The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
"Are there altered antibody responses to measles, mumps, or rubella viruses in autism?". Journal of Neurovirology. 13 (3): 252- ... according to measles experts, the test that Singh had used to detect measles antibodies didn't actually detect them." A 2006 ... Singh, V. K.; Lin, S. X.; Yang, V. C. (1998). "Serological Association of Measles Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 with Brain ... Singh, V. K.; Lin, S. X.; Newell, E.; Nelson, C. (2002). "Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in ...
Serum and CSF contain elevated levels of measles virus antibodies. Anti-measles IgG appears to increase as the disease ... the number of reported cases is declining since the introduction of the measles vaccine-eradication of the measles virus ... SSPE is caused by the wild-type virus, not by vaccine strains. SSPE is characterized by a history of primary measles infection ... SSPE should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can also be caused by the measles virus, but has a ...
... of commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with plaque reduction neutralization test for detection of measles virus antibody". J. ... This is incubated to allow the antibody to react with the virus. This is poured over a confluent monolayer of host cells. The ... Depending on the virus, the plaque forming units are measured by microscopic observation, fluorescent antibodies or specific ... The plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titer of neutralizing antibody for a virus. The serum sample ...
Some patients may not mount protective antibody titers to other vaccines, such as measles and varicella zoster virus. T cell ... and may be more susceptible to certain viruses including Epstein-Barr virus, BK virus, and molluscum contagiosum. BENTA disease ... Patients demonstrate defective antibody production against T cell-independent, polysaccharide-based vaccines. ...
"Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in Patients with Giant-Cell Pneumonia after Measles". The New ... "Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in Patients with Giant-Cell Pneumonia after Measles" ... Overall, Mitus published at least 9 peer-reviewed journal articles on measles and the measles virus. On October 1, 1961, John ... The main conclusion from this paper was that in a proportion of giant-cell pneumonia cases, the measles virus was found to be ...
Of the panel of human viruses studied, measles, influenza A, and parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3 were found in some of the studied ... In 2001, scientists noticed that antibodies peculiar to humans were found in macaque monkeys, both wild and domesticated. ... In 2006, scientists noticed HPT of measles, rubella, and parainfluenza in the case of performing monkeys, who are "a common ... Schillaci, M. A.; Jones-Engel, L.; Engel, G. A.; Kyes, R. C. (2006). "Exposure to human respiratory viruses among urban ...
Laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or detection of measles virus ... Once the measles virus gets onto the mucosa, it infects the epithelial cells in the trachea or bronchi. Measles virus uses a ... Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus ... Results from additional studies that show the measles virus can kill cells that make antibodies were published in November 2019 ...
... the team found that the virus had erased 11-73% of their antibodies against other bacteria and viruses. ...The kids who ... Melanie's Marvelous Measles was written in 2012, but because of measles outbreaks across America in 2015, attention has been ... "Measles Fact sheet N°286". November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015. GRIFFIN, ASHLEY HAGEN (18 May 2019). "Measles and ... This is caused by the measles virus wiping out parts of the body's immune system's memory. "Two months after the unvaccinated ...
... measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis A, ... Weber MS, Derfuss T, Brück W (2018). "Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Central Nervous System ... An upper bound for the risk of ADEM from measles vaccination, if it exists, can be estimated to be 10 per million, which is far ... PMID 28665957.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Fisher, DL; Defres, S; Solomon, T (2015). "Measles-induced ...
... measles vaccine expressing a dengue tetravalent antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue viruses". ... The previous antibodies to the old strain of dengue virus now interfere with the immune response to the current strain, leading ... The corresponding antibodies are, therefore, assumed to bind to alternate or transitional conformations of the virus at 37 °C. ... The murine antibody 2H12 cross-reacts with all four DENV serotypes. It neutralizes the corresponding viruses, except DENV2. Its ...
Laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus ... Once the measles virus gets onto the mucosa, it infects the epithelial cells in the trachea or bronchi.[40][41] Measles virus ... Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus ... Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.[3][9] Symptoms usually develop 10-12 days after ...
Each IgG antibody has two paratopes. Antibodies are major components of humoral immunity. IgG is the main type of antibody ... By binding many kinds of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, IgG protects the body from infection. It does this ... A common example of this practice are titers drawn to demonstrate serologic immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), ... IgG antibodies are generated following class switching and maturation of the antibody response, thus they participate ...
Despite the variety of measles genotypes, there is only one measles serotype. Antibodies to measles bind to the hemagglutinin ... The virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. The measles virus ... It is the cause of measles. Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. The virus ... The measles virus evolved from the now eradicated but formerly widespread rinderpest virus, which infected cattle. Sequence ...
... which in the PCR testing had appeared to be measles virus material, was in fact not measles virus material, but human genetic ... We have recently tested anti-measles antibodies in children with ASD and found no differences with control children." Another ... order to determine whether the PCR testing using the Uhlmann primers was truly identifying measles virus and only measles virus ... However, Ward stated in his expert report that "Unless virtually all cases of autism are caused by measles virus (a position ...
Measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) Oncolytic AAV Oncovirus, virus that can cause ... A modified oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding a single-chain anti-VEGF antibody (mimicking Bevacizumab) was shown to have ... A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus, and vaccinia have been ... This approach has been used successfully preclinically with adenovirus, measles virus and vaccinia virus. Talimogene ...
The encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), group B ... YS5 has been developed into an antibody-drug conjugate, FOR46, which is currently in a phase I clinical trial (NCT03575819) for ... Therefore, a vaccine made of the Edmonston strain of measles virus could treat the medulloblastoma. Such a vaccine has already ... Dörig RE, Marcil A, Richardson CD (September 1994). "CD46, a primate-specific receptor for measles virus". Trends Microbiol. 2 ...
The fictional MEV-1 virus featured in the 2011 film Contagion was based on a combination of Nipah and measles virus. Coalition ... After recovery, IgG and IgM antibody detection can confirm a prior Nipah virus infection. Immunohistochemistry on tissues ... The Nipah virus (NiV) is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus. The virus normally circulates among specific types of ... A Nipah virus infection is a viral infection caused by the Nipah virus. Symptoms from infection vary from none to fever, cough ...
Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile virus Measles Epstein-Barr virus Varicella-zoster virus Enterovirus Herpes simplex virus type ... Antibodies targeting amyloid beta peptide proteins which have been used during research on Alzheimer's disease. Anti-N-methyl-D ... Definite diagnosis - besides the above, the following are needed: CSF: HSV-antigen, HSV-Antibody, brain biopsy or pathology: ... 2008). "Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and ...
Screening consists of a blood test that detects anti-hepatitis C virus antibody. If anti-hepatitis C virus antibody is present ... or by viruses (such as hepatitis A, Epstein-Barr virus, or measles). Autoimmune hepatitis can present anywhere within the ... Therefore, when a patient is positive for IgG antibody but negative for IgM antibody, he is considered immune from the virus ... anti-viral antibodies (such as the anti-hepatitis B surface antibody or anti-hepatitis A antibody), or viral DNA/RNA. In early ...
Viral agents include measles, mumps, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, influenza virus, and ... Monoclonal antibodies e.g. rituximab (anti-CD20) and eculizumab (anti-C5) have been used but the therapeutic benefits are ... As a weak, biphasic antibody, it absorbs to the P antigen in the cold temperature as in the periphery in the primary phase, and ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Warm-antibody type Primary Secondary (lymphoproliferative disorders, autoimmune disorders) Cold- ...
Polio, measles, varicella-zoster, rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2, maternal genital infections, Borna disease virus, and ... The relevance of some auto-antibodies that act against the NMDAR and VGKC is being studied. Current estimates suggest that ... Torrey EF, Bartko JJ, Lun ZR, Yolken RH (May 2007). "Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta- ... In a meta-analysis of several studies, they found moderately higher levels of Toxoplasma antibodies in those with schizophrenia ...
... virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by rubella virus, but these antibodies can ... Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often ... Frey TK (1994). "Molecular biology of rubella virus". Advances in Virus Research Volume 44. Adv. Virus Res. Advances in Virus ... Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine. Testing the blood for antibodies may also be useful ...
8.0 8.1 Demicheli V. et al (2005). "Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 19 (4). ... It gives immunity to an infectious disease caused by a particular germ (bacteria or virus). For example, the flu vaccine makes ... This means that their immune systems just do not create antibodies to fight off a disease, even after they are vaccinated ... When a person gets a live vaccine, their immune system learns to recognize and fight off that virus or bacteria. Then, if the ...
The antibody is specific to a particular disease or antigen. An example of this is measles which is a virus. A person usually a ... this cause the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. If this person is exposed to the same virus in the future ... A person can be infected by infectious agents like bacteria, viruses or fungus. Disease can also be caused by eating bad or old ... This is why epidemiology takes a huge part in understanding how to protect ourselves against viruses, toxins and bacteria.[3] ...
... syphilis Coxsackievirus A9 Cytomegalovirus Epstein-Barr virus Influenza A Measles Mumps Parvovirus Varicella zoster virus ... a cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemias (CAAHA). In most patients with DLHA, the antibody selectively targets against the ... Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A, measles, mumps, and varicella might be shown positive. It's up to the underlying pathological ... D-L antibodies are most commonly targeted against P antigens than I antigens and others expressed on the RBC membrane. The D-L ...
Her testimony in this trial pertained to the alleged mechanism by which the measles virus from the MMR vaccine, in combination ... Embleton, M. J.; Gunn, B.; Byers, V. S.; Baldwin, R. W. (1981). "Antitumour reactions of monoclonal antibody against a human ... While at UCSF, she helped develop a monoclonal antibody for use as an anticancer treatment, specifically against osteogenic ... also using a monoclonal antibody. Her work as a medical toxicologist pertaining to trichloroethylene features in the book A ...
Other causes of acute viral encephalitis are rabies virus, poliovirus, and measles virus. Additional possible viral causes are ... Antibody-mediated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis and Rasmussen encephalitis are examples of autoimmune ... lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipavirus infections. The Powassan virus is a rare ... Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Other ...
... of virus infections and produce many special molecules called antibodies. These antibodies attach to viruses and stop the virus ... Other viruses, such as measles virus, caused outbreaks regularly every third year. In developing countries, viruses that cause ... Antibodies are highly selective and attack only one type of virus. The body makes many different antibodies, especially during ... When a virus infects a cell, the virus forces it to make thousands more viruses. It does this by making the cell copy the ...
This was due to the HIV virus fragment used as a molecular clamp leading to "a partial antibody response" to HIV. This is an ... measles, HIV, influenza, ebola and RSV. Researchers at University of Queensland are trying to make a vaccine using this method ... On a virus, pre-fusion proteins on their surface provide an attractive target for an immune reaction. However, if these ... The virus protein (or part of it) in combination with the clamp polypeptide is called a chimeric polypeptide. Pre-fusion ...
... even though it can also occur with measles virus, parainfluenza virus and mumps virus, among others. Subsequently, more related ... consists of mixing virus samples with serum dilutions so that antibodies have already binded the virus by the time RBCs are ... Measles hemagglutinin: a hemagglutinin produced by measles virus[circular reference] which encodes six structural proteins, of ... Encoding the Measles Virus Hemagglutinin and Fusion Proteins Protects Juvenile and Infant Rhesus Macaques against Measles Virus ...
... or detecting antibodies against the virus in a person's blood.[98] Isolating the virus by cell culture, detecting the viral RNA ... measles, and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio. For this ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ...
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Intracellular and cytoplasmic virus. *influenza. *mumps. *measles. *rhinovirus. yes. no. yes Intracellular bacteria. *Listeria ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts. In these forms of ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ...
The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ... which are a major factor in other childhood diseases such as measles and pertussis, may also play a role in the flu. A ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ...
These observations suggest that although TLR activation can lead to increases in antibody responses, TLR activation is not ... an immune signal that promotes antibody production. Alum adheres to the cell's plasma membrane and rearranges certain lipids ... "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling". Science. 314 (5807): 1936-8. Bibcode ... "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (9): 1010- ...
This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... Antibody responses in humans to an inactivated hantavirus vaccine (Hantavax). Vaccine. 1999;17:2569-75. ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear.[1] ...
"Prevalence of antibodies to Vaccinia virus after smallpox vaccination in Italy". J. Gen. Virol. 86 (Pt 11): 2955-60. doi: ... Vaccination during the Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control Program in Niger, February 1969 ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
... measure antibodies produced by an organism's immune system that are made to neutralize and allow the destruction of the virus. ... The introduction of smallpox, measles, and typhus to the areas of Central and South America by European explorers during the ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ...
Varicella zoster virus -. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Hemagglutinin. Measles InteractionsEdit. Protein-protein interactionsEdit. TLR ... B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. Cytokines ... These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" ... In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired ...
"Reduced secretory antibody response to live attenuated measles and poliovirus vaccines in malnourished children". Br Med J 2 ( ... Raznovrstni simptomi se lahko pojavijo, kadar virus zaide v krvni obtok.[21] Pri okoli 1 % bolnikov virus zaide v osrednje ... Otroško paralizo je kot posebno bolezen prvi prepoznal Jakob Heine leta 1840.[3] Povzročitelja, virus otroške paralize ( ... Sauerbrei A; Groh A; Bischoff A; Prager J; Wutzler P (2002). "Antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases in pregnant women ...
... function to protect the host by producing antibodies that identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses.[6] ... For example, someone who recovers from measles is now protected against measles for their lifetime; in other cases it does not ... Opsonization: Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis. *Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Antibodies ... Passive - Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or infant via the mother's milk.. Passive - Preformed antibodies in ...
An immunoassay measures the levels of antibodies against the virus that give immunity to a person. If the levels of antibodies ... This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... a preparation containing high titres of antibodies to varicella zoster virus, to ward off the disease.[45][46] ...
Measles# · Mumps# (Mumpsvax) · Polio# (Salk, Sabin) · Rabies# · Rotavirus# · Rubella# · Smallpox (Dryvax) · Varicella zoster ( ... Virus-like particle · Conjugate vaccine · DNA vaccination ...
Vaccines exist for viruses such as the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the influenza virus.[30] Some viruses such as ... Treating the symptoms of a viral infection gives the host immune system time to develop antibodies against the viral pathogen ... Examples of viruses that undergo this process are herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[44] ... VirusesEdit. Main article: Virus. Viruses are small particles, typically between 20 and 300 nanometers in length,[15] ...
Blood tests to detect antibodies to virus exist. Treatment[edit]. Kaposi's sarcoma is usually a localized tumor that can be ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ... When the virus enters into lytic replication, thousands of virus particles can be made from a single cell, which usually ... When the virus reactivates into lytic replication, it is believed that the virus genome is replicated as a continuous linear ...
A federal lawsuit was filed by a scientist claiming infection by a genetically modified virus while working for Pfizer which ... In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives and personnel ... PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, CS1001.[58] In October, Pfizer announced it had acquired Arixa Pharmaceuticals.[59] ... "Ex-Pfizer Worker Cites Genetically Engineered Virus In Lawsuit Over Firing". March 14, 2010. Archived from the ...
Baldridge JR, Buchmeier MJ (1992). "Mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... Pada abad ke-10, dokter Iran Al-Razi merupakan orang pertama yang membedakan antara cacar (smallpox) dan campak (measles) dan ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L. (2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. PMID 16732482.. ... Kebanyakan vaksin virus berasal dari virus yang dilemahkan, sedangkan banyak vaksin bakteri berasal dari komponen aseluler dari ...
Measles vaccine coverage and reported measles cases in Eastern Mediterranean countries. As coverage increased, the number of ... This can occur naturally, whereby maternal antibodies, primarily immunoglobulin G antibodies, are transferred across the ... Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa). Bodily fluids. 1.5-2.5[54]. 33-60% ... Measles cases in the United States before and after mass vaccination against measles began. ...
വൈറസുകൾ (Viruses). ഇൻഫ്ലുവെൻസ വൈറസ്, പാരാ ഇൻഫ്ലുവെൻസ വൈറസ്, അഡിനോവൈറസ്, ശ്വാസകോശ സിൻസീഷ്യൽ വൈറസ്, റൈനോവൈറസ്, മീസിൽ‌സ് വൈറസ്( ... വില്ലൻചുമ (Pertussis), മണ്ണൻ (Measles) തുടങ്ങിയവയ്ക്ക് കാരണമാകുന്ന വൈറസുകൾക്ക് എതിരേയും പ്രതിരോധകുത്തിവയ്പ്പുകൾ നൽകുന്നത് ... പ്രതിരോധപൂരകങ്ങളും (complements) ഇമ്മ്യുണോഗ്ലോബുലിൻ പ്രതിദ്രവ്യങ്ങളും (antibodies) ചേർന്നാണ് ഇവയെ ആദ്യ ഘട്ടത്തിൽ "പൊതിയുകയും" ... Cordero E, Pachón J, Rivero A, et al.Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in human
Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus ... Samoa measles (2019-present). *Philippine measles (2019-present). *Pacific NW measles (2019) ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ...
The antibody is specific to a particular disease or antigen. An example of this is measles which is a virus. A person usually a ... this cause the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. If this person is exposed to the same virus in the future ... A person can be infected by infectious agents like bacteria, viruses or fungus. Disease can also be caused by eating bad or old ... If a person had been sick before and had recovered, the immune system produce a substance called antibodies which fight the ...
Two other herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4 and varicella zoster virus/HHV-3) and the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae ... the body produces antibodies of the IgA class; only a small proportion of people also produce IgG antibodies against bacterial ... tetanus or measles, have not been associated with a risk of GBS.[9] ... An antibody targeted against the anti-GD3 antiganglioside antibody has shown benefit in laboratory research.[15] Given the role ...
... measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, chickenpox vaccine). In this system, viruses are grown in closed systems such as bioreactors ... The researchers used a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:40, a fourfold or more increase in antibody titer, to define adequate ... The second problem is this: there are two circulating clades of virus[when?], clade 1 is the virus originally isolated in ... Current[when?] vaccine research is focussed on clade 1 viruses, but the clade 2 virus is antigenically distinct and a clade 1 ...
When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and ... Asaria P, MacMahon E. Measles in the United Kingdom: can we eradicate it by 2010?. BMJ. 2006;333(7574):890-5. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
... we mean the removal of antigens from the surface of cells by specific antibody. The result is to render such cells resistant to ... Fujinami R.S., Oldstone M.B.A. (1984) Antibody Initiates Virus Persistence: Immune Modulation and Measles Virus Infection. In: ... Alterations in expression of measles virus polypeptides by antibody: Molecular events in antibody-induced antigenic modulation ... Joseph BS, Oldstone MBA (1974) Antibody-induced redistribution of measles virus antigens on the cell surface. J Immunol 113: ...
p class=db_paraghraph,Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus ... Immunoreactive with sera of Measles Virus infected individuals.. Background. Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus ... To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified. Measles virus (MV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative- ... Acris Antibodies Inc. (North America) Choose this store if you are located in… *America (e.g. United-States, Canada, Mexico, ...
p class=db_paraghraph,Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus ... AR10680PU-S Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase (2059-2183) Search for all "Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase" ... Immunoreactive with sera of Measles Virus infected individuals.. Background. Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus ... Product Description for Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase. Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase.. Presentation: Purified ...
Viremia, virus excretion, and antibody responses after challenge in volunteers with low levels of antibody to rubella virus. J ... Calibration and Evaluation of Quantitative Antibody Titers for Measles Virus by Using the BioPlex 2200. Todd F. Hatchette, ... Comparison of the neutralizing and ELISA antibody titers to measles virus in human sera and in gamma globulin preparations. Med ... Vaccinated students with negative enzyme immunoassay results show positive measles virus-specific antibody levels by ...
A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus ... A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus ... A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus ... A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus ...
Measles-neutralizing serum antibody concentrations in infants.A total of 40.2% of infants (140/348) had measles antibody ... PRN assay to determine measles-neutralizing serum antibodies.Measles antibodies were measured by a plaque reduction ... Kinetics of Decline of Maternal Measles Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies in Sera of Infants in France in 2006. Arnaud Gagneur, ... Factors determining prevalence of maternal antibody to measles virus throughout infancy: a review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:110- ...
Goat Measles Virus Nucleoprotein Polyclonal Antibody (MBS536480) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. ... Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody. Product Synonym Names Polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein; Anti-Measles Virus ... Goat polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody Product Categories/Family for anti-Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody ... Antibody Measles Virus Nucleoprotein Polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ...
... on 2-mercaptoethanol sensitive and resistant antibodies. by Mariko Arai et al. ... Immunoglobulins on measles vaccine inoculation or measles virus infection--particularly, ... Measles vaccination in presence of maternal measles antibodies confers Nonspecific beneficial effects on child survival. ... Immunoglobulins on measles vaccine inoculation or measles virus infection--particularly, on 2-mercaptoethanol sensitive and ...
Measles virus infection diminishes preexisting antibodies that offer protection from other pathogens Journal: Science ... Measles virus infection diminishes preexisting antibodies that offer protection from other pathogens ... They found that the infection erased 11-73% of antibodies against other bacteria and viruses that were present before the ... The researchers confirmed that measles induces a kind of immune amnesia by experimentally infecting monkeys with the virus and ...
Two stable clones produce antibody with identical immunochemical and biological properties. This antibody reacts with the 76000 ... protein present in the lysates and on the surface of cells persistently infected with measles. It exhibits HAI and neutralizing ... Summary A hybrid between a murine myeloma cell line and spleen cells from a mouse immunized with measles has been produced. ... Monospecific Antibody to the Haemagglutinin of Measles Virus * D. E. McFarlin, W. J. Bellini, E. S. Mingioli, T. N. Behar and A ...
Description: Analysis for antibody to Rubeola (measles virus). Year. Records. Unique Providers. Minimum Cost. Average Cost. ... The general guidance for this code is that it is used for analysis for antibody to rubeola (measles virus). Below you will find ...
The partners will develop vaccine candidates based on Themis measles virus vector-based platform. The vaccines are designed to ... Applying the Bioprocessing 4.0 Paradigm to Antibody Glycosylation. Bioprocessing 3i Establishes a Single-Use Bioprocessing ...
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Test Code ROGM Measles (Rubeola) Virus Antibody, IgM and IgG (Separate Determinations), Serum Reporting Name. Measles (Rubeola ... Determination of immune status of individuals to the measles virus using IgG antibody testing ... Documentation of previous infection with measles virus in an individual without a previous record of immunization to measles ...
... but it still induced protective antibody to measles in the absence of MV-specific antibody. However, its ability to induce MV- ... neutralizing antibodies in the presence of passively transferred MV-specific antibodies and its protective capacity was ... recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the MV haemagglutinin (VSV-H) was found previously to induce neutralizing ... specific antibodies, vaccine-induced seroconversion and subsequent protection is inhibited in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). ...
Virus Vaccine Live, Refrigerator-stable formulation) intended for persons living in Australia. ... antibodies to destroy the virus. However, as with all vaccines, 100% protection against measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox ... ProQuad contains weakened strains of living measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses. These strains of live viruses cause ... The active ingredients of ProQuad are weakened strains of measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and varicella viruses. ...
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Objectives: To evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well ... and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the ... which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses. ... which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses. ...
Measles Virus Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Antibody Titers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum. ... Norrby E, Link H, Olsson J. Measles Virus Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Antibody Titers in Cerebrospinal ... Measles antibodies may be produced in the central nervous system by activated latent virus infections in some patients with MS. ... Anti-body titers against different measles virus components were measured. As a reference, levels of adenovirus and poliovirus ...
Affects Host Immune Status New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth and titers of preexisting antibodies ... Measles virus infection diminishes preexisting antibodies that offer protection from other pathogens.. November 18, 2019 at 7: ... Measles Virus Infection Negatively Affects Host Immune Status. New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth ... Measles virus infects immune cells, causing acute immune suppression. To identify and quantify long-term effects of measles on ...
IgG antibodies to measles virus, in high titres, were detected in 52.1 per cent and IgM antibodies in 31.3 per cent of the ... Most of the infants with IgM antibodies to measles virus had not suffered from an attack of measles. A history of contact with ... IgG and IgM class of antibodies to measles virus were estimated in the plasma samples of 211 unvaccinated infants living under ... Among these infants with such a contact history, 82.1 per cent had IgM antibodies to measles virus. These observations suggest ...
Oncolytic measles viruses displaying a single-chain antibody against CD38, a myeloma cell marker. / Peng, Kah Whye; Donovan, ... Oncolytic measles viruses displaying a single-chain antibody against CD38, a myeloma cell marker. Blood. 2003 Apr 1;101(7):2557 ... title = "Oncolytic measles viruses displaying a single-chain antibody against CD38, a myeloma cell marker", ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Oncolytic measles viruses displaying a single-chain antibody against CD38, a ...
Cut-off levels for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella virus antibody concentrations are 150 m IU/mL, 5 EU/mL and 4 IU/mL ... Secondary: Number of subjects who achieved a 4-fold or greater rise in anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella virus antibody ... Secondary: Number of subjects who achieved a 4-fold or greater rise in anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella virus antibody ... Number of subjects who achieved a 4-fold or greater rise in anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella virus antibody ...
Measles antibody levels. Predictors of adequate measles antibody levels and inadequate measles antibody levels. ... RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Antibodies. Immunoglobulins. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Immunity to Measles Virus in the Thai Population Age 18-30 Years and Predictive Factors. The safety and scientific validity of ... measles. antibody. prevalence. predictors. Donor of National Blood Centre, The Thai Red Cross Society who age 18-30 years old. ...
keywords = "Antibody-enhanced infection, Measles virus, Microglial cells",. author = "Iankov, {Ianko D.} and Penheiter, {Alan R ... Neutralization capacity of measles virus H protein specific IgG determines the balance between antibody-enhanced infectivity ... Neutralization capacity of measles virus H protein specific IgG determines the balance between antibody-enhanced infectivity ... Neutralization capacity of measles virus H protein specific IgG determines the balance between antibody-enhanced infectivity ...
Measles virus, an ssRNA virus, continues to cause serious morbidity and mortality worldwide despite available measles vaccines ... CD46 measles virus receptor polymorphisms influence receptor protein expression and primary measles vaccine responses in naive ... Measles virus causes severe morbidity and mortality, despite the availability of measles vaccines. Successful defence against ... Slam and dc-sign measles receptor polymorphisms and their impact on antibody and cytokine responses to measles vaccine ...
Measles virus, an ssRNA virus, continues to cause serious morbidity and mortality worldwide despite available measles vaccines ... associations with functional effects and cellular and antibody responses to measles virus and vaccine.. Clifford HD1, Yerkovich ... measles-specific cellular responses or measles vaccine antibody responses. ... None of the TLR7 or TLR8 polymorphisms studied were associated with measles-specific cytokine levels or with measles IgG levels ...
Neutralizing antibodies directed against measles virus (MV) surface glycoproteins prevent viral. Posted on May 28, 2017. by ... Neutralizing antibodies directed against measles virus (MV) surface glycoproteins prevent viral attachment and entry through ... Human being serum antibodies Serum examples used in the analysis was gathered from Abdominal(+) bloodstream group healthful ... Computer virus neutralization (VN) test Neutralizing titer against MV of MAbs was assessed by plaque-reduction ...
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Percentage of Participants With Measles Virus Antibody Levels ,=255 mIU/mL. *Percentage of Participants With Mumps Virus ... Coadministration of Measles-rubella and Rotavirus Vaccines. *Measles Antibody Seroconversion. *Rubella Antibody Seroconversion ... Number of Seroconverted Subjects for Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Antibodies. *Antibody Concentrations Against Measles ... Number of Subjects Seroconverted for Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Antibodies Above the Cut-off ...
  • Worldwide measles virus (MV) vaccination prevents an estimated 80 million cases and 4.5 million deaths annually ( 45 ) with minimal severe adverse effects, on average less than 10 in 1 million doses ( 34 ). (
  • The optimal age for measles vaccination is an important health issue, since maternal antibodies may neutralize the vaccine antigen before a specific immune response develops, while delaying vaccination may increase the risk of complicated diseases in infants. (
  • However, measles vaccination impacts the duration of protection afforded by transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies: vaccination-induced maternal antibodies disappear faster than disease-induced antibodies. (
  • Results show that after more than 20 years of routine measles vaccination in France, maternal measles-neutralizing antibodies decrease dramatically in French infants by 6 months of age, from 1,740 mIU/ml for infants 0 to 1 month old to 223 mIU/ml for infants 5 to 6 months old, and that 90% of infants are not protected against measles after 6 months of age. (
  • Infant protection against measles could be optimized both by increasing herd immunity through an increased vaccine coverage and by lowering the age of routine vaccination from 12 to 9 months. (
  • Large-scale measles vaccination has led to a dramatic decrease in measles incidence and deaths from measles worldwide ( 54 ). (
  • Although the measles vaccine was licensed in France in 1966, it was not included in the vaccination schedule until 1983, as a bivalent vaccine in combination with rubella, and then in 1986, as a trivalent measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine for infants 12 to 15 months old. (
  • In case, the IgG antibody is detected then it means the patient might have Rubella infection in the past or has been given vaccination for the Rubella infection. (
  • Vaccination with a recombinant vesicular stomatits virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin provides complete protection from influenza virus challenge. (
  • The reduction in humoral immune memory after measles infection generates potential vulnerability to future infections, underscoring the need for widespread vaccination. (
  • On September 3, 1992, a 20-year-old man with hemophilia A and HIV infection received MMR to fulfill a college prematriculation vaccination requirement for a second dose of measles-containing vaccine. (
  • The discoveries have enormous and immediate public health implications, researchers and clinicians said, and underscore more than ever the importance of measles vaccination. (
  • In recent years, anti-vaccine misinformation has been one reason vaccination rates have plummeted and global measles cases have surged. (
  • Elledge and the Harvard investigators analyzed blood samples of 77 unvaccinated children before and two months after a 2013 measles outbreak in the Netherlands in a religiously conservative community opposed to vaccination. (
  • This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these viruses, and the serologic responses after vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Northern Thailand. (
  • Prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses as well as serologic responses after MMR vaccination in those without protective antibody to at least one of the three viruses were compared between groups. (
  • The first dose of measles vaccination in children aged 9-12 months and the second dose in first grade students were incorporated into the Thai national immunization program in 1984 and 1996, respectively. (
  • Despite epidemiologic evidence to the contrary, claims of an association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and the development of autism have persisted. (
  • Measles antibody: comparison of long-term vaccination titres, early vaccination titres and naturally acquired immunity to and booster effects on th. (
  • A two-dose vaccination programme, using a combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) and administration at the ages of 18 months and 12 years, was introduced into Sweden in 1982. (
  • The postvaccination sera of 49 children seronegative to measles before vaccination, obtained 2 months after vaccination, represent early postvaccination immunity. (
  • Detection of rubella-specific IgM antibody is suggestive of recent infection providing there has been a compatible clinical illness and no recent vaccination for rubella. (
  • The primary end points were seropositivity for antibodies against measles and adverse events 91 days after vaccination. (
  • No serious adverse events were attributable to measles vaccination. (
  • There has been an effective vaccine against the virus since the 1960s, but because of poor vaccination coverage in many developing countries the virus still remains a major problem. (
  • Local and distant immunity induced by intralesional vaccination with an oncolytic herpes virus encoding GM-CSF in patients with III c and IV melanoma. (
  • In the absence of clinical symptoms, a negative measles IgM and positive IgG typically indicate immunity acquired from either prior measles vaccination or past infection with wild-type measles virus. (
  • Low IgG avidity is seen with acute primary infection, whereas high IgG avidity is observed with acute secondary measles, with prior infection, or after vaccination. (
  • In addition, there may be special reasons why children between 6 months and 12 months of age also may require measles vaccination. (
  • Individuals with no medical history of measles and no history of vaccination against measles are susceptible populations. (
  • Triangulation of measles vaccination data in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (
  • Conclusion: Triangulating routine data on measles vaccination coverage and disease surveillance provided new insights into population immunity and helped identify vulnerable groups, which was useful for prioritizing public health actions to close gaps in immunity. (
  • Abstract In the U.S., measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination is recommended as two vaccine doses. (
  • 13 It is not clear whether impaired transplacental antibody transfer could affect the efficacy of such vaccination regimens. (
  • Vaccination resulted in an 80% decrease in deaths from measles between 2000 and 2017, with about 85% of children worldwide having received their first dose as of 2017. (
  • by 2014, global vaccination programs had reduced the number of deaths from measles to 73,000. (
  • Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. (
  • The general guidance for this code is that it is used for analysis for antibody to rubeola (measles virus). (
  • If you have been exposed to the rubeola virus, your body may have made this antibody. (
  • The rubeola virus causes measles, an extremely contagious disease. (
  • Measles (also known as coughing measles, hard measles, morbilli, red measles, rubeola, and 10-day measles) is an infection that is easily spread from one person to another. (
  • Measles is also sometimes called rubeola, five-day measles, or hard measles. (
  • Rubeola Virus Matrix Protein antibody LS-C549329 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rubeola virus Rubeola Virus Matrix Protein. (
  • Measles is caused by Rubeola virus, which belongs to the Paramyxovirus family. (
  • Measles, rubella, and varicella have well-defined thresholds of antibody titers which correspond to immunity, but there is currently no World Health Organization (WHO) standard or threshold defined for mumps ( 5 - 11 ). (
  • One of the challenges facing epidemiologists is finding an appropriate test method for quickly assessing antibody titers on a large number of samples. (
  • Although neutralization assays are considered the gold standard for the quantitative determination of neutralizing antibody titers ( 12 , 13 ), these assays are not ideal for seroepidemiology studies because they are cumbersome and labor-intensive. (
  • These assays often generate a qualitative result (immune or nonimmune) and are sometimes more specific than they are sensitive, especially at lower antibody titers, to ensure that susceptible individuals are not missed ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Measles antibody: reevalution of protective titers. (
  • IgG titers against rubella and measles vaccines were measured in plasma obtained from the same donors at 2, 5, and 10 years of age. (
  • Anti-body titers against different measles virus components were measured. (
  • Human being serum antibodies Serum examples used in the analysis was gathered from Abdominal(+) bloodstream group healthful donors pursuing Institutional Review Panel authorization and their protecting titers against measles have already been examined and reported previously (Iankov et al. (
  • Finally, anti-measles antibody titers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. (
  • Furthermore, there was no difference in anti-measles antibody titers between the autism and control groups. (
  • Importantly, neutralizing antibody titers and MV-specific T-cell responses were equivalent in hosts infected with either virus. (
  • We assessed neutralizing antibody titers to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and six rare adenovirus serotypes, serotypes 11, 35, 50, 26, 48, and 49, in pediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • We observed a clear age dependence of Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. (
  • We performed luciferase-based virus neutralization assays and calculated 90% neutralizing titers as previously described ( 11 ). (
  • Low titers of HI and NE antibodies were found in some sera. (
  • ABSTRACT The seroprevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis and rubella IgG antibodies were measured in women with full-term deliveries (n = 198) and with abortion (n = 79) in a hospital in Baghdad city, Iraq. (
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting," the authors of a 2010 study write in their abstract. (
  • Measles Large Polymerase can be used as an antigen in ELISA and Western Blots. (
  • 2) Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigen specific antibodies, Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells, during a secondary infection. (
  • Hybridoma culture supernatants were tested by immunoblotting, computer virus neutralization (VN) and antigen-mediated ELISA. (
  • The antibody is a protein that will bind to an antigen. (
  • The antibody resembles the mirror image of the antigen (like a key and a lock), usually providing such a close fit that, if they bump into each other, the antibody will grab the antigen and hang on ( Figure 8 ). (
  • A macrophage will in turn get the message and will devour the antibody-antigen complex and rid the body of the infectious agent ( Figure 10 ). (
  • It is concluded that measles, distemper, and rinderpest virus share envelope antigens, which are more readily demonstrated in HLI than in HI tests with measles virus antigen. (
  • Indeed, the failure to find a major antigen for an intrathecally synthesized Ig may not relate to a nonsense antibody production but instead may reflect the molecular complexity of the CNS and the presumed antigenic target. (
  • Paradoxically and despite these huge efforts, the puzzling problem of non-brain targets directed against a virus in the absence of brain infection seems irreconcilably contradictory with an intrathecal antigen-antibody selection. (
  • However, since the 1980s, slight mutations of measles virus antigen have been reported in many countries, which should attract focused attention. (
  • We studied rubella-specific humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/ELISA IgG titer and antibody avidity) and the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B cells before and after a third dose of MMR-II in 109 female participants of childbearing age (median age, 34.5 years old) from Olmsted County, MN, with two documented prior MMR v. (
  • hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface antigen (HB s Ag). (
  • Rammohan KW, McFarland HF, McFarlin DE (1981) Induction of subacute murine measles encephalitis by monoclonal antibody to virus haemagglutinin. (
  • Recently, MeV-induced encephalitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has become a great concern in high-HIV-prevalence countries. (
  • MeV may establish, albeit rarely, persistent infection in the central nervous system, causing fatal and intractable neurodegenerative diseases such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles inclusion body encephalitis. (
  • Nipah virus (NiV), a recently emergent, zoonotic paramyxovirus ( 2 ), was implicated as the cause of a highly fatal (case-fatality ratio 38%-75%), febrile human encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999 ( 1 ) and in Bangladesh during the winters of 2001, 2003, and 2004 ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Approximately 1/1000 otherwise healthy indviduals with measles acquire an autoimmune encephalitis. (
  • Called encephalitis, this can occur up to several weeks after the basic measles symptoms have resolved. (
  • Long-term problems following recovery from measles encephalitis may include seizures and mental retardation. (
  • The result is to render such cells resistant to killing by immune reagents, i.e., antibody and complement or cytotoxic lymphocytes. (
  • Oldstone, MBA (1979) Immune responses, immune tolerance and viruses. (
  • Fujinami RS, Sissons JGP, Oldstone MBA (1981) Immune reactive measles virus polypeptides on the cell's surface: Turnover and relationship of the glycoproteins to each other and to HLA determinants. (
  • Measles infections in children can destroy the immune system's memory of prior exposure to other pathogens. (
  • The researchers confirmed that measles induces a kind of immune amnesia by experimentally infecting monkeys with the virus and observing the same loss of pre-existing antibodies. (
  • The method of the present invention allows an easy and reliable assay of the immune status of the human with respect to the present or past infection with measles virus. (
  • Measles virus-induced immune suppression in the cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus ) model depends on viral glycoproteins. (
  • Please explain why the patient has an immune deficiency if he or she is making antibodies? (
  • Both viruses have a significant impact on the immune system, especially through mediating the establishment of cellular immunity, which keeps these viruses under control for life. (
  • Measles virus infects immune cells, causing acute immune suppression. (
  • To identify and quantify long-term effects of measles on the immune system, we used VirScan, an assay that tracks antibodies to thousands of pathogen epitopes in blood. (
  • Notably, these immune system effects were not observed in infants vaccinated against MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella), but were confirmed in measles-infected macaques. (
  • Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. (
  • This collection of scientifically accurate drawings celebrates the unexpected beauty of our immune system at a tiny scale and includes images of our heroic white blood cells and bacteria and viruses for which we have vaccines against. (
  • In addition to the illness caused by the virus, a measles infection also takes a wrecking ball to the immune system. (
  • Comprehensive coverage with the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine would prevent more than 120,000 deaths directly attributed to measles this year, and it could also "avert potentially hundreds of thousands of additional deaths attributable to the last damage to the immune system," the authors wrote. (
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, University of Amsterdam and their collaborators sequenced their antibody genes and found that specific immune memory cells were no longer in the blood of two children after measles illness, leaving them vulnerable against infectious diseases they had previously been protected against. (
  • The two studies "break open and elucidate the pathway of how a child becomes immune-compromised after measles, and it's pretty devastating," said Jennifer Lighter, a pediatric infectious disease physician and epidemiologist who helped lead the measles response at NYU Langone Medical Center and was not involved in either study. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy is usually very effective at suppressing HIV in the body, allowing a person's immune system to recover by preventing the virus from destroying CD4+ T cells. (
  • A new research paper describes how an antibody that prevents HIV binding to human immune cells was shown to be able to suppress levels of HIV for up to four months. (
  • Measles remains a leading cause of death worldwide among children because it suppresses immune function. (
  • The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins (P, V, and C) that interfere with innate immunity, controlling STAT1, STAT2, mda5, and perhaps other key regulators of immune function. (
  • Viruses are carefully selected based on their ability to demonstrate selective tumor cell replication, and viral genomic modifications are used to enhance such replication and create a heightened immune response. (
  • The researchers did this by comparing long-lasting signs of measles infection or immune response in children with ASD (cases) and children without ASD (controls). (
  • So, our immune system would fight the tumor-killing measles virus before it had a chance to kill the tumors. (
  • They do not elaborate in this paper, but Im assuming that since these women were born before the anti-vax fad, they likely got the measles vaccine, but their immune system 'forgot' - because when researchers looked for anti-measles immunity in these two patients… there wasnt any. (
  • It's probably a combination of her immune system waking up due to huge amoungs of virus, and the straight damage the virus was doing to the cancer cells. (
  • You can be considered to be immune to measles only if you received two doses of measles vaccine starting on or after your first birthday and have the medical record to prove it, if you have a doctor's diagnosis of a previous measles infection, or if you have had a blood test showing immunity to measles. (
  • Teens who have not developed antibodies to the viruses that cause croup and those whose immune systems are compromised can develop viral croup. (
  • Rubella virus-specific humoral immune responses and their interrelationships before and after a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in women of childbearing age. (
  • Measles is an enormous problem in developing countries, where infections often occur in very young children with immature immune systems, many of whom are also malnourished, which further impairs their immune response to the virus. (
  • A 2006 review of literature on vaccines and autism found that Singh's results "have been called into question due to issues of cross-contamination, as well as the use of unsubstantiated and un-validated biochemical techniques", citing a report by the World Health Organization, and a number of other studies have failed to find a difference in immune response to the measles virus between autistic and neurotypical children. (
  • Implications for the development of divalent vaccines based on live attenuated viruses are discussed. (
  • Vaccines based on live viruses can be highly effective and easy to produce and deliver. (
  • Despite the availability of measles vaccines, infants continue to die from measles. (
  • Measles virus causes severe morbidity and mortality, despite the availability of measles vaccines. (
  • Measles virus, an ssRNA virus, continues to cause serious morbidity and mortality worldwide despite available measles vaccines. (
  • Further, this model should be useful for accessing the potential immunosuppressive abilities of newly isolated field (wild-type) virus isolates and newly designed vaccines containing attenuated MV or subunit vaccines, as well as in dissecting the role played by maternal antibodies to MV on the ability of the virus to enhance or abort the virus-induced immunosuppression. (
  • Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 1 2019 (IPS) Since the introduction of vaccines, diseases such as measles and polio were quickly becoming a thing of the past. (
  • These data will help to guide the development of Ad vector-based vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. (
  • Replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have proven highly immunogenic in preclinical studies and are being advanced into large-scale clinical trials. (
  • Together, these structural studies provide insights into protection by anti-NA antibodies and templates for the development of NA-based influenza virus vaccines and therapeutics. (
  • Measles vaccine is usually given as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines. (
  • The measles vaccine is effective at preventing the disease, is exceptionally safe, and is often delivered in combination with other vaccines. (
  • Measles protein can be used in ELISA and Western Blots. (
  • Cord and maternal serum samples were tested for total serum IgG antibody titres using nephelometry, and for specific IgG antibody titres to Streptococcus pneumoniae , measles, and tetanus toxoid antibodies using an enzyme linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • This year, the United States has had 1,250 cases of measles, the most since 1992. (
  • In recent years, the cases of measles in adults are increasing. (
  • Epidemiological studies have associated measles with increased morbidity and mortality for years after infection, but the reasons why are poorly understood. (
  • The main cause of morbidity and mortality is virus-induced immunosuppression of lymphocyte function, which allows secondary infections. (
  • The profound immunosuppression we observe in PBLs from infants probably contributes to the morbidity and mortality observed in infants vaccinated with measles virus. (
  • Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, and no licensed therapeutic agents are currently available. (
  • Measles virus (MeV), a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, is highly immunotropic and one of the most contagious pathogens. (
  • One out of every 10 children who catch measles will also have an ear infection or pneumonia. (
  • A presumptive diagnosis of measles pneumonia was made, and therapy with intravenous gamma globulin was started. (
  • That means people, especially children, who get measles become much more vulnerable to other germs that cause diseases such as pneumonia and influenza that they had previously been protected against. (
  • Using a tool called VirScan that tracks antibodies, they found measles infection wiped out 11 to 73 percent of different antibodies that "remember" past encounters with germs and help the body avoid repeat bouts of influenza, herpes virus, pneumonia and skin infections. (
  • A chest radiograph may be useful in the management of the child with measles and suspected pneumonia. (
  • Bacterial complications of measles, such as pneumonia, should be treated with antibiotics. (
  • In order to maintain protection against measles in infants, it is important to monitor the dynamics of this phenomenon in vaccinated populations. (
  • Maternal measles antibody concentrations from 348 infants 0 to 15 months old were measured using the plaque reduction neutralization assay. (
  • Geometric mean concentrations and the percentage of infants with maternal measles antibody concentrations above the protection threshold (≥120 mIU/ml) were assessed according to age. (
  • As vaccine coverage of a population increases, measles virus circulation declines, and more infants are born with vaccine-induced maternal antibodies. (
  • IgG & IgM antibodies against measles virus in unvaccinated infants from Pune: evidence for subclinical infections. (
  • IgG and IgM class of antibodies to measles virus were estimated in the plasma samples of 211 unvaccinated infants living under overcrowded conditions in Pune, Maharashtra. (
  • IgG antibodies to measles virus , in high titres, were detected in 52.1 per cent and IgM antibodies in 31.3 per cent of the infants studied. (
  • Most of the infants with IgM antibodies to measles virus had not suffered from an attack of measles . (
  • A history of contact with an older child with overt measles was available for 13.3 per cent of the 211 infants studied. (
  • Among these infants with such a contact history , 82.1 per cent had IgM antibodies to measles virus . (
  • These observations suggest that many infants studied by us, had experienced subclinical measles infections and many times older children with measles at home or in the neighbourhood might have transmitted such infections . (
  • In a population of 12-month-old Australian infants, receptor protein expression was examined to assess the functionality of TLR7 and TLR8 polymorphisms, and the effects of these polymorphisms on cellular and antibody responses after the first measles vaccine dose were investigated. (
  • congenitally infected infants may shed the virus for months (in respiratory secretions and urine) and can also infect carers. (
  • Infants become susceptible to measles virus infection when passively acquired maternal antibody is lost. (
  • Infants born to women with vaccine-induced immunity become susceptible to measles at a younger age than those born to women with naturally acquired immunity. (
  • Use of this vaccine is not recommended for infants younger than 12 months of age, unless the risk of measles infection is high. (
  • Waiting until children are at least 12 months of age is important because antibodies that infants receive from their mothers before birth may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine. (
  • Immunization against measles is usually not recommended for infants up to 12 months of age, unless the risk of their getting a measles infection is high. (
  • Measles vaccine usually is not recommended for infants up to 12 months of age. (
  • Replicating HBsAg-expressing viral vectors have also been generated: vaccinia virus ( 27 , 44 )-, varicella-zoster virus ( 20 , 42 )-, adenovirus ( 25 )-, and MV-based vectors ( 43 ) produce HBsAg to high levels and elicit protective anti-HBsAg antibodies in animal models. (
  • Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, or otherwise known as varicella virus. (
  • Total CF antibody to varicella-zoster virus, although not included in the panel, can also be requested at an additional charge. (
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the hemagglutinin protein of measles virus provides a potential method for immunization against measles virus and PIV3 in early infancy. (
  • Successful DNA immunization against measles: neutralizing antibody against either the hemagglutinin or fusion glycoprotein protects rhesus macaques without evidence of atypical measles. (
  • Aerosolized vaccine can be used as a needle-free method of immunization against measles, a disease that remains a major cause of illness and death. (
  • While immunization against measles and rubella is recommended for all persons 12 months of age and older, it is especially important for women of childbearing age and persons traveling outside the U.S. (
  • Immunization against measles is recommended for everyone 12 to 15 months of age and older. (
  • Significantly reduced ratios of measles virus hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) or nucleocapsid complement-fixing (CF) antibodies or both in serum: CSF were found in 12 of the 30 MS patients. (
  • A monoclonal antibody to the nucleocapsid protein did not cause these changes. (
  • The nonsegmented, negative-sense RNA genome of measles virus (MV) is encapsidated by the virus-encoded nucleocapsid protein (N). In this study, we searched for N-binding cellular proteins by using MV-N as bait and screening the human T-cell cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid assay and isolated the p40 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3-p40) as a binding partner. (
  • All of the paramyxoviruses are enveloped viruses that enclose a helical nucleocapsid composed of the negative-stranded ssRNA genome and nucleoprotein (N), along with the matrix protein (M), the phosphoprotein (P), and the large polymerase protein (L). In addition, MV has two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, fusion (F), and an attachment protein, hemagglutinin (H), on the surface. (
  • In the first, commonly used model ( 15 ), M remains bound to the membrane after budding, leaving the nucleocapsid largely free inside the particle ( Fig. 1 A ), similar to the Sendai virus structure ( 14 ). (
  • The nucleocapsid components of the three viruses could not be distinguished by the immunologic techniques employed. (
  • In this system, an attenuated, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the MV haemagglutinin (VSV-H) was found previously to induce neutralizing antibodies and protection against MV challenge after intranasal (i.n.) immunization. (
  • Prevalence of participants who have protective immunity to measles virus is less than ninety percent. (
  • In health care workers with no evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella, a two-dose series at least four weeks apart for measles or mumps, or at least one dose for rubella, is recommended. (
  • What tests should be obtained when acute measles is suspected? (
  • A positive test indicates acute measles virus infection. (
  • The patients with acute measles are the only source of its infection, who are infectious from the final 1-2 days of the incubation period to the day 5 after skin rash. (
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (
  • protein present in the lysates and on the surface of cells persistently infected with measles. (
  • A partially neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) CL55, specific for MV H protein, at 10 μg/ml enhanced MV infection in mouse microglial cells by 13-14-fold. (
  • Receptor protein expression after imiquimod or measles stimulation was not significantly altered compared with baseline, nor was it affected by genotype. (
  • In this context, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles virus and rhabdoviruses have been engineered for expression of surface protein genes and antigens. (
  • Recombinant measles virus (rMV) expressing HPV genotype 16 L1 capsid protein was generated by construction of an antigenomic plasmid, followed by rescue using the human "helper" cell line 293-3-46. (
  • The HA protein lacks epitopes identified by certain monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Four monoclonal antibodies against the viral hemagglutinin had the ability to decrease the expression of the phosphoprotein, fusion, and membrane protein. (
  • Our results indicate that a specific signal to an epitope on the plasma membrane (monoclonal antibody measles virus hemagglutinin) can alter the expression of measles virus phosphoprotein and membrane protein, both polypeptides present in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (
  • In addition, the encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus. (
  • In addition, the encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6, and type IV pili of pathogenic Neisseria. (
  • Measles virus N protein inhibits host translation by binding to eIF3-p40. (
  • The implications for virus assembly are that the matrix already tightly interacts with the ribonucleocapsid in the cytoplasm, providing a structural basis for the previously observed regulation of RNA transcription by the matrix protein. (
  • CD46 is a transmembrane protein that is known as a complement membrane cofactor protein, MCP, and measles virus receptor. (
  • Like, a protein that is over-expressed in cancer cells, but not normally found in healthy cells (I am not sure about the particular measles virus used in this particular study). (
  • Recognizes the measles matrix protein by indirect immunofluorescence. (
  • citation needed] In 1998, Singh, while affiliated with the University of Michigan, coauthored a paper in Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology reporting the presence of antibodies to myelin basic protein in autistic children and arguing that a virally triggered autoimmune response might cause autism. (
  • Measles virus (MV) still incites one of the most contagious infections of humankind. (
  • This virus is one of the most highly contagious, directly transmitted pathogens, and outbreaks can occur in populations in which fewer than 10% of persons are susceptible. (
  • It is an extremely contagious infection, spread through the tiny droplets that may spray into the air when a person carrying the virus sneezes or coughs. (
  • The most contagious time period is the three to five days before symptoms begin through about four days after the characteristic measles rash has begun to appear. (
  • Measles is highly contagious and vaccine preventable. (
  • Measles is most contagious just before rash onset and during the first few days after the rash appears. (
  • For a disease as contagious as measles, a very high rate of immunization (about 95%) is required to provide successful herd immunity. (
  • Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by measles virus. (
  • We have expanded the concept of antibody-induced antigenic modulation as an aid to understanding several persistent infections, with our primary interest in persistent measles virus infection of humans. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) acute and chronic infections remain a major worldwide health problem. (
  • When injected the vaccine causes the body to produce its own protection by making disease-fighting substances (antibodies) against these infections. (
  • Measles antibodies may be produced in the central nervous system by activated latent virus infections in some patients with MS. (
  • Doctors who treated children during New York City's measles outbreak this year are starting to see children getting subsequent severe infections that require hospitalization. (
  • Infections that could cause similar pictures include human herpes virus 6, enteroviruses, human parvovirus B19, mild measles, infectious mononucleosis and toxoplasmosis. (
  • The high mortality of measles is often associated with secondary bacterial infections that take place during the period of virus-induced immunosuppression. (
  • Although commercially available IgM tests perform reasonably well in acute primary measles infections, these tests may suffer from higher rates of both false-negative and false-positive IgM results in previously vaccinated individuals than with the CDC assay. (
  • Measles infections appear all over the world. (
  • Inapparent infections (those that do not cause specific signs and symptoms) often result after exposure to picornaviruses , influenza viruses, rhinoviruses , herpesviruses , and adenoviruses but less frequently to measles and chickenpox viruses. (
  • Multiple sclerosis MS is characterized by a polyspecific B-cell response to neurotropic viruses such as measles, rubella and varicella zoster, with the corresponding antibodies measurable in CSF as the so-called -MRZ reaction- MRZR. (
  • Adams JM, Imagawa DT: Measles antibodies in multiple sclerosis. (
  • There are many diseases which show raised antibodies to measles, for example chronic active hepatitis or multiple sclerosis, yet there is nothing to associate these with MMR. (
  • What are the other plausible explanations for anti-measles antibodies in the patient's blood? (
  • Our basic evidence on the relationship had been established by immunohistochemistry, using several commercial and specific experimental anti-measles antibodies in about 50% of our patients. (
  • The researchers looked to see whether there were antibodies against the measles virus in the blood and investigated whether the levels of anti-measles antibodies a child had was related to the severity of their autistic symptoms. (
  • Also important: The two patients in this study had no anti-measles antibodies. (
  • Immunogenicity and safety study of GSK Biologicals' combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in subjects seven years and older (209762). (
  • Blended of viruses including Chicago wild type measles virus. (
  • Towards developing an anti-HBV vaccine with single-dose scheme potential, we engineered infectious measles virus (MV) genomic cDNAs with a vaccine strain background and expression vector properties. (
  • After a single vaccine dose, only the vector expressing HBsAg at the highest levels elicited protective levels of HBsAg antibodies in two of four animals. (
  • The two-dose strategy has been credited with elimination of indigenous measles in several countries ( 9 ), and the live attenuated MV vaccine is considered to be one of the safest and most cost-effective health tools available ( 28 ). (
  • However, its ability to induce MV-neutralizing antibodies in the presence of passively transferred MV-specific antibodies and its protective capacity was abolished unless higher-dose immunizations were used. (
  • He had received a previous dose of measles vaccine in 1973. (
  • We conducted an open-label noninferiority trial involving children 9.0 to 11.9 months of age in India who were eligible to receive a first dose of measles vaccine. (
  • India has 2.9 million children who have missed out on the first dose of measles vaccine between 2010 and 2017 despite over 80 per cent of immunisation coverage, the UNICEF said on Thursday. (
  • A third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is being administered in certain situations (e.g., identified seronegativity and during outbreaks). (
  • Erholtz and another patient were given the highest dose of the engineered measles virus. (
  • Such claims are based primarily on the identification of measles virus nucleic acids in tissues and body fluids by polymerase chain reaction. (
  • However, the introduction of measles vaccine in a country particularly impacts the duration of protection afforded by maternal antibodies: levels of vaccine-induced maternal antibodies are lower, and they disappear faster than disease-induced antibodies. (
  • The study suggests that the vaccine-induced measles antibodies decline with time and may fall under the protective level. (
  • Fujinami RS, Oldstone MBA (1980) Alterations in expression of measles virus polypeptides by antibody: Molecular events in antibody-induced antigenic modulation. (
  • To do this, we used the third anti-measles World Health Organization standard to generate a calibration curve that allowed relative fluorescence intensity to be translated into quantitative antibody titer (antibody units [AU]/ml). (
  • Rather than a binary positive or negative result, seroepidemiology studies require specifically validated methods that provide accurate quantitative antibody titer data describing different levels of antibodies spanning the entire spectrum of immunity, ( 16 - 18 ). (
  • Statistical models are used to calculate susceptibility thresholds from the antibody titer. (
  • In contrast to the partially protective MAb CL55, enhancement of MV infectivity by MAb 20H6 required dilutions below the 1:120 serum titer considered protective against measles infection in humans. (
  • Viral stocks were prepared using repeated freezing-thawing procedure and computer virus titer was decided in both plaque-forming models (PFU) or tissue culture IKK-2 inhibitor VIII infectious doses 50% (TCID50) per ml (Iankov et al. (
  • Computer virus neutralization (VN) test Neutralizing titer against MV of MAbs was assessed by plaque-reduction microneutralization assay and plaque decrease IKK-2 inhibitor VIII neutralization titer 50% (PNT50) was determined as referred to previously (Haralambieva et al. (
  • Wondering where to get a Measles Mumps Rubella Titer in your area? (
  • Our goal is to make ordering your own Measles Mumps Rubella Titer fast and affordable . (
  • Request A Test offers an individual Measles Mumps Rubella Titer as well as packages which bundle multiple tests together for extra savings . (
  • These assays targeted the nucleoprotein, fusion, and hemagglutinin genes of measles virus using previously published primer pairs with detection by SYBR green I. Our own real-time assay targeted the fusion gene using novel primers and an internal fluorescent probe. (
  • The CDC IgM assay was developed at the CDC measles laboratory and is not available outside the public health setting. (
  • Production of MV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) Hybridomas were generated after immunization of MV contamination permissive IKK-2 inhibitor VIII interferon type I receptor knockout and human CD46 transgenic (Ifnarko-CD46Ge) mice (Mrkic et al. (
  • The virus-specified proteins produced by cells persistently infected with hamster neurotropic strain (HNT) of measles virus were assessed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Sixty-five children of the 332 (20%) previously vaccinated children had no or borderline measles titres prior to the booster. (
  • Positive rubella antibody titres were found in 42.9% of mothers with full-term deliveries and 34.2% with abortion. (
  • raised maternal total serum IgG titres were correlated with S pneumoniae and measles IgG antibody transfer reduction to 86% and 87%, respectively. (
  • Paired sera showing ≥ 4 fold rise in titre or single samples having titres of ≥ 128 to any of the tested viruses are considered to have significant titres to that virus. (
  • Measles is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by measles virus. (
  • Measles is the most common infectious disease in children, with strong infectivity. (
  • After challenge with a pathogenic MV strain (Davis 87 ), control naive monkeys showed a classic measles rash and high viral loads. (
  • Measles is a serious disease that causes a high fever (temperature), runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis and a rash. (
  • Levels of measles-specific IgM antibody in your blood will rise shortly after the rash becomes visible. (
  • Rubella was distinguished from other rash illness only in the late 19th century and the virus was isolated in 1962. (
  • Culturable virus may be present in respiratory secretions in 90% on day of rash and in 50% 4 days after rash onset. (
  • An internationally imported case is defined as a case in which measles results from exposure to measles virus outside the United States as evidenced by at least some of the exposure period (7-21 days before rash onset) occurring outside the United States and rash onset occurring within 21 days of entering the United States and there is no known exposure to measles in the U.S. during that time. (
  • An U.S.-acquired case is defined as a case in which the patient had not been outside the United States during the 21 days before rash onset or was known to have been exposed to measles within the United States. (
  • Measles is an acute respiratory illness classically characterized by high fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots on the buccal mucosae, and a maculopapular rash that spreads from the head and face to the trunk and extremities. (
  • Measles IgM antibodies may be detectable for a month after onset of rash. (
  • Persons with measles are infectious 3-5 days before the onset of rash and about 4 days after the onset of rash.The incubation period for measles is about 10 days to onset of symptoms and 14 days to onset of rash. (
  • Measles is a viral infection that causes an illness displaying a characteristic skin rash known as an exanthem. (
  • A couple of days after the appearance of the Koplik's spots, the measles rash begins. (
  • From 2 days prior to the onset to 5 days after skin rash eruption, secretions from the patients' conjunctiva, nose, pharynx, and organs contain the viruses and are infectious. (
  • Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with fever, respiratory involvement and symptoms, and a rash. (
  • The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized red maculopapular rash that begins several days after the fever starts. (
  • The measles rash appears two to four days after the initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days. (
  • Modified measles is characterized by a prolonged incubation period, milder, and less characteristic symptoms (sparse and discrete rash of short duration). (
  • A Filipino baby with measles Koplik's spots on the third pre-eruptive day Koplik's spots on the day of measles rash. (
  • This study covers 2 critical steps toward generating such a retargeted virus: (1) a new specificity domain against the plasma cell marker CD38 was constructed in the form of a single-chain antibody (scFv) and (2) display of that scFv on the measles viral envelope glycoprotein successfully redirected virus entry through CD38 expressed on target cells devoid of the natural MV receptors. (
  • Targeting retrovirus to cancer cells expressing a mutant EGF receptor by insertion of a single chain antibody variable domain in the envelope glycoprotein receptor binding lobe. (
  • An expression plasmid was made in which a single chain Fv antibody specific for EGFRvIII was inserted at a novel position within a disulphide-bonded surface loop near the native receptor binding site of the Moloney leukemia virus ecotropic envelope glycoprotein. (
  • Live attenuated measles virus (MV-Edm) has potent oncolytic activity against myeloma xenografts in mice. (
  • Live attenuated measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1963. (
  • An MV-based candidate vaccine protected interferon (IFN) receptor-deficient mice against West Nile virus challenge ( 10 ). (
  • However, we found no evidence of any functional effects of TLR7 or TLR8 polymorphisms on receptor expression, measles-specific cellular responses or measles vaccine antibody responses. (
  • Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for cultured Measles virus. (
  • Retargeted oncolytic measles strains entering via the EGFRvIII receptor maintain significant antitumor activity against gliomas with increased tumor specificity. (
  • CD46 is also known to be a cellular receptor for human measles virus and human herpes virus-6 as well as other human pathogens, such as Streptococcus pyogenes . (
  • To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified. (
  • ProQuad contains weakened strains of living measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses. (
  • These strains of live viruses cause either mild or no symptoms of infection. (
  • We have shown in the laboratory and in several animal models that measles virus strains can significantly shrink glioma tumors and prolong animal survival. (
  • The Mayo Clinic says its pursuit of oncolytic measles vaccine strains for cancer treatment is unique, growing from the most basic laboratory science to a sophisticated therapy being tested in several tumor types, including glioblastoma multiforme, recurrent ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma. (
  • In a new study, researchers show that special viruses are the culprits behind the emergence of virulent select new bacterial strains. (
  • Current use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) in melanoma ranges from discovery in the experimental phase to proof of efficacy in clinical trials. (
  • Kelly E, Russell S. History of Oncolytic viruses: genesis to genetic engineering. (
  • Measles, and certain other viruses, can be domesticated and modified to kill cancers- we call them oncolytic viruses. (
  • We first evaluated Ad5 seroprevalence in 42 paired mother-infant serum samples from Liberia to assess the magnitude of passively acquired maternal antibodies. (
  • AIM To determine the influence of placental malaria, maternal HIV infection, and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia on transplacental IgG antibody transfer. (
  • CONCLUSION The combined influence of placental malaria, maternal HIV infection, and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia seems to be linked to the low transplacental antibody transfer observed in the Malawian population. (
  • In this study we analysed the influence of placental malaria, maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia, maternal HIV infection, parity and prematurity on the efficiency of transplacental transfer of specific IgG antibodies to S pneumoniae capsule, measles, and tetanus toxoid in mother-infant pairs from a Malawian population living in a malaria endemic area. (
  • The exact epitope recognised by this antibody has not been mapped. (
  • Here, we describe crystal and cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of NAs from human-infecting avian H7N9 viruses in complex with five human anti-N9 antibodies, systematically defining several antigenic sites and antibody epitope footprints. (
  • Because Siliguri is in close proximity to Bangladesh, where outbreaks of Nipah virus (NiV) infection were recently described, clinical material obtained during the Siliguri outbreak was retrospectively analyzed for evidence of NiV infection. (
  • However, an intermediate animal host was not identified during the Bangladesh outbreaks, which suggests that the virus was transmitted either directly or indirectly from infected bats to humans. (
  • Prior to the current effective immunization program, large-scale measles outbreaks occurred on a two to three year cycle, usually in the winter and spring. (
  • If you are infected with the measles virus, you may not develop symptoms for 2 weeks. (
  • You may also need this test if you have symptoms of measles. (
  • Many children who are exposed to the viruses only develop cold symptoms, according to KidsHealth. (
  • Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses. (
  • To evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the first 10 years of life. (
  • Our findings suggest that EBV carriage in the absence of CMV influences the B-cell compartment and the dynamics of antibody responses over time during steady state in the otherwise healthy host. (
  • Measles vaccine responses vary between individuals, and poor immunogenicity is likely to preclude protection against measles. (
  • TLR7 and TLR8 genetic variation may cause functional alterations that result in impaired responses to measles. (
  • Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses provides high transient expression levels of antigens resulting in generation of neutralizing antibody responses and protection against lethal challenges under safe conditions. (
  • However, viruses have evolved multiple complementary strategies to evade or control the type I (α/β) IFN responses. (
  • For example, the P gene of measles virus (MV), the enveloped nonsegmented negative strand RNA virus that causes measles, codes for three proteins, the phosphoprotein (P) and proteins V and C. These proteins have roles regulating viral replication and transcription and are necessary for controlling IFN responses (see references 20 and 25 ) for reviews). (
  • These declines in Ag-specific Ab responses are paired with a rise in total Ig production and production of polyreactive self-antibodies attributed to nonspecific polyclonal B cell activation ( 9 ). (
  • Rubella or German measles is a viral infection which is caused by a virus known as rubella virus. (
  • A patient who has rubella virus in the body develop red rashes, swollen lymph nodes, runny nose, mild fever, headache, and joint pain. (
  • The rubella blood test helps the doctor to check if a patient has rubella virus. (
  • Pregnant women who are in their first trimester should go for the test to check the presence of the Rubella virus in the fetus as it may lead to complication during the growth of the fetus. (
  • Rubella virus is a positive sense enveloped RNA virus that is the only member of the Rubivirus genus of the Togaviridae family. (
  • Measles and rubella virus vaccine live is an active immunizing agent used to prevent infection by the measles and rubella viruses. (
  • The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology. (
  • When blood samples were compared, there was no difference in any long-lasting signs of measles virus or increased levels of antibodies to the measles virus between the groups. (
  • People who have been vaccinated against measles but have incomplete protective immunity may experience a form of modified measles. (
  • By antibody-induced antigenic modulation, we mean the removal of antigens from the surface of cells by specific antibody. (
  • Joseph BS, Oldstone MBA (1974) Antibody-induced redistribution of measles virus antigens on the cell surface. (
  • Priorix is a new investigational measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine containing the Schwarz measles strain, the RA 27/3 rubella strain and a new mumps strain RIT 4385. (
  • This information was used to generate a recombinant measles virus unable to antagonize STAT1 function (STAT1-blind MV) differing only in these three residues from a wild-type strain of well-defined virulence. (
  • Mayo Clinic Cancer Center scientists opened the new clinical study using a vaccine strain of the measles virus to attack recurrent glioblastoma multiforme -- a largely untreatable brain tumor. (
  • With a genetically modified, vaccine strain measles virus. (
  • In this study, they had a measles vaccine strain virus, that had been 'addicted' to HeLa cells . (
  • In cases of inapparent infection, long-lasting immunity develops, but only to the strain of virus that has the same antigenic composition as the original infecting virus. (
  • An indigenous case is defined as a case of measles that is not imported. (
  • Doctors said the reported case of measles in a Clay County baby should serve as a reminder for people to be vaccinated for the disease. (