Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HemocyaninClone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... A simplified strategy is often employed to purify antibodies generated against peptide antigens. When the peptide antigens are ... If the serum is known to contain antibodies against a specific antigen (for example if the serum comes from an organism ... Immunoaffinity media (detailed below) utilizes antigens' and antibodies' high specificity to separate; immobilized metal ...
Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ... This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
In contrast to antibodies to A and B antigens, Rhesus antibodies are generally not produced from exposure to environmental ... Antibodies to the other Kell antigens are rare.. Prevention. In cases of Rho(D) incompatibility, Rho(D) ... Antibodies are produced when the body is exposed to an antigen foreign to the make-up of the body. If a mother is exposed to a ... Among these antibodies are some which attack antigens on the red blood cells in the fetal circulation, breaking down and ...
Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion
Initially at low antigen concentration, all of the antibody is contained in the precipitate. This is called the antibody-excess ... Where the two diffusion fronts meet, if any of the antibodies recognize any of the antigens, they will bind to the antigens and ... thus large aggregates or gel-like lattices of antigen and antibody are formed. Experimentally, an increasing amount of antigen ... has several antigenic determinants per molecule to which antibodies can bind). Antibodies have at least two antigen binding ...
Polyclonal B cell response
Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ... Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ... Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... makes the B cell receptors and the soluble antibodies in subsequent encounters with antigens, more inclusive in their antigen ...
"CD68 Gene - CD68 Protein - CD68 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 16 September 2017. "MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN CD68; CD68". ... "Product Overview: anti-CD68 Antibodies". www.antibodies-online.com. Retrieved 14 September 2017. Dijkstra, CD; Döpp, EA; Joling ... "Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody ED1". Immunology. 83 (1): 140-147. PMC 1415006 . ... Anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies that react with tissues of rodent and other species include ED1, FA-11, KP1 (a.k.a. C68/684), ...
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Human Tumor Antigens Identified with Monoclonal Antibodies. Retrieved 2 September 2012. "Human Tumor Antigens Identified with ... Human Tumor Antigens Identified with Monoclonal Antibodies all from Columbia University (New York). His post-doctoral ... Monoclonal Antibodies". Retrieved 2 September 2012. "Special Briefing" (PDF). Retrieved 2 September 2012. "Cutting edge ... "Salman Center for Disability Research, McGraw-Hill forge tie-up". Retrieved 2 September 2012. "PSCDR, McGraw-Hill sign MoU to ...
Antibodies are added to a bacterial solution, providing an antigen for the binding of fluorescent anti-antibody adherence. Mass ... Antibody detection works by attaching an indicator to an antibody with a known specificity and observing whether the antibody ... "Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Grandien, M. (1996-05-01). "Viral ... By knowing the epitope sequence of the antibody, ELISA can also be used for antigen detection in a sample. Histological methods ...
Circulating auto-antibodies to BP-1 antigen (located in hemidesmosome). 50% have BP-2. ... When the condition is active, the basement membrane is dissolved by the antibodies produced, and areas of skin lift away at the ... antibodies (IgG) precipitate complement (C3) in the lamina lucida of the basement membrane. ... Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999- ...
NIMA-related kinase 1
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi:10.1002 ... LIM and senescent cell antigen-like-containing domain protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LIMS1 gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: LIMS1 LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 1". Zhang Y, Chen K, Guo L, Wu C (Oct 2002). "Characterization ... "senescent cell antigen"". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 201 (3): 1124-31. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1822. PMID 7517666. Tu Y, Li F ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... "Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and T antigens". Journal of Virology. 73 (1 ... Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Yan Z, Fedorov SA, Mumby MC, Williams RS (Feb 2000). "PR48, a novel regulatory subunit of protein ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Paumet F, Le Mao J, Martin S, Galli T, David B, Blank U, Roa M (Jun 2000). "Soluble NSF attachment ... 143 (2): 303-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90117-1. PMID 8206394. Low SH, Vasanji A, Nanduri J, He M, Sharma N, Koo M, Drazba J, ... 109 (2): 299-306. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.121453. PMID 11842301. Dent J, Kato K, Peng XR, Martinez C, Cattaneo M, Poujol C, Nurden ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. PMID ... 24 (12): 1490-2. doi:10.1038/cr.2014.153. PMC 4260351 . PMID 25412658. Zhu T, Roundtree IA, Wang P, Wang X, Wang L, Sun C, Tian ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YTHDF2 gene. This gene encodes a ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2". Retrieved 2017-12-24. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... Zhao B, Marshall DR, Sample CE (Jul 1996). "A conserved domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens 3A and 3C binds to a ... 17 (2): 306-15. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1326. PMID 8406481. Tang X, Saito-Ohara F, Song J, Koga C, Ugai H, Murakami H, Ikeuchi T ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Callahan J, Aster J, Sklar J, Kieff E, Robertson ES (Jan 2000). "Intracellular forms of human NOTCH1 ...
Zinc finger protein 608
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-464. doi:10.1002 ... 2 (2): 213-222. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80131-8. PMID 9734358. Gu W, Malik S, Ito M, Yuan CX, Fondell JD, Zhang X, Martinez E ... 200 (1-2): 149-156. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Sun X, Zhang Y, Cho H, Rickert P, Lees E, Lane W, Reinberg ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Ge K, Guermah M, Yuan CX, Ito M, Wallberg AE, Spiegelman BM, Roeder RG (2002). "Transcription ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Ito A, Kataoka TR, Watanabe M, Nishiyama K, Mazaki Y, Sabe H, Kitamura Y, Nojima H (Feb 2000). "A ... 2: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-11. PMC 554975 . PMID 15725353. Zhao RY, Elder RT (Mar 2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle ... 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01470-6. PMID 9013886. Ruediger R, Brewis N, Ohst K, Walter G (Nov 1997). " ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... "Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies". International Journal of Cancer. 76 (5): ... "Identification of an autoimmune enteropathy-related 75-kilodalton antigen". Gastroenterology. 117 (4): 823-30. doi:10.1016/ ... 3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9610721. Jain PK, Lalwani AK, Li XC, Singleton TL, Smith TN, Chen A, Deshmukh D, Verma IC, Smith RJ, Wilcox ER ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... The proliferation and differentiation of B cells is dependent upon a B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) complex. Binding of antigens ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Liu J, Prickett TD, Elliott E, Meroni G, Brautigan DL (Jun 2001). "Phosphorylation and microtubule ... 2A catalytic subunit favors association with the alpha 4 subunit which promotes dephosphorylation of elongation factor-2". ...
Lactate dehydrogenase A
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 10897012. Boutet A, Altmeyer R, Héry C, Tardieu M (December 2000). "Direct role of plasma membrane-expressed ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Miyajima H, Takahashi Y, Suzuki M, Shimizu T, Kaneko E (July ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Vilà MR, Nicolás A, Morote J, de I, Meseguer A (July 2000). "Increased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Schumacher C, Wang H, Honer C, Ding W, Koehn J, Lawrence Q, Coulis CM, Wang LL, Ballinger D, Bowen ... 370 (Pt 2): 719-27. doi:10.1042/BJ20021378. PMC 1223195 . PMID 12444922. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Babb R, Bowen BR (Mar 2003). "SDP1 is a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 co-activator that binds through its ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Scheufler C, Brinker A, Bourenkov G, Pegoraro S, Moroder L, Bartunik H, Hartl FU, Moarefi I (April ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Zou J, Guo Y, Guettouche T, Smith DF, Voellmy R (August ... 43 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1038/ng.743. PMID 21186352. Karam JA, Parikh RY, Nayak D, Rosenkranz D, Gangaraju VK (April 2017). "Co- ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi:10.1002 ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Siegrist S, Féral C, Chami M, Solhonne B, Mattéi MG, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Guellaën G, Bulle F (2001 ... 15 (2): 159-68. doi:10.1038/nm.1904. PMC 2863116 . PMID 19136964. Six DA, Dennis EA (October 2000). "The expanding superfamily ... 1488 (1-2): 1-19. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00105-0. PMID 11080672. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176485 - Ensembl, May ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 289 (2): 211-21. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00261-1. PMID 14499622. van der Spuy J, Kim JH, Yu YS, Szel A, Luthert PJ, Clark BJ ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Kito K, Yeh ET, Kamitani T (Jun 2001). "NUB1, a NEDD8-interacting protein, is induced by interferon ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 36 (2): 281-95. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00246-2. PMID 14643893. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, ... 47 (1-2): 33-41. doi:10.1007/s10863-014-9586-4. PMID 25370487. Dobolyi A, Ostergaard E, Bagó AG, Dóczi T, Palkovits M, Gál A, ... 10 (2): 186-98. doi:10.1007/s13311-013-0177-6. PMC 3625391 . PMID 23385875. Parikh S, Saneto R, Falk MJ, Anselm I, Cohen BH, ...
"Mitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. I. Localization of the antigen to mitochondrial membranes". The Journal ... Her observation of patients with Hashimoto's disease and knowledge of the field led her to realise that excess antibodies were ... Roitt, I. M.; Campbell, P. N.; Doniach, Deborah (June 1958). "The nature of the thyroid auto-antibodies present in patients ... 69 (2): 248-256. doi:10.1042/bj0690248. PMC 1196545 . PMID 13546173. Bottazzo, G F; Doniach, D (1986). "Autoimmune Thyroid ...
... and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis". Tissue Antigens. 12 (5): 381-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978. ... "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association ... "Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ...
1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi: ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than ... 18 (2): 676-84. PMC 108778 . PMID 9447963. "Entrez Gene: SFRS2IP splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 2, interacting protein ... 1999). "Identification of caspases that cleave presenilin-1 and presenilin-2. Five presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations do not alter ...
In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies ... Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ... Surface antigens. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... T细胞耗竭的直接原因包括持续的抗原刺激、以及CD4细胞的缺失。长时间的抗原暴露和高病毒负载可以加重T细胞耗竭的程度。2-4周的持续抗原暴露就可导致T细胞耗竭
"Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against uvomorulin". Proc. Natl. Acad ... 30 (2): 25-34. doi:10.1247/csf.30.25. PMID 16357441. Cattelino A, Liebner S, Gallini R, Zanetti A, Balconi G, Corsi A, Bianco P ... 21 (11): R430-2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.04.043. PMID 21640901. Dickinson DJ, Nelson WJ, Weis WI (March 2011). "A polarized ... 24 (2): 67-76. doi:10.3109/08941939.2010.542272. PMID 21345006. Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR ( ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... Retrieved 2 August 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g Goeijenbier M, van Kampen JJ, Reusken CB, Koopmans MP, van Gorp EC (November 2014). ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ...
... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... including salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies, which aggregate candida organisms and prevent them adhering to the epithelial ... 5 (2): 125-57. doi:10.1177/10454411940050020101. PMID 7858080. Li, X; Lei, L; Tan, D; Jiang, L; Zeng, X; Dan, H; Liao, G; Chen ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... Retrieved 2 May 2018.. *^ Levy JA (2009). "Not an HIV Cure, but Encouraging New Directions". N Engl J Med. 360 (7): 724-25. doi ... Retrieved 2 May 2018.. *^ a b Russell N, Bessell E, Stainer C, Haynes A, Das-Gupta E, Byrne J (2000). "Allogenic haemopoietic ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... Kalled SL (2007). "Impact of the BAFF/BR3 axis on B cell survival, germinal center maintenance and antibody production.". Semin ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... CD201 • CD202b • CD204 • CD205 • CD206 • CD207 • CD208 • CD209 • CDw210 (a, b) • CD212 • CD213a (1, 2) • CD217 • CD218 (a, b) ...
An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... Retrieved 2 November 2016.. *^ a b c d Ogbu O, Ajuluchukwu E, Uneke CJ (2007). "Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an ... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. However, immunofluorescence essays provide ...
The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ... These germinal centres are places where B memory cells are created and secretory antibody (IgA) is produced. ... Long, unbranched. Behind terminal sulcus (tongue) Development. The palatine tonsils tend to reach their largest size ... Long, branched. Sides of oropharynx between palatoglossal. and palatopharyngeal arches Lingual tonsils. Non-keratinized ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
Antibody - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody ... Each antibody is different. They are all designed to attack only one kind of antigen (in practice, this means virus or bacteria ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to ...
CD2, a enciclopedia libre
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... Sci. 2 (1): 1-17. PMID 12369898. doi:10.2174/1389203013381251.. *. Bell GM, Seaman WE, Niemi EC, Imboden JB (1992). "The OX-44 ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated. In 2014, a ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens. ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... Further research is needed to determine the exact etiological role of T-antigen, but there seems to be a connection to the ... T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... In fibrinolysis, a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. Its main enzyme plasmin cuts the fibrin mesh at ... Alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin inactivate plasmin. Plasmin activity is also reduced by thrombin-activatable ... Such results can be seen in peoples with liver disease, PAI-1 deficiency or alpha 2-antiplasmin deficiency. Similar results are ...
Serum (blood) - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Artificial induction of immunity
In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - antigen - antigen ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
White blood cell
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... Retrieved 2 February 2014.. *^ a b c d e Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis M, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Leukocyte also ...
... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... For instance, an antibody deficiency can be diagnosed in the presence of low immunoglobulins, ...
Anticardiolipin antibodies. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... Thus, anti-annexin A5 antibodies increase phospholipid-dependent coagulation steps. The Lupus anticoagulant antibodies are ...
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
It is now widely presumed that the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are responsible for the inflammation in GPA.[ ... and human leukocyte antigen genes may influence the risk of developing GPA. ... Seo P, Stone JH (July 2004). "The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides". The American Journal of ... Determination of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) can aid in the diagnosis, but positivity is not conclusive and ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ...
One example of a commonly used biomarker in medicine is prostate-specific antigen (PSA). This marker can be measured as a proxy ... It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ... 2) The biomarker levels must be elevated in various forms and/or severities of human TBI in the acute phase (3-24 h post-injury ... These include dendritic protein microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) [137,138], brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) [ ...
T independent antigen (TI)
Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, ...
SLAMF6 - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... 1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ... SLAMF6 (SLAM family member 6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SLAMF6 في الإنسان. ... 18 (2): 241-7. PMID 16410313. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxh358. *Gregory SG، Barlow KF، McLay KE، وآخرون. (2006). "The DNA sequence ...
ஏபிஓ குருதி குழு முறைமை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Arendrup, M; Hansen JE, Clausen H, Nielsen C, Mathiesen LR, Nielsen JO (April 1991). "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
a B/Brisbane 60/2008-like antigens. A separate vaccine was available for pandemic H1N1 influenza using the A/California/7/ ... The Hong Kong flu strain shared internal genes and the neuraminidase with the 1957 Asian flu (H2N2). Accumulated antibodies to ... Retrieved 2 October 2013.. *^ "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere ... The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which ...
Anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON
These antibodies show extremely intense coarsely granular staining. No other nuclear staining or cytoplasmic staining can b, ... Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated from AbD Serotec. 11. Mouse Anti-Human B-Cells (FMC7 Antigen) Monoclonal ... Anti-sm (Smith Antigen) (SLE / Nuclear Marker) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / ...
Rapid Test Detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibodies and HIV-1 Antigen - MedicineNet
... as well as blood antibodies for the HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ... The first rapid test to detect the HIV-1 antigen, ... Detection of the HIV-1 antigen may allow doctors to diagnose ... 8 (HealthDay News) -- The first rapid test to detect the HIV-1 antigen, as well as blood antibodies for the HIV-1 and HIV-2 ... Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2). Teen Health Bullying. Dermatology Jock Itch. ...
Anti-Melanocyte cell surface antigen antibody [Mel.2] Question (70152) | Abcam
Mel.2]. Our in-house scientific support team are here to help you with any technical questions or queries ... for Abcams Anti-Melanocyte cell surface antigen antibody [ ... Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. ... Question (70152) , Anti-Melanocyte cell surface antigen antibody [Mel.2] (ab128759). Go to datasheet (ab128759) ... We have not performed any epitope mapping with this antibody. While it is known that the antibody is localized in or on the ...
Site Directed Mutagenesis Identifies Allo-Antigenic Epitopes of an H-2 Antigen Recognized by Antibodies and by Cytotoxic T...
To test our previous hypothesis that the segment between amino acid position 63 to 73 of the H-2Dd antigen forms a major allo- ... Monoclonal antibodies to mouse MHC antigens. II. Antibodies to the H-2Ld antigen, the products of a third polymorphic locus of ... 70 and 73 of the H-2Ld antigen with those of the H-2Dd antigen. Gain and loss of serological and CTL epitopes specific for the ... An alto CTL epitope of the H-2Dd antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2Dd ...
Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2 Antibody (2:4 E10) (NBP2-54651): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2 Antibody (2:4 E10). Validated: WB, ELISA. Tested Reactivity: Bacteria. ... Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2 Antibody (2:4 E10) Summary. Immunogen. Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2 protein ... Be the first to review our Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2 Antibody (2:4 E10) and receive a gift card or discount.. ... Blogs on Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2. There are no specific blogs for Listeria monocytogenes antigen 2, but you can read ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Antigen-Antibody Relations in the Present Antivenin Production of...
2 polyvalent, 1 bivalent, 8 monovalent) against the venoms of 10 Brazilian snake species was assayed in 2989 subcutaneous mouse ... Antigen-Antibody Relations in the Present Antivenin Production of Brazil 1,2,3 * Author(s): W. H. A. Schöttler ... The therapeutic action of 11 Brazilian antivenins (2 polyvalent, 1 bivalent, 8 monovalent) against the venoms of 10 Brazilian ...
Antibody responses to repetitive epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein, liver stage antigen-1, and merozoite surface protein...
No significant correlation was found between an infant's antibody responses to the 4 antigen repetitive epitopes and ... Infants often responded to CSP repeats, but with a much lower antibody titer. Antibody responses in infants against Fc27 and ... 4 months of age were selected to determine antibody responses to the antigens tested upon their first and second detected ... Antibody responses to Fc27-type and 3D7-type repeats of MSP-2 were low upon both infections. There was no association between ...
Influenza A NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric - IAV142-2 | acris-antibodies.com
Influenza A NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 2 x 96 Tests. Influenza viruses can be divided into three classes, A, B, ... Influenza A NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric Search for all "Influenza A NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric" ... Acris Antibodies Inc. (North America) Choose this store if you are located in… *America (e.g. United-States, Canada, Mexico, ... Acris Antibodies Switch to Europe/Worldwide website Switch to German website Switch to French website Switch to Acris ...
Central Manchester University Hospitals - NHS Foundation Trust - HIV screen (4th generation: HIV1 and 2 antibody and p24...
Anti Human Melanocyte Cell Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 3C3 (Mel.2) - Mouse Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody IHC-F, IF, E -...
Mouse Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF, E (ABD13241), Abgent ... Anti Human Melanocyte Cell Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 3C3 (Mel.2) , ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Anti Human Melanocyte Cell Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 3C3 (Mel.2) ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in...
Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ...
Blood Group Antigen Lewis B Antibody - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone 2-25LE; same as LWB01 ] IHC, IF - Buy Now! |Abgent
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone 2-25LE; same as LWB01 ] validated in IHC, IF (AH11265-7), Abgent ... Blood Group Antigen Lewis B Antibody Blood Group Antigen Lewis B Antibody. Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone 2-25LE; same as ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and...
A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and ... A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and ... A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and ... A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and ...
Confirmation and differentiation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 with a strip-based assay including...
In the other five panels, LIA HIV and WB confirmed the presence of HIV antibodies in the same sample. The LIA HIV assay ... Testing of 334 WB-confirmed HIV antibody-positive sera (309 HIV-1; 25 HIV-2) revealed no false-negative results. In two of ... Confirmation and differentiation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 with a strip-based assay including ... recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides.. D E Pollet, E L Saman, D C Peeters, H M Warmenbol, L M Heyndrickx, C J Wouters, G ...
HIV-1/2 Antigen and Antibodies, Fourth Generation, with Reflexes
The HIV antigen/antibody assay listed above detects HIV antibodies that could be passively transferred from infected mothers to ... Are these particular tests appropriate for use in infants below the age of 2 years? No. ... HIV-2 DNA-RNA, Qualitative RT-PCR (test code 34977[X]) ... The HIV antigen/antibody assay listed above detects HIV ... HIV antigen/antibody fourth-generation-based screening tests can simultaneously detect both HIV-1 antigen (ie, viral protein) ...
HIVDX - Overview: HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antigen and Antibody Diagnostic Evaluation, Plasma
Diagnosing HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection in symptomatic patients more than 2 years old Follow-up testing of individuals with ... HIV-1/-2 Ag and Ab Diagnostic, P. Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching. Acquired Immune ... Anti-HIV-1/-2. HIV Types 1 and 2 Antibodies. HIV-1/-2. HIV-1/-2 Ab. HIV-1/-2 Ag/Ab. HIV-1/-2 Antibodies. HIV-1/-2 Antigen. HIV ... If HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation is negative for both HIV-1 antibody and HIV-2 antibody, or indeterminate/negative for HIV- ...
Antibody Database - Reagents for the antigen 'IDO2 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 / INDOL1' stained with 'PE-Cy7™ (PC7)'
Reagents for the antigen IDO2 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 / INDOL1 stained with PE-Cy7™ (PC7) in the Antibody Database ... Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for IDO2 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 / INDOL1 and PE-Cy7™ (PC7). ... IDO2 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 / INDOL1 PE-Cy7™ (PC7) Antibodies. ...
Antibody Database - Reagents for the antigen 'IDO1 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 / IDO' stained with 'Horseradish Peroxidase ...
Reagents for the antigen IDO1 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 / IDO stained with Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) in the ... Antibodies. Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for IDO1 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 / IDO and Horseradish Peroxidase ( ... IDO1 / indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 / IDO Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) ...
US5268265A - Immunological complex comprising an antigen of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and an antibody against human...
These various antigens are useful in medical diagnosis and kits, in particular by being placed in contact with serum of the ... It also concerns purified forms of the antigens which can be obtained from this virus, in particular from the gp 36 and gp 130- ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ...
Role of antigen receptor affinity in T cell-independent antibody responses in vivo | Nature Immunology
However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl ( ... To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, ...
Antibodies | Free Full-Text | Shark Variable New Antigen Receptor (VNAR) Single Domain Antibody Fragments: Stability and...
... derived from shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor antibodies (IgNARs) represent some of the smallest known immunoglobulin- ... Here, we examine the stability of VNAR domains with a focus on a family of VNARs specific for apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1 ... The VNARs are compared to traditional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in liquid, lyophilized and immobilized nitrocellulose ... The single variable new antigen receptor domain antibody fragments (VNARs) ...
Lack of antibodies against the antigen domain 2 epitope of cyt...
Lack of antibodies against the antigen domain 2 epitope of cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B is associated with CMV disease ... Lack of antibodies against the antigen domain 2 epitope of cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B is associated with CMV disease ... but not in the CMV-gH antibody mismatched group. None of the recipients with antibodies against both gB AD2 and strain-specific ... Because the antigen domain 2 (AD2) epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) is conserved among CMV isolates and is one of the known ...
Monoclonal Antibodies to Three Non-glycosylated Antigens of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 | Microbiology Society
AP2 is directed against the major capsid antigen of HSV-1 and HSV-2. ... Summary The production and properties of three monoclonal antibodies, designated LP1, LP4 and AP2, directed against non- ... glycosylated polypeptides of herpes simplex virus type 2 are described. LP1 is specific for polypeptide VP16 and cross-reacts ... Monoclonal Antibodies to Three Non-glycosylated Antigens of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 * C. McLean, A. Buckmaster, D. Hancock ...
Synthetic monoclonal antibodies effectively neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in laboratory conditions
... a multinational research group demonstrated how monoclonal antibodies strongly inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome ... SARS-CoV-2) in vitro at even sub-nanomolar concentrations. This makes them a prime candidate for the treatment of coronavirus ... Antibodies, Antibody, Antigen, Assay, Biosensor, Blood, Cell, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease COVID-19, Education, Enzyme, ... In short, antibodies were isolated by panning phage-displayed antigen-binding fragment libraries against S-protein RBD of the ...
A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens | Nature
The antibodies bind to polymorphic surface antigens on the parasite surface; binding depends on the mutated form of the insert ... This paper reports the isolation of monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against Plasmodium falciparum antigens from two ... Although broadly reactive antibodies against these antigens could be useful as therapeutics and in vaccine design, their ... These antibodies acquired broad reactivity through a novel mechanism of insertion of a large DNA fragment between the V and DJ ...
Antigen Peptide Transporter 2 (TAP2) Antibody | Abbexa Ltd
TAP2 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against TAP2. The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... RING11 antibody, Antibody against RING11, Anti-Y1, Anti-Y1 antibody, Y1 antibody, Antibody against Y1, Anti-Antigen peptide ... Anti-ABCB3 antibody, ABCB3 antibody, Antibody against ABCB3, Anti-PSF2, Anti-PSF2 antibody, PSF2 antibody, Antibody against ... Anti-ABC18 antibody, ABC18 antibody, Antibody against ABC18, Anti-D6S217E, Anti-D6S217E antibody, D6S217E antibody, Antibody ...
Highly sensitive and specific multiplex antibody assays to quantify immunoglobulins M, A and G against SARS-CoV-2 antigens -...
Novelty: Developed a new multiplexing tool to study antibody responses to multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 ... Would have been nice to have had a comparison of antibody-antigen detection over the four different time points from onset of ... No conclusion reached on which antibody-antigen combinations had the most potential ... Rapid evaluation of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients * Cross-reactive antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 and ...
US Patent for CD40 antigen antibody complex Patent (Patent # 6,056,959 issued May 2, 2000) - Justia Patents Search
Monoclonal antibodies useful in these methods, and epitopes immunoreactive with such monoclonal antibodies are also presented. ... the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the ... wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. ... Methods for preventing or treating an antibody-mediated diease in a patient are presented, ...
Immunochemical characterization of a human high molecular weight - melanoma associated antigen identified with monoclonal...
... defined by murine monoclonal antibodies revealed a number of distinct... ... Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE, Yeh M (1981) Lymphocyte-dependent antibodies to antigens 3.1, a cell-surface antigen expressed by a ... Analysis with monoclonal antibodies. In: Reisfeld RA, Ferrone S (eds) Melanoma antigens and antibodies. Plenum Press, New York ... Surface antigens of human melanoma cells defined by monoclonal antibodies. I. Biochemical characterization of two antigens ...
NHANES 2001-2002: Hepatitis B: Core Antibody & Surface Antigen; Hepatitis C: Confirmed Antibody & RNA (HCV-RNA);...
Hepatitis B: Core Antibody & Surface Antigen; Hepatitis C: Confirmed Antibody & RNA (HCV-RNA); Hepatitis D Antibody (L02_B) ... Hepatitis B: core antibody and surface antigen; Hepatitis C: confirmed antibody and RNA (HCV-RNA); Hepatitis D antibody: ... Hepatitis B core antibody. English Text: Hepatitis B core antibody. Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or ... Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B surface antigen. Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS. ...
ProteinsPeptidesELISAProteinEnzyme-LinkeImmunoglobulinSerum antibodiesPreparationsReactivitySerumAssaysReceptorEpitopesPrimary AntibodiesDifferentiationCross-reactivityReagentsCell-surface antigen expressedTherapeuticSpecificity of the antibody-antigenTarget antigenIsotypeInfectionAntigenicInteractionCharacterizationResponsesEpitopeMAbsWestern BlotAmount of antigenIgG1InteractionsSecondary AntibodyMurine monoclonal antibodiesProstate-specifiPreventing or treating antibodySequenceViral antigenMoleculeTitersDiverse antibody repertoireSerologicalComplexCloneSpeciesPolyclonal AntibodyRecombinant antigensFragmentSpecific antigenProtectiveTypicallyDiagnosis
- ELISA kit, antibody to, antigenes, ELISAs Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 90320007 SNOMED code are used by the medical researcher for detection of human, mouse, … proteins are supplied in coated 96 well plates to be stored at +4°C. ELISA test kits can be sandwich ELISA. (gentaur.com)
- E05 478 566 350 170 or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays, E05 478 566 350 170 or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays, Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (gentaur.com)
- Hantz, O. 1981-01-01 00:00:00 Using immunodiffusion, a major cross‐reactivity had been previously demonstrated between hepatitis B(HBe/3 Ag) and the antigen reported in the serum of non‐A, non‐B hepatitis patients, therefore redesignated NANBe Ag. (deepdyve.com)
- Cross‐reactivity between NANBc and HBc antigens was confirmed by immunodiffusion. (deepdyve.com)
- The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test can detect these markers for the AIDS-causing virus in human serum, plasma and blood specimens, the agency said in a news release. (medicinenet.com)
- In this study, development and maintenance of these antibody responses in 28 infants were studied longitudinally by use of monthly serum samples collected from birth to age 1 year. (ajtmh.org)
- Third-generation test results are considered repeatedly reactive only after a person has developed detectable levels of antibody in their serum or other body fluid. (questdiagnostics.com)
- Cross-sectional studies in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals have so far reported lower mean neutralizing antibody titres for serum samples collected at later timepoints POS (23-52 d) 4 , 7 , 20 . (nature.com)
- Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al. (cdc.gov)
- The Ortho HBc ELISA Test System is a qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of total antibody to anti-HBc in human serum or plasma. (cdc.gov)
- Qualitative determination of the human antibody directed against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in human serum or plasma is measured using direct solid-phase enzyme immunoassay with the anti-HCV screening ELISA. (cdc.gov)
- Chiron Corporation, Inc.) is an in vitro qualitative enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in human serum or plasma. (cdc.gov)
- The COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR Test, version 2 0 (v2.0) is an in vitro nucleic acid amplification test for the quantitation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in human serum or plasma on the COBAS AMPLICOR Analyzer. (cdc.gov)
- Such antibodies are seen in the serum of humans while they are infected or recovering and in immunized animals. (news-medical.net)
- The serum antibody response to the PA protein is polyclonal and complex both in terms of the antibody combining sites utilized to bind PA and the PA-associated epitopes recognized. (nih.gov)
- Inhibition of post AVA vaccination serum binding to PA in an antigen-specific ELISA. (nih.gov)
- Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (google.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum. (cdc.gov)
- Variations in antigen preparation and purity, assay methods, and endpoint determination between laboratories and the absence of a suitable standard reference serum compound this problem. (cdc.gov)
- In response to the anthrax emergency of 2001, we report the accelerated development and qualification of a quantitative ELISA for detection of anti-protective antigen (PA) specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G in human serum and the development of a competitive inhibition assay to enhance diagnostic specificity. (cdc.gov)
- Store serum at 2°C to 8°C after collection and ship the same day per packaging instructions provided with the Cleveland HeartLab shipping box. (clevelandheartlab.com)
- The Platelia Candida -specific antigen and antibody assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories) were used to test serial serum samples from seven neutropenic adult patients with hematological malignancies who had developed systemic Candida tropicalis infections. (asm.org)
- A low level of mannanemia was detected in only one serum sample, and none showed significant Candida antibody titers. (asm.org)
- The antibodies in serum are typically polyclonal). (virology.ws)
- The reduced ability of serum antibodies to neutralize virus would have lead to higher virus in the blood and a greater chance of entering the central nervous system. (virology.ws)
- Detection of specific anti-ECAC serum antibodies by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (percent specific lysis) and by immunoblotting (Western blots). (annals.org)
- This was given at a fixed yttrium-90-labeled dose of 16.6 mCi/m 2 to subjects who had and an elevated CEA in serum or in tumor by immunohistochemistry. (aacrjournals.org)
- The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
- In assays using recombinant antigen, purified virus, virus in tissue culture fluid or diluted in a "simple" buffer (PBS/BSA), the analytical sensitivity is ~150 pg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (abgent.com)
- Furthermore, as huge emphasis has been placed on antibody reactivity assays to determine seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in the community and estimating infection rates, it is important to understand immune responses after infection to define parameters in which antibody tests can provide meaningful data in the absence of PCR testing in population studies. (nature.com)
- Dot blots, Western blots, and radiolabeled antigen capture assays employing both proteolytic fragments of PA and engineered PA sub-domain fusion proteins were used to determine the region (domain) of the PA monomer to which each of the cloned human antibodies bound. (nih.gov)
- To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP). (nature.com)
- In a nutshell, these synthetic antibodies blocked host receptor binding. (news-medical.net)
- Spike (S) is the virally encoded surface glycoprotein facilitating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor binding on target cells through its receptor-binding domain (RBD). (nature.com)
- A specific T cell then binds to the B cell via T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of processed antigen presented on the MHC-class II molecule. (justia.com)
- The CD40 antigen is known to be related to the human nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-.alpha. (justia.com)
- Interaction between CD2 and its counter receptor LFA3 (CD58) on opposing cells optimizes immune system recognition, thereby facilitating communication between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. (abeomics.com)
- This interaction of the virus with the receptor is the main target for neutralizing antibodies and is, therefore, the primary candidate for the development of therapeutic antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- Therefore, an overview of novel immunological agents and combined therapeutic approaches is presented in this review, covering allogenic and autologous vaccine strategies, dendritic cell vaccination, strategies for adoptive immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer, treatment with cytokines and monoclonal antibodies against the CTLA-4 antigen. (hindawi.com)
- Antibodies to the GABA(B) receptor in limbic encephalitis with seizures: case series and characterisation of the antigen. (nih.gov)
- Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry showed that the antibodies recognise the B1 subunit of the GABA(B) receptor, an inhibitory receptor that has been associated with seizures and memory dysfunction when disrupted. (nih.gov)
- Complement-mediated cytotoxicity of antibodies to the GABA(B) receptor. (nih.gov)
- Normally immature B cells recognizing self-antigens are forced to undergo receptor editing or eliminated during negative selection ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Your search returned 394 Estrogen Receptor 2 (ER beta) Antibodies across 18 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- Rearrangement and assembly of B cell antigen receptor genes generates a diverse antibody repertoire in humans and mice. (rupress.org)
- These V segment substitutions occur independently of antigen binding to the B cell receptor (BCR), although gut bacteria provide an antigen-independent proliferative stimulus. (rupress.org)
- To date, there has been no definitive demonstration of antigen-independent postrearrangement diversification in mice, although mouse B cells undergo postrearrangement V gene replacement in the bone marrow in response to interactions with self-antigen, a process referred to as receptor editing ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
- Gain and loss of serological and CTL epitopes specific for the H-2D d and H-2L d antigens were examined. (springer.com)
- Further, some H-2L d specific alto CTL clones lost reactivity to the mutant molecules, demonstrating the presence of CTL epitopes in this region of the H-2L d antigen. (springer.com)
- From these results we conclude that the amino acid sequence encompassing from position 63 to 70 of the H-2D d and H-2L d molecules forms major alto- antigenic epitopes recognized by multiple antibodies and CTLs. (springer.com)
- Results showed that antibodies passively transferred from mothers were detectable for CSP, LSA-1, and MSP-2 repeat epitopes. (ajtmh.org)
- No significant correlation was found between an infant's antibody responses to the 4 antigen repetitive epitopes and protection against malarial parasitemia during the first year of life. (ajtmh.org)
- For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
- None of the recipients with antibodies against both gB AD2 and strain-specific epitopes of gH have experienced CMV disease during 6 month after transplantation, while 28% of those who lacked either/both antibody response needed preemptive therapy. (mysciencework.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies useful in these methods, and epitopes immunoreactive with such monoclonal antibodies are also presented. (justia.com)
- The present invention discloses humanized 1G8 antibodies in which the majority of the mouse-derived epitopes have been removed. (google.co.uk)
- The best therapeutic or vaccine can be designed only if the antigenic site is fully delineated via neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target all the epitopes of the viral antigen. (news-medical.net)
- Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. (rcsb.org)
- Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. (rcsb.org)
- Virus PV-RC2010, which also contains these two amino acid mutations, is completely resistant to neutralization with monoclonal antibodies that recognize antigenic site 2 (monoclonal antibodies recognize a single epitope, as opposed polyclonal antibodies which is a mixture of antibodies that recognize many epitopes. (virology.ws)
- Although different bioinformatic tools, based on structural data, have been developed to predict antigenic epitopes or the interaction surface between a known antibody and its antigen (docking), in silico approaches are currently not able to tailor de novo the specificity of an antibody for a target antigen. (frontiersin.org)
- Confirmation and differentiation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 with a strip-based assay including recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides. (aaccjnls.org)
- If the screen result is reactive, then HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation test by immunochromatographic method is performed at an additional charge. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- CD19 deficiency increased the affinity threshold of TI-2 responses, whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. (nature.com)
- Methods for preventing or treating an antibody-mediated diease in a patient are presented, the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the surface of a human B cell, wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. (justia.com)
- Imai K, Natali PG, Kay NE, Wilson BS, Ferrone S (1982a) Tissue distribution and molecular profile of a differentiation antigen detected by a monoclonal antibody (345.134S) produced against human melanoma cells. (springer.com)
- In murine systems, the administration of antibodies that block CTLA-4 function inhibits the growth of moderately immunogenic tumors and, in combination with cancer vaccines, increases the rejection of poorly immunogenic tumors, albeit with a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens. (pnas.org)
- If HIV Antigen and Antibody, 4th Generation Screen is Repeatedly Reactive, HIV-1/2 Antibody Differentiation will be performed at an additional charge (CPT codes: 86701, 86702). (clevelandheartlab.com)
- If HIV-1/2 Antibody Differentiation is Indeterminate or Negative, HIV-1 RNA, Qualitative, TMA will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code 87535). (clevelandheartlab.com)
- Only recently, research emerged that described the how and where IgE + B cell differentiation and memory occur [ 4 , 5 , 6 ], one of the most important pieces in the understanding of an antibody immune response. (mdpi.com)
- Cross-reactivity to M, S2 and N antigens was observed for some negative controls. (ox.ac.uk)
- The principles of specificity and cross-reactivity of the antigen-antibody interaction are useful in clinical laboratory for diagnositic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
- Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. (frontiersin.org)
Cell-surface antigen expressed1
- Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
- The therapeutic action of 11 Brazilian antivenins (2 polyvalent, 1 bivalent, 8 monovalent) against the venoms of 10 Brazilian snake species was assayed in 2989 subcutaneous mouse tests, fixed antivenin doses being applied immediately after the injection of varying venom doses at the same site. (ajtmh.org)
- Even though therapeutic, antibody-mediated safeguarding against SARS-CoV-2 is still not demonstrated in humans, the proof of concept is evident, as this and other studies suggest that convalescent plasma transfusion may indeed offer benefits to certain patients. (news-medical.net)
- Murine monoclonal antibody 1G8 binds to PSCA with nanomolar affinity, but its efficacy as a therapeutic agent is limited by the generation of a HAMA response. (google.co.uk)
- One key issue with regard to the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies has been the response of the human immune system to xenogeneic antibodies. (google.co.uk)
- Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. (mdpi.com)
- Despite the emergence of techniques allowing the development of fully human antibodies such as transgenic Xeno-mice, antibody humanization remains a standard procedure for therapeutic antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies have shown potential to act as therapeutic agents and have shown efficacy especially with hematologic malignancies as evidenced by the approval of rituximab and more recently of yttrium-90-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan for low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
Specificity of the antibody-antigen1
- An important prerequisite for antibody humanization requires standardized numbering methods to define precisely complementary determining regions (CDR), frameworks and residues from the light and heavy chains that affect the binding affinity and/or specificity of the antibody-antigen interaction. (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, numerous 3D structures of antibodies in complex with their target antigen have been reported and have permitted statistical identification of residues that are in direct contact with the antigen or that affect the binding affinity ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
- They bind to the specific target antigen on the surface of cancer cells and then are internalized and processed to release the cytotoxic component within the target cell. (aacrjournals.org)
- For the current study, we modified this original model in several different ways (see Materials and Methods), one of which was to include the effect of target antigen shedding. (aacrjournals.org)
- The authors use of multiplexing with different combinations of antibody isotype and antigen increased specificity and sensitivity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Although antigen-specific human IgM antibody responses are generated, the achievement of affinity maturation and class-switching from the IgM to the IgG isotype has been particularly difficult. (bloodjournal.org)
- The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen-Friedenreich) and hematological (CD20) cancer indications. (mdpi.com)
- Today, all approved monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy are immunoglobulin (Ig) G isotype antibodies [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- No. 421002), then stained with Bcl-2 (clone 100) Alexa Fluor® 647 (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ Alexa Fluor® 647 isotype control (open histogram). (biolegend.com)
- C57BL/6 splenocytes were fixed and permeabilized with Nuclear Factor Fixation and Permeabilization Buffer Set, and then were intracellularly stained with Bcl-2 (clone BCL/10C4) PE/Cyanine7 (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ PE/Cyanine7 isotype control (open histogram). (biolegend.com)
- ab170191 - Mouse monoclonal IgG2a, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody. (abcam.com)
- Antibody responses to LSA-1 and, to a lesser degree, CSP increased in positivity rates and titer upon second infection. (ajtmh.org)
- There was no association between maternally transferred anti-LSA-1, anti-CSP, or anti-MSP-2 antibodies and an infant's first detected infection. (ajtmh.org)
- Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in Schistosoma mansoni infection. (asm.org)
- The CDC recommends using a fourth generation HIV antigen/antibody test for screening and diagnosis because it can detect HIV during both the acute and chronic phases of infection. (questdiagnostics.com)
- The development of immunity through natural infection with this virus is a multi-step process that typically takes place over 1-2 weeks, resulting in antibodies in the blood. (news-medical.net)
- All four subclasses of IgG antibodies exhibited dose-dependent neutralization of viral infection, corroborating their neutralization propensity and the absence of any adverse cytopathic effects. (news-medical.net)
- Moreover, all tested antibodies strongly inhibited the infection of Vero E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2. (news-medical.net)
- We show that the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody response is typical of an acute viral infection, with declining neutralizing antibody titres observed after an initial peak, and that the magnitude of this peak is dependent on disease severity. (nature.com)
- Further knowledge on the magnitude, timing and longevity of neutralizing antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for understanding the role neutralizing antibodies might play in disease clearance and protection from reinfection and/or disease. (nature.com)
- The present study uses sequential samples from 65 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 31 seropositive healthcare workers (HCWs) up to 94 d POS to understand the kinetics of neutralizing antibody development, and the magnitude and durability of the neutralizing antibody response. (nature.com)
- The unusually specific nature of antibody binding makes monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) a good choice to attach the exposed antigenic sites of the virus, thus preventing their entry into the host cell and so averting infection. (news-medical.net)
- They are found in many disorders including autoimmunity, cancer and infection, with different prevalences of antibodies depending on the condition. (wikipedia.org)
- To test our previous hypothesis that the segment between amino acid position 63 to 73 of the H-2D d antigen forms a major allo-antigenic site, mutations were introduced into the H-2L d gene in a sequential fashion, which replaced the codons for amino acid position 63, 65, 66, 70 and 73 of the H-2L d antigen with those of the H-2D d antigen. (springer.com)
- It is believed that phosphorylation at MPM-2 antigenic sites could regulate mitotic events since most of the MPM-2 antigens identified to date have M phase functions. (biologists.org)
- definition of six antigenic systems with mouse monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
- The antigenic determinant or epitope is recognized by the paratope of the antibody, situated at the variable region of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
- Interaction between the CD28 antigen on T cells and the B7 antigen on B cells can provide a second signal further activating the T cell, resulting in high level cytokine secretion. (justia.com)
- Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- The strength of an individual interaction between a single binding site on an antibody and its target epitope is termed the affinity of that interaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigen-antibody interaction is used in laboratory techniques for serological test of blood compatibility and various pathogenic infections. (wikipedia.org)
- This can be due to the natural life-span of a red blood cell, or it may be as a result of an antigen-antibody interaction. (enotes.com)
- A monoclonal antibody, AJvW-2, directed against the A1 domain of human vWF specifically blocks the interaction between plasma vWF and platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib. (ahajournals.org)
- To evaluate the association between the vWF-GPIb interaction and the enhanced shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) observed in ACSs, we tested the effect of this antibody on platelet aggregation. (ahajournals.org)
- These findings suggest that the vWF-GPIb interaction is important in coronary occlusion and that inhibition of this interaction (with the use of AJvW-2) may prevent further events in the coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 Most importantly, high physiological and/or pathological shear stress can induce vWF-mediated platelet aggregation in vitro 1 2 5 6 and may stimulate the interaction between plasma vWF and glycoprotein (GP) Ib on platelets in vivo, eg, in animal models with coronary artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
- I. Characterization of antibody families in the primary and hyperimmune response. (nature.com)
- Imai K, Ng AK, Ferrone S (1981) Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human melanoma-associated antigens. (springer.com)
- Molecular characterization of a kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania chagasi that detects specific antibody in African and American visceral leishmaniasis. (pnas.org)
- Antibody responses in infants against Fc27 and 3D7 repeats of MSP-2 were low throughout their first year. (ajtmh.org)
- 4 months of age were selected to determine antibody responses to the antigens tested upon their first and second detected infections. (ajtmh.org)
- Antibody responses to Fc27-type and 3D7-type repeats of MSP-2 were low upon both infections. (ajtmh.org)
- Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
- Figure 7: CD19 and Lyn in TI-2 immune responses. (nature.com)
- Figure 8: Competition experiment for TI-2 immune responses. (nature.com)
- Liu, Y. J., Oldfield, S. & MacLennan, I. C. Memory B cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses colonize the splenic marginal zones. (nature.com)
- Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10-15 d after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. (nature.com)
- However, due to the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population, it is not known how long antibody responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from reinfection. (nature.com)
- 95% of cases and neutralizing antibody responses when sampled beyond 8 d POS. (nature.com)
- However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- 2 ⇓ - 4 However, the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses by human B cells is still a major challenge. (bloodjournal.org)
- Aside these inherent difficulties, the potency of the immune responses raised by the antigen-IgE-FcεRI axis is unquestionably among the most immediate and powerful biological reactions to the external environment. (mdpi.com)
- Human antichimeric antibody responses were the primary reason for stopping treatment in 12 patients. (aacrjournals.org)
- The development of the antibody responses to P6 was subsequently examined in the plasma from 35 children aged 1, 2 and 5 years taken from a prospective birth cohort. (bmj.com)
- The IgG1 responses of 2-year-old children who became skin test positive was markedly reduced and P6-specific IgG4 became detectable at 5 years of age. (bmj.com)
- The late maturation has been demonstrated in T cell precursor analyses, 1 responses to mitogens 2 3 and in the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines induced by allergens. (bmj.com)
- An effect on responses to other antigens could also be expected. (bmj.com)
- 10 - 12 The responses to mucosal antigens where co-presentation could occur with allergens would therefore be of interest. (bmj.com)
- 13 The possibility that immune responses to bacteria may be different in people with aeroallergies has been indicated by studies examining IgE antibodies or allergic responses to bacterial extracts. (bmj.com)
- Is it known if the epitope this antibody recognizes is extracellular? (abcam.com)
- We have not performed any epitope mapping with this antibody. (abcam.com)
- An alto CTL epitope of the H-2D d antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2D d specific CTL clones reacted with the mutant molecule in which amino acids were replaced at position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
- Lack of antibodies against the antigen domain 2 epitope of cyt. (mysciencework.com)
- Lack of antibodies against the antigen domain 2 epitope of cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B is associated with CMV disease after renal transplantation in recipients having the same glycoprotein H serotypes as their donors. (mysciencework.com)
- Because the antigen domain 2 (AD2) epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) is conserved among CMV isolates and is one of the known targets of neutralizing antibodies, in this study we investigated whether antibodies against the epitope contribute to protection from CMV reinfection in renal transplantation, irrespective of gH serological matching. (mysciencework.com)
- Epitope binning and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. (news-medical.net)
- Complete epitope binning of the eight selected MD monoclonal antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ∼1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. (rcsb.org)
- Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
- Why does the CDC no longer recommend the HIV-1 Western blot test as the supplemental antibody test? (questdiagnostics.com)
- Cell extracts of synchronized HEp-2 cells were phosphorylated in vitro with exogenous ATP, examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and probed with specific anti-Ro sera. (biomedsearch.com)
Amount of antigen1
- Protective Antigen (PA) binding by representative CHO cell-derived IgG1 PA-specific human monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Monoclonal antibody 8H9 is a murine IgG1 hybridoma derived from the fusion of mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and splenic lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with human neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- A recent study has shown the feasibility of combining a 120-hour infusion of 5-fluorouracil with the anti-CEA yttrium-labeled IgG1 murine monoclonal antibody designated T84.66 ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The antibodies of subjects allergic to a bacterial antigen included IgE and IgG4 (particularly for males) compared with the almost exclusive IgG1 response of non-allergic subjects. (bmj.com)
- Antigens are bound to antibodies through weak and noncovalent interactions such as electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- This has allowed approaching the molecular basis of antigen-antibody interactions. (frontiersin.org)
- It has been demonstrated that antibody - antigen interactions can be detected on collagen tendons with an unbinding force of 90 - 120 pN. (nsti.org)
- The analysis was complicated by signals arising from not only from antibody-antigen interactions but also from the pulling of the collagen fibrils by the AFM tip. (nsti.org)
Murine monoclonal antibodies1
- Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel analysis of a high molecular weight (HMW) human melanoma associated antigen (MAA) defined by murine monoclonal antibodies revealed a number of distinct polypeptides ranging from 80,000 up to 280,000 daltons, in addition to an extremely heterogeneous group of components distributed over a wide range in apparent molecular weight (300,000-700,000 daltons). (springer.com)
Preventing or treating antibody1
- In particular, this invention relates to methods of preventing or treating antibody-mediated diseases such as IgE-mediated disease (allergies) and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). (justia.com)
- 1985. Polymorphism of murine major histocompatibility class I antigens: Assignment of putative allodeterminants to distinct positions of the amino acid sequence within the first external domain of the antigen. (springer.com)
- 1. An isolated polynucleotide encoding a humanized antibody comprising a light chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ. (google.co.uk)
- 2. The isolated polynucleotide of claim 1 , wherein said polynucleotide comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ. (google.co.uk)
- Recombinant anthrax toxin protective antigen (rPA) with an amino acid sequence concurring with that from the Bacillus anthracis V770-NP1-R anthrax vaccine strain was obtained from the National Institute of Craniofacial and Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Antigen was stored frozen at -80°C in small aliquots (10-100 µL, 4.75 mg/mL) in 5 mM Hepes, pH 7.3. (cdc.gov)
- Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of type I polioviruses isolated from 12 fatal cases revealed two amino acid changes within a site on surface of the viral capsid that is bound by neutralizing antibodies (illustration). (virology.ws)
- The method involves examining the human tissue for the presence of a glycolipid antigen having the terminal carbohydrate sequence: GalNAcβl➝4Galβl➝3GalNAcβl➝4Galβl. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Galectin-3 structurely possesses NWGR motif that is conserved in BH-1 domain of BCL-2 family and functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule. (biolegend.com)
- If the antigen molecule is small and contains only one combining site, then only one antibody molecule can combine with each such antigen molecule (though 2 antigen molecules may combine with each antibody molecule since antibody molecules are typically bivalent). (enotes.com)
- The more complex the form of the antigen molecule, the more recognition sites there are for specific combination with antibody,and the larger, more stable and insoluble the combination is. (enotes.com)
Diverse antibody repertoire1
- The amino acid substitutions at position 63, 65, and 66 led to the acquisition of multiple serological H-2D d specificities which were expressed in the mutant H-2L d antigen. (springer.com)
- The present study has important implications when considering widespread serological testing and antibody protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, and may suggest that vaccine boosters are required to provide long-lasting protection. (nature.com)
- Serological evaluation revealed that 98% (56 of 57) of Brazilian and 100% (52 of 52) of Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis patients have high antibody levels to the rK39 repeat. (pnas.org)
- The data show that rK39 may replace crude parasite antigens as a basis for serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. (pnas.org)
- Antibodies to the H-2Ld antigen, the products of a third polymorphic locus of the mouse major histocompatibility complex. (springer.com)
- Bumol TF, Reisfeld RA (1982) Unique glycoprotein-proteoglycan complex defined by monoclonal antibody on human melanoma cells. (springer.com)
- The complex was then incubated for 300 sec with each one of the indicated antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. (mdpi.com)
- This murine antibody directed against the T lymphocyte CD3 complex has been widely used to prevent acute rejection in patients with organ transplants ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Total cell lysate from MCF7 cells (lane 1, 15 µg), Jurkat cells (lane 2, 15 µg), 3T3-L1 (lane 3, 15 µg) and Raw264.7 (lane 4, 15 µg) were resolved by electrophoresis (4-20% Tris-Glycine gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with purified anti-mouse/human Galectin-3 (Mac-2) antibody (clone Gal397). (biolegend.com)
- Direct-Blot™ HRP anti-β-actin antibody (clone 2F1-1) was used as a loading control. (biolegend.com)
- In addition, Antigen-Antibody Pens are formulated to react only with 2-ab-enzyme conjugates from a give animal species. (bio-medicine.org)
- Antigen-Antibody pens are available for various antibody host species. (bio-medicine.org)
- Collectively, these results suggest that the events associated with B cell development in humans and mice may not be far removed from those in other species, such as sheep, in which antigen-independent diversification occurs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (rupress.org)
- Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen. (nih.gov)
- Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition moiety of the Bacillus anthracis A-B toxin system, and the active immunogenic component in the currently licensed human anthrax vaccine (BioThrax, or AVA). (nih.gov)
- CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, CD1d-restricted invariant NKT cells, and antibodies mediate protective immunity ( 15 , 16 , 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
-  Some allergies more commonly develop early in life, while others typically develop in later life. (wikipedia.org)
- Somatic hypermutation (SHM) is a postrearrangement diversification process in which point mutations are introduced into the DNA encoding the V gene through a mechanism mediated by the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and which typically occurs in an antigen-dependent manner within GCs ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
- The present invention provides humanized antibodies for use in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer with minimal HAMA response. (google.co.uk)
- Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history , elimination diet , skin prick test , blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies , or oral food challenge . (wikipedia.org)