is produced by TRION Pharma and marketed by TRIONs partner Fresenius Biotech. ...
... with the aim of generating potent antibodies to destroy pathogens. ...
Immunotherapeutic potential of antibodies produced in plants.. Ma JK1, Hein MB. ... Plants are capable of synthesizing and assembling virtually every kind of antibody molecule, ranging from the smallest antigen- ... Immunotherapy is one of the many potential uses for bulk quantities of antibody. In particular, passive immunotherapy of ... binding domains and fragments, to full-length, and even multimeric, antibodies. A number of plant hosts can be used, and ...
STUDIES ON ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS. Fred G. Gudat, T. N. Harris, Susanna Harris, Klaus Hummeler ... Cells producing rosettes which were resistant to lysis in the presence of complement, and were thus presumably producing 7S ... Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red ... Cells producing plaques facilitated by antisera vs. IgG of the mouse or rabbit (7S) showed the same distribution between cell ...
Scientists hope that new findings about variations in HIV antibody profiles may help in the search for a successful vaccine to ... The bodies of some patients who live with HIV naturally produce a type of antibody known as broadly neutralizing antibodies ( ... People who produce powerful HIV antibodies have specific immunological profile. Published Sunday 31 July 2016 Published Sun 31 ... "People who produce powerful HIV antibodies have specific immunological profile." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 31 Jul ...
... company Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc said on Wednesday its experimental vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection produced ... protective antibodies and immune system responses in mice and guinea pigs. ... On Monday, Moderna said its experimental COVID-19 vaccine produced protective antibodies in a small group of healthy volunteers ... said on Wednesday its experimental vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection produced protective antibodies and immune system ...
The pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine can generate antibodies in vaccinated individuals not only against the H1N1 virus, but also ... Antibodies Against Multiple Flu Strains Produced By Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Vaccination. Published Wednesday 23 May 2012 Published ... "Antibodies Against Multiple Flu Strains Produced By Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Vaccination." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 23 ... 2012, May 23). "Antibodies Against Multiple Flu Strains Produced By Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Vaccination." Medical News Today. ...
... does everyone infected with hiv produce antibodies, with a wealth of fact sheets, expert advice, community perspective, the ... HIV Antibodies and other antibodies. I have been told that when someone has antibodies to a virus, he is protected or immune ... Hepatitis B and HIV Antibody Production. I had Hep B 7 years ago, it is not chronic. I have took an HIV antibody test at week 9 ... Scientists Find Antibodies That Prevent Most HIV Strains From Infecting Human Cells. ... Atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 ...
... antibodies by transplanting a cell that produces an antibody of interest into a mammal and isolating the desired antibodies ... The invention also features methods of transplanting antibody-producing cells into a mammal. ... the antibody-producing cell or the antibodies produced by the antibody-producing cell and administering the antibody-producing ... a) tolerizing said recipient mammal to said antibody-producing cell or to the antibodies produced by said antibody-producing ...
A new study reports the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ... antibodies), and importantly, to produce neutralizing antibodies at high concentrations in a primate species other than humans ... Recombinant protein produces neutralizing COVID-19 antibodies in primate model. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Antibodies, Antibody, Antigen, Assay, Cell, Cell Line, Cell Membrane, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease COVID-19, DNA, ...
3 royalty free stock videos and video clips of Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies. Footage starting at $15. Download high quality ...
... the antibodies can now be made quickly, cheaply, and without the need for an alpaca or one of its relatives. ... Researchers Produce Alpaca Antibodies Using Yeast. With multiple applications in biomedicine, the antibodies can now be made ... Now, a team of US researchers have devised a way to produce the same antibodies in yeast instead, allowing the molecules to be ... antibodies. antibody. Biomedical Research. camel. disease/medicine. DNA. fluorescent labeling. fluorescent protein. genetics & ...
The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate ... The present invention relates to catalytic antibodies and a method for producing the same wherein a host is immunized using an ... A method for producing a monoclonal antibody according to claim 9, wherein the step of producing antibodies is accomplished ... Antibody 6A1A6 was incubated with anti-mouse antibody and the antibody:anti-antibody complex was pelleted. No hydrolysis above ...
Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines. R S Accolla, S Carrel, and J ... These antibodies, which have relatively high-affinities and can be produced in unlimited amounts, will be useful both for the ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ... Monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen and produced by two hybrid cell lines ...
"Antibody-Producing Cells" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antibody-Producing Cells" was a major or ... "Antibody-Producing Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell ... c-Myb Exacerbates Atherosclerosis through Regulation of Protective IgM-Producing Antibody-Secreting Cells. Cell Rep. 2019 05 21 ...
But how do B cells know whether a threat is real and whether to start producing these weapons? An international team of life ... The immune systems B cells protect us from disease by producing smart bullets that target invaders such as pathogens and ... B cells produce antibodies when danger calls, but not when it whispers The specialized immune cells only act when specific ... B cells produce antibodies when danger calls, but not when it whispers. University of California - Los Angeles ...
Anti-CSPG5 antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody; Synonym: Anti-Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 ( ... Antibody Explorer , Buy Primary Antibodies & Secondary Antibodies Primary, Secondary and Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies ... Anti-CSPG5 antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody Synonym: Anti-Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 (neuroglycan ... Antibody Basics Immunoglobulins (Igs) are produced by B lymphocytes and secreted into plasma. The Ig molecule in monomeric form ...
Anti-TMPRSS5 antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody; Synonym: Anti-MGC141886, Anti-MGC148044, Anti-SPINESIN, ... Antibody Explorer , Buy Primary Antibodies & Secondary Antibodies Primary, Secondary and Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies ... Anti-TMPRSS5 antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody Synonym: Anti-MGC141886, Anti-MGC148044, Anti-SPINESIN, ... Antibody Basics Immunoglobulins (Igs) are produced by B lymphocytes and secreted into plasma. The Ig molecule in monomeric form ...
Monoclonal antibodies against chromosomal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: establishment of antibody producing cell lines ... The molecular weight of those antigens against which the monoclonal antibodies were directed was determined in SDS ... Screening of 311 cell lines using indirect immunofluorescence revealed 58 lines whose antibodies showed a highly selective ... Radioimmunoassay showed 455 of these cell lines secreted antibodies which bound to component(s) contained in the antigen ...
MERS antibodies produced in cattle safe, treatment well tolerated in phase 1 trial. NIH/National Institute of Allergy and ... MERS antibodies produced in cattle safe, treatment well tolerated in phase 1 trial ... The researchers believe they may be able to use transchromosomic cattle to rapidly produce human antibodies against other human ... cattle have genes that have been slightly altered to enable them to produce fully human antibodies instead of cow antibodies ...
The invention relates to transgenic non-human animals capable of producing heterologous antibodies and transgenic non-human ... immortalized B-cells capable of producing heterologous antibodies, methods and transgenes for producing heterologous antibodies ... B-cells are produced within such an animal which are capable of producing heterologous human antibody. After immortalization, ... Transgenic nonhuman animals are provided which are capable of producing a heterologous antibody, such as a human antibody. Such ...
Alternatively, polyclonal antibodies can be prepared from a group of antibody-producing cells obtained using the present ... Method for producing human antibodies with properties of agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist ... identifying EBV-infected cells that produce the antibody that recognizes the receptor; and (e) screening the antibodies ... Another object of the present invention is to a method for producing human antibodies to a specific receptor, or the specific ...
Modernas closely watched early-stage human trial for a coronavirus vaccine produced Covid-19 antibodies in all 45 participants ... The vaccine also produced neutralizing antibodies against Covid-19 in at least eight participants, the company said. Experts ... Modernas Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Shows Positive Data: All 45 People Producing Antibodies By Berkeley Lovelace Jr. , CNBC • ... Modernas closely watched early-stage human trial for a coronavirus vaccine produced Covid-19 antibodies in all 45 participants ...
Perioperative MVT-5873 a Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody Against a CA 19-9 Epitope for Operable CA 19-9 Producing Pancreatic ... Perioperative MVT-5873 a Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody Against a CA 19-9 Epitope for Operable CA 19-9 Producing Pancreatic ... Determine if perioperative MVT-5873 can decrease 1-year recurrence rates for patients with operable CA 19-9-producing cancers. ... MVT-5873, a fully human antibody against Sialyl Lewis, has displayed ADCC and CDC in vitro, potentiated chemotherapeutic ...
  • Triomab® antibodies are therefore very effective in destroying cancer cells and show a therapeutic effect at very low doses. (biospace.com)
  • This vaccination effect could provide a decisive advantage over current mono- or bispecific antibody approaches: Permanent treatment with catumaxomab will not be needed" , says Horst Lindhofer, CEO of TRION Pharma. (biospace.com)
  • It is the most advanced representative of TRION Pharma's unique family of Triomab® antibodies and presently the only approved trifunctional, bispecific antibody on the market world-wide. (biospace.com)
  • Once the rAbs are displayed, tools such as paramagnetic beads, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and/or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) can be used to isolate individual antibodies that bind to a specific antigen target. (jhsph.edu)
  • Few investigators have addressed the prevalence of anti-Stx antibodies in patients and in healthy (control) populations using sensitive assays, and none have examined persons with mild STEC infections. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies reactive with nucleoprotein (NP), envelope glycoprotein (GP), and secreted envelope glycoprotein (sGP) were characterized by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. (asm.org)
  • Assays for antibody production. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition assays with a panel of synthetic peptides as competitors showed that cross-reactivity to gp140 was due to antibodies that were specific for the region encompassing HIV-1 gp41 immunodominant epitope, mimicked by peptide P39 (residues 583 to 609), the latter being able to totally inhibit the formation of complexes between radiolabeled HIV-2 gp140 and antibodies elicited by desialylated HIV-1 gp160. (asm.org)
  • however, these antibodies were additive to synergistic in cell-proliferation assays and produced increased apoptosis in combination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regions of Pfs 48/45 and Pfs 230 known to contain transmission blocking epitopes, 6C and C0, respectively, were produced in a Lactococcus lactis expression system and used in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays to determine the seroreactivity of 95 malaria patients living in the Central Region of Ghana. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rh(D) antigen-containing polypeptide was prepared by immune precipitation of intact cDE/cDE erythrocytes by using a high-titer preparation of polyclonal anti-D. When isolated Rh(D) polypeptide was administered to rabbits, antibody was produced that was unresponsive toward Rh-positive and -negative cells but reacted strongly with the immunogen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type immunobinding and Western blot immunostaining assays. (elsevier.com)
  • Plants are capable of synthesizing and assembling virtually every kind of antibody molecule, ranging from the smallest antigen-binding domains and fragments, to full-length, and even multimeric, antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • In other words, this protein antigen is a highly immunogenic molecule and stimulates the production of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • They have not yet demonstrated conclusively that what they found is ozone, but they are highly confident that ozone is what the antibodies are producing because no other known molecule has the same chemical signature. (medicalozone.info)
  • All antibodies have the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, the report adds, but they need to first have available a molecule known as "singlet" oxygen-another highly reactive oxygen species-to use as a substrate. (medicalozone.info)
  • Pharmaceutical companies might get a drug combination to market faster by producing one molecule instead of two, with one set of clinical trials, and without having to test a regimen in combination. (roche.com)
  • Bispecific antibodies provide access to new modes of action that have not been possible with single antibodies," says Stefan Weigand, Roche's Global Head of Large Molecule Research. (roche.com)
  • The essential problem with engineering bispecific antibodies is how to guarantee correct assembly of the parts to deliver only the desired molecule, while omitting unwanted side products. (roche.com)
  • Now, Roche has taken bispecific technology a step further and developed the next generation in bispecific antibody engineering: CrossMAb, a technology that produces one bispecific molecule-not ten, not four, but just what the scientists need. (roche.com)
  • The new discovery brings the researchers closer to being able to design a pan-influenza vaccine that reliably induces broadly cross-reactive antibodies at sufficiently high levels to protect against different influenza subtypes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers in the current study cloned the S1 protein into a cell line chosen for its proven performance in making human antibody preparations, and its ability to ensure the right glycosylation of the S1 antigen. (news-medical.net)
  • But researchers wanting to use those antibodies currently have to go through a lengthy and expensive procedure to extract them, limiting the molecules' use in the lab. (the-scientist.com)
  • Now, a team of US researchers have devised a way to produce the same antibodies in yeast instead, allowing the molecules to be made and identified quickly and cheaply. (the-scientist.com)
  • The researchers believe they may be able to use transchromosomic cattle to rapidly produce human antibodies against other human pathogens as well, in as few as three months. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have generated six Zika virus antibodies that could be used to test for and possibly treat a mosquito-borne disease that has infected more than 1.5 million people worldwide. (mvcac.org)
  • The researchers tested mRNA encoding VRC01 antibodies in lab mice induced with compromised immune systems and thus highly susceptible to HIV infections. (technewslit.com)
  • In this immunologically-focused and highly competitive biotherapeutic climate, it's imperative that researchers maximize the efficiency of their monoclonal antibody (mAb) screening and characterization workflows to stay on the cutting edge. (genengnews.com)
  • Australian researchers aim to use a newly-funded collaboration to develop a new generation of cancer treatment, "supercharging" antibodies with a drug delivery vehicle for targeting tumours. (edu.au)
  • A team of researchers at Princeton University has developed a way to cause yeast to produce more isobutanol, a possible candidate for use as a biofuel. (phys.org)
  • In this new effort, the researchers genetically altered yeast to produce more isobutanol in the absence of light. (phys.org)
  • As the researchers note, it would be convenient if yeast could produce isobutanol all the time, but that does not appear to be possible, because isobutanol is actually toxic to yeast-if it builds up, the yeast will die. (phys.org)
  • The researchers found that the modified yeast is capable of producing 8.5g of isobutanol per liter of a glucose solution, which they note is five times more than any other method has delivered. (phys.org)
  • Developed by Abcam for use by Merck as an analytical antibody to support Merck's therapeutic programme several years ago, this new clone has been created by Abcam's in-house antibody engineers, who specialise in the discovery and development of challenging antibodies. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • (EN) This application provides antibodies, immunoreactive fragments thereof, having modifications such as amino acid deletions and/or substitutions within their constant region (Fc), and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) comprising said modified antibodies or immunoreactive fragments, having effective anti-cancer activity while exhibiting improved pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles. (wipo.int)
  • We have also examined intraclonal affinity maturation by generating Abs inferred to have been produced by the unmutated precursors and branchpoint intermediates of the largest 68ld clone. (jimmunol.org)
  • Abs produced by branchpoint intermediates of this clone have a lower affinity for HA(Sb) than their unmutated precursor, despite containing parallel amino acid replacement mutations. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, anti-desialylated gp160 antibodies retained on a P39 affinity column still bound HIV-2 gp140. (asm.org)
  • In this article, we will explore what happens to activate memory and antibody production following the affinity maturation in the germinal center. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Therefore the germinal center "reaction" allows for the development of diversity and affinity and beyond the activation in the germinal center memory B cells and antibody producing plasma cells are generated for both short-term and long-term protection. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Recent research has led to the discovery that unstable hinged monospecific antibodies may engage in a process leading to a decrease in their apparent avidity/affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization of animals with native or nontoxic derivatives of Ply elicits the production of neutralizing antibodies that confer serotype-independent protection from pneumococcal pneumonia and bacteremia ( 12 - 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We could protect against next year's strain and the following year's strain if we can give people the ability to make this one kind of antibody, and that's what we've done," Dr. Baltimore said. (abc7.com)
  • This ability of antibodies to generate toxic compounds may also link them to a number of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (medicalozone.info)
  • A new study reports the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing the current pandemic of COVID-19. (news-medical.net)
  • The levansucrase was purified and specific antibodies against it were raised in rabbits. (springer.com)
  • The team proved that subset D cells were exclusively responsible for producing the measles- and mumps-specific antibodies in the blood of one of the older volunteers, through proteomics and RNA sequencing techniques. (emory.edu)