Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
In 1946 Isabel Morgan joined the team and together they found out that there were three basic immunological types of poliovirus ... as a model for the disease in human beings; 3) the demonstration that experimental primates and man could be successfully ... the demonstration that minimal levels of serum antibody were sufficient to protect against poliovirus invasion of the central ... The Grouping of Fourteen Strains into Three Basic Immunological Types in: American Journal of Hygiene vol. 49 March 1949 "Book ...
One model to explain this process is known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which allows for increased uptake and ... Through an immunological phenomenon, known as original antigenic sin, the immune system is not able to adequately respond to ... "Japanese models catch Dengue fever after visiting source of outbreak". Retrieved 2 September 2014. http://www.abplive.in/health ...
... monoclonal antibodies, knockout animals, and other immunological tools for mice and rats than other species). Before it was ... After a short time, many models of organ transplants in rat and mice have been established. Today, virtually every rat or mouse ... played a crucial role in the development of transplantation immunological research because it allowed the use of rodents models ... Thus, microsurgery represents the link between surgery and transplant immunological research. The first microsurgical ...
His group subsequently described antimyelin antibodies in animal models of the disease, and demonstrated the efficacy of plasma ... demonstrating the possibility of an immunological role for Schwann cells, and challenging the dogma that nerve was an ...
... immunological tolerance, Danger Model, Hyppo Model Ira Mellman Jacques Miller Avrion Mitchison Michael Neuberger Alan Munro ... Michael Heidelberger (1888-1991), showed that antibodies are proteins Leonard Herzenberg Miroslav Holub (1923-1998) Charles ... "for work on the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies" 1987 Susumu Tonegawa (1939-), "for discovering how ... "for discovering the chemical structure of antibodies" 1980 Baruj Benacerraf (1920-2011), Jean Dausset (1916-2009) and George ...
Immunological research continues to become more specialized, pursuing non-classical models of immunity and functions of cells, ... The humoral (antibody) response is defined as the interaction between antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are specific proteins ... These antibodies can also produce a negative response. If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before ... Passively acquired maternal antibodies can suppress the antibody response to active immunization. Similarly the response of T- ...
... anti-CD3 antibody treatment was able to re-establish peripheral tolerance in animal models of autoimmune disease, thereby ... of the TCR have also been shown to be efficacious for the induction and restoration of immunological tolerance in animal models ... Like anti-CD3 antibodies, administration of anti-TCR αβ antibodies has generally been met with favorable effects in the ... In transplantation, the use of anti-TCR αβ antibody treatment may be more efficacious than anti-CD3 antibody treatment, and its ...
According to the model, antibody microarrays would not only permit simultaneous screening of an analyte panel, but would also ... Journal of immunological methods. 403 (1): 79-86. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2013.11.016. PMID 24287424. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. In this technology, a ... He also estimated that if an antibody is coated at a 10 μg/mL concentration, which is optimal for most antibodies, 1 mg of ...
Callard R, Hodgkin P (April 2007). "Modeling T- and B-cell growth and differentiation". Immunological Reviews. 216: 119-29. doi ... and antibody class switching by B cells, are division dependent. Sophisticated mathematical models have also been developed to ... Since the initial description of CFSE it has been used in thousands of immunological studies, an example of an early ... By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the ...
Within this context, members of the Penicillium genus have been associated with a variety of immunological manifestations such ... Various studies have also noted a presence of circulating antibodies to the extracellular polysaccharide of P. digitatum in ... proteolytic enzymes and glycoproteins are amongst the components commonly reported as allergens in humans and animal models. ... Notermans, S.; Dufrenne, J.; Wijnands, L. M.; Engel, H. W. B. (1988-01-01). "Human serum antibodies to extracellular ...
Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation. Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... In one model, diversification can be considered purely as a result of endogenous functionality. However, it is more likely that ... This immunological role may well have driven the diversification of glycan heterogeneity and creates a barrier to zoonotic ... "Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ...
This immunological role may well have driven the diversification of glycan heterogeneity and creates a barrier to zoonotic ... In one model, diversification can be considered purely as a result of endogenous functionality (such as cell trafficking). ... Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation. Five classes of glycans are produced: N-linked ... Crispin, Max; Doores, Katie J (2015-04-01). "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine ...
1: Antibodies (AF ed.). GE Healthcare. 2016. p. 48. "A Pathogen's Swiss Army Knife". Small Things Considered. Retrieved 2016-08 ... Protein A helps inhibit phagocytic engulfment and acts as an immunological disguise. Higher levels of protein A in different ... Mutants of S. aureus lacking protein A are more efficiently phagocytosed in vitro, and mutants in infection models have ... To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible ...
IgM antibodies appear to react poorly with kodecytes made with FSL peptides. Furthermore, FSL constructs may have a restricted ... "Modeling transfusion reactions with kodecytes and enabling ABO incompatible transfusion with Function-Spacer-Lipid constructs ... Journal of Immunological Methods. 429: 66-70. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.01.003. Oliver, Caroline; Blake, Debbie; Henry, Stephen ( ... The spacer (S) of a FSL construct has been selected so as to have negligible cross-reactivity with serum antibodies so ...
Dalmau, Josep; Bataller, Luis (2006-12-01). "Clinical and Immunological Diversity of Limbic Encephalitis: A Model for ... and antibodies to the GABAA receptor: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and analysis of the effects of antibodies ... antibody binding to the surface of live neurons; the antibodies specifically react with mGluR5, as demonstrated by the ... Antibody: Elevated VGKC-Abs in CSF and Serum EEG: Nonspecific background slowing and frontotemporal sharp waves. Associated ...
... a co-study on antibodies made in a normal immune response that bind both to foreign invaders and to antibodies with the same ... Because symmetrical immune network theory offers a novel model of HIV pathogenesis, Hoffmann and his lab at the University of ... a number of immunological phenomena that are not readily explained otherwise. ... Science, 253, 1138-1140 G. W. Hoffmann (1986) A Neural Network Model Based on the Analogy with the Immune System. J. Theoret. ...
This is when the tests can no longer detect antibodies in a patient's serum. The immune system maintains an "immunological ... "Treponema pallidum strain-specific differences in neuroinvasion and clinical phenotype in a rabbit model". ... Serology (testing for antibodies) is used to determine if specific antibodies are in an organism's blood. Serostatus is a term ... During seroconversion, the antibody is present but not yet detectable. Any time after seroconversion, the antibodies can be ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of KRT7 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Krt7tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi was ... Because the keratin-7 antigen is found in both healthy and neoplastic cells, antibodies to CK7 can be used in ... Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135480 - Ensembl, May ... "Tissue distribution of keratin 7 as monitored by a monoclonal antibody". Experimental Cell Research. 170 (1): 235-49. doi: ...
There are some differences between SIV and HIV that may introduce challenges in the use of an animal model. The Animal model ... Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain ... February 1998). "Immunological and Virological Analyses of Persons Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 while ... The typical animal model for vaccine research is the monkey, often the macaque. Monkeys can be infected with SIV or the ...
... antibody responses by ELISA, interferon-gamma producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells ex vivo, central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, ... "A new vaccine against tuberculosis affords greater survival after challenge than the current vaccine in the guinea pig model of ... induced significantly increased Antigen 85B-specific immune responses in eight immunological assays (blood lymphocyte ... induce greater protective immunity against tuberculosis than conventional BCG vaccines in a highly susceptible animal model". ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of TMEM126A function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Tmem126atm1a(EUCOMM) ... It has been demonstrated that a mutated TMEM126A gene can be distinguished from a normal gene through the use of antibodies ... Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171202 - Ensembl, May ... which allows for antibody production, and demonstrates high hydrophobicity. In addition, there are two glycosylation sites at ...
Murine anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduces TNF levels in an E. coli sepsis model in the rabbit. Pediatr Res 33, 184A, 1993 ( ... Journal of Immunological Methods. 181 (1): 75-81. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(94)00331-P. PMID 7730666. Gupta, RK; Anderson, R; ... Abstract P20). Siber GR, Santosham M, Priehs CM, Reid R, Letson W, Madore D and Eby R. Impaired antibody (Ab) response to H. ... Scheifele DW, Daum R, Syriopoulou V, Siber GR, and Smith AL.Comparison of antigen detection methods in a primate model of ...
... more antibodies to that antigen would be produced. Burnet developed a model which he named clonal selection that expanded on ... After 1957 all new staff and students at the Institute worked on immunological problems; Burnet was involved in work relating ... In 1958 Gustav Nossal and Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first evidence for ... Using the concept of self, Burnet introduced a hypothesis about the situation where the body failed to make antibodies to its ...
A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... "danger model" (or "danger theory"), and the "discontinuity" theory. The danger model, suggested by Polly Matzinger and ... Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory. Newborn infants have no ... This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Immune ...
Infected cells are routinely opsonized with antibodies for detection by immune cells. Antibodies that bind to antigens can be ... In a transplantation model of LMP1-fueled lymphomas, the NKG2D-Fc fusion proved capable of reducing tumor growth and prolonging ... increased longevity and a form of immunological memory, characterized by a more potent response upon secondary challenge with ... respond better to antibody therapy. This has been shown for lymphoma patients who received the antibody Rituxan. Patients who ...
Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID 23947355. doi:10.1111/imr.12085.. ... The Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens (MIEP). *. Anthony J. Davies. The tale of T cells. Immunology Today: 137- ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ...
A rabbit anti-human C3a antibody (CompTech) was followed by a goat anti-rabbit HRP antibody (Sigma). Optical densitometry ... A peritonitis model was chosen as a pertinent clinical model, as well as an excellent model for evaluating complement-mediated ... Hyperglycemia Inhibits Complement-Mediated Immunological Control of S. aureus in a Rat Model of Peritonitis. Clifford T. ... and probed with mouse anti-rat C3 antibody (Hycult) followed by goat anti-mouse HRP antibody (Sigma) . Western blot ...
Model of 2G12 glycan recognition of gp120. On the basis of our model, three separate Man9GlcNAc2 moieties, shown in red (two in ... Antibody Domain Exchange Is an Immunological Solution to Carbohydrate Cluster Recognition. By Daniel A. Calarese, Christopher N ... Antibody Domain Exchange Is an Immunological Solution to Carbohydrate Cluster Recognition. By Daniel A. Calarese, Christopher N ... Antibody Domain Exchange Is an Immunological Solution to Carbohydrate Cluster Recognition Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
New antibody approaches to lymphoma therapy. J Hematol Oncol 2014; 7: 58.. Shimoda S, Harada K, Niiro H, et al. CX3CL1 ( ... Therapeutic and immunological interventions in primary biliary cholangitis: from mouse models to humans. Atsushi Tanaka, ... "Therapeutic and immunological interventions in primary biliary cholangitis: from mouse models to humans". Archives of Medical ... "Therapeutic and immunological interventions in primary biliary cholangitis: from mouse models to humans." Archives of Medical ...
NK Cells to Induce Immunological Memory to Prevent HIV Infection (R01) PA-17-114. NIAID ... Studies of NK-mediated immunological memory in non-humanized mouse models. See Section VIII. Other Information for award ... Studies evaluating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), * Projects that exclusively apply existing ... immunological tools to the study of HIV,. * Projects that focus primarily on technology, reagent, or animal model development. ...
a, Neutralization profiles of 51 different HIV-1 strains by the V1V2 antibodies PG9 and PG16 were determined. Example curves of ... To address this question, we used a nonhuman primate challenge model with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We show that ... Immunological and virological mechanisms of vaccine-mediated protection against SIV and HIV.. Roederer M1, Keele BF2, Schmidt ... Immunological and Virological Mechanisms of Vaccine-Mediated Protection Against SIV and HIV ...
The antibody used here for detection of Tbet, the Th1 master transcription factor for Th1 cells, did not work in paraffin ... Immunological Characterization of Intraocular Lymphoid Follicles in a Spontaneous Recurrent Uveitis Model ... Immunological Characterization of Intraocular Lymphoid Follicles in a Spontaneous Recurrent Uveitis Model ... Immunological Characterization of Intraocular Lymphoid Follicles in a Spontaneous Recurrent Uveitis Model. Invest. Ophthalmol. ...
... contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)- ... Limitations of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring of fungal aerosols using Penicillium brevicompactum as a model fungus.. ... Molds; Microorganisms; Fungi; Aerosols; Sampling-methods; Antibody-response; Author Keywords: Antibody cross-reactivity; Button ... for the detection of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in experimental model aerosols. In addition, we have investigated the ...
With large naïve antibody repertoires, bats may control the limited virus replication without the need for rapid affinity ... and this may explain why bats typically have low antibody titers to viruses. However, because bat viruses have evolved in high ... With large naïve antibody repertoires, bats may control the limited virus replication without the need for rapid affinity ... maturation, and this may explain why bats typically have low antibody titers to viruses. However, because bat viruses have ...
A great need exists for prediction of antibody response for the generation of antibodies toward protein targets. Earlier ... Linear Models * Models, Immunological* * Peptide Fragments / immunology* * Protein Interaction Mapping * Recombinant Proteins ... A great need exists for prediction of antibody response for the generation of antibodies toward protein targets. Earlier ... Prediction of antibody response using recombinant human protein fragments as antigen Protein Sci. 2009 Nov;18(11):2346-55. doi ...
Combined anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 receptor monoclonal antibodies induce donor-specific tolerance in a cardiac transplant model. J ... Combined anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 receptor monoclonal antibodies induce donor-specific tolerance in a cardiac transplant model. J ... Combined anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 receptor monoclonal antibodies induct donorspecific tolerance in a cardiac transplant model. J. ... Publications] Qin,L.: Anti-CD2 receptor and anti-CD2 ligand(CD48)antibodies synergize to prolong J.Exp.Med.179. 341-346 (1994 ...
For influenza virus, annual vaccinations are given to maintain protective levels of antibody against the currently circulating ... Pre-existing neutralizing antibody provides the first line of defence against pathogens in general. ... Models, Immunological * Orthomyxoviridae / immunology* * Plasma Cells / immunology * Plasma Cells / metabolism * Somatic ... Rapid Cloning of High-Affinity Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Influenza Virus Nature. 2008 May 29;453(7195):667-71. doi: ...
The original scaled logit model can be improved upon. Evaluation criteria permit well-fitting models and useful results to be ... Criteria for evaluating the fit of models are proposed and approaches to assessing the utility of results suggested. Models are ... The probability of disease was modelled as a function of the probability of exposure, which was assumed to be fixed, and of ... The proposed methods provide a comprehensive set of tools for quantifying the relationship between immunological assays and ...
Immunological tests; Sensitization; Exposure assessment; Esters; Bioassays; Antibodies; Allergic reactions; Chemical inhibition ... The immunomodulatory potential of microRNA 210 and regulatory T cells in a murine model of chemical sensitization. ... The Treg population was then depleted prior to TDI sensitization by in vivo administration of a CD25-targeting antibody. The ... Toxicology; Toluene; Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; Immune system; Laboratory animals; Models; Chemical agents; Sensitizers; ...
... immunological biomarkers as IgG and antinuclear antibody; immunomodulatroy cytokines (TNF-α) and oxidative stress (111). ... treated RA animal models involving male Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats with polyphenolic fraction of cinnamon barks and ... In an in vivo study using rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis, p-coumaric acid intake significantly reduced the expression ... When RA-induced animal models were fed Lactobacillus casei, it led to improvised health conditions by reduction in levels of ...
In vivo, injection of human IPF MPCs converted a self-limited bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung fibrosis to a model of ... Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form ( ... Antibody-mediated rejection across solid organ transplants: manifestations, mechanisms, and therapies. S ... To understand GVL resistance, we studied GVL against mouse models of CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML generated by the transduction of ...
Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form ( ... HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 ... Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 ... The data provide rationale for developing TCRm antibodies as therapeutic agents for cancer, offer mechanistic insight on ...
In vivo, injection of human IPF MPCs converted a self-limited bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung fibrosis to a model of ... Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form ( ... Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 ... To understand GVL resistance, we studied GVL against mouse models of CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML generated by the transduction of ...
Next, whole leukocytes in blood were stained with specific antibodies (anti-NF-κB-p60 Abs and anti-ERK Abs from Cell Signaling ... In recent years, various type 2 DM models have been developed in rats. Rat models have the advantage over mice models that a ... These rat models clearly illustrate that immunological phenomena are linked with the amplification circuit in DM. ... Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in ...
Immune system computation and the immunological homunculus. Model Driv. Eng. Lang. Systs. Proc. 4199: 499-512. ... The broad antibacterial activity of the natural antibody repertoire is due to polyreactive antibodies. Cell Host Microbe 1: 51- ... This binding mechanism is reminiscent of the model of induced-fit binding or the Koshland-Nemethy-Fimer model initially ... This model, in contrast to the induced-fit binding model, stipulates that an Ab molecule exists as equilibrium between its ...
Structure of the Lassa virus glycan shield provides a model for immunological resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, ... This work provides an initial model for how the host antibody response can neutralize NiV by targeting the fusion glycoprotein ... A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects against lethal disease in a new ferret model of acute nipah virus infection. ... Structural families in loops of homologous proteins: Automatic classification, modelling and application to antibodies. J. Mol ...
According to the model, antibody microarrays would not only permit simultaneous screening of an analyte panel, but would also ... Journal of immunological methods. 403 (1): 79-86. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2013.11.016. PMID 24287424. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. In this technology, a ... He also estimated that if an antibody is coated at a 10 μg/mL concentration, which is optimal for most antibodies, 1 mg of ...
Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form ( ... HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 ... Anti-PRAME antibody produced in rabbit, Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered ... A therapeutic T cell receptor mimic antibody targets tumor-associated PRAME peptide/HLA-I antigens.. [Aaron Y Chang, Tao Dao, ...
Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants ... Hematological and immunological responses of Nile tilapia after polyvalent vaccine administration by different routes.. ... That vaccine, like most others, works by stimulating the bodys immune system to produce antibodies-substances that defend the ... That way, the agent loses its ability to cause serious illness but is still able to stimulate the body to produce antibodies ...
1991) Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD), 5th Ed.. ... Human monoclonal antibodies reactive to oligodendrocytes promote remyelination in a model of multiple sclerosis. Arthur E. ... Human monoclonal antibodies reactive to oligodendrocytes promote remyelination in a model of multiple sclerosis ... Human monoclonal antibodies reactive to oligodendrocytes promote remyelination in a model of multiple sclerosis ...
CTX increases expression of tumor cell PD-L1; however, when combined with concomitant PD-L1 antibody therapy none of the CTX ... In a second breast cancer model (SP1-AC2M2), CTX140 1q6d again showed clear superiority in anti-tumor effects, causing complete ... We show that in orthotopic models of syngeneic murine triple-negative breast cancer (EMT6), CTX administered at 140 mg/kg every ... The impressive successes of immune checkpoint blockade antibodies to treat various types of cancer are limited to minor subsets ...
Journal of Immunological MethodsCellsAffinityMethodsEnzyme-linkeCorrelates of protectionProduce antibodiesClonesPathogensCytokinesVariety of immunologicalMonoclonal antibodies reactiveImmunizationELISANanomolar binding afCurrent immunologicalPolyclonal antibodiesHumoralTherapeuticReactiveNeutralizeSecretionImmune systemEpitopeBroadly neutraliziTargetsToleranceBindCell-mediatedRecombinant humanPreclinicalElicitAllergicCharacterizationVitroSusceptibilityActivationPhage displayGenerate
- A significant amount of data suggests that immunological activity against small biliary epithelial cells (BECs), found histologically as portal inflammation, leads to clinical disease. (termedia.pl)
- With these models, the significant importance of CD4 + T cells for uveitis pathology was proven with adoptive transfer experiments. (arvojournals.org)
- Lately, spontaneous disease models were established in mice through transgenic expression of retinal proteins or neoantigens, partly accompanied by T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells or by human HLA. (arvojournals.org)
- Here we report that after booster vaccination there was a rapid and robust influenza-specific IgG+ antibody-secreting plasma cell (ASC) response that peaked at approximately day 7 and accounted for up to 6% of peripheral blood B cells. (nih.gov)
- The immunomodulatory potential of microRNA 210 and regulatory T cells in a murine model of chemical sensitization. (cdc.gov)
- An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. (jci.org)
- Studying immunological alterations, such as predominance of Th1/17 or Th2 cells, humoral immunity, and innate immune reactions, may improve understanding the structure of amplification circuits for diabetes in future studies. (hindawi.com)
- My laboratory focuses on the structure of the antibody, the cells responsible for antibody production, and the quality of the antibody for pathogen recognition. (umassd.edu)
- quantifying antibody secretion from individual trout plasma cells. (umassd.edu)
- With the recognition of the immunological activity of the products of dead cells, future studies will define the diversity and properties of nuclear molecules in the extracellular space and develop strategies to block their activity during inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Monoclonal antibodies to prostatic cells, are produced by a hybridoma formed by fusing mouse lymphocytes and mouse myeloma cells. (google.com)
- The monoclonal antibodies exhibit a high level of binding to human prostatic cancer cells and normal prostatic epithelium and are potentially capable of experimental in vivo tumor localization. (google.com)
- Antibodies and immune cells are marked with different colors. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- they subject themselves to an optimization cycle in the lymph node, a process which only a few of them survive, i.e., particular cells that are able to produce better antibody molecules as compared to those that already exist within the body. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The quality of these antibodies is tested in the lymph nodes, and only those cells that are able to prove themselves here receive signals from other immune cells that assure their survival. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This changes in the course of a process that immunologists refer to as somatic hypermutation: B cells mutate those gene segments that determine the design of both the surface molecule and the soluble variation thus influencing how strongly the antibodies attach themselves to the pathogens. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Any neutralizing antibodies present in the serum will bind to the virus and limit its ability to infect the MT-2 cells. (ucsf.edu)
- In logistic regression models, unimpaired phenotype was predicted independently by IL-5 and by CD4(+)CD28(null)CD56(+)CD57(+) T cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells improves impaired cognitive function in a cerebral small vessel disease model. (abcam.com)
- Platelet-rich plasma improves therapeutic effects of menstrual blood-derived stromal cells in rat model of intrauterine adhesion. (abcam.com)
- A young testicular microenvironment protects Leydig cells against age-related dysfunction in a mouse model of premature aging. (abcam.com)
- While human treatments have shown disappointing results such as leukemia or overactive immune response, animal models have shown promising results including almost entire correction of the mutated genome in affected cells. (jyi.org)
- Slowly, it was learned that hosts do develop acquired immunity against helminths, but its mechanism is different from that known for bacterial and viral infections-a complex phenomenon involving antibodies and antibody-induced cells like eosinophils or mast or other cells which are at play in destroying a helminth. (springer.com)
- With this immune system configuration, the activity of antibody-producing immune cells called B cells may be less restricted because they are supported by T follicular helper cells and may be hindered by regulatory T cells. (eatg.org)
- The antitumor effects of this therapy are executed by natural killer (NK) cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). (aacrjournals.org)
- Asthma predisposition in this model is associated with abnormal activation of natural killer (NK) cells. (nationaljewish.org)
- Depletion of these cells using specific antibodies prevents asthma. (nationaljewish.org)
- We study cord blood NK cells and other immune cells with a hope to identify an early-life immunological footprint of asthma predisposition. (nationaljewish.org)
- He subsequently characterised several different types of human and mouse stem cells, and developed many valuable mouse models of human disease with which to demonstrate the potential of stem cells as a cellular therapy. (biologists.org)
- And I went on to determine how to do frozen-section immunohistochemistry without destroying the markers for which we had antibodies, so that we could study the localisation of T cells and B cells in vivo. (biologists.org)
- Creating new tools for antibody production, labeled cells for trafficking studies, etc. (genoway.com)
- Initially described for T cells, there is emerging evidence of unconventional PD-1 expression by myeloid as well as tumor cells, yet, with cell-intrinsic functions in various animal tumor models. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Here, we describe positive PD-1 antibody staining of various murine immune and tumour cells that is, unlike for T cells, not the PD-1 receptor and restricted to cells with low forward scatter characteristics. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Thus, our data provide multiple lines of evidence that PD-1 expression by non-T cells is unlikely to be the case and, taking recent data of PD-1 tumour cell-intrinsic functions into account, suggest that other antibody-mediated pathways might apply. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The humoral branch of the immunological memory is mediated by memory B-cells (mB). (umd.edu)
- The unique interdigitation of Fab domains within an antibody uncovers a previously unappreciated mechanism for high-affinity recognition of carbohydrate or other repeating epitopes on cell or microbial surfaces. (sciencemag.org)
- In this research article, we focus on the broadly neutralizing human antibody 2G12, which binds with nanomolar affinity to gp120. (sciencemag.org)
- Nevertheless, antibody 2G12 binds with high affinity to carbohydrate epitopes on gp120. (sciencemag.org)
- Here, we show a comparative analysis based on 12,634 affinity-purified antibodies generated in a standardized manner against human recombinant protein fragments. (nih.gov)
- We used the immunoglobulin variable regions isolated from sorted single ASCs to produce over 50 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bound to the three influenza vaccine strains with high affinity. (nih.gov)
- The panel of influenza-virus-specific human mAbs allowed us to address the issue of original antigenic sin (OAS): the phenomenon where the induced antibody shows higher affinity to a previously encountered influenza virus strain compared with the virus strain present in the vaccine. (nih.gov)
- With large naive antibody repertoires, bats may control the limited virus replication without the need for rapid affinity maturation, and this may explain why bats typically have low antibody titers to viruses. (frontiersin.org)
- Ye J, Bromage E, Kaattari I, Kaattari S (2011) Transduction of binding affinity by B lymphocytes: A new dimension in immunological regulation. (umassd.edu)
- Barbas CF III and Burton DR (1996) Selection and evolution of high‐affinity human anti‐viral antibodies. (els.net)
- 1994) In vitro evolution of a neutralising human antibody to HIV‐1 to enhance affinity and broaden strain cross‐reactivity. (els.net)
- Yang WP, Green K, Pinz‐Sweeney S, Briones AT, Burton DR and Barbas CF III (1995) CDR walking mutagenesis for the affinity maturation of a potent human anti HIV‐1 antibody into the picomolar range. (els.net)
- Persson MAA, Caothien RH and Burton DR (1991) Generation of diverse high‐affinity human monoclonal antibodies by repertoire cloning. (els.net)
- They demonstrate that their immunization approach produces antibodies with a high affinity for residues 4-10 of human Aβ42. (alzforum.org)
- A high-affinity antibody that can neutralize TLH activity effectively is not available. (asm.org)
- In this study, we successfully expressed and purified the TLH antigen and discovered a high-affinity antibody to TLH, named scFv-LA3, by phage display screening. (asm.org)
- This antibody was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose beads and conjugated to FITC. (abcam.com)
- According to the model, antibody microarrays would not only permit simultaneous screening of an analyte panel, but would also be more sensitive and rapid than conventional screening methods. (wikipedia.org)
- Most antibody array systems employ 1 of 2 non-competitive methods of immunodetection: single-antibody (label-based) detection and 2-antibody (sandwich-based) detection. (wikipedia.org)
- Described are cancer preventive vaccines and methods that elicit circulating antibodies specific to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the body. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Also described are methods for increasing longevity or reducing one or more symptoms of aging in a warm-blooded animal comprising administering anti-IGF-1 antibodies such that IGF-1 is inactivated or suppressed or administering IGF-1 antigen such that the animal produces endogenous antibodies to IGF-1. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The invention provides methods for production of the monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma techniques. (google.com)
- Unlike classical methods for antibody analysis (for example, serum titers), Ig-Seq offers the potential to capture quantitative molecular measurements of immunological phenomena related to clonal selection and expansion, such as clonal frequency, diversity, and somatic hypermutation. (sciencemag.org)
- This paper details methods for developing kinetic models of more complex binding systems. (els.net)
- The degree of environmental contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in experimental model aerosols. (cdc.gov)
- That way, the agent loses its ability to cause serious illness but is still able to stimulate the body to produce antibodies and provide immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- when they detect such an intruder, they produce antibodies that help to combat the enemy. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The antigen either stimulates the cell to produce antibodies or tolerizes it so that it is unable to produce antibodies. (oregonstate.edu)
- 1981. Murine T lymphocyte clones with distinct immunological functions. (springer.com)
- We used this intraclonal diversity index along with antibody frequencies and somatic hypermutation to build a logistic regression model for prediction of the immunological status of clones. (sciencemag.org)
- Based on flow cytometry and various approaches, including two established murine anti-PD-1 antibody clones, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and confocal imaging, we describe a staining pattern assigned to a nuclear antigen cross-reacting with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Pre-existing neutralizing antibody provides the first line of defence against pathogens in general. (nih.gov)
- The highly polymorphic nature of the antibody binding domain allows them to recognize billions of different pathogens. (umassd.edu)
- Cotton rats are an important animal model to study infectious diseases because of their unique susceptibility towards human pathogens. (osu.edu)
- Whereas mice and rats are often not susceptible to human pathogens, replicate them at low levels or require rodent-adapted pathogen strains, the cotton rat has proven susceptible to a wide variety of human pathogens and to be a model system to simulate a number of important parameters of human disease. (osu.edu)
- Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus): an animal model for respiratory tract infections with human pathogens. (osu.edu)
- Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), cytokines, blood factors, growth factors and hormones have become an important class of drugs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In addition, roles of cytokines in the protective immunity was studied using animal models of inbred mice and monkeys. (nii.ac.jp)
- The study demonstrates that a propensity scale might be useful for prediction of antibody response generated by immunization of recombinant protein fragments. (nih.gov)
- 5. The composition of claim 3, wherein when said composition is used for the immunization of a mammal, results in the formation of an immune complex comprising the antibodies to the composition of claim 3 and IGF-1. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This study will serve as a model for future HIV vaccine trials and will provide information on the effectiveness of outreach programs for increasing immunization among drug users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Combined with the adverse events noted in 5 percent of the patient population, this would suggest passive immunization approaches-a reversible therapy with known amounts of antibody-would be the most prudent next step in testing the immunotherapy approach to AD. (alzforum.org)
- Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). (biomedcentral.com)
- A large number of chemokine and cytokine genes have been cloned and ELISA and other antibody based systems are commercially available through R&D Systems. (osu.edu)
- These antibodies can bind to Aβ in the plasma (or CSF) and, if they are present, can potentially block binding of other antibodies used in the ELISA. (alzforum.org)
- By immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA this antibody reacts specifically with Rat IgA. (abcam.com)
- Subobjective 1.A (Hill): Refine and validate the TgERP ELISA (Toxoplasma gondii Embryogenesis Related Protein) and a Luminex bead-based immunoassay for use in human and veterinary models. (usda.gov)
- If these subjects generated antibodies, they were polyclonal antibodies. (alzforum.org)
- Present study was performed by using anti-P.falicparum polyclonal antibodies taken from individuals in the endemic tropical areas and also from patients who developed falciparum malaria in Japan. (nii.ac.jp)
- Screening was processed by using high titered polyclonal antibodies and the monoclonal antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
- Tanaka A, Leung P, Young H, Gershwin M. Therapeutic and immunological interventions in primary biliary cholangitis: from mouse models to humans. (termedia.pl)
- Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. (jci.org)
- 1 Despite their clinical and commercial successes, however, an ongoing concern with the use of therapeutic proteins is their potential immunogenicity, i.e., some patients receiving these drugs produce anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) which may be associated with various potential clinical consequences. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
- In addition, therapeutic agents are conjugated to the antibodies to provide cancer specific drug delivery. (wustl.edu)
- Atopic Dermatitis Host and Environment Model: Revisiting Therapeutic Options. (medworm.com)
- We will captalize on our unique HVP system and our novel modRNA technology to deliver therapeutic strategies by using the in vivo human ventricular muscle to model in vivo arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, and optimize the ability of the graft to compensate for the massive loss of functional muscle during ischemic cardiomyopathy and post-myocardial infarction. (europa.eu)
- If the antibody encounters an antigen, it either binds it to neutralize it, or it sends out an alarm to other players within the immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Another important use of animals comes in the development of selective antibodies that can neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (jdsupra.com)
- Animal models have been particularly popular, because, unlike in silico and in vitro models, they provide an intact immune system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These data include virological and immunological information that enable us to fit a mathematical model describing how the virus interacts with the host immune system. (plos.org)
- Immunological memory is the hallmark of the adaptive immune system. (umd.edu)
- Here, we sought to determine the molecular basis for how the antibody response neutralizes NiV by targeting the surface-displayed fusion glycoprotein, NiV-F. Our structural study reveals a neutralizing antibody epitope at the membrane-distal portion of the prefusion trimeric NiV-F, which is well conserved across known NiV strains. (pnas.org)
- A molecular understanding of the binding of these broadly neutralizing antibodies to their cognate envelope epitopes should facilitate rational HIV-1 vaccine design. (sciencemag.org)
- People living with HIV who naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that may help suppress the virus have different immunological profiles than people who do not, researchers report. (eatg.org)
- Publications] Chavin K.D.: 'Combined anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 receptor monoclonal antibodies induce donor-specific tolerance in a cardiac transplant model. (nii.ac.jp)
- 1996) Circumventing tolerance to generate autologous monoclonal antibodies to the prion protein. (els.net)
- Other challenges include producing a "pure" enzyme, the body making antibodies against the enzyme, anaphylactic (allergic) reactions and tolerance development (the drug will, at one point, stop working). (bdsra.org)
- Irv Weissman began his career in Great Falls, Montana, studying immunological tolerance in a small research lab. (biologists.org)
- This was in 1956 or 1957, around the same time that Billingham, Brent and Medawar had just published a fantastic paper on immunological tolerance, and I began repeating their experiments on my own. (biologists.org)
- The antibodies bind selectively to human Aβ42 protofibrils and can prevent fibrillogenesis of Aβ in vitro. (alzforum.org)
- The Hallahan laboratory has identified several peptides and over a dozen monoclonal antibodies that bind to cancer following treatment with ionizing radiation. (wustl.edu)
- Can we rule out some nonspecific immunological reactions that cause improvement independent of the ability of the antibodies to bind to Aβ? (alzforum.org)
- 1981. Inhibition of T cell-mediated cytolysis by monoclonal antibodies directed against Lyt-2: Heterogeneity of inhibition at the clonal level. (springer.com)
- We compared the immunoadjuvant effects of IL15 with those of IL2 for enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- New technologies together with this new knowledge have given birth to the next generation of vaccines, adoptive cellular therapies and T cell modulating agents, all of which are being investigated in preclinical models and in patients. (keystonesymposia.org)
- In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, several different preclinical in silico models 13 - 15 , in vitro models 13 - 19 and in vivo models 14 , 15 , 20 - 22 have been developed by a number of groups to study protein immunogenicity, and especially the relative contributions of product-related factors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These preclinical data suggest that the syndrome of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease results from a combination of poorly protective antibodies that produce immune complex deposition together with a T helper cell 2 (T H 2)-biased immune response. (sciencemag.org)
- RESULTS: We find that SLIT treatment was able to suppress allergen-induced AHR, while allergic inflammation was not effectively suppressed even at the highest GP dose in this model. (rug.nl)
- Furthermore, we plan to develop additional models that will examine the transgenerational effects of other environmental exposures and allergic diseases themselves. (nationaljewish.org)
- Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to IgM of Pacific Herring ( Clupea pallasii ). (umassd.edu)
- Characterization of anti-trout CD3e monoclonal antibodies. (umassd.edu)
- One approach to the identification and characterization of such putative receptors is thus to make antisera (or monoclonal antibodies) against CTL and test these reagents for their ability to block cytolytic function. (springer.com)
- Publishing as a "Hot Paper" in the leading chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition ( 'An Accurate In Vitro Model of the E. coli Envelope' ), the authors describe the creation in the laboratory of the model bacterial outer membrane. (nanowerk.com)
- A novel in vitro co-culture model to examine contact formation between astrocytic processes and cerebral vessels. (abcam.com)
- We investigated whether the susceptibility is associated with abnormalities in the immunological defense and further explored the linkage to vaginal microbiota. (asm.org)
- In conclusion, immunological defects and a persistently aberrant microbiota, a lack of lactobacilli in particular, may contribute to susceptibility to recurrent UTI. (asm.org)
- We find the model captures the data well, and that both target cell depletion and immune activation are required to explain the overall dynamics. (plos.org)
- Upon TCR activation, these vesicles moved to the immunological synapse (the contact region between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell). (sciencemag.org)
- This thesis examines the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in mB activation using an immunized mouse model. (umd.edu)
- Expression of antibody fragments by phage display. (els.net)
- A schematic representation of the expression of Fab and scFv antibody fragments using phage display. (els.net)
- Rader C, Cheresh DA and Barbas CF III (1998) A phage display approach for rapid antibody humanisation: Designed combinatorial V gene libraries. (els.net)
- Rader C and Barbas III CF (1997) Phage display of combinatorial antibody libraries. (els.net)
- Could it be that they had found a way to generate antibodies to Aβ without provoking a neuroinflammatory Th1 response? (alzforum.org)
- As pointed out in the accompanying commentary by Winblad and Blum, the control group, which is really N=6 who received placebo or N=10 total who did not generate "antibodies," is very small. (alzforum.org)