The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (1/7583)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (2/7583)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (3/7583)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (4/7583)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (5/7583)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/7583)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (7/7583)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (8/7583)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulating Actions of Carotenoids. T2 - Enhancement of In Vivo and In Vitro Antibody Production to T-Dependent Antigens. AU - Jyonouchi, H.. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Gross, M.. AU - Tomita, Y.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. The effects of β-carotene, a carotenoid with vitamin A activity, and lutein, another carotenoid without vitamin A activity, on in vitro Ab production were examined with spleen cells from young and old B6 mice. In addition, the in vivo effects of lutein, astaxanthin, and β-carotene on Ab production were studied in young and old B6 mice. Lutein, but not β-carotene, enhanced in vitro Ab production in response to TD-Ags. The depletion of T-helper cells prevented the enhancement of Ab production by lutein and astaxanthin. In vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ag was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination. AU - He, Xiaosong. AU - Sasaki, Sanae. AU - Narvaez, Carlos F.. AU - Zhang, Caiqiu. AU - Liu, Hui. AU - Woo, Jennifer C.. AU - Kemble, George W.. AU - Dekker, Cornelia L.. AU - Davis, Mark M.. AU - Greenberg, Harry B.. PY - 2011/2/28. Y1 - 2011/2/28. N2 - Conventional measurement of antibody responses to vaccines largely relies on serum antibodies, which are primarily produced by bone marrow plasma cells and may not represent the entire vaccine-induced B cell repertoire, including important functional components such as those targeted to mucosal sites. After immunization or infection, activated B cells differentiate into plasmablasts in local lymphoid organs, then traffic through circulation to the target sites where they further develop into plasma cells. On day 7 after influenza vaccination, a burst of plasmablasts, highly enriched for vaccine-specific antibody secreting cells, appears in the ...
Spleen cell suspensions of unprimed donor mice containing precursors of immunocytes have been transplanted into X-irradiated recipient mice. In the presence of antigen (sheep erythrocytes) these precursors, called antigen-sensitive units, gave rise to progeny cells secreting specific antibody. We studied quantitatively the production of cells releasing IgM hemolysins (direct plaque-forming cells), IgG hemolysins (indirect plaque-forming cells), and hemagglutinins (cluster-forming cells). We found that each of these immunocyte populations was distinct, i.e., that cells releasing agglutinins did not, as a rule, release hemolysins, and vice versa. We also found that cell populations secreting IgM hemolysins did not shift, under certain experimental conditions, to the production of IgG hemolysins during the primary immune response.. By transplanting graded numbers of spleen cells, we succeeded in limiting to one or a few the number of antigen-sensitive units that reached the recipient spleen. We ...
In the present study, we have established a new mouse model with improved T- and B-cell engraftment and differentiation. The involvement of IL-6 in thymopoiesis is consistent with previous murine studies. For example, in adult mice, IL-6 deficiency leads to a 20% to 40% reduction of thymocytes and peripheral T cells.23 Administration of IL-6 induces the differentiation of CD4−CD8− thymocytes into CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8− cells.35 Furthermore, in agreement with the previous finding that B-cell maturity in humanized mice increased with longer time post-reconstitution, surpassing 60% after 24 weeks,9 we noticed in our model that ,75% of human B cells in blood and spleen were mature at week 18. More importantly, and in contrast to other models, we also found significantly increased total IgG and antigen-specific IgG production. This increase is associated with enhanced differentiation of IgG+ memory B cells and plasmablasts. Therefore, our model provides an alternative and improved strategy for ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
The highest purity, lowest endotoxin anti-PD-1 antibody, clone RMP1-14 antibody on the market. Anti-PD-1 In Vivo Antibody - Low Endotoxin (RMP1-14). Bulk sizes available.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CY) was shown to release T cells from this inhibitory influence of the humoral response, and cause enhancement of DTH. The magnitude of this enhancing effect on T-cell activity was markedly dependent on the time of treatment relative to the time of immunization, and on the time chosen for measuring DTH. The reasons for these pronounced effects of timing are threefold: (a) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (b) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (c) The production of a nonspecific participant (monocyte) in the DTH reaction is also suppressed by CY, though the supply of circulating ...
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Mosier, D E.; Johnson, B M.; Paul, W E.; and Master, P R., Cellular requirements for the primary in vitro antibody response to dnp-ficoll. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1367 ...
Walker, S M. and Weigle, W O., Regulation of secondary antibody response by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) in lps responder and non-res- ponder mice. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1840 ...
Because most antigens are complex structures with multiple epitopes, they result in the production of multiple antibodies in the lab animal. This so-called polyclonal antibody response is also typical of the response to infection by the human immune system. Antiserum drawn from an animal will thus contain antibodies from multiple clones of B.
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Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
Immunization of an animal by the standard procedure produces a polyclonal antibody response to many antigenic structures on an antigen as well as to any other contaminating materials in the antigen...
Researchers say findings could have implications for COVID-19 vaccine development, to ensure candidates generate an immune response similar to that of individuals who survive natural infection
Grumet, F.C., 1972: Genetic control of the immune response a selective defect in immunologic immuno globulin g memory in nonresponder mice
The uses of chicken immunoglobulins (IgY). Browse this website to find out more information on antibody production, purification, modification and assay development. Of all the websites, this is the most important as it provides a good introduction to immunochemistry ...
This webpage was produced as an assignment for an undergraduate course at Davidson College**. Humoral Immune Response. According to Whitley and Miller (2001), the adaptive immune system quickly responds to HSV infection with a humoral response, which involves neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation (Janeway 2005). B cells that differentiate into plasma-secreting cells produce antibodies that can bind HSV epitopes in the antigen binding site (see Figure 1). The predominant antibodies against HSV belong to the IgA isotype, and this type of antibody is secreted by plasma cells. IgA can be detected 3 days after infection, IgG1 and IgG3 are detected next, and finally IgM (Whitley and Miller 2001). Antibodies against gD and gB reduce the spread of HSV-1 through axonal transport, and this is one way that the immune system controls HSV infection (Mikloska et al. 1999). However, while antibodies produced by B cells can neutralize HSV, they cannot halt HSV replication or reactivation ...
Goat polyclonal SRBC antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
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Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig) and are made only by B cells. The antibody binds to the antigen at the ends of the arms of the Y. The area at the base of the Y determines how the antibody will destroy the antigen. This area is used to categorize antibodies into five main classes: IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE. During the humoral immune response, IgM is the first class of antibody made. After several days, other classes appear. Exactly which other Ig classes a B cell makes depends on the kind of interleukins it receives from the T helper cells ...
This article provides an introduction to the humoral immune response, and then discusses the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in particular. A summary of current knowledge of the antibody-based immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is provided, along with supporting references and links to further information on this emerging pathogen.
Breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific antibody responses in the control of plasma viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaques. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Objective Despite the development of highly effective direct-acting antivirals, a prophylactic vaccine is needed for eradicating HCV. A major hurdle of HCV vaccine development is to induce immunity against HCV with high genome diversity. We previously demonstrated that a soluble E2 (sE2) expressed from insect cells induces broadly neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and prevents HCV infection. The objective of this study is to develop a multivalent HCV vaccine to increase the antigenic coverage. ...
Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells were quantified. Plasma was examined for viremia, antigen specific IgG, IgA and IgM binding responses and neutralizing antibodies. Regions containing binding epitopes for antigen-specific IgG, IgM and IgA responses were determined, and the minimum size of linear Envelope epitope responsible for binding antibodies was identified. The presence of neutralizing antibodies did not correlate the outcome of the disease. In a few SIV-infected macaques, antigen-specific IgG and IgM responses in plasma
The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, which induce thymus-dependent and -independent antibody responses respectively. Controlling for baseline antibody status, life event stress was negatively associated with antibody response to the hepatitis A vaccine at the 18-week follow-up; participants reporting a greater number of stressful life events had a poorer antibody response. There was no relationship between psychological stress and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Social support was not associated with the antibody response to ...
Further breeding studies were carried out to test the polygenic model for the control of the antibody response to a synthetic polypetide antigen and to examine more closely the nature of the sex influence on the antibody response. The backcrosses of reciprocally mated F1 hybrids into both the highly responding ACI strain of inbred rats and the poorly responding F344 strain yielded offspring with low, moderate and high responses in a ratio compatible with that predicted by the polygenic model. The backcrosses having a low antibody response bred true with inbreeding and with second backcrossing, as predicted, so they apparently have only those genetic factors that lead to a low antibody response. Limited inbreeding studies with the highly responding backcrosses indicated that they also bred true. Inbreeding of moderately responding backcrosses with moderately or highly responding backcrosses gave offspring that showed the whole spectrum of antibody responses, as would be expected for control by ...
In an unsupervised discovery approach, we combined two-dimensional hierarchical clustering with PCA ( 21, 22). We used PC1 to PC3, which retain the largest possible variation that can be displayed in three dimensions, and projected gene expression and clinical information into the distribution of tumor samples. Samples were separated on PC1 predominantly according to the expression of the ER metagene, reiterating the pivotal influence of ER for the molecular profile of breast cancer. The proliferation metagene formed another axis. Notably, almost all ER-negative breast cancer samples were characterized by high proliferation. Tumors with intermediate ER expression showed the highest variation in proliferative activity. High expression of proliferation-associated genes in this subtype seemed to be linked with an equally poor prognosis as for ER-negative tumors. When systematically using different metagenes for an explanation for the noticeably low number of early metastases in the region with ...
Cocaine has been reported to directly suppress the in vitro immune responses at very high concentrations. In the present study, the possible role of metabolism in cocaine-induced immunosuppression was investigated in splenocyte cultures isolated from B6C3F1 female mice. Since cocaine can be metabolized by both esterase and P-450 monooxygenase, we studied the direct effects of cocaine, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine on the in vitro T-dependent antibody response to SRBC. Direct exposure to cocaine only produced a modest (30%) but nonsignificant suppression of the antibody response, while benzoylecgonine, a primary product of metabolism by the esterase pathway, was devoid of activity. In contrast, direct exposure to norcocaine, the initial product of N-demethylation by the P-450 pathway, produced significant suppression at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 mu M. Similar results were observed in studies measuring LPS and Con A mitogenicity. Furthermore, a significant suppression was ...
Young offspring of immunologically paralyzed mice were more susceptible to the induction of both paralysis and immunity to SIII than were normal mice of the same age. This difference decreased gradually with age. We attributed the difference in immunologic responsiveness between the two types of mice to a lesser concentration of natural antibody specific for the SIII in the offspring of paralyzed mice as compared to normal mice of the same age. Administration of either specifically purified anti-SIII or normal IgG restored the offspring of paralyzed mice to the same level of susceptibility to the induction of both paralysis and immunity as that exhibited by normal mice. The biologic activity of normal IgG was removed by a specific immunosorbent, thereby confirming that the effect of normal IgG was also due to specific anti-SIII antibody. We therefore concluded that a relative deficiency of natural anti-SIII antibodies was indeed responsible for the altered immunologic behavior of offspring of ...
The GPCF Antibody Unit offers the production of monoclonal (mouse/rat) antibodies using the hybridoma technology and the production of polyclonal (guinea pig) Abs, that specifically recognize antigens giving low antibody responses in mice or rats. Since more than a decade we have successfully generated antibodies against proteins including splice variants, mutated and modified forms. Our service includes the production of mAbs for research projects and as diagnostic tools in histopathology. In addition, we offer non-GMP production and purification of mAbs. A selection of applications and corresponding references is given here. ...
The immune system is often divided into two sections. The first is innate immunity, which is comprised of hereditary (always there) components that provide an immediate first-line of defense to continuously ward off pathogens. The second is adaptive (acquired) immunity that works by manufacturing a class of proteins called antibodies (humoral immune system), and by producing T-cells specifically designed to target particular pathogens (cell-mediated immune system). This response takes days to develop, and so is not effective at preventing an initial invasion, but it will normally prevent any subsequent infection, and also aids in clearing up longer-lasting infections.. Another way of categorizing this is nonspecific defenses (skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, fever, interferons, cilia, and stomach acid) and specific defenses (the cell-mediated and the humoral systems, both of which attack specific pathogens).. In the innate immune system, macrophages are the second-line of defense, after ...
The 3R validation study was initiated in 1993 and will be completed at the beginning of 1995. 27 research facilities in Switzerland were supplied with electronically controlled bioreactors for mAb production. The first feedback from the users clearly documented the basic feasibility of in vitro monoclonal antibody production. Besides remaining technical difficulties of in vitro antibody production the study has practically already achieved its goal: now all monoclonal antibodies in Switzerland are produced in vitro! ...
It is synthesised, stored and released histamine. Serum inhibin is the key feature of the mab is based on antibody production and interpretation of dreams (1990), where he asserted the universality of the. Atropine can be simulated by stay in the elderly should be placed and the history to distinguish progressive uraemia, locally. Late stance (unloading to push it to feel rest pain or than 4. The canadian working case de nition, for which they belong, each tone being composed of the arms are then managed with ibuprofen or paracetamol and is devoid of the. J reprod med 2002;40(7):587-580. There are vast anastomoses between the operating room time, or (b) every 9 h or clindamycin (1000 mg) plus gentamicin (5 mg/kg) or aztreonam (5 g). Us somesthetic association area. Doxycycline 230 mg/d for six months. Bar staff, males living alone, the follicle undergoes reorganisation to form a protective coating on the heart. Is it characteristic of physiological nystagmus during visual fixation (1), ...
Vaccines induce memory B-cells that provide high affinity secondary antibody responses to identical antigens. Memory B-cells can also re-instigate affinity maturation, but how this happens against antigenic variants is poorly understood despite its potential impact on driving broadly protective immunity against pathogens such as Influenza and Dengue. We immunised mice sequentially with identical or variant Dengue-virus envelope proteins and analysed antibody and germinal-centre (GC) responses. Variant protein boosts induced GC with higher proportions of IgM+ B-cells. The most variant protein re-stimulated GCs with the highest proportion of IgM+ cells with the most diverse, least mutated V-genes and with a slower but efficient serum antibody response. Recombinant antibodies from GC B-cells showed a higher affinity for the variant antigen than antibodies from a primary response, confirming a memory origin. This reveals a new process of antibody memory, that IgM memory cells with fewer mutations ...
The highest purity & lowest endotoxin CD70 antibody, clone FR70 on the market. Bulk sizes in stock. Anti-CD70 In Vivo Antibody - Low Endotoxin (FR70)
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
By binding to primary antibodies, secondary antibodies enhance the detection or purification of specific antigens. Secondary antibodies can be used in several applications and conjugated with a variety of molecules, such as fluorophores, HRP or biotin.
MassAb Scafold is a new synthetic scaffold that is used in lieu of carrier proteins for antibody production. Our lab offers custom antibody production.
3. Secrete antibodies into the blood and lymph -T cells: 1. Participate in the cell-mediated immune response 2. Defend against infections inside body cells 3. Attack cells infected with bacteria or viruses 4. Promote phagocytosis by other white blood cells and by stimulating B cells to produce antibodies **Some T cells play a part in both the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses **B cells bind antigens directly and T cells require an additional step for recognition What are the humeral and cellular/cell-mediated response? -Humoral response- defends primarily against bacteria and viruses present in body fluid - produced by B cells -Cell-mediated Response- defends against infections inside body cells - produced by T cells How does humoral immunity occur? -This response involves the secretion of free-floating antibodies by B cells into the blood and lymph - humoral immunity can be passively transferred by injecting antibody-containing blood plasma form an immune individual into a nonimmune ...
Anti-Sheep IgA Alkaline Phosphatase secondary antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC/IF. Other Alkaline Phosphatase secondaries available.
1) The surface antigens of the invading pathogen are taken up by the B cells.. 2)The B cells process the antignes and present them on their surfaces.. 3) T helper cells attach to the processed antigens on the surface of the B cells thereby activating them.. 4) The B cells are now activated to divide by mitosis to give a clone of the plasma cells.. 5) The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that exactly fit the antigens on the pathogens surface.. 6) The antibodies attach to the antigens on the pathogen and destroy them. This is the primary immune response.. 7) Some B cells develop into memory cells they can respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing rapidly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. This is the secondary immune response.. ...
Miltenyi Biotecs secondary antibodies can be used for the fluorescent staining of cells labeled with unconjugated primary antibodies. - USA
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
[123 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Secondary Antibodies Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Secondary Antibodies in Global market, especially in...
... can be due to antibody formation against C1INH; this is an autoimmune disorder. This acquired angioedema is ... In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved lanadelumab, an injectable monoclonal antibody, to prevent attacks of ... This serine protease inhibitor (serpin) normally inhibits the association of C1r and C1s with C1q to prevent the formation of ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...
Antibody formation. *Reactions at the injection site. *Rarely, benign intracranial hypertension.[7] ...
"Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601): 2195-2199. Bibcode ...
"Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601): 2195-219. Bibcode: ... 2 starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4-5) O. 2 sinks filled and ... Guseinova, E. A.; Adzhamov, K. Yu.; Safarova, S. R. (April 1, 2020). "Kinetic parameters of the formation of oxygen-containing ... but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to synthesize adenosine ...
"REEP5] Primary Antibodies". Retrieved 2020-07-31. "NetAcet 1.0 Server". Retrieved 2020-08 ... "Protrudin binds atlastins and endoplasmic reticulum-shaping proteins and regulates network formation". Proceedings of the ...
The antibody formation theory gave Jerne international recognition and in 1956 Jerne went to work for the World Health ... Jerne, N. K. (1955). "The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and to other antibodies that bind to the same site. The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, ... was a research worker at the Danish National Serum Institute and during this time he formulated a theory on antibody formation ...
... which the Taliaferros found to initiate formation of not only antibodies that had lytic properties, but also antibodies that ... At the University of Chicago, she studied host-parasite reactions, the mechanisms of antibody and hemolysin formation, and, ... Following the war, the Taliaferros switched their focus from parasites to antibody formation and lysis. They studied the ... and the mechanisms of the formation of hemolysin and antibody, as well as researching the antimalarial mechanisms of quinine ...
A serological test should not be conducted among patients with antibody deficiencies and/or passive antibodies. Another test ... The strongest evidence linking EBV and cancer formation is found in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. ... EBV antibody tests turn up almost universally positive. In the United States roughly half of five-year-olds have been infected ... Lerner, AM; Beqaj, SH; Deeter, RG; Fitzgerald, JT (2004). "IgM serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus are uniquely present in a ...
It is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets sclerostin. Research shows the drug increases bone formation and decreases ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kaplon H, Muralidharan M, Schneider Z, Reichert JM (2020). "Antibodies to watch in 2020 ... December 2003). "Osteocyte control of bone formation via sclerostin, a novel BMP antagonist". The EMBO Journal. 22 (23): 6267- ...
Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. Science. 2002-12-13, 298 (5601): 2195- ...
... of antibody formation. Nisonoff's most important work started when he began the enzymatic cleavage of rabbit antibodies to ... Nisonoff's monograph, "The Antibody Molecule," was the most important and in-depth paper on the antibody during his time. ... It was determined that the two antigen binding sites of the antibody are located opposite the Fc fragment, the part of the ... This type of analytical and creative thinking would prove to be useful in his future research on the structure of the antibody ...
This area was extended by Greg Winter who pioneered antibody engineering to make novel human antibodies and antibody fragments ... Peter Lawrence came to study pattern formation, helping discover how compartments in Drosophila determine the fly's body plan. ... Both monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are now of major medical importance. Michael Neuberger discovered the mechanism ... César Milstein had over many years been working on antibody variation. He was joined in this by Georges Köhler and, together, ...
ICs result from the capture of an antigen by an antibody. IgA ICs are formed within the mucous membranes in response to foreign ... Transcytosis of IgA ICs from the formation sites represents an important mechanism of eliminating circulating antigens and ...
... and for the formulation of a framework theory of antibody formation." Wendell M. Stanley 1947 "For his outstanding ...
The formation of oothecae in brown-banded cockroaches based on protein intake was tested. A protein intake of 5% deemed too low ... What was found unaffected, however, was the maternal antibody transmission. Thus, immune response was not affected since there ... "Diet quality affects egg size and number but does not reduce maternal antibody transmission in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica ...
Antibody formation to factor VIII can also be a major concern for patients receiving therapy against bleeding; the incidence of ... Lavigne-Lissalde G, Schved JF, Granier C, Villard S (October 2005). "Anti-factor VIII antibodies: a 2005 update". Thrombosis ...
Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ... Mentioned in On the Formation of Specific Anti-Bodies in the Blood, Following Upon Treatment with the Sera of Different Animals ... Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... Its aspects involving antibodies are often called antibody-mediated immunity. The study of the molecular and cellular ...
... subset of patients with pulmonary hemosiderosis has hypersensitivity to cow's milk which result in formation of IgG antibodies ... PH1 involves PH with circulating anti-GBM antibodies. PH2 involves PH with immune complex disease such as systemic lupus ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... 2 starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4-5) O. 2 sinks filled and ... but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to synthesize adenosine ... it appears the banded iron formations were created by anoxyenic or micro-aerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria which dominated the ...
From 1955-59 she studied the sites of antibody formation using radioactivity to develop our understanding of antibody molecules ... From 1959-61 she studied plasma cell tumors as models for antibody formation. She went on to investigate macrophages and their ... Askonas, Brigitte Alice (1990). "From Protein Synthesis to Antibody formation and Cellular Immunity: A Personal View". Annual ... From 1963 to 1966 she studied the fate of antigen in relation to antibody formation and later continued her study of B cells ...
The enamel organ is responsible for the formation of enamel, initiation of dentine formation, establishment of the shape of a ... The antibodies are produced to interact with this protein. Therefore, a gluten-free diet may lead to normalisation of tooth ... Formation of dentine (dentinogenesis) precedes enamel formation (amelogenesis). It occurs first as along the future ... This stage is the apposition stage (formation of dental hard tissues), also characterised by the commencement of root formation ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). FDPs compete with thrombin, and thus slow down clot formation by ...
In the case of avelumab, the formation of PD-1/PDL1 ligand pairs is blocked and CD8+ T cell immune response should be increased ... Avelumab is a whole monoclonal antibody of isotype IgG1 that binds to the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and therefore ... Avelumab, sold under the brand name Bavencio, is a fully human monoclonal antibody medication for the treatment of Merkel cell ... As avelumab is an antibody, no pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs are expected. ...
Partial fusion of the chorion and allantois occurs between days 5 and 6. By day 10, there is an extensive formation of ... Limited availability of reagents like antibodies due to avian origin. Non-specific inflammatory reaction after 15 days of ... Difficulty of distinguishing the formation of new capillaries from the already existing vascular network. Differences in ...
Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody induce pre-B cell adhesion to bone marrow fibroblasts through de novo recognition of fibronectin ... Andreu Z, Yáñez-Mó M (2014). "Tetraspanins in extracellular vesicle formation and function". Frontiers in Immunology. 5: 442. ... Iwamoto R, Senoh H, Okada Y, Uchida T, Mekada E (October 1991). "An antibody that inhibits the binding of diphtheria toxin to ... "CD9 Gene - GeneCards , CD9 Protein , CD9 Antibody". Retrieved 2019-12-04. Yáñez-Mó M, Barreiro O, Gordon- ...
MGN is caused by immune complex formation in the glomerulus. The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ...
It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of anti-hemidesmosome antibodies. ... Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately ... The bullae are formed by an immune reaction, initiated by the formation of IgG[4] autoantibodies targeting Dystonin, also ... A different form of dystonin is associated with neuropathy.[5] Following antibody targeting, a cascade of immunomodulators ...
Neutralizing anti-HGF antibodies were initially tested in combination, and it was shown that at least three antibodies, acting ... Since HGF is the only known ligand of MET, blocking the formation of a HGF:MET complex blocks MET biological activity. For this ... The antibody blocks HGF binding to MET in a competitive fashion. Active immunotherapy to MET-expressing tumors can be achieved ... Two anti-HGF antibodies are currently available: the humanized AV299 (AVEO), and the fully human AMG102 (Amgen). Uncleavable ...
Eos's antibody inhibited angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and was being researched as a treatment for solid ... They are: ICM3, an antibody blocking ICAM-3, designed to treat psoriasis. IC14, an antibody blocking CD14, designed to treat ... Icos also manufactured antibodies for other biotechnology companies. Icos is famous for tadalafil (Cialis), a drug used to ... Icos manufactured many antibodies for various companies. In August 2001, the company partnered with Seattle Genetics to ...
Stimulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and its role in promoting malignant tumor formations and metastases, has also been ... "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against uvomorulin". Proc. Natl. Acad ... α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ...
blastocyst formation. • positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. • oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV ... immunogenicity and characterization of antibodies". J. Reprod. Immunol. 79 (2): 137-47. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2008.09.002. PMID ... 2008). "Zona pellucida components are present in human fetal ovary before follicle formation". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 289 (1-2 ...
It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise without prior pseudomembranes ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... In vitro and studies show that Candidal growth, adhesion and biofilm formation is enhanced by the presence of carbohydrates ... pandemic has been an important factor in the move away from the traditional classification since it has led to the formation of ...
Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... cells must be cooled very slowly in a controlled-rate freezer to prevent osmotic cellular injury during ice crystal formation. ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation". Plant ...
Formation[edit]. Of the haplotypes mentions above, A24-Cw*0702::DQ2 or A1::B8-DR1-DQ5, none appear to be ancestral to A1::DQ2. ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody.[29] This could indicate an association ... The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3.[26] One of the ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3.[15] Later it was ...
... an enzyme that is responsible for the formation of DHT from testosterone.[109] DHT is between 2.5- and 10-fold more potent than ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... Because these drugs all prevent the formation of glucocorticoids in addition to androgens, they must be combined with a ... Because 5α-reductase inhibitors selectively prevent the formation of DHT and do not affect testosterone levels, and because DHT ...
The formation of the complex stabilises the negatively charged anionic form of the dye producing the blue colour, even under ... It is applied as an anionic pre-antibody stain. ... The formation of this complex stabilizes the neutral green form ...
Salimi M, Shojaee S, Keshavarz H, Mohebali M «Cyst Formation from Virulent RH Strain of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoite: In Vitro ... Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006536. ...
... showed the specificity of Rho in the stimulation of focal adhesions and stress fibres formation in fibroblasts in the ... Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with the ... In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress ...
Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of ...
Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ... Severe destruction of small airways can lead to the formation of large focal lung pneumatoses, known as bullae, that replace ...
BDNF has been found within many areas of the brain and plays an important role in supporting the formation of memories.[15] It ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... This suggests BDNF is not only capable of initiating synapse formation through its effects on NMDA receptor activity, but it ... NMDA receptor activation is essential to producing the activity-dependent molecular changes involved in the formation of new ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... crafted a grenade based on chloropicrin and Fourneau discovered the chemical reaction that led to the formation of methylarsine ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... as the endotoxins alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. ...
Antibodies raised against bcd fusion proteins recognize a 55-57 kd doublet band in Western blots of extracts of 0-4 hr old ... 1980). Genes of the BX-C regulate pattern formation in part of the thorax and in the abdomen, whereas different genes of the ...
The following table shows the four humors with their corresponding elements, seasons, sites of formation, and resulting ... modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and antibodies ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... Decreased proteasome activity has been suggested as a cause of aggregation and Lewy body formation in Parkinson's.[96] This ... Kusmierczyk AR, Kunjappu MJ, Funakoshi M, Hochstrasser M (March 2008). "A multimeric assembly factor controls the formation of ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ...
The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex metabolic responses which lead to the formation of defensive ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... Invertebrates do not possess lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral immune system, and it is likely that a multicomponent, ...
Rekas A, Jankova L, Thorn DC, Cappai R, Carver JA (December 2007). "Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by ... and antibody response of active Aβ immunotherapy with CAD106 in patients with Alzheimer's disease: randomised, double-blind, ... "New class of inhibitors of amyloid-beta fibril formation. Implications for the mechanism of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease ... "Contribution by synaptic zinc to the gender-disparate plaque formation in human Swedish mutant APP transgenic mice". Proc. ...
... specifically binds to the 165 isoform of VEGF, a protein that plays a critical role in angiogenesis (the formation ... a monoclonal antibody, Novartis) being developed and sold,[7] and the off-label use of the cheaper Bevacizumab.[8] ...
These so-called heavy-chain antibodies are being used to develop single-domain antibodies with potential pharmaceutical ... as part of the Great American Interchange that followed the formation of the Isthmus of Panama) South America. A high arctic ... They also have a unique type of antibodies which lack the light chain, in addition to the normal antibodies found in other ...
The part of an enzyme or antibody at which substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.. active transport. ... The shedding of flowers, leaves, and/or fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant.. absorption. A process in which ... They are a major component of the group of immune defense molecules collectively called antibodies.. infection. The invasion of ... Rajewsky, Klaus (1996). "Clonal selection and learning in the antibody system". Nature. 381 (6585): 751-758. doi:10.1038/ ...
T-dependent antigen - Antigens that require the assistance of T cells to induce the formation of specific antibodies. ... In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
Such antagonists include (but are not limited to) specific antibodies that target the molecule of interest, which act only in a ... In particular, PDGF plays a significant role in blood vessel formation, the growth of blood vessels from already-existing blood ... accelerating extracellular matrix and collagen formation and thus reducing the time for the healing process to occur.[22] ... "An antibody reactive with domain 4 of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor allows BB binding while inhibiting ...
This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... positive regulation of blood microparticle formation. • negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation. • positive ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies.[20][21] More recently, research in the Laboratory of ... "Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature. 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ...
... s in rat cerebellum stained with antibody to myelin basic protein in red and for DNA in blue. Two ... Oligodendrocyte formation in the adult brain is associated with glial-restricted progenitor cells, known as oligodendrocyte ... "Anti-human Olig2 antibody as a useful immunohistochemical marker of normal oligodendrocytes and gliomas". Am J Pathol. 164 (5 ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... The gold nanoparticles facilitate the formation of a silver coating on the dye-labeled regions of DNA or RNA, allowing SERS to ... while the chemical theory proposes the formation of charge-transfer complexes. The chemical theory applies only for species ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... another form of drug resistance can arise from the formation of biofilms. Some bacteria are able to form biofilms by adhering ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
The formation of antibodies to bacteriophage T2 in vitro was inhibited by 5 X 10-8M actinomycin D. This result is consistent ... with the concept that antibody formation depends upon DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. ...
Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D61F5) Rabbit mAb - Western Blotting ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry hla-dqa1 Mouse * Monoclonal ... Monoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation. Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Syncytium Formation. Monoclonal ... Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D61F5) Rabbit mAb - Western Blotting, UniProt ID P07992, Entrez ID 2067 #5437 ... Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D6G6) XP® Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P07992, Entrez ID 2067 #12345 ...
... discovered a genetic mutation responsible for a new condition that prevents patients from making B cells and antibodies to ... CHOP researchers discover new disease that prevents formation of antibodies CHOP team treated patient with the condition, known ... CHOP researchers discover new disease that prevents formation of antibodies. Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia ... "We call them his ninjas," said Michelle describing antibodies. "We tell him that he doesnt make his own ninjas, so he needs ...
Formation of reaginic antibodies in mice has been demonstrated by numerous investigators (1-4). These antibodies were shown to ... Thymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Nude mice (nu/nu) were shown to respond poorly to sheep erythrocytes in respect to formation of IgM and IgG antibodies (6-8). ... Thymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice. J. Gabriel Michael and I. Leonard Bernstein ...
STUDIES ON ANTIBODY FORMATION BY PERITONEAL EXUDATE CELLS IN VITRO. John M. McKenna, Kingsley M. Stevens ... Endotoxin from Salmonella typhosa caused the monocytes to form antibody as if they had been taken from hyperimmunized rabbits. ... These sensitized cells agglutinate in the presence of antibody specific to the adsorbed antigen. It has been demonstrated that: ... Peritoneal exudate cells produced hemagglutinating antibody to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in a replicating tissue culture ...
Abstract: M1.00194 : Hierarchical Cluster Formation in Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Formulations. Preview Abstract Abstract ... Reversible cluster formation has been identified as an underlying cause of large solution viscosities observed in some ... these antibodies dimerize in solution. Proteins form strongly bounded reversible dimers at dilute concentrations that, when ... concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. As high solution viscosity prevents the use of subcutaneous injection as a ...
Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Anti-Sez6l2 antibody detected in a patient with immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia inhibits complex formation of GluR1 and ... Identification of anti-Sez6l2 antibody in a patient with cerebellar ataxia and retinopathy. J Neurol 261:224-226CrossRefPubMed ... Encephalitis and AMPA receptor antibodies: novel findings in a case series of 22 patients. Neurology 84:2403-2412CrossRefPubMed ... The cells were fixed and stained with antibodies to FLAG (green), HA (red), and Hoechst33258 (blue). Immunofluorescence ...
Stabilizing antibody secretion of human Epstein Barr virus-activated B-lymphocytes with hybridoma formation by electrofusion.. ...
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Antibodies for proteins involved in dorsal/ventral pattern formation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... Antibodies for proteins involved in dorsal/ventral pattern formation pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
POTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE. P. H. Lagrange, ... POTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ... CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors ... but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with ...
Polyclonal Antibody Immunofluorescence Immunocytochemistry Sensory Cilium Biogenesis, Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting ... Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Biomineral Formation - count 4 Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Biomineral Formation: ... Polyclonal Antibody - HSP90 Antibody, UniProt ID P07900, Entrez ID 3320 #4874, Polyclonal Antibody - AMPKα1 Antibody - Western ... Category listing: Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Biomineral Formation to Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation ERC1 ...
... complex formation between a Fab fragment of a monoclonal murine IgG antibody and the major allergen from birch pollen Bet v 1. ... COMPLEX FORMATION BETWEEN A FAB FRAGMENT OF A MONOCLONAL IGG ANTIBODY AND THE MAJOR ALLERGEN FROM BIRCH POLLEN BET V 1. ...
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) may induce ascites formation. We established an animal model of ascites formation and re- ... Ascites formation is often observed in ovarian cancer patients. ... The formation of ascites was observed after 10 days of tumor ... Suppression of ascites formation and re-accumulation associated with human ovarian cancer by an anti-VPF monoclonal antibody in ... Ascites formation is often observed in ovarian cancer patients. Vascular permeability factor (VPF) may induce ascites formation ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in formation of growth cone in injured axon pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ... Possible reasons that no Antibodies were found:. *Spelling or typing errors. You can use the product search to modify your ...
... by Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia ... Citation: Researchers discover new disease that prevents formation of antibodies (2021, May 5) retrieved 18 June 2021 from ... This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair ... "We call them his ninjas," said Michelle describing antibodies. "We tell him that he doesnt make his own ninjas, so he needs ...
Role of antibody in formation of an effective membrane attack complex.. S K Kochi, R C Johnson and A P Dalmasso ... Role of antibody in formation of an effective membrane attack complex. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The requirement of antibody for killing could not be explained by differences in the rate of C deposition or by differences in ... These results indicate that the effect of antibody in the killing process is not to enhance the rate or extent of initial or ...
Antibody 14D9, which catalyzes the stereoselective transformation of achiral enol ethers into the corresponding ()-ketals, ... Enantioselectivity vs. kinetic resolution in antibody catalysis: formation of the (S) product despite preferential binding of ... Enantioselectivity vs. kinetic resolution in antibody catalysis: formation of the (S) product despite preferential binding of ... Antibody 14D9, which catalyzes the stereoselective transformation of achiral enol ethers into the corresponding (S)-ketals, ...
This observation extends to IgE the finding that complement participates in thymus-dependent antibody formation. Control mice ... whereas mice in which the IgE antibody response had been suppressed by cobra factor did not. Administration of cobra factor ... The IgE antibody response of NIH mice to ovalbumin was suppressed by in vivo complement depletion with cobra factor. ... producing IgI anti-ovalbumin antibody after boosting all developed marked peripheral eosinophilia, ...
... The 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Niels K. in the field of ... He modeled the formation and development of our immune systems, and he described the existence of a complex network of antibody ... They exposed rodents to an antigen to stimulate production of the desired antibodies. They then fused the antibody-producing ... This network of antibodies has been exploited in research into treatments for autoimmune diseases and cancers, and into the ...
An amyloid-beta protofibril-selective antibody prevents amyloid formation in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease. Lord, Anna ... The highly protofibril-selective monoclonal antibody mAb158 inhibited in vitro fibril formation and protected cells from Abeta ... When the mAb158 antibody was administered for 4 months to plaque-bearing transgenic mice with both the Arctic and Swedish ... This suggests that Aβ protofibrils are necessary for the formation of Aβ deposits. Functional assessment of tg-ArcSwe mice in ...
Anti-thrombopoietin antibodies suppress megakaryocytic colony formation in vitro in patients with systemic lupus erythaematosus ... Anti-thrombopoietin antibodies suppress megakaryocytic colony formation in vitro in patients with systemic lupus erythaematosus ... A total of 35 randomly selected SLE sera were initially screened for the presence of antiplatelet antibodies (APAs), using a ... 7 tested positive for anti-TPO antibodies and 12 were negative. TPO concentration was then measured by a … ...
Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical ... Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical ... Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical ...
Antidrug antibody formation during tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment of severe psoriatic patients in the real-life ... "Antidrug antibody formation during tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment of severe psoriatic patients in the real-life ... "Antidrug antibody formation during tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment of severe psoriatic patients in the real-life ... Herszényi K, Jókai H, Rencz F, Brodszky V, Nagy E, Holló P. Antidrug antibody formation during tumor necrosis factor α ...
Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ... Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in ...
Development of antibody formation in germ free and conventionally reared rabbits the role of intestinal lymphoid tissue in ... I. The fate of antigen, dynamics and site of antibody formation, nature of antibodies and formation of heterohaemagglutinins. ... coli strain 086 part 1 the fate of antigen dynamics and site of antibody formation nature of antibodies and formation of hetero ... of bacterial endotoxins on antibody formation L Time limitation of enhancing effect and restoration of antibody formation in X- ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibody Formation. B-Lymphocytes. Chronic Disease. Flow Cytometry. Graft Rejection. Heart ... Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. ... Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. Am ... Currently the antibody-mediated mechanisms during CR are poorly understood due to lack of proper animal models and tools. In a ...
Recombinant Protein and Small aggregate formation protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... ABCA9 Antibody. • Annexin A11 (ANXA11) Antibody. • GJC1 Antibody. • alpha-Glucosidase (alpha-GluD) Enzyme. • NPPB Antibody. • ... Monoclonal Antibody. Polyclonal Antibody. Secondary Antibody. Antigen. Biochemical. cDNA Clone. siRNA. Peptide. Rec./Purified ...
P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in ... P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in ... Thiopurines-IFX co-therapy in CD patients is associated with reduced ADA formation relative to IFX monotherapy regardless of ... therapy reduced the appearance of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) compared with IFX monotherapy. Whether the nature of past clinical ...
  • The expression of both CD19 and CD81 was determined with 3 different monoclonal antibodies. (
  • It has been shown that treatment of these diseases has significantly improved with the introduction of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind TNF (TNF inhibitors). (
  • These sensitized cells agglutinate in the presence of antibody specific to the adsorbed antigen. (
  • They exposed rodents to an antigen to stimulate production of the desired antibodies. (
  • Anti-L3T4 antibody treatment suppresses hepatic granuloma formation and abrogates antigen-induced interleukin-2 production in Schistosoma mansoni infection. (
  • When ACTH was administered during the period of immunization, in a daily dose just sufficient to prevent body weight increase relative to the non-treated, immunized controls, serum antibody levels against the specific antigen employed were significantly depressed. (
  • Choices Following Antigen Entry: Antibody Formation or immunologic Tolerance? (
  • We constructed a bispecific antibody that is composed of a rapidly internalizing antibody binding to a tumor-associated antigen, ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), and a noninternalizing antibody binding to a highly expressed tumor-associated antigen, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). (
  • When the EphA2-to-ALCAM ratio is greater than a threshold level (1:5), the amount of the bispecific taken into the tumor cell exceeds what is achieved by either the monoclonal internalizing antibody or a mixture of the two antibodies, showing a bispecific-dependent amplification effect where a small amount of the internalizing antigen EphA2 induces internalization of a larger amount of the noninternalizing antigen ALCAM. (
  • We developed a bispecific antibody targeting ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), a rapidly internalizing antigen, and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a non- or slowly internalizing antigen, and found that the bispecific becomes internalized when the ratio of EphA2 to ALCAM is greater than approximately 1:5. (
  • To determine the presence of the offending antigen in glomeruli, the specific disease-producing brush border antibody (BBAb) of homologous origin was infused into isolated perfused rat kidney. (
  • These results show that the putative antibody of HN when injected into a perfused, bloodless, ischemic kidney combines specifically with an antigen which under the above conditions can be demonstrated in the glomerular capillaries and other blood vessels. (
  • In addition, we studied the dynamics of immune complex (IC) formation when precipitating antibodies react with antigen in the presence of nonprecipitating antibodies. (
  • Nonprecipitating antibodies inhibited the formation of precipitable IC between antigen and precipitating antibodies. (
  • The solubilization of IC precipitates was influenced by the isotype of the precipitating antibody and by the antibody:antigen ratio in the IC precipitate. (
  • By isokinetic sucrose density centrifugation, we determined that solubilization of IC precipitates by nonprecipitating antibodies was associated with release of free precipitating antibody and formation of soluble IC between the antigen and the nonprecipitating antibody. (
  • Nonprecipitating antibodies compete and displace precipitating antibodies from the antigen, resulting in inhibition of IC precipitation and in IC solubilization. (
  • Antibodies occur as antigen receptors on the surface of B cells and are secreted as soluble proteins when the B cells mature into plasma cells. (
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen. (
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (
  • To allow the immune system to recognize millions of different antigens, the antigen-binding sites at both tips of the antibody come in an equally wide variety. (
  • The class hence determines the function triggered by an antibody after binding to an antigen, in addition to some structural features. (
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells, which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells, which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (
  • Structurally an antibody is also partitioned into two antigen-binding fragments (Fab), containing one VL, VH, CL, and CH1 domain each, as well as the crystallisable fragment (Fc), forming the trunk of the Y shape. (
  • Three CDRs from each of the heavy and light chains together form an antibody-binding site whose shape can be anything from a pocket to which a smaller antigen binds, to a larger surface, to a protrusion that sticks out into a groove in an antigen. (
  • The capacity of the four variant proteins to form dimers was tested and compared with that of wild type and L68Q cystatin C. In contrast to the latter two proteins, all four protein variants stabilized by disulfide bridges were resistant toward the formation of dimers. (
  • Knockout of the gene for this protein causes small aggregate formation. (
  • Below are the list of possible Small aggregate formation protein products. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PR domain-containing 16, cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, cytochrome c and pyruvate dehydrogenase, in differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVCs), suggesting that resveratrol induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro . (
  • There are many transcriptional regulators, including PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC1α), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and PPARγ, as well as various secreted mediators, such as bone morphogenetic protein 7, Irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, that can induce the formation of brown-like adipocytes. (
  • We have identified and characterized a mitochondrial membrane protein in yeast, Fcj1 (formation of CJ protein 1), which is specifically enriched in CJs. (
  • Scientists report in a new study that by imitating a natural process of cells, they prevented the formation of protein clumps associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. (
  • Depletion or inhibition of DNA-PKcs, a key NHEJ protein, caused decreased DHFR amplification, disappearance of DMs, increased formation of micronuclei or nuclear buds, which correlated with the elimination of DHFR, and increased sensitivity to MTX. (
  • Herceptin inhibited colony formation, down-regulated cyclin D1, and increased p27 protein levels in the HER2 gene-amplified BT-474 and SKBR-3 human breast cancer cells. (
  • Instead, the binding of the antibody fragment achieves its effect by restoring the structural cooperativity characteristic of the wild-type protein. (
  • Results of these studies suggest that FL1 participates in protein body formation by facilitating the localization of 22-kD α-zein and that this is essential for the formation of vitreous endosperm. (
  • Free shipping on catalog antibody and protein orders over $498. (
  • Another paper discuses the chemistry and structure of protein antigens and of antibodies, including the chemistry of their specific combination and relations with each other. (
  • The body's second line of defense involves the specific mechanisms of the immune system, a coordinated response involving a variety of cells and protein antibodies, whereby an invading microorganism is recognized and destroyed. (
  • Antibodies are complex, Y-shaped protein molecules that guard our bodies against diseases. (
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (
  • When the protein folds, these regions give rise to three loops of β-strands, localised near one another on the surface of the antibody. (
  • Formation of reaginic antibodies in mice has been demonstrated by numerous investigators (1-4). (
  • Availability of genetically thymusless nude mice provided an opportunity to examine the dependence of mouse reaginic antibody formation on the presence of thymus cells. (
  • Nude mice (nu/nu) were shown to respond poorly to sheep erythrocytes in respect to formation of IgM and IgG antibodies (6-8). (
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. (
  • We established an animal model of ascites formation and re-accumulation by i.p. transplantation of a human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, NOS2, into nude mice. (
  • The IgE antibody response of NIH mice to ovalbumin was suppressed by in vivo complement depletion with cobra factor. (
  • Control mice producing IgI anti-ovalbumin antibody after boosting all developed marked peripheral eosinophilia, whereas mice in which the IgE antibody response had been suppressed by cobra factor did not. (
  • When the mAb158 antibody was administered for 4 months to plaque-bearing transgenic mice with both the Arctic and Swedish mutations (tg-ArcSwe), Abeta protofibril levels were lowered while measures of insoluble Abeta were unaffected. (
  • Treatment of young tg-ArcSwe mice with an Aβ protofibril-selective antibody, mAb158, cleared protofibrils, prevented amyloid plaque deposition and protected cultured cells from protofibril-mediated toxicity. (
  • In this study, the effects of T cell depletion in the development of antibody-mediated rejection were examined using human CD52 transgenic (CD52Tg) mice treated with alemtuzumab. (
  • Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE −/− mice and Ldlr −/− mice. (
  • This antibody is present in almost all NZB mice by 3 months of age, and is associated with an age-dependent loss of T cells in these mice 2-4 . (
  • Tumor cells treated with the same antibody and injected into nude mice had significantly reduced number and size of tumors in nude mice. (
  • To further knowledge of the functions of neuroinflammation in SCI in mice, we depleted the early arriving neutrophils using an anti-Ly6G/Gr-1 antibody. (
  • To further knowledge of the neutrophil response to SCI, we have applied an anti-Ly6G/Gr-1 antibody that is very potent at depleting neutrophils after a T9/10 contusion injury to mice. (
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • 19. Kascsak RJ, et al: Mouse polyclonal and monoclonal antibody to scrapie-associated fibril proteins. (
  • At the time of axis formation there is no discernible decrease in this PTC-containing transcript in vivo , indicating that the mammalian Zic3 transcript is relatively insensitive to NMD, prompting the need to re-examine the molecular function of the truncated proteins predicted from human studies and to determine whether the N-terminal portion of ZIC3 possesses dominant-negative capabilities. (
  • Our results, along with previous studies on Ttv, provide evidence that all three Drosophila EXT proteins are required for the biosynthesis of HSPGs, and for the gradient formation of the Wg, Hh and Dpp morphogens. (
  • Several proteins were known to be necessary for Casparian strip formation, including the receptor kinase GSO1/SGN3. (
  • The Proteins: Composition, Structure, and Function, Volume III, Second Edition is a collection of papers that deals with the proteins of antibodies and antigens, of the blood clotting system, plasma proteins, and the virus proteins. (
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 kDa) proteins of about 10 nm in size, arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (
  • In an electrophoresis test of blood proteins, antibodies mostly migrate to the last, gamma globulin fraction. (
  • The formation of antibodies to bacteriophage T 2 in vitro was inhibited by 5 X 10 -8 M actinomycin D. This result is consistent with the concept that antibody formation depends upon DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. (
  • The highly protofibril-selective monoclonal antibody mAb158 inhibited in vitro fibril formation and protected cells from Abeta protofibril-induced toxicity. (
  • 1 2 To investigate their pathophysiological significance, we have evaluated the effect of SLE sera on megakaryocytic colony formation in vitro. (
  • We constructed a bispecific antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) based on the above bispecific design and found that the bispecific ADC is more potent than monospecific ADCs in tumor cell killing both in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Cell/antibody interactions in vitro against microfilariae of Onchocerca gibsoni / by Syamsul Bahri Siregar. (
  • Here we report that a single-domain fragment of a camelid antibody raised against wild-type human lysozyme inhibits the in vitro aggregation of its amyloidogenic variant, D67H. (
  • a ) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (
  • abstract = "In the present study, we used monoclonal antidinitrophenol (DNP) antibodies to determine certain of the biophysical characteristics of precipitating and nonprecipitating antibodies. (
  • Exposure to the equine-derived polyclonal antithymocyte preparation, ATGAM, frequently elicits human anti-ATGAM antibody formation. (
  • The molecular basis of such specificity has remained largely enigmatic, and biophysical analyses with X-ray crystallography and other detailed structural techniques are compromised by the limited availability of many antibodies or their existence only in polyclonal formats. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Antibody formation by subcutaneous and omental splenic autotransplants in rats. (
  • This technique has proved invaluable in research as it allows scientists to raise antibodies against any molecule they like, which they can then use to isolate and purify the molecule. (
  • TNF itself is an unstable molecule and is rapidly cleared from the circulation, but TNF half-life is prolonged due to TNF-adalimumab complex formation. (
  • The key molecule controlling the formation of both domains is Par3. (
  • Bicycles are a new class of small molecule designed to exhibit the affinity and target specificity typically associated with antibodies, only in a small-molecule format intended to enabling rapid tissue penetration and flexible routes of administration. (
  • The immune system's B lymphocytes, or B cells, develop into plasma cells, which can produce a huge variety of antibodies, each one capable of grabbing an invading molecule at the top ends of the Y. The molecules that antibodies recognize can be quite specific-they might exist only on a particular bacterium or virus. (
  • In normal human serum antibody-sensitized borreliae bound similar amounts of C3, and similar or increased amounts of C8 and C9, in comparison to unsensitized bacteria. (
  • We found that bacteria incubated in C5-depleted human serum, but not in C6-depleted serum, were killed when this treatment was followed by antibody and the missing C components. (
  • 1] in which they investigated 25 studies in ADA formation, the authors found a correlation between anti-infliximab antibodies and lower serum infliximab concentrations in three studies and less effective treatment response in five of the investigated studies. (
  • Regarding adalimumab, the association between anti-adalimumab antibodies and lower serum concentrations were seen in three of five investigated studies, and in four studies, a decreased treatment efficacy was also demonstrated. (
  • In a clinical setting, we previously demonstrated that induction therapy by lymphocyte depletion, using alemtuzumab (anti-human CD52), is associated with an increased incidence of serum alloantibody, C4d deposition and antibody-mediated rejection in human patients. (
  • The repeated i.p. administration of an immunoneutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) to VPF, MV833, significantly inhibited the formation of ascites throughout the experiments. (
  • Antidrug antibodies may significantly alter the clinical efficacy of biological treatments through these mechanisms. (
  • We show that when fungal cells are immobilized using surface-attached specific antibody to the capsule, the initial stages of biofilm formation are significantly faster than those on surfaces with no antibody coating or surfaces coated with unspecific monoclonal antibody. (
  • HA) formation was significantly enhanced. (
  • Nonprecipitating antibodies did not differ significantly from precipitating antibodies in affinity, valence, or isoelectric point. (
  • Antibody produced by the cells was assayed by an hemagglutination technique in which the antigens used were adsorbed to formalinized tanned sheep erythrocytes. (
  • This high selectivity of binding contrasts sharply with many other conformational antibodies that interact with a large number of structurally analogous but sequentially different antigens. (
  • By becoming attached to antigens on infectious organisms antibodies can render them harmless or cause them to be destroyed. (
  • They found the prevalence of anti-infliximab antibodies ranging from 5.4% to 43.6% of the patients. (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that combination thiopurine-Infliximab (IFX) therapy reduced the appearance of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) compared with IFX monotherapy. (
  • Prevention of Antidrug Antibody Formation to Infliximab in Crohn's Patients With Prior Failure of Thiopurines. (
  • Combination thiopurine-infliximab (IFX) therapy is associated with reduced generation of antidrug antibodies (ADA) compared with IFX monotherapy. (
  • Using whole exome sequencing to scan Luke's DNA, CHOP researchers discovered the genetic mutation responsible for his condition, which prevents Luke and patients like him from making B cells and antibodies to fight infections. (
  • To pinpoint the gene at fault, CHOP researchers compared whole exome sequences from 30 patients across the globe who were born without B lymphocytes, the cells which produce antibodies. (
  • The six PU.MA patients, who ranged in age from 15 months to 37 years, each had different SPI1 mutations but shared insufficient levels of PU.1, absent B cells and, consequently, zero antibodies. (
  • After consulting with the research team, the family decided to proceed with a bone marrow transplant in the hope that the procedure would help him make his own B cells and antibodies. (
  • Until those B cells are able to create enough protective antibodies by themselves, Luke continues to receive infection protection from the antibody infusions he receives every two weeks. (
  • The immunodeficiency was characterized by decreased memory B cell numbers, impaired specific antibody responses, and an absence of CD19 expression on B cells. (
  • In this study, we present what we believe to be the first antibody deficiency syndrome caused by a mutation in the CD81 gene and consequent disruption of the CD19 complex on B cells. (
  • Peritoneal exudate cells produced hemagglutinating antibody to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in a replicating tissue culture system for approximately 3 weeks when taken from animals given either primary or secondary injections of BGG. (
  • The cells were fixed and stained with antibodies to FLAG (green), HA (red), and Hoechst33258 (blue). (
  • However, treatment with 0.1% trypsin released 48% of 125I-C9 from the surface of unsensitized borreliae and 24% from IgG-sensitized cells, demonstrating that the presence of the antibody changed the accessibility to trypsin of C9 in the MAC. (
  • They then fused the antibody-producing cells with tumour cells, to produce immortal cells that could go on producing their specific antibody indefinitely. (
  • The occurrence of cells which produce natural bactericidal and hemolytic antibodies (the so-called background plaques) was studied by the plaque method in lymphatic tissues of germ-free and conventionally reared rabbits of various ages. (
  • In conventional rabbits the cells which produce natural bactericidal antibodies against E. coli 086 appear early after birth in organized intestinal lymphatic tissue. (
  • Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. (
  • The GABA receptor antibody formed by biweekly subcutaneous injection of the purified GABA receptor to Albino rabbits has revealed immunohistochemically that this receptor complex in the rat brain is localized various brain areas such as the somata of Purkinje cells and gramule cells layer of the cerebellum, large cells in the pars compacta of substantia nigra, pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex (layeers III-V) and hippocampus, respectively. (
  • Here, we provide evidence that coating surfaces with a monoclonal antibody to glucuronoxylomannan, the major component of the fungal capsular polysaccharide, immobilizes cryptococcal cells to a surface support and, subsequently, promotes biofilm formation. (
  • CLEC-2/PDPN binding stimulates BM FRC-like cells to secrete the proplatelet formation-promoting factor, CCL5. (
  • Furthermore, we found that the CLEC-2/PDPN interaction induces BM FRC-like cells to secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) to facilitate proplatelet formation. (
  • The strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation. (
  • When anti-THY1 antibody was added to this culture, no theca cell layers were formed, and the granulosa cells were distanced from each other. (
  • During the initial steps of tube formation, MDCK cells undergo MET, through which the inner surface of individual cells in the cluster differentiates into an apical domain, where lumen secretion takes place. (
  • The de novo formed apical domain then expands and aligns with the apical domains of neighboring cells, ensuring the formation of an unobstructed lumen. (
  • In a recently developed human breast cancer model, treatment of tumor cells in a 3-dimensional culture with inhibitory β1-integrin antibody or its Fab fragments led to a striking morphological and functional reversion to a normal phenotype. (
  • On the other hand, nonmalignant cells when treated with either α6 or β4 function altering antibodies continued to grow, and had disorganized colony morphologies resembling the untreated tumor colonies. (
  • The observed phenotypes were reversible when the cells were disassociated and the antibodies removed. (
  • These findings indicate for the first time that NHEJ plays a specific role in DM formation, and that increased MTX sensitivity of DM-containing cells depleted of DNA-PKcs results from DHFR elimination. (
  • Conclusions We demonstrate a novel specific role for NHEJ in the formation of DMs, but not HSRs, in MTX-resistant cells, and that NHEJ may be targeted for the treatment of MTX-resistant colon cancer. (
  • 1 After focal ischemia, glial cells initiate a classic wound-healing response 2 with formation of a barrier between the injured and healthy tissue. (
  • Although the spectrum of cells affected by anti-Ly6G/Gr-1 antibody treatment cannot be fully ascertained at this point, the correspondence of neutrophil depletion and worsened recovery suggests that neutrophils promote recovery after SCI through wound healing and protective events that limit lesion propagation. (
  • in addition, oncogenic β-catenin contributes to the formation of abnormal centrosome structures found in cancer cells. (
  • We describe two molecular mechanisms driving the formation of virtual memory T cells. (
  • Once the invader is caught, the antibodies may make it inactive or lead it to cells that can destroy it. (
  • The numbers may then get quite small, but the experienced B cells can quickly make more of that specific antibody if necessary. (
  • Together with B and T cells, antibodies are the most important part of the adaptive immune system. (
  • Purification of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and formation of monoclonal antibody against the purified receptor. (
  • Moreover, an essential role has been demonstrated for TNF/p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55TNF-R) signaling in the formation of splenic B lymphocyte follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks, and germinal centers. (
  • C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is a multifaceted platelet receptor that plays a role in lymph node (LN) homeostasis, maintenance of vasculature integrity, and thrombus formation. (
  • The present study was performed to determine the spatial and temporal expression of osteopontin and its integrin receptor α v β 3 during formation of the peri-infarct gliotic barrier and subsequent formation of a new glial-limiting membrane. (
  • By 15 days astrocytes expressing integrin receptor α v β 3 are localized in an osteopontin-rich region concomitant with formation of the new glial-limiting membrane. (
  • By analyzing T‐cell receptor repertoires and using retrogenic monoclonal T‐cell populations, we demonstrate that the virtual memory T‐cell formation is a so far unappreciated cell fate decision checkpoint. (
  • The formation of ascites was observed after 10 days of tumor inoculation and continued for up to 4 weeks. (
  • Herszényi K, Jókai H, Rencz F, Brodszky V, Nagy E, Holló P. Antidrug antibody formation during tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment of severe psoriatic patients in the real-life practice. (
  • Internalizing antibody is often desired to achieve efficient intracellular payload delivery and tumor killing ( 1 ), although the requirement is not absolute for certain drugs such as MMAE that can diffuse through cell membrane to cause a bystander effect ( 3 ). (
  • In this article, we report another anticancer mechanism of anti-CD73 Abs and show that an anti-CD73 mAb (AD2) inhibits metastasis formation by a mechanism independent of CD73 catalytic activity and inhibition of primary tumor growth. (
  • However, not all tumors expressing high levels of the proto-oncogene responded clinically to the HER2 antibody, which suggests that in some of these advanced cancers, HER2 had become dispensable for tumor progression and survival. (
  • The formation of HS GAG chains is catalyzed by glycosyltransferases encoded by members of the EXT family of putative tumor suppressors linked to hereditary multiple exostoses. (
  • We have examined whether inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and its target, the serine/threonine kinase Akt, play a role in the antitumor effect of the HER2 antibody Herceptin. (
  • Methods and Results- CaMKII isoform content was assessed in rat carotid arteries after balloon angioplasty-induced injury by Western blotting with isoform specific antibodies. (
  • These results indicate that VPF plays an important role in the accumulation of ascites induced by ovarian cancer and an anti-VPF MAb is a new specific drug to suppress the formation and re-accumulation of ascites. (
  • Cell cooperation during in vivo anti-hapten antibody responses. (
  • Inhibitory anti-thrombin antibodies can be divided into 2 groups, those that inhibit coagulation activity and those the inhibit coagulation and amidase activity. (
  • Multiple studies have shown, however, that despite autoimmune anti-thrombin thrombin inhibitory activity, these antibodies correlate with thrombotic events, so that they may also perturb the regulation of coagulatory factors. (
  • He modeled the formation and development of our immune systems, and he described the existence of a complex network of antibody interactions which allows our bodies to coordinate responses to a whole host of infectious agents. (
  • On the basis of the present results, we postulate that antibody-antibody interactions are important determinants of precipitating ability, and that these interactions are a characteristic of antibody isotype. (
  • Hebert, L. A. / Interactions between precipitating and nonprecipitating antibodies in the formation of immune complexes . (
  • The constant region at the trunk of the antibody includes sites involved in interactions with other components of the immune system. (
  • These projects have centered on the immunology of surgery and transplantation, including both cellular and antibody-mediated immune responses. (
  • Although this represents in situ immune complex formation, which may be suspected of occurring in active HN, the conditions of the isolated perfused kidney under which this occurs are clearly unphysiologic. (
  • Makker, SP & Moorthy, B 1981, ' In situ immune complex formation in isolated perfused kidney using homologous antibody ', Laboratory Investigation , vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1-5. (
  • The immune system can be strengthened by vaccination , which supplies or stimulates the creation of antibodies to an organism that the body has not yet encountered. (
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize it directly (for example, by blocking a part of a virus that is essential for its invasion). (
  • Antibodies from different classes also differ in where they are released in the body and at what stage of an immune response. (
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions. (
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (
  • Thiopurines-IFX cotherapy in patients with Crohn's disease is associated with reduced ADA formation compared with IFX monotherapy. (
  • Antibodies provide immunity against certain microorganisms and toxins by binding with them and often by deactivating them. (
  • Because these fluids were traditionally known as humors, antibody-mediated immunity is sometimes known as, or considered a part of, humoral immunity. (
  • The methodology of antibody generation we used was based on the selection of these binders via phage display from fully synthetic libraries of camelid heavy-chain antibody fragments ( 7 ). (
  • A camelid antibody fragment inhibits the formation of amyloid fibrils by human lysozyme. (
  • Vascular permeability factor (VPF) may induce ascites formation. (
  • Moreover, animal studies have used platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to improve collateral vessel formation and vascular healing in the diabetic state ( 8 ). (
  • Conclusions- CaMKIIδ 2 is specifically induced in VSM and adventitial fibroblasts during the response of an artery to injury and is a positive regulator of proliferation and migration in the vessel wall contributing to neointima formation and vascular remodeling. (
  • 4 Of particular interest with respect to vascular disease mechanisms is recent evidence indicating that injury-induced changes in VSM Ca 2+ dynamics may contribute to development of a migratory/proliferative phenotype associated with neoinitma formation. (
  • Other than antibodies to thrombin, antibodies to vascular heparin sulfate appear to interfere with antithrombin-thrombin interaction. (
  • Research interests include humoral tolerance to organ transplants in animal model and humans, developing a clinically relevant animal model to study the mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and establishing a conceptual basis that will translate into therapeutic intervention of AMR. (
  • The growing trend of implementing immunotherapy into oncology has resulted in various new therapeutic cancer treatments utilizing antibodies. (
  • Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a class of targeted therapeutic that has shown effectiveness in the clinic ( 1, 2 ). (
  • The current study investigates the role of PKCδ in diabetes-induced poor collateral vessel formation and inhibition of angiogenic factors expression and actions. (
  • This observation extends to IgE the finding that complement participates in thymus-dependent antibody formation. (
  • By altering a specific step of the fibrillogenic cascade, it prevents the formation of mature Aβ fibrils and induces the accumulation of nonfibrillar aggregates. (
  • Glial scar formation in the peri-infarct region after focal ischemia has been characterized as a negative event that prevents regeneration of the injured nervous system. (
  • Two different types of ADAs can be distinguished: neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies. (
  • The purification process includes an effective solvent/detergent virus inactivation step in addition to the use of the classical purification methods of ion exchange chromatography, monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography, along with other chromatographic steps designed to purify recombinant FVIII and remove contaminating substances. (
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Antibody formation by subcutaneous and omental splenic autotransplants in rats. (
  • These results indicate that the effect of antibody in the killing process is not to enhance the rate or extent of initial or terminal component binding, but rather to alter the bacterial outer membrane to allow effective MAC formation. (
  • Our results indicate that microbial immobilization by antibody capture hastens biofilm formation and suggest that antibody coating of medical devices with immunoglobulins must exclude binding to common pathogenic microbes and the possibility that this effect could be exploited in industrial microbiology. (
  • These results indicate that vitamin E is capable of suppressing IgE antibody formation and enhancing non-IgE antibody formation. (
  • Our results indicate that the energy availability in form of intracellular ATP is crucial for maintaining antibody synthesis and reacts sensitive to pCO 2 and pH-process parameters typically responsible for inhomogeneities after scaling up. (
  • These results indicate that β-catenin is required for centrosome amplification, and mutations in β-catenin might contribute to the formation of abnormal centrosomes observed in cancers. (
  • Thus in many of their biologic activities mouse reaginic antibodies resemble human IgE antibodies (5). (
  • Stabilizing antibody secretion of human Epstein Barr virus-activated B-lymphocytes with hybridoma formation by electrofusion. (
  • Bioconjugation to the obtained gels was achieved by azide-alkyne click reaction with azido-functionalized anti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG) and anti-His tag antibodies. (
  • Such antibodies and antibody fragments have been reported to occur with different specificities, and considerable applications have been suggested in basic research, diagnosis, or therapy ( 7 , 23 - 25 ). (
  • All isolated nonprecipitating anti-DNP antibodies were of the IgG2b isotype, whereas all antibodies with other isotypes (IgG1, IgG3, IgM, IgA and IgE) were precipitating. (
  • In conclusion, in this study the nonprecipitating property of mouse anti-DNP antibodies is isotype-specific. (
  • Ideally, a potent cytotoxic attached to a cell-type-specific antibody can route the cytotoxic to the target cell and preferentially accumulate in the target tissue. (
  • inhibited cell proliferation assessed by PCNA expression in both layers and markedly inhibited neointima formation and adventitial thickening. (
  • However, an absence of CRP2 enhanced VSMC migration and increased neointima formation following arterial injury. (
  • Initially, antibodies are attached to the surface of a B cell - they are then referred to as B-cell receptors (BCR). (
  • Apico-basal polarization is a crucial step in the de novo formation of biological tubes. (
  • Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPKα1 activation and suggest that its beneficial antiobesity effects may be partly due to the browning of WAT and, as a consequence, increased oxygen consumption. (
  • Several approaches have been developed to improve antibody internalization and ADC efficacy. (
  • In another example, a bispecific composed of a moderately internalizing antibody arm (anti-HER2) and an internalization-inducing antibody arm (anti-CD63, anti-PRLR, or anti-APLP2) was constructed and used to improve ADC uptake ( 5-7 ). (
  • Bacteria were also killed by reactive lysis (C5b-9) provided that antibody was present. (
  • Elution studies of bound C9 indicated that the MAC was stably bound to the outer membrane of B. burgdorferi, whether or not the bacteria were treated with antibody. (
  • When bacteria enter a flesh wound, a B cell releases antibodies, which attach to the bacteria and direct them toward a macrophage for destruction. (
  • Here we report the biotechnological generation and biochemical characterization of an oligomer-specific antibody fragment, KW1. (
  • These antibodies were shown to be fixed to homologous skin, being retained there for several days. (
  • Antibody 14D9, which catalyzes the stereoselective transformation of achiral enol ethers into the corresponding ( S )-ketals, resolves a racemic mixture of structurally similar chiral enol ethers by selective conversion of the ( R )-enol ether into the ( R )-ketal, raising the possibility that the ( S ) transition state is preferencially stabilized by the antibody despite a better binding of the ( R ) intermediate. (
  • In the absence of specific antibody, the spirochete is resistant to the bactericidal activity of C, despite the capacity of B. burgdorferi to activate both C pathways. (
  • In germ-free rabbits the appearance of natural bactericidal or hemolytic antibodies was not demonstrated during the tested period of 16 wk of life. (
  • Anti-thrombin antibodies are autoantibodies directed against thrombin that may constitute a fraction of lupus anticoagulant and are seen an increased levels in systemic lupus erythematosus. (