Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Dinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Mice, Inbred BALB CGeeseNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HemocyaninAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.MercaptoethanolHemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mice, Inbred C57BLCulture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Mice, Inbred CBAFactor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (1/7583)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (2/7583)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (3/7583)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (4/7583)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (5/7583)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/7583)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (7/7583)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (8/7583)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Major problems associated with murine antibodies included reduced stimulation of cytotoxicity and the formation complexes after ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...

*Immune system

Jerne NK (Nov 1955). "THE NATURAL-SELECTION THEORY OF ANTIBODY FORMATION". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Immune ... These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph, bind to pathogens expressing the antigen and mark them for destruction by ...

*Immunology

Jerne NK (1955). "The natural selection theory of antibody formation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 41 ... The humoral (antibody) response is defined as the interaction between antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are specific proteins ... These antibodies can also produce a negative response. If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before ... Passively acquired maternal antibodies can suppress the antibody response to active immunization. Similarly the response of T- ...

*Niels Kaj Jerne

The antibody formation theory gave Jerne international recognition and in 1956 Jerne went to work for the World Health ... "The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... and to other antibodies that bind to the same site. The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, ... was a research worker at the Danish National Serum Institute and during this time he formulated a theory on antibody formation ...

*Angioedema

... can be due to antibody formation against C1INH; this is an autoimmune disorder. This acquired angioedema is ... This serine protease inhibitor (serpin) normally inhibits the association of C1r and C1s with C1q to prevent the formation of ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...

*Alfred Nisonoff

... of antibody formation. Alfred Nisonoff's most important work started when he began the enzymatic cleavage of rabbit antibodies ... Nisonoff's monograph, "The Antibody Molecule," was the most important and in-depth paper on the antibody during his time. ... It was determined that the two antigen binding sites of the antibody are located opposite the Fc fragment, the part of the ... This type of analytical and creative thinking would prove to be useful in his future research on the structure of the antibody ...

*Brigitte Askonas

From 1955-59 she studied the sites of antibody formation using radioactivity to develop our understanding of antibody molecules ... From 1959-61 she studied plasma cell tumors as models for antibody formation. She went on to investigate macrophages and their ... Askonasi, Brigitte A. (1 April 1990). "From Protein Synthesis to Antibody formation and Cellular Immunity: A Personal View". ... From 1963-66 she studied the fate of antigen in relation to antibody formation and later continued her study of B cells (1965- ...

*TLR2

B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. Cytokines ... This leads to disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and of specific antibody formation. Following a reduction in ... as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. These newly formed antibodies ... In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired ...

*Factor VIII

Antibody formation to factor VIII can also be a major concern for patients receiving therapy against bleeding; the incidence of ... Lavigne-Lissalde G, Schved JF, Granier C, Villard S (October 2005). "Anti-factor VIII antibodies: a 2005 update". Thrombosis ...

*Marian Koshland

These data had a profound effect on theories of antibody formation and how antibody specificity was generated. Legend has it ... By the 1960s, she had turned her attention to the origins of antibody specificity. Jim Allison, a colleague from Berkeley, said ... Barron, James (October 30, 1997). "Marian Koshland, 76, Expert On How Antibodies Fight Ills". The New York Times. Maugh II, ... In the early 1950s, Koshland demonstrated the molecular differences between serum-borne and secreted antibodies. ...

*Gustav Nossal

He is famous for his contributions to the fields of antibody formation and immunological tolerance. Nossal's family was from ... Nossal's research is in fundamental immunology, in the field of "antibody formation and immunological tolerance". He has ... Recipient of the Centenary Medal for distinguished service to the study of antibody formation and immunological tolerance 2002 ...

*Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment

Pneumococcus is characterized by smooth colonies and has a polysaccharide capsule that induces antibody formation; the ... Blood serum containing the antibodies can then be extracted and applied to cultured bacteria. The antibodies will react with ... An immunological precipitation caused by type-specific antibodies was used to verify the complete destruction of the capsules. ... generating antibodies that react specifically with antigens on the bacteria. ...

*DNA vaccination

"Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization ... Antibody-secreting cells migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise there ... Antibody responses generated by DNA are useful as a preparative tool. For example, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be ... "Prime-boost" strategies with recombinant protein have successfully increased both neutralising antibody titre, and antibody ...

*P-Azobenzenearsonate

It causes antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is ...

*Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency

The use of IVIG to treat SIGAD without first demonstrating an impairment of specific antibody formation is extremely ... It is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies. Most such persons remain healthy throughout their lives and are ... People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous ... as the deficiency masks the high levels of certain IgA antibodies usually seen in celiac disease. As opposed to the related ...

*Anna Mitus

In 1959, Mitus was the lead author of an article entitled "Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in ... Oct 29, 1959). "Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in Patients with Giant-Cell Pneumonia after ...

*Insulin

... enhanced purity reducing antibody formation. Researchers have succeeded in introducing the gene for human insulin into plants ... All are rapidly absorbed due to amino acid sequences that will reduce formation of dimers and hexamers (monomeric insulins are ... Induce glycogen synthesis - When glucose levels are high, insulin induces the formation of glycogen by the activation of the ... These two enzymes are key for the formation of glycogen. Also, insulin activates the enzymes phosphofructokinase and glycogen ...

*Aminobacter lissarensis

"Primary in vitro anti-KLH antibody formation by peripheral blood lymphocytes in man: Detection with a radioimmunoassay". ...

*Frederick Parker Gay

1912: (with G.Y. Rusk) Studies in the Locus of Antibody Formation, Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, ... He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ...

*Neonatal isoerythrolysis

... group antigens are similar in structure to the antigen of a common bacteria in the gut of cats leading to antibody formation. ... After ingestion, these antibodies coat the red blood cells of the foal, leading to lysis through the complement system or ... Because of the delay in production of antibody, this first foal is not at risk for isoerythrolysis since the mare will not have ... In the kitten this is referred to as "fading kitten syndrome." It occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type ...

*Timeline of immunology

Antibody formation theory (Paul Ehrlich) 1901 - Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner) 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis ( ... I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 157 (4): 1149-69. doi:10.1084/jem.157.4.1149. ... Köhler, G; Milstein, C (Aug 7, 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature ... Antibody production in plasma B cells 1949 - Growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and ...

*Infectious tolerance

Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... Because second-generation tolerance arises in the absence of any monoclonal antibodies to CD4 or CD8, it probably represents a ... In 1989 was successfully induced classical transplantation tolerance to skin grafts in adult mice using antibodies blocking T ... Production of IL-10 induces the formation of another population of regulatory T cells called Tr1. Tr1 cells are dependent on IL ...

*Linus Pauling

Pauling, L. (1940). "A Theory of the Structure and Process of Formation of Antibodies*". Journal of the American Chemical ... He was also among the first scientists to postulate that the binding of antibodies to antigens would be due to a ...

*Frank Macfarlane Burnet

Pauling, L. (1940). "A theory of the structure and process of formation of antibodies". Journal of the American Chemical ... Jerne proposed that the antigen bound to an antibody by chance and, that upon binding, more antibodies to that antigen would be ... In 1958 Gustav Nossal and Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first evidence for ... Using the concept of self, Burnet introduced a hypothesis about the situation where the body failed to make antibodies to its ...

*Hartmann F. Stähelin

... inhibition of antibody formation) in an "all in one in-vivo test system". This considerably reduced both the number of ...

*TENM3

They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ... also identified Ten-m in Drosophila by screening for tyrosine phosphorylation on cDNA using monoclonal antibodies. However, ... Ten-m3 plays an important role during early development in directing the topographic neural projection and formation of the ...

*August von Wassermann

... and to a hypothesis introduced by Paul Ehrlich in his interpretation of antibody formation. The Wassermann test remains a ...
This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
Spleen cell suspensions of unprimed donor mice containing precursors of immunocytes have been transplanted into X-irradiated recipient mice. In the presence of antigen (sheep erythrocytes) these precursors, called antigen-sensitive units, gave rise to progeny cells secreting specific antibody. We studied quantitatively the production of cells releasing IgM hemolysins (direct plaque-forming cells), IgG hemolysins (indirect plaque-forming cells), and hemagglutinins (cluster-forming cells). We found that each of these immunocyte populations was distinct, i.e., that cells releasing agglutinins did not, as a rule, release hemolysins, and vice versa. We also found that cell populations secreting IgM hemolysins did not shift, under certain experimental conditions, to the production of IgG hemolysins during the primary immune response.. By transplanting graded numbers of spleen cells, we succeeded in limiting to one or a few the number of antigen-sensitive units that reached the recipient spleen. We ...
Looking for antibody formation? Find out information about antibody formation. protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial... Explanation of antibody formation
In the present study, we have established a new mouse model with improved T- and B-cell engraftment and differentiation. The involvement of IL-6 in thymopoiesis is consistent with previous murine studies. For example, in adult mice, IL-6 deficiency leads to a 20% to 40% reduction of thymocytes and peripheral T cells.23 Administration of IL-6 induces the differentiation of CD4−CD8− thymocytes into CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8− cells.35 Furthermore, in agreement with the previous finding that B-cell maturity in humanized mice increased with longer time post-reconstitution, surpassing 60% after 24 weeks,9 we noticed in our model that ,75% of human B cells in blood and spleen were mature at week 18. More importantly, and in contrast to other models, we also found significantly increased total IgG and antigen-specific IgG production. This increase is associated with enhanced differentiation of IgG+ memory B cells and plasmablasts. Therefore, our model provides an alternative and improved strategy for ...
Question - Fungal infection. Effects on antibodies and herpes test positive ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Herpes simplex, Ask a Dermatologist
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CY) was shown to release T cells from this inhibitory influence of the humoral response, and cause enhancement of DTH. The magnitude of this enhancing effect on T-cell activity was markedly dependent on the time of treatment relative to the time of immunization, and on the time chosen for measuring DTH. The reasons for these pronounced effects of timing are threefold: (a) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (b) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (c) The production of a nonspecific participant (monocyte) in the DTH reaction is also suppressed by CY, though the supply of circulating ...
Bachvaroff, R and Rapaport, F T., "Mechanisms of antibody formation. I. Early in vivo proliferation of mouse spleen t cells as an initial step in antibody formation." (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 983 ...
Mosier, D E.; Johnson, B M.; Paul, W E.; and Master, P R., "Cellular requirements for the primary in vitro antibody response to dnp-ficoll." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1367 ...
Immunization of an animal by the standard procedure produces a polyclonal antibody response to many antigenic structures on an antigen as well as to any other contaminating materials in the antigen...
The uses of chicken immunoglobulins (IgY). Browse this website to find out more information on antibody production, purification, modification and assay development. Of all the websites, this is the most important as it provides a good introduction to immunochemistry ...
This webpage was produced as an assignment for an undergraduate course at Davidson College**. Humoral Immune Response. According to Whitley and Miller (2001), the adaptive immune system quickly responds to HSV infection with a humoral response, which involves neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation (Janeway 2005). B cells that differentiate into plasma-secreting cells produce antibodies that can bind HSV epitopes in the antigen binding site (see Figure 1). The predominant antibodies against HSV belong to the IgA isotype, and this type of antibody is secreted by plasma cells. IgA can be detected 3 days after infection, IgG1 and IgG3 are detected next, and finally IgM (Whitley and Miller 2001). Antibodies against gD and gB reduce the spread of HSV-1 through axonal transport, and this is one way that the immune system controls HSV infection (Mikloska et al. 1999). However, while antibodies produced by B cells can neutralize HSV, they cannot halt HSV replication or reactivation ...
Goat polyclonal SRBC antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig) and are made only by B cells. The antibody binds to the antigen at the ends of the arms of the Y. The area at the base of the Y determines how the antibody will destroy the antigen. This area is used to categorize antibodies into five main classes: IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE. During the humoral immune response, IgM is the first class of antibody made. After several days, other classes appear. Exactly which other Ig classes a B cell makes depends on the kind of interleukins it receives from the T helper cells ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Fisher on human viruses list: The HIV test to which you refer is an ELISA assay which is quite sensitive but not as specific as the confirmatory western blot. These measure the presence of antibodies to the HIV and these may take from 2 wks to several months to develop. If you run the test before the antibodies have appeared, it will be negative, only to change to positive once antibody formation has occurred.
Breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific antibody responses in the control of plasma viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaques. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Objective Despite the development of highly effective direct-acting antivirals, a prophylactic vaccine is needed for eradicating HCV. A major hurdle of HCV vaccine development is to induce immunity against HCV with high genome diversity. We previously demonstrated that a soluble E2 (sE2) expressed from insect cells induces broadly neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and prevents HCV infection. The objective of this study is to develop a multivalent HCV vaccine to increase the antigenic coverage. ...
Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells were quantified. Plasma was examined for viremia, antigen specific IgG, IgA and IgM binding responses and neutralizing antibodies. Regions containing binding epitopes for antigen-specific IgG, IgM and IgA responses were determined, and the minimum size of linear Envelope epitope responsible for binding antibodies was identified. The presence of neutralizing antibodies did not correlate the outcome of the disease. In a few SIV-infected macaques, antigen-specific IgG and IgM responses in plasma
The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, which induce thymus-dependent and -independent antibody responses respectively. Controlling for baseline antibody status, life event stress was negatively associated with antibody response to the hepatitis A vaccine at the 18-week follow-up; participants reporting a greater number of stressful life events had a poorer antibody response. There was no relationship between psychological stress and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Social support was not associated with the antibody response to ...
Further breeding studies were carried out to test the polygenic model for the control of the antibody response to a synthetic polypetide antigen and to examine more closely the nature of the sex influence on the antibody response. The backcrosses of reciprocally mated F1 hybrids into both the highly responding ACI strain of inbred rats and the poorly responding F344 strain yielded offspring with low, moderate and high responses in a ratio compatible with that predicted by the polygenic model. The backcrosses having a low antibody response bred true with inbreeding and with second backcrossing, as predicted, so they apparently have only those genetic factors that lead to a low antibody response. Limited inbreeding studies with the highly responding backcrosses indicated that they also bred true. Inbreeding of moderately responding backcrosses with moderately or highly responding backcrosses gave offspring that showed the whole spectrum of antibody responses, as would be expected for control by ...
C57BL/10 mice were injected with semiallogeneic (B10.D2 X C57BL/10)F(1) spleen cells via the anterior facial vein within 24 h of birth to induce tolerance to B10.D2 (H-2(d)) alloantigens. Spleen cells from these mice as adults developed reduced, but significant, mixed lymphocyte and cytotoxic lymphocyte responses in vitro to H-2(d) stimulator cells and these treated mice rejected first-set B10.D2 skin grafts within a normal time-course, indicating that at best only a state of partial tolerance had been induced. Spleen cells from these mice failed to develop antibody responses to a variety of antigens in vitro when H-2(d) macrophages were in the cultures. Partially purified T cells from these neonatally treated mice suppressed primary antibody responses by normal syngeneic spleen cells in the presence of H-2(d) but not other allogeneic macrophages. These radiosensitive, haplotype-specific suppressor T (Ts) cells inhibited primary antibody responses by blocking initiation of the response, but ...
Young offspring of immunologically paralyzed mice were more susceptible to the induction of both paralysis and immunity to SIII than were normal mice of the same age. This difference decreased gradually with age. We attributed the difference in immunologic responsiveness between the two types of mice to a lesser concentration of natural antibody specific for the SIII in the offspring of paralyzed mice as compared to normal mice of the same age. Administration of either specifically purified anti-SIII or normal IgG restored the offspring of paralyzed mice to the same level of susceptibility to the induction of both paralysis and immunity as that exhibited by normal mice. The biologic activity of normal IgG was removed by a specific immunosorbent, thereby confirming that the effect of normal IgG was also due to specific anti-SIII antibody. We therefore concluded that a relative deficiency of natural anti-SIII antibodies was indeed responsible for the altered immunologic behavior of offspring of ...
The GPCF Antibody Unit offers the production of monoclonal (mouse/rat) antibodies using the hybridoma technology and the production of polyclonal (guinea pig) Abs, that specifically recognize antigens giving low antibody responses in mice or rats. Since more than a decade we have successfully generated antibodies against proteins including splice variants, mutated and modified forms. Our service includes the production of mAbs for research projects and as diagnostic tools in histopathology. In addition, we offer non-GMP production and purification of mAbs. A selection of applications and corresponding references is given here. ...
The immune system is often divided into two sections. The first is innate immunity, which is comprised of hereditary (always there) components that provide an immediate "first-line" of defense to continuously ward off pathogens. The second is adaptive (acquired) immunity that works by manufacturing a class of proteins called antibodies (humoral immune system), and by producing T-cells specifically designed to target particular pathogens (cell-mediated immune system). This response takes days to develop, and so is not effective at preventing an initial invasion, but it will normally prevent any subsequent infection, and also aids in clearing up longer-lasting infections.. Another way of categorizing this is "nonspecific defenses" (skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, fever, interferons, cilia, and stomach acid) and "specific defenses" (the cell-mediated and the humoral systems, both of which attack specific pathogens).. In the innate immune system, macrophages are the second-line of defense, after ...
The 3R validation study was initiated in 1993 and will be completed at the beginning of 1995. 27 research facilities in Switzerland were supplied with electronically controlled bioreactors for mAb production. The first feedback from the users clearly documented the basic feasibility of in vitro monoclonal antibody production. Besides remaining technical difficulties of in vitro antibody production the study has practically already achieved its goal: now all monoclonal antibodies in Switzerland are produced in vitro! ...
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
By binding to primary antibodies, secondary antibodies enhance the detection or purification of specific antigens. Secondary antibodies can be used in several applications and conjugated with a variety of molecules, such as fluorophores, HRP or biotin.
From Oxford, United Kingdom - ichorbio supplies the best antibodies for in vivo research. Our in vivo antibodies are sold for the purposes of research only, not for therapeutic or diagnostic use.. ichorbio Ltd, Grove Business Park, Downsview Road, Wantage OX12 9FF. ...
Anti-Sheep IgA Alkaline Phosphatase secondary antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC/IF. Other Alkaline Phosphatase secondaries available.
1) The surface antigens of the invading pathogen are taken up by the B cells.. 2)The B cells process the antignes and present them on their surfaces.. 3) T helper cells attach to the processed antigens on the surface of the B cells thereby activating them.. 4) The B cells are now activated to divide by mitosis to give a clone of the plasma cells.. 5) The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that exactly fit the antigens on the pathogens surface.. 6) The antibodies attach to the antigens on the pathogen and destroy them. This is the primary immune response.. 7) Some B cells develop into memory cells they can respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing rapidly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. This is the secondary immune response.. ...
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
[123 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Secondary Antibodies Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Secondary Antibodies in Global market, especially in...
The in vivo effect of multicomponent digestive herbal remedy PERVIVO on humoral immunity in mice was studied. Stimulatory effect on anti-SRBC antibody production was presented by feeding mice PERVIVO diluted with water × 2, × 4, × 8 , × 16 and × 32. These doses corresponded to 10 ml, 5 ml,...
Primary antibodies bind to specific proteins or biomolecules in assays like western blot and immunhistochemistry for quantitative and localisation detection needs. Primary antibodies available from St Johns Laboratory offer validation in multiple applications and species for both monoclonal and polyclonal types.
Western blot Kit for Rat Primary Antibodies, Chemilum. Substrate Kit EW-80203- Western blot Kit for Rat Primary Antibodies, Chemilum. Substrate Kit EW-80203-
The Antibody Production Shared Resource is a dedicated high-throughput facility established to generate monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and to make a broad range of antibody-related technologies cost effective and readily available to Cancer Center investigators ...
... Secondary Antibody from Invitrogen for ELISA applications. Supplied as 1 mg purified secondary antibody (4.4 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.4.
Our primary antibodies are available in a range of species and formats to suit your research needs. All of our products are manufactured in-house.
humoral immunity: The component of the immune system involving antibodies that are secreted by B cells and circulate as soluble proteins in blood plasma and lymph.
Learn how Gyrolab platforms automate sample pretreatment and immunoassay workflow at nanoliter-scale, reducing ADA assay hands-on time.
Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 77 verschiedene SYT2 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Mouse Anti_SRBC IgG \ KT-574 for more molecular products just contact us
The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a
The enrichment analysis was conducted on nine data subsets from four data sets containing transcriptomic data from naïve B cells and plasma cells. The analysis yielded total of 142 enriched terms, out of which seven were chosen for closer inspection to see which genes comprise them. Four genes, SBH1, GPD2, TRX1 and TRX2, were selected to be overexpressed and knocked out in antibody-secreting yeast. The results on the secretion of antibody were analysed by ELISA ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
Severe, or even marginal, deficiencies of zinc lead to reversible dysfunctions of human T lymphocytes.. Zinc deficiency is easily produced in laboratory animals, with a prompt development of numerous abnormalities in immune functions. Zinc deficiency consistently leads to atrophy of the thymus and other lymphoid organs, to reduced lymphocyte numbers in tissues (especially in the T cell areas) and to lymphopenia. Zinc deficiency is accompanied by anergy, manifested predominantly by dysfunctions of cellmediated immunity, along with some depression in the production of T cell-dependent antibodies and splenic plaque-forming cells.. Zinc deficiency initiates a selective decrease in CD4f helper cell numbers. In vitro testing reveals a markedly reduced proliferative response by these cells to phytohemagglutinin and other mitogens. Natural killer cells also show decreased activity and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is reduced. In zinc-deficiency, lymphocytes have a reduced ability to produce interleukin 2 ...
Clone REAL105 is an antibody fragment derived from the full CD28 antibody molecule. It displays no binding to Fc receptors. The recombinantly engineered antibody fragments are multimerized to form the REAlease Complex to bind markers with high avidity. Clone REAL105 recognizes the human CD28 antigen, a type I transmembrane protein, which is highly expressed on CD3+ thymocytes, most peripheral thymocytes, and plasma cells but not in less mature B cells. Binding of CD28 to its ligands CD80 or CD86 costimulates T cell effector function and T cell-dependent antibody production in vitro and in vivo . In the presence of antibodies directed against CD2 and CD3, CD28 antibodies stimulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production. The REAlease Kits consist of the respective fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes and the REAlease Support Kit for removal of the REAlease Complexes and optional relabeling with different fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes. - Sverige
Our previous research show that overexpression of bovine FcRn (bFcRn) in transgenic (Tg) mice network marketing leads to a rise in the humoral immune system response, seen as a larger amounts of Ag-specific B cells and various other immune system cells in supplementary lymphoid organs and higher degrees of circulating Ag-specific antibodies (Abs). discovered that overexpression of bFcRn enhances the phagocytosis of Ag-IgG immune system complexes (ICs) by both macrophages and dendritic cells and considerably improves Ag display by dendritic cells. Finally, we driven that immunized bFcRn mice create a very much greater variety of Ag-specific IgM, whereas just the known amounts, however, not the variety, of IgG is normally elevated by overexpression of bFcRn. We claim that the upsurge in variety of IgG in Tg mice is normally avoided by a selective bias towards immunodominant epitopes of ovalbumin, that was found in this research being a model antigen. These email address details are also consistent ...
Browse 95 market data tables and 43 figures spread through 182 pages and in-depth TOC on "Antibody Production Market". http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/antibody-production-market-181543091.html. Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report.. This report studies the global antibody production market for the forecast period of 2014 to 2019. This market is expected to reach $2.572 Billion by 2019 from $1.425 Billion in 2014, and is poised to grow at a CAGR of 12.5% during the forecast period.. The global antibody production market is segmented on the basis of products, types, technologies, end users, and regions.. Based on products, the global market is categorized into equipment and consumables. In 2014, the consumables segment accounted for a major share of the antibody production market.. Inquiry before Buying: http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Enquiry_Before_Buying.asp?id=181543091. On the basis of types, this market is segmented into monoclonal and polyclonal ...
plant antibodies, Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology, secondary antibody
The indirect method involves an unlabeled primary antibody (first layer) which reacts with tissue antigen, and a labeled secondary antibody (second layer) which reacts with the primary antibody. (The secondary antibody must be against the IgG of the animal species in which the primary antibody has been raised.) This method is more sensitive due to signal amplification through several secondary antibody reactions with different antigenic sites on the primary antibody. The second layer antibody can be labeled with a fluorescent dye or an enzyme. In a common procedure, a biotinylated secondary antibody is coupled with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase. This is reacted with 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) to produce a brown staining wherever primary and secondary antibodies are attached in a process known as DAB staining. The reaction can be enhanced using nickel, producing a deep purple/gray staining. The indirect method, aside from its greater sensitivity, also has the advantage that only a ...
Animals, cell lines, and in vivo antibodies. C57BL/6 (6-8 wk old) mice were obtained from Charles River Laboratories for use in these experiments. OT1 mice, with CD8 T cells specific for the SIINFEKL epitope of ovalbumin, have previously been described ( 28). OX40−/− C57BL/6 mice ( 29) were kindly provided by Dr. N. Killeen (University of California San Francisco). OX40−/− OT1 mice were kindly provided by Dr. M. Croft (University of California San Diego). These experiments used the MCA205 H12 sarcoma, EMT6 mammary carcinoma, and CT26 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Control RatIg antibody was purchased from Sigma, whereas rat anti-OX40 antibody (OX86), CD4-depleting antibody, and CD8-depleting antibody were produced in the laboratory from hybridomas and affinity purified over protein G columns. All animal protocols were approved by the institutions IACUC.. Tumor infiltrating cell harvest. C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were injected s.c. on the right flank with 1 × 106 tumor cells, and tumors ...
Storage of Membrane before addition of primary antibody - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi! Im not sure how and how long it is possible to store a PVDF membane after protein transfer but before addition of the primary antibody. The problem is that Ive ordered a new antibody and delivery will take some days. So is it possible to do the blot/transfer in advance, store the membrane and then add the primary antibody few days later? If yes, what are the best storage co...
General toxicological data and immunology data are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 for the two mouse strains. The immunotoxicological effects of this compound were negligible. No dose-related mortality, body weight changes, or gross lesions were observed. All groups of C57BL/6 mice showed normal weight gain over the 30- day period, although DBA/2 mice showed minimal weight gain. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups in body weight. Dose-related increases in spleen and liver weights were observed. For boths strains of mice, erythropenia and depressed hematocrits were seen at highest dose. No other hematological parameter was modulated by D4T. There were no D4T- related effects in any of the cell-mediated or humoral immune function assays. Significant decreases in both nucleated cells per femur and CFU-Es were seen with the C57BL/6 mice but not the DBA/2 mice.. ...
The 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Kohler and Cesar Milstein for their innovative work in the field of immunology.
MACS® Anti-Biotin-Alkaline Phosphatase has been developed as a secondary antibody for indirect labeling in conjunction with biotinylated primary antibodies. Alkaline phosphatase works with precipitating substrates such as NBT/BCIP as well as soluble substrates such as pNPP to produce a colorimetric reaction. - 日本
Donkey anti-Sheep IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, HRP conjugate from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry and ELISA applications.This antibody is cross-adsorbed against human, mouse and rabbit igg. Supplied as 1 mg purified secondary antibody in PBS with 1% BSA and 0.1% Kathon™ CG; pH 7.2.
Our comprehensive polyclonal antibody production service is offered in a variety of species. These include rabbit, goats, chickens, guinea pigs, rats, and mice. We can make your polyclonal using a wide range of antigens, bacteria, viruses, fungi, fusion proteins, synthetic peptides, plasmids, DNA, and other proteins. Peptide synthesis, carrier and labelling conjugations and purification can easily be added to your productions. Standard protocols are available for each species, or we can follow your specific protocol. All our procedures are fully documented, allowing complete traceability.. ...
Blog on CD9 secondary antibody product: The CD9 cd9 (Catalog #MBS674101) is an Antibody produced from Mouse and is intended for research purposes...
Blog on cd8a secondary antibody product: The cd8a cd8a (Catalog #MBS673963) is an Antibody produced from Mouse and is intended for research purpos...
keyhole-limpet hemocyanin: large MW protein antigen from hemolymph of the keyhole limpet; used extensively to evaluate primary cellular & humoral immune responses in humans
Specializing in Secondary Antibodies and Conjugates - For Western Blotting, IHC, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and other immunological applications.
Specializing in Secondary Antibodies and Conjugates - For Western Blotting, IHC, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and other immunological applications.
Specializing in Secondary Antibodies and Conjugates - For Western Blotting, IHC, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and other immunological applications.
Specializing in Secondary Antibodies and Conjugates - For Western Blotting, IHC, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and other immunological applications.
Browse over 324 Primary antibodies, covering popular research areas including cancer, neuroscience, epigenetics, cell biology, apoptosis, autophagy, hypoxia, immunology and tested in human, mouse, rat, zebrafish et., al. by WB, ICC/IF, IHC, ChIP et., al.
Browse over 99 Primary antibodies, covering popular research areas including cancer, neuroscience, epigenetics, cell biology, apoptosis, autophagy, hypoxia, immunology and tested in human, mouse, rat, zebrafish et., al. by WB, ICC/IF, IHC, ChIP et., al.
Abnova has extensive experience in generating high quality antisera to a wide variety of antigens (peptides, phospho-peptides, proteins, and cDNAs). Using a low dose immunization technique in combination with a proprietary adjuvant, we are able to generate a high-titer, high-affinity antibody response against the immunogen in mice, rats, and rabbits.,Mouse and Rabbit Pab - Ab Production - Services - Abnova
Which animal was used to generate your primary antibody? For instance, if your primary antibody is raised in a rabbit, you need to choose an anti-rabbit secondary antibody; if it is raised in a mouse, you need to c,,
HIV has a latency period hence remains undetected after infection for many years, till the symptoms called AIDS develop. The helper T cells are the cells that communicate which cells need to undergo the cloning process and begin the antibody production. When the helper T cells die, there is no communication for antibody production. The individual is thus not able to fight off the pathogens and the symptoms of AIDS appear. Thus it is this one or more secondary infection that takes the life of some one with AIDS ...
Scientists have identified the gene essential for survival of antibody-producing cells, a finding that could lead to better treatments for diseases where these cells are out of control, such as myeloma and chronic immune ...
Distributor of Immunohistochemistry IHC antibodies, Flow Cytometry, Molecular Biology, Staining Kits, Reagents, Detection Systems Ancillary reagents
Distributor of Immunohistochemistry IHC antibodies, Flow Cytometry, Molecular Biology, Staining Kits, Reagents, Detection Systems Ancillary reagents
This Sanquin research line focuses on developing new diagnostic and therapeutic options to prevent or treat allo- or autoimmunization against blood cells.
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✓ More than 16.000 conjugated secondaries with high specifity. Secondaries conjugated to Biotin, HRP, FITC and many other conjugates available. Order at antibodies-online. - Page 6
✓ More than 16.000 conjugated secondaries with high specifity. Secondaries conjugated to Biotin, HRP, FITC and many other conjugates available. Order at antibodies-online.
More than 16.000 conjugated secondaries with high specifity. Secondaries conjugated to Biotin, HRP, FITC and many other conjugates available. Order at antibodies-online. - Page 282
Commander MS4A2 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-MS4A2 anticorps.
Commander Caspase 4 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-Caspase 4 anticorps.
Monoklonale und polyklonale BCL2L13 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für BCL2L13 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
A full review of the immune system explaining cellular and humoral immune response, inflammation, how vaccines work and more in questions and answers.
Vaccines for Children are altered virus or bacteria which are injected or given orally. They trigger an immune response in the body and produce antibodies.
... definition, any preparation used as a preventive inoculation to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate antibody production. See more.
The workshop will focus on antibody based technologies and describe the possibilities of using these technologies within the facilities at SciLifeLab...
Charbogne P, Kieffer BL, Befort K. 15 years of genetic approaches in vivo for addiction research: Opioid receptor and peptide gene knockout in mouse models of drug abuse. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan;76 Pt B:204-17. PMID: 24035914.. Gein SV, Baeva TA, Nebogatikov VO, et al. β-Endorphin effects on antibody production, proliferation, and secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines in vivo. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012 Mar;152(5):595-9. PMID: 22803142.. Dinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression. Ir J Med Sci. 2011 Jun;180(2):319-25. PMID: 21076975.. Horváth G, Mécs L. Antinociception by endogenous ligands at peripheral level. Ideggyogy Sz. 2011 Mar 30;64(5-6):193-207. PMID: 21688721. ...
Definition of THYMUS-DEPENDENT ANTIGEN: T-deyendent antigen. An antigen which fails to stimulate an antibody response if T-lymphocytes are absent. Co-operation between B- lymphocytes and helper T
In pioneer studies, Silverstein demonstrated that responses of lambs to certain antigens, such as viruses, ferritin, azoproteins, ovalbumin and hemo-cyanin, could be obtained during fetal life, whereas responses to diphtheria toxoid, O antigen, and BCG occurred only after 40 days of postnatal life. Studies on antibody responses and of idiotype expression in young mice have also helped to show that there is a sequential or ordered activation of clones during postnatal life. There are some polysaccharides such as ¡32-6 fructosan, S. tranaroa Iipopolysaccharide (LPS) bearing the a-methyl-D-galactoside immunodominant sugar, or /31-6 galactan, which can elicit an immune response in 1-day-old mice. Immunization with /32-6 fructosan is not paralleled by an increased expression of A48 and UPC10 cross-reactive idiotype (IdX). In contrast, about 25% of LPS-specific antibodies express MOPC387 IdX of a myeloma protein specific for Salmonella tranaroa LPS. Similarly, 1-day-old mice immunized with gum ghatti ...
Secondary antibodies are polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that bind to primary antibodies or antibody fragments, such as the Fc or Fab regions. They are typically labeled with probes that make them useful for detection, purification or sorting applications. Genways polyclonal secondary antibodies are produced from the serum of host animals such as mouse, rabbit, goat and sheep, whereas, monoclonal secondary antibodies are produced from mouse hybridoma clones. Secondary antibodies are used in many applications including IP, ELISA, WB, IHC, FC, and cell based assays.
Primary antibodies are used to detect a target of interest by binding directly to an epitope on a protein within a sample. Any binding interaction between a primary antibody and the protein of interest is detected using a secondary antibody which will bind to the primary antibody, and thus the protein. Primary antibodies can be used in numerous applications such as Western blotting, Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluoresence, ELISA, and Lateral Flow. At Fitzgerald Industries we offer a range monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies in both conjugated and unconjugated forms.
often used as a critical component of a non-animal laboratory test; for example, in immunoserology tests used to diagnose many diseases.. The response of animals to an injection of an antigen is the same as that of humans to a vaccine; that is, they produce antibodies. Virtually any laboratory animal species can be used to produce antibodies. The choice of species often relates to the properties of the antigen. Animals are given a series of injections of an antigen preparation, usually after a pre-immunization blood sample has been collected to be sure the animal does not already have antibodies that may complicate the study. About three weeks after the series of injections, blood is again collected, and the serum is evaluated for the presence of antibody. If the level of antibody is not adequate for research purposes, additional antigen injections, or boosters, are given. The serum antibody can be stored in a freezer for years, thus providing an ongoing supply of the needed experimental ...
How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody - The scanning electron micrograph (right) shows a human macrophage (gray) approaching a chain of Streptococcus pyogenes (yellow). Riding atop the macrophage is a spherical lymphocyte. Both macrophages and lymphocytes can be found near an infection, and the interaction between these cells is important in eliminating infection. Below is an animation that illustrates the basic cell-cell interactions that lead to antibody production can be seen in the accompanying animation.. Guidelines for the Use of Adjuvants And Antibody Production - Many methodologies exist for polyclonal antibody production in laboratory animals. Institutional guidelines governing animal use and procedures relating to these methodologies are generally oriented around humane considerations and appropriate conduct for adjuvant use. This includes adjuvant selection, routes and sites of administration, injection volumes per site and number of sites per animal.. Immunological Techniques Making ...
Antigen-specific antibody responses against a model antigen (the B subunit of the heat labile toxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, LTB) were studied in sheep following oral immunisation with plant-made and delivered vaccines. Delivery from a root-based vehicle resulted in antigen-specific immune responses in mucosal secretions of the abomasum and small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. Immune responses from the corresponding leaf-based vaccine were more robust and included stimulation of antigen-specific antibodies in mucosal secretions of the abomasum. These findings suggest that oral delivery of a plant bioencapsulated antigen can survive passage through the rumen to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses in sheep. Moreover, the plant tissue used as the vaccine delivery vehicle affects the magnitude of these responses ...
Author Summary Antibody affinity maturation is a key aspect of an effective immune response to vaccines, likely to have an impact on clinical outcome following exposure to pathogens. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in B cells is a key enzyme involved in antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation, required for antibody affinity maturation. This human study demonstrated for the first time that induction of AID following H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccination directly correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against the hemagglutinin globular domain (HA1), containing most of the protective targets. Importantly, age differences were found. In younger adults, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with higher initial levels of AID and |2-fold-increase in AID after vaccination. With increased age, a drop in AID activity post-vaccination correlated with lower affinity maturation of the polyclonal antibody responses against the pandemic
Custom polyclonal antibody production, antibodies for cell signaling and signal transduction pathways, cellular organelle markers, 1-month antibody protocol,1-month antibody protocol sicgen,1-month short polyclonal antibody protocol,12-week antibody protocol, 12-week antibody protocol sicgen,12-week classic polyclonal antibody protocol,28-day antibody protocol, 28-day antibody protocol sicgen, 28-day short polyclonal antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol sicgen, 3-month classic polyclonal antibody protocol, 4-week short polyclonal antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol sicgen, 84-day classic polyclonal antibody protocol, actin, actin affinity antibodies,actin affinity antibodies sicgen, actin antibodies, actin antibodies sicgen, actin antibody, actin antibody sicgen, actin polyclonal antibodies,actin polyclonal antibodies sicgen,actin sicgen, affinity chromatography, affinity purified secondary antibodies, affinity purified secondary
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
Looking for complement-fixing antibody? Find out information about complement-fixing antibody. protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial... Explanation of complement-fixing antibody
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20–80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to

Learn about Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and the Symptoms it can CauseLearn about Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and the Symptoms it can Cause

Learn about the diverse effects antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) can have, from heart attack to miscarriage and how APS ... Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a fascinatingly complex disorder. It is an autoimmune disease, whereby the immune system ... This causes a range of complex events which make the formation of blood clots more likely. ... What is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS)?. One of the main targets of the immune response in APS is a protein called b( ...
more infohttp://www.healthguideinfo.com/autoimmune-immune-disorders/p66527/

Systemic Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, APS, APLS, Hughes Syndrome, Sticky Blood,...Systemic Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, APS, APLS, Hughes Syndrome, Sticky Blood,...

These include persistently elevated levels of antibodies directed against membrane anionic phospholipids (ie, anticardiolipin [ ... These include persistently elevated levels of antibodies directed against membrane anionic phospholipids (ie, anticardiolipin [ ... These include persistently elevated levels of antibodies directed against membrane anionic phospholipids (ie, anticardiolipin [ ... aCL] antibody, antiphosphatidylserine) or their associated plasma proteins, predominantly beta-2 glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein ...
more infohttp://apls.freelinuxhost.com/html/idiopathic_thrombocytopenia_pu.html

Actinomycin D: Its Effect on Antibody Formation in vitro | ScienceActinomycin D: Its Effect on Antibody Formation in vitro | Science

The formation of antibodies to bacteriophage T2 in vitro was inhibited by 5 X 10-8M actinomycin D. This result is consistent ... with the concept that antibody formation depends upon DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/142/3598/1476

Thymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice | The Journal of ImmunologyThymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice | The Journal of Immunology

Formation of reaginic antibodies in mice has been demonstrated by numerous investigators (1-4). These antibodies were shown to ... Thymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Nude mice (nu/nu) were shown to respond poorly to sheep erythrocytes in respect to formation of IgM and IgG antibodies (6-8). ... Thymus Dependence of Reaginic Antibody Formation in Mice. J. Gabriel Michael and I. Leonard Bernstein ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/111/5/1600

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY FORMATION BY PERITONEAL EXUDATE CELLS IN VITRO | JEMSTUDIES ON ANTIBODY FORMATION BY PERITONEAL EXUDATE CELLS IN VITRO | JEM

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY FORMATION BY PERITONEAL EXUDATE CELLS IN VITRO. John M. McKenna, Kingsley M. Stevens ... Endotoxin from Salmonella typhosa caused the monocytes to form antibody as if they had been taken from hyperimmunized rabbits. ... These sensitized cells agglutinate in the presence of antibody specific to the adsorbed antigen. It has been demonstrated that: ... Peritoneal exudate cells produced hemagglutinating antibody to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in a replicating tissue culture ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/111/4/573

The influence of the thyroid gland on antibody formationThe influence of the thyroid gland on antibody formation

The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression and genetic information in the Universitys programs and activities. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies: Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity and Access, [email protected], 1246 W. Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS, 66045, (785)864-6414, 711 TTY. ...
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Techniques of monoclonal antibody formationTechniques of monoclonal antibody formation

... The 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Niels K. in the field of ... He modeled the formation and development of our immune systems, and he described the existence of a complex network of antibody ... They exposed rodents to an antigen to stimulate production of the desired antibodies. They then fused the antibody-producing ... This network of antibodies has been exploited in research into treatments for autoimmune diseases and cancers, and into the ...
more infohttp://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/nobel-prizes/techniques-of-monoclonal-antibody-formation/

POTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE | JEMPOTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE | JEM

POTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE. P. H. Lagrange, ... POTENTIATION OF T-CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY BY SELECTIVE SUPPRESSION OF ANTIBODY FORMATION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ... CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors ... but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/139/6/1529

endocardial cushion formation Antibodies | Invitrogen
                       
                       
                
		      ...endocardial cushion formation Antibodies | Invitrogen ...

Antibodies for proteins involved in endocardial cushion formation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
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female germ-line cyst formation Antibodies | Invitrogen
                       
                       
                
		    ...female germ-line cyst formation Antibodies | Invitrogen ...

Antibodies for proteins involved in female germ-line cyst formation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ... Possible reasons that no Antibodies were found:. *Spelling or typing errors. You can use the product search to modify your ...
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Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft
         rejection after alemtuzumab...Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab...

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibody Formation. B-Lymphocytes. Chronic Disease. Flow Cytometry. Graft Rejection. Heart ... Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. ... Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. Am ... Currently the antibody-mediated mechanisms during CR are poorly understood due to lack of proper animal models and tools. In a ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/10058

Antibody FormationAntibody Formation

Formation of antibody in the newborn mouse: study of T-cell-independent antibody response Academic Article ... Comparative study of antibodies to native and denatured DNA Academic Article * Comparison of neutralizing antibody assays for ... The antibody problem Academic Article * The antibody response of mice to murine leukemia virus in spontaneous infection: ... Citation Classic: A requirement for two cell types for antibody formation in vitro Academic Article ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/individual?uri=https%3A%2F%2Fid.nlm.nih.gov%2Fmesh%2FD000917

Buy PDF - Development of antibody formation in germ free and conventionally reared rabbits the role of intestinal lymphoid...Buy PDF - Development of antibody formation in germ free and conventionally reared rabbits the role of intestinal lymphoid...

Development of antibody formation in germ free and conventionally reared rabbits the role of intestinal lymphoid tissue in ... I. The fate of antigen, dynamics and site of antibody formation, nature of antibodies and formation of heterohaemagglutinins. ... coli strain 086 part 1 the fate of antigen dynamics and site of antibody formation nature of antibodies and formation of hetero ... of bacterial endotoxins on antibody formation L Time limitation of enhancing effect and restoration of antibody formation in X- ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/005/132/005132582.php

Antibody Formation | ISHAR OnlineAntibody Formation | ISHAR Online

Long-standing beliefs about the ill-effects of mild to moderate obesity have been called into question by recent epidemiological studies and by critical review of older studies. A review of these studies reveals that the effects of obesity on health and longevity is more complex than we had realized. An attempt is made to throw light on this relationship by reviewing the large number of laboratory studies on nutrition, aging and obesity. The first series of such studies showed that restriction of food intake, beginning early in life, greatly increased longevity ...
more infohttp://admin.isharonline.org/tags/antibody-formation

Antibody Formation | ISHAR OnlineAntibody Formation | ISHAR Online

Long-standing beliefs about the ill-effects of mild to moderate obesity have been called into question by recent epidemiological studies and by critical review of older studies. A review of these studies reveals that the effects of obesity on health and longevity is more complex than we had realized. An attempt is made to throw light on this relationship by reviewing the large number of laboratory studies on nutrition, aging and obesity. The first series of such studies showed that restriction of food intake, beginning early in life, greatly increased longevity ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/antibody-formation

P170. Prevalence of hepatitis B viral markers in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease: ineffective antibody...P170. Prevalence of hepatitis B viral markers in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease: ineffective antibody...

... ineffective antibody formation in young patients E.Y. Kim1, K.B. Cho2, E.S. Kim2, K.S. Park2, S.W. Jeon3, W.J. Kim4, K.O. Kim5 ... However, antibody formation seems to be ineffective in IBD patients, especially young age group. The low percentage of anti-HBs ... Prevalence of hepatitis B viral markers in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease: ineffective antibody formation in ...
more infohttps://www.ecco-ibd.eu/publications/congress-abstract-s/abstracts-2013/item/p170-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-viral-markers-in-korean-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ineffective-antibody-formation-in-young-patients.html

Monoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation from Cell Signaling TechnologyMonoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation from Cell Signaling Technology

Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D61F5) Rabbit mAb - Western Blotting ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry hla-dqa1 Mouse * Monoclonal ... Monoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation. Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Syncytium Formation. Monoclonal ... Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D61F5) Rabbit mAb - Western Blotting, UniProt ID P07992, Entrez ID 2067 #5437 ... Monoclonal Antibody - ERCC1 (D6G6) XP® Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID P07992, Entrez ID 2067 #12345 ...
more infohttps://www.cellsignal.com/1/3/monoclonal-antibody-syncytium-formation

P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in...P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in...

P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in ... P325 Unfavorable initial thiopurine response does not reduce anti-drug antibody formation compared to thiopurine responders in ... Thiopurines-IFX co-therapy in CD patients is associated with reduced ADA formation relative to IFX monotherapy regardless of ... therapy reduced the appearance of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) compared with IFX monotherapy. Whether the nature of past clinical ...
more infohttps://www.ecco-ibd.eu/publications/congress-abstract-s/abstracts-2015/item/p325-unfavorable-initial-thiopurine-response-does-not-reduce-anti-drug-antibody-formation-compared-to-thiopurine-responders-in-crohnaposs-disease-patients-treated-by-thiopurine-amp-infliximab-co-therapy.html

auto antibody formation | Fat-Burning Manauto antibody formation | Fat-Burning Man

Get your FAT-BURNING goodie bag that will teach you how to quickly and easily eliminate belly fat and reach optimal health. Just enter your email below and Ill send it right to your inbox!. ...
more infohttps://fatburningman.com/tag/auto-antibody-formation/

antibody formationantibody formation

... Does Toxoplasma cause polymyositis? Report of a case of polymyositis associated with toxoplasmosis and a ... Tagged: adult, antibody formation, cellular, female, HLA antigens/analysis, humans, immunity, myositis/*etiology/immunology, ...
more infohttp://darwin.natur.cuni.cz/toxoArticles/wordpress/index.php/tag/antibody-formation/

Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: Antibody FormationCanary Database: Browse by Outcome: Antibody Formation

Browse by Outcome: Antibody Formation (4 articles). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ... Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the ...
more infohttp://podcast.canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/3261

Stimulation of lymphocytes with phytohemagglutinin in mice of strains genetically selected for the character antibody...Stimulation of lymphocytes with phytohemagglutinin in mice of strains genetically selected for the character "antibody...

... antibody formation]. by M Liacopoulos-Briot et al. ... antibody formation].. *. M Liacopoulos-Briot, Francine Lambert ... "antibody formation"].}, author={M Liacopoulos-Briot and Francine Lambert and Denise Mouton and Yolande Bouthillier and Claude ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Stimulation-of-lymphocytes-with-phytohemagglutini-Liacopoulos-Briot-Lambert/9b4b15e21cf51587f39ff8cf8d00e84bfdcfb89b

Journal Article - Choices Following Antigen Entry: Antibody Formation or immunologic Tolerance? - Encyclopedia of Australian...Journal Article - Choices Following Antigen Entry: Antibody Formation or immunologic Tolerance? - Encyclopedia of Australian...

Antibody Formation or immunologic Tolerance? - Encyclopedia of Australian Science, Bright Sparcs is a biographical, ... Choices Following Antigen Entry: Antibody Formation or immunologic Tolerance?. In. Annual Review of Immunology. Imprint. vol. ...
more infohttp://www.eoas.info/bib/HASB04547.htm

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antibody formation.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antibody formation.}'

Antibody production / edited by L. E. Glynn and M. W. Steward.. by Glynn, Leonard Eleazar , Steward, Michael W ... Antibodies : protective, destructive and regulatory role / editors, F. Milgrom, C. J. Abeyounis and B. Albini.. by (9th: ... Investigation and exploitation of antibody combining sites / edited by Eric Reid, G. M. W. Cook and D. J. Morré.. by (9th: ... Cell/antibody interactions in vitro against microfilariae of Onchocerca gibsoni / by Syamsul Bahri Siregar.. by Siregar, ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntibody%20formation.%7D

Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation | ScienceEvidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation | Science

Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/298/5601/2195/tab-article-info
  • Peritoneal exudate cells produced hemagglutinating antibody to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in a replicating tissue culture system for approximately 3 weeks when taken from animals given either primary or secondary injections of BGG. (rupress.org)
  • Availability of genetically thymusless nude mice provided an opportunity to examine the dependence of mouse reaginic antibody formation on the presence of thymus cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results, coupled with evidence of numerous mis-sense PRKCB mutations in the human genome, identify Prkcb as a genetically sensitive step likely to contribute substantially to population variability in anti-polysaccharide antibody levels. (elsevier.com)
  • In a clinical setting, we previously demonstrated that induction therapy by lymphocyte depletion, using alemtuzumab (anti-human CD52), is associated with an increased incidence of serum alloantibody, C4d deposition and antibody-mediated rejection in human patients. (duke.edu)
  • Treatment of young tg-ArcSwe mice with an Aβ protofibril-selective antibody, mAb158, cleared protofibrils, prevented amyloid plaque deposition and protected cultured cells from protofibril-mediated toxicity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Patterns of de novo allo B cells and antibody formation in chronic cardiac allograft rejection after alemtuzumab treatment. (duke.edu)
  • Antibody 14D9, which catalyzes the stereoselective transformation of achiral enol ethers into the corresponding ( S )-ketals, resolves a racemic mixture of structurally similar chiral enol ethers by selective conversion of the ( R )-enol ether into the ( R )-ketal, raising the possibility that the ( S ) transition state is preferencially stabilized by the antibody despite a better binding of the ( R ) intermediate. (rsc.org)
  • EPAC signaling plays a significant role in a number of cellular processes including migration and focal adhesion formation (2), exocytosis (3), insulin signaling (4), axon growth and guidance (5) and neurotransmitter release (6). (cellsignal.com)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antibody formation. (who.int)
  • However, antibody formation seems to be ineffective in IBD patients, especially young age group. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • however, RTx patients were younger at time of most recent transplant, a greater proportion were Caucasian, and mean maximum panel reactive antibody score was higher. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • RTx vs primary KT patients were more likely to develop dnDSA (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42), with Class I specificities presenting greater hazard than Class II for dnDSA formation. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesn't perform as described on our website or datasheet,we'll replace the product at no cost to you, or provide you with a credit for a future purchase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Antibodies : protective, destructive and regulatory role / editors, F. Milgrom, C. J. Abeyounis and B. Albini. (who.int)
  • Reversible cluster formation has been identified as an underlying cause of large solution viscosities observed in some concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. (aps.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that combination thiopurine-Infliximab (IFX) therapy reduced the appearance of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) compared with IFX monotherapy. (ecco-ibd.eu)