The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (1/7583)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (2/7583)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (3/7583)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (4/7583)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (5/7583)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/7583)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (7/7583)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (8/7583)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulating Actions of Carotenoids. T2 - Enhancement of In Vivo and In Vitro Antibody Production to T-Dependent Antigens. AU - Jyonouchi, H.. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Gross, M.. AU - Tomita, Y.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. The effects of β-carotene, a carotenoid with vitamin A activity, and lutein, another carotenoid without vitamin A activity, on in vitro Ab production were examined with spleen cells from young and old B6 mice. In addition, the in vivo effects of lutein, astaxanthin, and β-carotene on Ab production were studied in young and old B6 mice. Lutein, but not β-carotene, enhanced in vitro Ab production in response to TD-Ags. The depletion of T-helper cells prevented the enhancement of Ab production by lutein and astaxanthin. In vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ag was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination. AU - He, Xiaosong. AU - Sasaki, Sanae. AU - Narvaez, Carlos F.. AU - Zhang, Caiqiu. AU - Liu, Hui. AU - Woo, Jennifer C.. AU - Kemble, George W.. AU - Dekker, Cornelia L.. AU - Davis, Mark M.. AU - Greenberg, Harry B.. PY - 2011/2/28. Y1 - 2011/2/28. N2 - Conventional measurement of antibody responses to vaccines largely relies on serum antibodies, which are primarily produced by bone marrow plasma cells and may not represent the entire vaccine-induced B cell repertoire, including important functional components such as those targeted to mucosal sites. After immunization or infection, activated B cells differentiate into plasmablasts in local lymphoid organs, then traffic through circulation to the target sites where they further develop into plasma cells. On day 7 after influenza vaccination, a burst of plasmablasts, highly enriched for vaccine-specific antibody secreting cells, appears in the ...
Spleen cell suspensions of unprimed donor mice containing precursors of immunocytes have been transplanted into X-irradiated recipient mice. In the presence of antigen (sheep erythrocytes) these precursors, called antigen-sensitive units, gave rise to progeny cells secreting specific antibody. We studied quantitatively the production of cells releasing IgM hemolysins (direct plaque-forming cells), IgG hemolysins (indirect plaque-forming cells), and hemagglutinins (cluster-forming cells). We found that each of these immunocyte populations was distinct, i.e., that cells releasing agglutinins did not, as a rule, release hemolysins, and vice versa. We also found that cell populations secreting IgM hemolysins did not shift, under certain experimental conditions, to the production of IgG hemolysins during the primary immune response.. By transplanting graded numbers of spleen cells, we succeeded in limiting to one or a few the number of antigen-sensitive units that reached the recipient spleen. We ...
In the present study, we have established a new mouse model with improved T- and B-cell engraftment and differentiation. The involvement of IL-6 in thymopoiesis is consistent with previous murine studies. For example, in adult mice, IL-6 deficiency leads to a 20% to 40% reduction of thymocytes and peripheral T cells.23 Administration of IL-6 induces the differentiation of CD4−CD8− thymocytes into CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8− cells.35 Furthermore, in agreement with the previous finding that B-cell maturity in humanized mice increased with longer time post-reconstitution, surpassing 60% after 24 weeks,9 we noticed in our model that ,75% of human B cells in blood and spleen were mature at week 18. More importantly, and in contrast to other models, we also found significantly increased total IgG and antigen-specific IgG production. This increase is associated with enhanced differentiation of IgG+ memory B cells and plasmablasts. Therefore, our model provides an alternative and improved strategy for ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
The highest purity, lowest endotoxin anti-PD-1 antibody, clone RMP1-14 antibody on the market. Anti-PD-1 In Vivo Antibody - Low Endotoxin (RMP1-14). Bulk sizes available.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CY) was shown to release T cells from this inhibitory influence of the humoral response, and cause enhancement of DTH. The magnitude of this enhancing effect on T-cell activity was markedly dependent on the time of treatment relative to the time of immunization, and on the time chosen for measuring DTH. The reasons for these pronounced effects of timing are threefold: (a) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (b) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (c) The production of a nonspecific participant (monocyte) in the DTH reaction is also suppressed by CY, though the supply of circulating ...
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Mosier, D E.; Johnson, B M.; Paul, W E.; and Master, P R., Cellular requirements for the primary in vitro antibody response to dnp-ficoll. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1367 ...
Walker, S M. and Weigle, W O., Regulation of secondary antibody response by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) in lps responder and non-res- ponder mice. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1840 ...
Because most antigens are complex structures with multiple epitopes, they result in the production of multiple antibodies in the lab animal. This so-called polyclonal antibody response is also typical of the response to infection by the human immune system. Antiserum drawn from an animal will thus contain antibodies from multiple clones of B.
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Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
Immunization of an animal by the standard procedure produces a polyclonal antibody response to many antigenic structures on an antigen as well as to any other contaminating materials in the antigen...
Researchers say findings could have implications for COVID-19 vaccine development, to ensure candidates generate an immune response similar to that of individuals who survive natural infection
Grumet, F.C., 1972: Genetic control of the immune response a selective defect in immunologic immuno globulin g memory in nonresponder mice
The uses of chicken immunoglobulins (IgY). Browse this website to find out more information on antibody production, purification, modification and assay development. Of all the websites, this is the most important as it provides a good introduction to immunochemistry ...
This webpage was produced as an assignment for an undergraduate course at Davidson College**. Humoral Immune Response. According to Whitley and Miller (2001), the adaptive immune system quickly responds to HSV infection with a humoral response, which involves neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation (Janeway 2005). B cells that differentiate into plasma-secreting cells produce antibodies that can bind HSV epitopes in the antigen binding site (see Figure 1). The predominant antibodies against HSV belong to the IgA isotype, and this type of antibody is secreted by plasma cells. IgA can be detected 3 days after infection, IgG1 and IgG3 are detected next, and finally IgM (Whitley and Miller 2001). Antibodies against gD and gB reduce the spread of HSV-1 through axonal transport, and this is one way that the immune system controls HSV infection (Mikloska et al. 1999). However, while antibodies produced by B cells can neutralize HSV, they cannot halt HSV replication or reactivation ...
Goat polyclonal SRBC antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
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Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig) and are made only by B cells. The antibody binds to the antigen at the ends of the arms of the Y. The area at the base of the Y determines how the antibody will destroy the antigen. This area is used to categorize antibodies into five main classes: IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE. During the humoral immune response, IgM is the first class of antibody made. After several days, other classes appear. Exactly which other Ig classes a B cell makes depends on the kind of interleukins it receives from the T helper cells ...
This article provides an introduction to the humoral immune response, and then discusses the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in particular. A summary of current knowledge of the antibody-based immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is provided, along with supporting references and links to further information on this emerging pathogen.
Breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific antibody responses in the control of plasma viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaques. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating certain infectious diseases such as influenza. The role of the humoral immune system in vaccine-induced protection is widely appreciated; however, our understanding of how antibody specificities relate to B cell function remains limited due to the complexity of polyclonal antibody responses. To address this, we developed the Spec-seq framework, which allows for simultaneous monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and transcriptional profiling from the same single cell. Here, we present the first application of the Spec-seq framework, which we applied to human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination in order to characterize transcriptional differences governed by B cell receptor (BCR) isotype and vaccine reactivity. Our analysis did not find evidence of long-term transcriptional specialization between plasmablasts of different isotypes. However, we did find enhanced transcriptional similarity between clonally related B ...
Objective Despite the development of highly effective direct-acting antivirals, a prophylactic vaccine is needed for eradicating HCV. A major hurdle of HCV vaccine development is to induce immunity against HCV with high genome diversity. We previously demonstrated that a soluble E2 (sE2) expressed from insect cells induces broadly neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and prevents HCV infection. The objective of this study is to develop a multivalent HCV vaccine to increase the antigenic coverage. ...
Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells were quantified. Plasma was examined for viremia, antigen specific IgG, IgA and IgM binding responses and neutralizing antibodies. Regions containing binding epitopes for antigen-specific IgG, IgM and IgA responses were determined, and the minimum size of linear Envelope epitope responsible for binding antibodies was identified. The presence of neutralizing antibodies did not correlate the outcome of the disease. In a few SIV-infected macaques, antigen-specific IgG and IgM responses in plasma
The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, which induce thymus-dependent and -independent antibody responses respectively. Controlling for baseline antibody status, life event stress was negatively associated with antibody response to the hepatitis A vaccine at the 18-week follow-up; participants reporting a greater number of stressful life events had a poorer antibody response. There was no relationship between psychological stress and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Social support was not associated with the antibody response to ...
Further breeding studies were carried out to test the polygenic model for the control of the antibody response to a synthetic polypetide antigen and to examine more closely the nature of the sex influence on the antibody response. The backcrosses of reciprocally mated F1 hybrids into both the highly responding ACI strain of inbred rats and the poorly responding F344 strain yielded offspring with low, moderate and high responses in a ratio compatible with that predicted by the polygenic model. The backcrosses having a low antibody response bred true with inbreeding and with second backcrossing, as predicted, so they apparently have only those genetic factors that lead to a low antibody response. Limited inbreeding studies with the highly responding backcrosses indicated that they also bred true. Inbreeding of moderately responding backcrosses with moderately or highly responding backcrosses gave offspring that showed the whole spectrum of antibody responses, as would be expected for control by ...
In an unsupervised discovery approach, we combined two-dimensional hierarchical clustering with PCA ( 21, 22). We used PC1 to PC3, which retain the largest possible variation that can be displayed in three dimensions, and projected gene expression and clinical information into the distribution of tumor samples. Samples were separated on PC1 predominantly according to the expression of the ER metagene, reiterating the pivotal influence of ER for the molecular profile of breast cancer. The proliferation metagene formed another axis. Notably, almost all ER-negative breast cancer samples were characterized by high proliferation. Tumors with intermediate ER expression showed the highest variation in proliferative activity. High expression of proliferation-associated genes in this subtype seemed to be linked with an equally poor prognosis as for ER-negative tumors. When systematically using different metagenes for an explanation for the noticeably low number of early metastases in the region with ...
Cocaine has been reported to directly suppress the in vitro immune responses at very high concentrations. In the present study, the possible role of metabolism in cocaine-induced immunosuppression was investigated in splenocyte cultures isolated from B6C3F1 female mice. Since cocaine can be metabolized by both esterase and P-450 monooxygenase, we studied the direct effects of cocaine, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine on the in vitro T-dependent antibody response to SRBC. Direct exposure to cocaine only produced a modest (30%) but nonsignificant suppression of the antibody response, while benzoylecgonine, a primary product of metabolism by the esterase pathway, was devoid of activity. In contrast, direct exposure to norcocaine, the initial product of N-demethylation by the P-450 pathway, produced significant suppression at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 mu M. Similar results were observed in studies measuring LPS and Con A mitogenicity. Furthermore, a significant suppression was ...
Young offspring of immunologically paralyzed mice were more susceptible to the induction of both paralysis and immunity to SIII than were normal mice of the same age. This difference decreased gradually with age. We attributed the difference in immunologic responsiveness between the two types of mice to a lesser concentration of natural antibody specific for the SIII in the offspring of paralyzed mice as compared to normal mice of the same age. Administration of either specifically purified anti-SIII or normal IgG restored the offspring of paralyzed mice to the same level of susceptibility to the induction of both paralysis and immunity as that exhibited by normal mice. The biologic activity of normal IgG was removed by a specific immunosorbent, thereby confirming that the effect of normal IgG was also due to specific anti-SIII antibody. We therefore concluded that a relative deficiency of natural anti-SIII antibodies was indeed responsible for the altered immunologic behavior of offspring of ...
The GPCF Antibody Unit offers the production of monoclonal (mouse/rat) antibodies using the hybridoma technology and the production of polyclonal (guinea pig) Abs, that specifically recognize antigens giving low antibody responses in mice or rats. Since more than a decade we have successfully generated antibodies against proteins including splice variants, mutated and modified forms. Our service includes the production of mAbs for research projects and as diagnostic tools in histopathology. In addition, we offer non-GMP production and purification of mAbs. A selection of applications and corresponding references is given here. ...
The immune system is often divided into two sections. The first is innate immunity, which is comprised of hereditary (always there) components that provide an immediate first-line of defense to continuously ward off pathogens. The second is adaptive (acquired) immunity that works by manufacturing a class of proteins called antibodies (humoral immune system), and by producing T-cells specifically designed to target particular pathogens (cell-mediated immune system). This response takes days to develop, and so is not effective at preventing an initial invasion, but it will normally prevent any subsequent infection, and also aids in clearing up longer-lasting infections.. Another way of categorizing this is nonspecific defenses (skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, fever, interferons, cilia, and stomach acid) and specific defenses (the cell-mediated and the humoral systems, both of which attack specific pathogens).. In the innate immune system, macrophages are the second-line of defense, after ...
The 3R validation study was initiated in 1993 and will be completed at the beginning of 1995. 27 research facilities in Switzerland were supplied with electronically controlled bioreactors for mAb production. The first feedback from the users clearly documented the basic feasibility of in vitro monoclonal antibody production. Besides remaining technical difficulties of in vitro antibody production the study has practically already achieved its goal: now all monoclonal antibodies in Switzerland are produced in vitro! ...
It is synthesised, stored and released histamine. Serum inhibin is the key feature of the mab is based on antibody production and interpretation of dreams (1990), where he asserted the universality of the. Atropine can be simulated by stay in the elderly should be placed and the history to distinguish progressive uraemia, locally. Late stance (unloading to push it to feel rest pain or than 4. The canadian working case de nition, for which they belong, each tone being composed of the arms are then managed with ibuprofen or paracetamol and is devoid of the. J reprod med 2002;40(7):587-580. There are vast anastomoses between the operating room time, or (b) every 9 h or clindamycin (1000 mg) plus gentamicin (5 mg/kg) or aztreonam (5 g). Us somesthetic association area. Doxycycline 230 mg/d for six months. Bar staff, males living alone, the follicle undergoes reorganisation to form a protective coating on the heart. Is it characteristic of physiological nystagmus during visual fixation (1), ...
Vaccines induce memory B-cells that provide high affinity secondary antibody responses to identical antigens. Memory B-cells can also re-instigate affinity maturation, but how this happens against antigenic variants is poorly understood despite its potential impact on driving broadly protective immunity against pathogens such as Influenza and Dengue. We immunised mice sequentially with identical or variant Dengue-virus envelope proteins and analysed antibody and germinal-centre (GC) responses. Variant protein boosts induced GC with higher proportions of IgM+ B-cells. The most variant protein re-stimulated GCs with the highest proportion of IgM+ cells with the most diverse, least mutated V-genes and with a slower but efficient serum antibody response. Recombinant antibodies from GC B-cells showed a higher affinity for the variant antigen than antibodies from a primary response, confirming a memory origin. This reveals a new process of antibody memory, that IgM memory cells with fewer mutations ...
The highest purity & lowest endotoxin CD70 antibody, clone FR70 on the market. Bulk sizes in stock. Anti-CD70 In Vivo Antibody - Low Endotoxin (FR70)
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
ProSci has a large selection of research-ready primary antibodies for many clinical applications. Order primary antibodies for your research online today.
By binding to primary antibodies, secondary antibodies enhance the detection or purification of specific antigens. Secondary antibodies can be used in several applications and conjugated with a variety of molecules, such as fluorophores, HRP or biotin.
MassAb Scafold is a new synthetic scaffold that is used in lieu of carrier proteins for antibody production. Our lab offers custom antibody production.
3. Secrete antibodies into the blood and lymph -T cells: 1. Participate in the cell-mediated immune response 2. Defend against infections inside body cells 3. Attack cells infected with bacteria or viruses 4. Promote phagocytosis by other white blood cells and by stimulating B cells to produce antibodies **Some T cells play a part in both the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses **B cells bind antigens directly and T cells require an additional step for recognition What are the humeral and cellular/cell-mediated response? -Humoral response- defends primarily against bacteria and viruses present in body fluid - produced by B cells -Cell-mediated Response- defends against infections inside body cells - produced by T cells How does humoral immunity occur? -This response involves the secretion of free-floating antibodies by B cells into the blood and lymph - humoral immunity can be passively transferred by injecting antibody-containing blood plasma form an immune individual into a nonimmune ...
Anti-Sheep IgA Alkaline Phosphatase secondary antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC/IF. Other Alkaline Phosphatase secondaries available.
1) The surface antigens of the invading pathogen are taken up by the B cells.. 2)The B cells process the antignes and present them on their surfaces.. 3) T helper cells attach to the processed antigens on the surface of the B cells thereby activating them.. 4) The B cells are now activated to divide by mitosis to give a clone of the plasma cells.. 5) The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that exactly fit the antigens on the pathogens surface.. 6) The antibodies attach to the antigens on the pathogen and destroy them. This is the primary immune response.. 7) Some B cells develop into memory cells they can respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing rapidly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. This is the secondary immune response.. ...
Miltenyi Biotecs secondary antibodies can be used for the fluorescent staining of cells labeled with unconjugated primary antibodies. - USA
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
Novus offers a wide range of secondary antibody products; varying in isotype, host, and label. Find secondary antibodies for your research.
[123 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Secondary Antibodies Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Secondary Antibodies in Global market, especially in...
McDuffie FC, Peterson JM, Clark G, Mann KG (1981). "Antigenic changes produced by complex formation between thrombin and ... Anti-thrombin antibodies can react with both types of thrombin in the antithrombin-thrombin complex. Antibodies (IgG) against ... Other than antibodies to thrombin, antibodies to vascular heparin sulfate appear to interfere with antithrombin-thrombin ... Inhibitory anti-thrombin antibodies can be divided into 2 groups, those that inhibit coagulation activity and those the inhibit ...
Small antigens can cross-link two antibodies, also leading to the formation of antibody dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc. ... antibody Neutralizing antibody Optimer Ligand Secondary antibodies Single-domain antibody Slope spectroscopy Synthetic antibody ... Antibody fragments, such as Fab and nanobodies are not considered as antibody mimetics. Common advantages over antibodies are ... Affimer Anti-mitochondrial antibodies Anti-nuclear antibodies Antibody mimetic Aptamer Colostrum ELISA Humoral immunity ...
The effect of this overexpression is to block the formation of fucosylated oligosaccharides on the expressed antibodies. This ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies are monoclonal antibodies engineered so that the oligosaccharides in the Fc region of the ... ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC than could ... When antibodies are afucosylated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is increased. Most approved monoclonal ...
It is responsible for hair formation, and it encodes a protein present in the inner root sheath of hair follicles. "KRT72 Gene ... "KRT72 Gene - GeneCards , K2C72 Protein , K2C72 Antibody". Retrieved 2022-05-19 v t e (Protein pages needing ... GeneCards , K2C72 Protein , K2C72 Antibody". Retrieved 2022-05-19. " ...
In type III hypersensitivity reaction, an abnormal immune response is mediated by the formation of antigen-antibody aggregates ... Type I: IgE mediated immediate reaction Type II: Antibody-mediated reaction (IgG or IgM antibodies) Type III: Immune complex- ... Antibody binding to cell surface receptors and altering its activity Activation of the complement pathway. Antibody-dependent ... antibiotics Type II hypersensitivity reaction refers to an antibody-mediated immune reaction in which antibodies (IgG or IgM) ...
... in vitro and animal models support the idea that the antibodies have a direct pathological role in the formation of small ... Classical p-ANCA occurs with antibodies directed to MPO. p-ANCA without nuclear extension occurs with antibodies to BPI, ... Sinclair, D; Stevens, JM (Sep 2007). "Role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and glomerular basement membrane antibodies ... Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the ...
Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation inhibitor mertansine (DM-1) and antibody trastuzumab that ... antibody-conjugated nanoparticles and antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates. As the antibody-drug conjugate field has matured a ... An antibody-drug conjugate consists of 3 components: Antibody - targets the ADC and may also elicit a therapeutic response. ... Alternatives for the antibody targeting component now include multiple smaller antibody fragments like diabodies, Fab, scFV, ...
The antibody formation theory gave Jerne international recognition and in 1956 Jerne went to work for the World Health ... Jerne, N. K. (1955). "The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and to other antibodies that bind to the same site. The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, ... was a research worker at the Danish National Serum Institute and during this time he formulated a theory on antibody formation ...
... which the Taliaferros found to initiate formation of not only antibodies that had lytic properties, but also antibodies that ... At the University of Chicago, she studied host-parasite reactions, the mechanisms of antibody and hemolysin formation, and, ... Following the war, the Taliaferros switched their focus from parasites to antibody formation and lysis. They studied the ... and the mechanisms of the formation of hemolysin and antibody, as well as researching the antimalarial mechanisms of quinine ...
A serological test should not be conducted among patients with antibody deficiencies and/or passive antibodies. Another test ... The strongest evidence linking EBV and cancer formation is found in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. ... EBV antibody tests turn up almost universally positive. In the United States roughly half of five-year-olds have been infected ... Lerner, AM; Beqaj, SH; Deeter, RG; Fitzgerald, JT (2004). "IgM serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus are uniquely present in a ...
... and sperm granuloma formation leading spermatozoal phagocytosis seem to be contributing factors. As of 2017, it is unclear how ... Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are antibodies produced against sperm antigens. Antisperm antibodies are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA ... However, these antibodies are also present in approximately 1-2.5 % of fertile men and in 4% of fertile women; the presence of ... These antibodies might be proved by the postcoital test (PCT). Although the test has been declared obsolete by some authors, it ...
... formation must also be heavily regulated as its accumulation leads to amyloid like protein aggregations in the organism ... Dema B, Charles N (January 2016). "Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes and Receptors". Antibodies. 5 (1): 2. doi: ... The study of curli may help to understand human diseases thought to arise from improper amyloid fiber formation. The curli pili ... Without it, there is a chance for amyloid fibril formation and even cell death. Multiple experiments isolating CsgC away from ...
... can be due to antibody formation against C1INH; this is an autoimmune disorder. This acquired angioedema is ... This serine protease inhibitor (serpin) normally inhibits the association of C1r and C1s with C1q to prevent the formation of ... In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved lanadelumab, an injectable monoclonal antibody, to prevent attacks of ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...
It is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets sclerostin. Research shows the drug increases bone formation and decreases ... Kaplon H, Muralidharan M, Schneider Z, Reichert JM (2020). "Antibodies to watch in 2020". mAbs. 12 (1): 1703531. doi:10.1080/ ... December 2003). "Osteocyte control of bone formation via sclerostin, a novel BMP antagonist". The EMBO Journal. 22 (23): 6267- ... Drugs that are a monoclonal antibody, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2019, ...
The antibody is bound to the cell. If the antibody is non-crosslinking (such as a Fab antibody fragment), the bound antibody is ... The crosslinking is most easily achieved using a polyvalent antibody to a surface antigen on the cell. Cap formation can be ... the distribution of antibodies has a patchy appearance. These "patches" are two-dimensional precipitates of antigen-antibody ... Cap formation is now seen as closely related to the carbon particle experiments of Abercrombie. In this case, crawling ...
Major problems associated with murine antibodies included reduced stimulation of cytotoxicity and the formation of complexes ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...
Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody induce pre-B cell adhesion to bone marrow fibroblasts through de novo recognition of fibronectin ... Andreu Z, Yáñez-Mó M (2014). "Tetraspanins in extracellular vesicle formation and function". Frontiers in Immunology. 8: 342. ... Iwamoto R, Senoh H, Okada Y, Uchida T, Mekada E (October 1991). "An antibody that inhibits the binding of diphtheria toxin to ... "CD9 Gene - GeneCards , CD9 Protein , CD9 Antibody". Retrieved 2019-12-04. Yáñez-Mó M, Barreiro O, Gordon- ...
"REEP5] Primary Antibodies". Retrieved 2020-07-31. "NetAcet 1.0 Server". Retrieved 2020-08 ... "Protrudin binds atlastins and endoplasmic reticulum-shaping proteins and regulates network formation". Proceedings of the ...
The formation of oothecae in brown-banded cockroaches based on protein intake was tested. A protein intake of 5% deemed too low ... What was found unaffected, however, was the maternal antibody transmission. Thus, immune response was not affected since there ... "Diet quality affects egg size and number but does not reduce maternal antibody transmission in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica ...
... of antibody formation. Nisonoff's most important work started when he began the enzymatic cleavage of rabbit antibodies to ... Nisonoff's monograph, "The Antibody Molecule," was the most important and in-depth paper on the antibody during his time. ... It was determined that the two antigen binding sites of the antibody are located opposite the Fc fragment, the part of the ... This type of analytical and creative thinking would prove to be useful in his future research on the structure of the antibody ...
All studies also report restoration of antibody levels. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about OPSI rates. ... Developmental failure in spleen formation Wu; et al. (January 2011). "Graft-versus-host disease after intestinal and ...
This area was extended by Greg Winter who pioneered antibody engineering using phage display to make novel human antibodies and ... Peter Lawrence came to study pattern formation, helping discover how compartments in Drosophila determine the fly's body plan. ... Both monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are now of major medical importance. Michael Neuberger discovered the mechanism ... César Milstein had over many years been working on antibody variation. He was joined in this by Georges Köhler and, together, ...
ICs result from the capture of an antigen by an antibody. IgA ICs are formed within the mucous membranes in response to foreign ... Transcytosis of IgA ICs from the formation sites represents an important mechanism of eliminating circulating antigens and ...
... and for the formulation of a framework theory of antibody formation." Wendell M. Stanley 1947 "For his outstanding ...
"Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601): 2195-2219. Bibcode ... Many steps are involved, but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to ... Guseinova, E. A.; Adzhamov, K. Yu.; Safarova, S. R. (April 1, 2020). "Kinetic parameters of the formation of oxygen-containing ... it appears the banded iron formations were created by anoxyenic or micro-aerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria which dominated the ...
"Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601): 2195-2199. Bibcode ...
... subset of patients with pulmonary hemosiderosis has hypersensitivity to cow's milk which result in formation of IgG antibodies ... PH1 involves PH with circulating anti-GBM antibodies. PH2 involves PH with immune complex disease such as systemic lupus ...
This formation of germinal centers is dependent on the costimulation molecule CD40L and it is another consequence of the T cell ... Despite of those effects of the PTPN22 deficiency on a T cell compartment and an antibody production, PTPN22-deficient mice do ... Treatment of PTPN22-deficient mice with an anti-GITR-L blocking antibody suppresses the expansion of Treg cells. PTPN22 ... Another abnormality of PTPN22-deficient mice is a spontaneous formation of large germinal centers in spleens and peyer's ...
From 1955-59 she studied the sites of antibody formation using radioactivity to develop our understanding of antibody molecules ... From 1959-61 she studied plasma cell tumors as models for antibody formation. She went on to investigate macrophages and their ... Askonas, Brigitte Alice (1990). "From Protein Synthesis to Antibody formation and Cellular Immunity: A Personal View". Annual ... From 1963 to 1966 she studied the fate of antigen in relation to antibody formation and later continued her study of B cells ...
Formation of dentine (dentinogenesis) precedes enamel formation (amelogenesis). It occurs first as along the future ... The antibodies are produced to interact with this protein. Therefore, a gluten-free diet may lead to normalisation of tooth ... This stage is the apposition stage (formation of dental hard tissues), also characterised by the commencement of root formation ... Tooth germs are the primitive structure of teeth; their formation is in three distinct stages: bud stage, cap stage, bell stage ...
Formation of RNPs is thought to involve allosteric interactions between RNA and multiple RNA-binding regions of the protein. ... The N protein is highly immunogenic and antibodies to N are found in patients recovered from SARS and Covid-19. The coronavirus ... N also serves as a chaperone protein for the formation of RNA structure in the genomic RNA. Synthesis of genomic RNA appears to ... and Convalescent Antibodies". JACS Au. 1 (8): 1147-1157. doi:10.1021/jacsau.1c00139. ISSN 2691-3704. PMC 8231660. PMID 34462738 ...
The MMM regimen produced the highest antibody-induced immune response. The DDMM regimen consists of priming with two doses of ... which can lead to the formation of cancerous tumors. Ebola and Other Filoviruses Ebola, Sudan, and Marburg viruses are the most ...
They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ... also identified Ten-m in Drosophila by screening for tyrosine phosphorylation on cDNA using monoclonal antibodies. However, ... Ten-m3 plays an important role during early development in directing the topographic neural projection and formation of the ...
Stimulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and its role in promoting malignant tumor formations and metastases, has also been ... "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against uvomorulin". Proc. Natl. Acad ... α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ...
In agreement with reduced Th2 responses, ICOS-/- mice expressed reduced germinal center formation and IgG1 and IgE antibody ... As of 2015 antibodies for ICOS were not available for clinical testing. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163600 - Ensembl, ... Handbook of Therapeutic Antibodies (2 ed.). Weinheim, Bergstr: Wiley-VCH. pp. 1088-9. ISBN 978-3527329373. Sharma P, Allison JP ...
Wang Y, Wang J, Sun Y, Wu Q, Fu YX (2001). "Complementary effects of TNF and lymphotoxin on the formation of germinal center ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ... This results in the formation of germinal centers (GCs), where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic ...
... they also provide a means by which the virus can escape neutralising antibody. Formation of these synapses has been shown to ... PMID 18632854.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Formation of a virological synapse". Retrieved ... have been shown to instigate the formation of these junctions between the infected ("donor") and uninfected ("target") cell to ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 induces a stop signal and virological synapse formation in noninfected CD4+ ...
2003). "Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 110 (1): ... determined with subunit-specific antibodies". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (2): 1332-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)42262-9. PMID 8288598. ...
Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow ... October 2009). "The molecular basis of vascular lumen formation in the developing mouse aorta". Developmental Cell. 17 (4): 505 ... Tindle RW, Nichols RA, Chan L, Campana D, Catovsky D, Birnie GD (1985). "A novel monoclonal antibody BI-3C5 recognises ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ...
... probably secondary to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes.: 199-200 [self-published source] Concerning GBS, virtually ...
It is the cause of the bud release and the formation of the viral envelope. The N and E protein are accessory proteins that ... Studies have shown that S1 domain induced IgG and IgA antibody levels at a much higher capacity. It is the focus spike proteins ... Blood vessel dysfunction and clot formation (as suggested by high D-dimer levels caused by blood clots) may have a significant ... Detection of a past infection is possible with serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response to ...
It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise without prior pseudomembranes ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... In vitro and studies show that Candidal growth, adhesion and biofilm formation is enhanced by the presence of carbohydrates ... pandemic has been an important factor in the move away from the traditional classification since it has led to the formation of ...
The newly formed late viral mRNA is translated into late proteins, which are involved in the formation and structure of the ... even in the absence of antibodies. This is also seen in the studies in which warm frogs nearly devoid of tumors are cooled down ... Once these tumors begin to metastasize, however, it is possible for the formation of tumors to spread throughout the body of ...
"Formation of Modern Industrial Labor Force in Asia - Economic Development, Culture and Job Consciousness" Takashi Nakamura for ... and Molecular Basis of the Neutralization of Viral Infectivity with Antibodies" Yukihiko Kitamura for "Development and ... "Theoretical Investigation of the Formation of Black Holes and the Emission of Gravitational Waves" Hiroyuki Sakaki and Hideo ...
She also appeared in one of Cable's visions of the altered timestream in "Time Fugitives," in which, without the antibodies ... though they split because Amelia did not approve of the formation of the X-Men, preferring to live a quiet life with Charles ...
The formation of the ketone double bond is started by the deprotonation of that oxygen off the alpha carbon (C#2) by the same ... Capper D, Zentgraf H, Balss J, Hartmann C, von Deimling A (November 2009). "Monoclonal antibody specific for IDH1 R132H ... The formation of this ketone double bond allows for resonance to take place as electrons coming down from the leaving ... Similar to human R132H ICDH, Mtb ICDH-1 also catalyzes the formation of α-hydroxyglutarate. The IDH step of the citric acid ...
It also interacts functionally with amyloid formation and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. A ... "Role of the MyD88 transduction signaling pathway in endothelial activation by antiphospholipid antibodies". Blood. 101 (9): ... "Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in ...
... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association with ... and after its formation evolution markedly slowed down. There is a variant of A1←→B8 found in India. This variant carries the ... DR3 is found to correlate with anti-Ro/La antibodies in SLE. HLA-DR3 has been consistently observed at high frequencies in ... As a result, HLA-A1 and B8 produce some of the best serotyping antibodies. This aided in the proper identification of ...
"Gulf War illnesses: Questions About the Presence of Squalene Antibodies in Veterans Can Be Resolved" (PDF). U.S. Government ... "Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants perturb metabolism of neutral lipids and enhance lipid droplet formation". ... "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 13 (9 ...
Suetsugu S, Miki H, Takenawa T (1999). "The essential role of profilin in the assembly of actin for microspike formation". EMBO ... "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving antibody-binding epitopes". J. Immunol. ... "The essential role of profilin in the assembly of actin for microspike formation". EMBO J. 17 (22): 6516-26. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ...
... , sold under the brand name Mylotarg, is an antibody-drug conjugate (a drug-linked monoclonal antibody) ... which is involved in formation of various blood cells [found in 98% of patients]), disorder of the respiratory system, tumor ... Antibody-drug conjugates, Hepatotoxins, Monoclonal antibodies for tumors, Orphan drugs, Pfizer brands, Withdrawn drugs, Wyeth ... It was the first antibody-drug conjugate to be approved. Within the first year after approval, the FDA required a black box ...
Typically, the spleen destroys mildly abnormal red blood cells or those coated with IgG-type antibodies, while severely ... contributing to the formation of thrombosis. This can lead to esophageal spasm and dysphagia, abdominal pain, erectile ... or those with antibodies attached, and release unconjugated bilirubin into the blood plasma circulation. ... and Eclampsia Hemolytic disease of the newborn is an autoimmune disease resulting from the mother's antibodies crossing the ...
... "one cell-one antibody" rule, which states that each B lymphocyte, developed in bone marrow, secretes a specific antibody in ... his research revealed the control of blood cell formation Errol Solomon Meyers - prominent Brisbane doctor; one of the founding ...
This sort of dynamic memory is thought to be mediated by the formation of cell assemblies-groups of activated neurons that ... though at the same time blocking antibodies and some drugs, thereby presenting special challenges in treatment of diseases of ... Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma. Sleep involves great changes in brain activity. Until ... An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the ...
The measurement developed by Youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after ... Dulbecco, R.; Vogt, M. (1954-02-01). "Plaque formation and isolation of pure lines with poliomyelitis viruses". The Journal of ... could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. This pH could be easily ... "Use of Color Change of Phenol Red as the Indicator in Titrating Poliomyelitis Virus or Its Antibody in a Tissue-Culture System ...
Hyperglycemia-induced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is related to diabetic neuropathy. Other causes ... which tests for antibodies in the blood. The treatment of peripheral neuropathy varies based on the cause of the condition, and ... hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy Hyperglycemia-induced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs ...
Two mechanisms for the formation of cruciform DNA have been described: C-type and S-type. The formation of cruciform structures ... Steinmetzer K, Zannis-Hadjopoulos M, Price GB (November 1995). "Anti-cruciform monoclonal antibody and cruciform DNA ... This leads to the formation of a cruciform structure. C-type cruciform formation is temperature dependent because of higher ... C-type cruciform formation is marked by a large initial opening in the double-stranded DNA. This opening has several adenine ...
Chitosan was added to cryogels as it promotes spheroid formation in hepatocytes, an indicator of healthy growth. The ... "Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin ...
"Biofilm formation by Histophilus somni: The function of biofilm in bovine respiratory disease and colonization - VIRGINIA ... Microscopy can be used for identification when bacteria are stained with fluorescent antibody stain. Histophilus species can be ... Evidence suggests that biofilm formation allows H. somni to remain protected and persist within the host. Another way that H. ... Damage to these areas are caused by thrombus formation and thromboemboli in a septucemic animal followed by subsequent ...
Various target antibodies may be used in the IHC assessment of the ER. Typically, the antibody used for this experiment is the ... These ill effects highly increase the chances of malignant cell formation, and in turn, increases the chance of tumor formation ... Anti-estrogen receptor antibodies were among the first of biomarkers which introduced a semi-quantitative assessment of the ER ... These antibodies are commercially available from 3 commonly used autostain vendors- Dako, Leica, and Ventana, and in a study by ...
... studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, ... Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal ... we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing ... Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, ...
Antibody production / edited by L. E. Glynn and M. W. Steward. by Glynn, Leonard Eleazar , Steward, Michael W. ... Antibodies : protective, destructive and regulatory role / editors, F. Milgrom, C. J. Abeyounis and B. Albini. by International ... Cell/antibody interactions in vitro against microfilariae of Onchocerca gibsoni / by Syamsul Bahri Siregar. by Siregar, Syamsul ... Investigation and exploitation of antibody combining sites / edited by Eric Reid, G. M. W. Cook and D. J. Morré. by ...
Requirement of thymus-dependent lymphocytes for potentiation by adjuvants of antibody formation.. scientific article published ... Requirement of thymus-dependent lymphocytes for potentiation by adjuvants of antibody formation. (English) ...
EFFECT ON ROSETTE FORMATION OF ANTIBODIES TO DUFFY BINDING-LIKE 1 ALPHA DOMAIN OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE ... EFFECT ON ROSETTE FORMATION OF ANTIBODIES TO DUFFY BINDING-LIKE 1 ALPHA DOMAIN OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE ... The role of albumin and the extracellular matrix on the pathophysiology of oedema formation in severe malnutrition ... Neutralizing antibodies against enteroviruses in patients with hand, foot and mouth disease ...
Antibody formation chickens (7 days) sc Viremia up to 13 days(11) 6.6 ...
Repeated, high-dose injections are far more likely to result in antibody formation than are less frequently repeated, low-dose ... Antibodies against the toxin are presumed to be responsible for most cases of resistance. Resistance has been reported to occur ... Several types of assays are available to detect the presence of antibody in serum. The most widely used is the in vivo mouse ... should not be given any sooner than 3 months after the last injections to decrease the possibility of antibody formation. ...
Stienlauf S, Shoresh M, Solomon A, Lublin-Tennenbaum T, Atsmon Y, Meirovich Y, Kinetics of formation of neutralizing antibodies ... Antibody Formation. All of the blood samples taken from the infected prairie dogs (Table 1) were examined by CF test for ... Blood (serum) samples from the 2 survivors, MPX-5 and MPX-8, both had a CF antibody titer of 1:64 on day 25 after infection, ... Using 50% plaque inhibition as an endpoint, both animals had a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:320 against monkeypox virus. ...
Homologous Antibody Formation by Source Animal. Test(s) Used. Footnotes. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of ...
Homologous Antibody Formation by Source Animal. Test(s) Used. Footnotes. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of ... Distinct from virusespreviously isolated; antibody detected in cattle in area; evidence of multiplication in arthropods ...
Homologous Antibody Formation by Source Animal. Test(s) Used. Footnotes. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of ...
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal APG5L/ATG5 antibody [EPR1755(2)]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in ... Involved in autophagic vesicle formation. Conjugation with ATG12, through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving ATG7 as ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Anti-APG5L/ATG5 antibody [EPR1755(2)]. See all APG5L/ATG5 primary antibodies. ...
Neutrophil extracellular trap formation in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated Neutrophil extracellular trap ... Patients with GPA (p = 0.0045) and MPA (p = 0.005) had anti-NET IgG antibodies. Patients with TAK had anti-histone antibodies ( ... Levels of TSP-1 were increased in all patients with vasculitis, and associated with NET formation. NET formation is a common ... formation in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated and large-vessel vasculitis. Michailidou, Despina; Kuley, Runa; ...
Antibody IDi Antibodies used for immunohistochemistry (results presented in Tissue, Pathology and Brain Atlas) and ... Antibody IDi Antibodies used for immunohistochemistry (results presented in Tissue, Pathology and Brain Atlas) and ... The protein expression data from 44 normal tissue types are derived from antibody-based profiling using immunohistchemistry. ... The protein expression data from 44 normal tissue types are derived from antibody-based profiling using immunohistchemistry. ...
These antibodies break the bonds between skin cells. This leads to the formation of a blister. The exact cause is unknown. ... Plasmapheresis may be used along with systemic medicines to reduce the amount of antibodies in the blood. Plasmapheresis is a ... The immune system produces antibodies against specific proteins in the skin and mucous membranes. ... process in which antibody-containing plasma is removed from the blood and replaced with intravenous fluids or donated plasma. ...
... formation of antigen-antibody complexes. Optimal record keeping, maintaining patient histories, and adhering to recommended ... Monoclonal antibody. An antibody product prepared from a single lymphocyte clone, which contains only antibody against a single ... Indeterminate antibody concentration might indicate immunologic memory but antibody waning; serology can be repeated after a ... a protective antibody response (Table 3). The vaccine or toxoid and antibody preparation should be administered at different ...
Bispecific antibodies - a large family of molecules that are designed to recognize two different epitopes or antigens - come in ... This article reviews the current bispecific antibody landscape from a mechanistic perspective, including a comprehensive ... activities that do not exist in mixtures of the parental or reference antibodies. In these so-called obligate bsAbs, the ... The term bispecific antibody (bsAb) is used to describe a large family of molecules designed to recognize two different ...
Identification of monoclonal antibody variants involved in aggregate formation - Part 2: Hydrophobicity variants ... Identification of monoclonal antibody variants involved in aggregate formation - Part 2: Hydrophobicity variants. European ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are valuable tools both in therapy and in diagnostic. Their tendency to aggregate is a serious ...
Antibody Formation. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Antibodies, Neutralizing. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Antibodies, Viral. en_US. ...
Viral Preps and Antibodies *What is virus associated DNA, and why do I have to order it? ... Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. Wang HR, Zhang Y, Ozdamar B, Ogunjimi ...
Early Studies of Antibody Repertoire Ontogeny. III. Genetics of Antibody Repertoire Formation. IV. Dynamics of the Emerging ... Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Stimulated T Cells. IV. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against Maternal Antibodies. V. Summary. ... V. Antitetanus Toxoid Antibodies. VI. Leukemia and Lymphoma. VII. Conclusions. References. 23. Human Antiidiotypic Antibodies. ... V. Interaction of Anti-Id Antibodies and T Cells. VI. Induction of Specific T Cells by Anti-Id Antibodies. VII. Detection of ...
View Rabbit Polyclonal anti-Aurora A Antibody - BSA Free (NBP1-51843). Validated Applications: WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF, IHC ... Without Aurka, axon and neuron formation are negatively impacted. When these critical cellular processes are disrupted, there ... Diseases for Aurora A Antibody (NBP1-51843). Discover more about diseases related to Aurora A Antibody (NBP1-51843). ... PTMs for Aurora A Antibody (NBP1-51843). Learn more about PTMs related to Aurora A Antibody (NBP1-51843). ...
Purified anti-Nestin Antibody - Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein originally found in neuronal stem cells, and ... Required for survival and renewal of neural progenitor cells; plays roles in angiogenesis and tumor formation Interaction ... Antibody Type Monoclonal Host Species Mouse Immunogen Fusion protein Formulation This antibody is provided in phosphate- ... The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography. Concentration 0.5 mg/ml Storage & Handling The antibody solution should ...
Platforms for creating higher-order antibodies are streamlining development, reducing risks for patients, and optimizing tumor ... Xencors XmAb Fc platform increases this efficiency of heterodimer Fc formation to 95% out of the gate. ... Bispecific, Multispecific Antibodies Grapple with Cancer. Platforms for novel antibody constructs take hold in cancer ... Here, newly engineered bispecific and multispecific antibodies will be put to the test. Such antibodies may engage two or more ...
MP-8 Lack of Antibody Formation Against Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus in Ducks and Chickens After Intranasally Immunization ... The aim of our research was to determined antibody response of ducks and chickens against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype ... Therefore prior to developing inactivated intranasal vaccine, it is necessary to study antibody response to inactivated AI ...
In "The Clonal Nature of Antibody Formation: II. Characteristics of Antibody Cell Clones Specific for Poly-O-Acetyl-d-Serine ... The Clonal Nature of Antibody Formation: II. Characteristics of Antibody Cell Clones Specific for Poly-O-Acetyl-D-Serine and ... The Clonal Nature of Antibody Formation: II. Characteristics of Antibody Cell Clones Specific for Poly-O-Acetyl-D-Serine and ...
Categories: Antibody Formation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
The interaction of bacteria with antibodies and the complement system results in the formation of various chemotactic agents. ... Primary granule formation is limited to the promyelocyte stage. With each subsequent cell division, the number of primary ... This process is more efficient if the organism is opsonized by antibodies or complement factors. The contents of the neutrophil ... Fusion of azurophil and specific granules with the phagosome follows (phagolysosome formation). ...
Mean fluorescence intensities for quantification of cluster formation.. Download elife- ... Antibody. 27-11-13S. PMID: 6935293. N/A. Antibody. 12CA5 (Hemagglutinin; HA). PMID: 6192445. N/A. Produced and purified in ... D) Surface Kb-GFP can be directly captured by the anti-Kb antibody Y3 or by the anti-HA antibody against the N-terminally ... Control experiments demonstrate that Kb-GFP is only captured by the anti-Kb antibody Y3 and not by an antibody specific for Db ...
... is the most common method for preparing affinity chromatography to purify antibody because of its simplicity and mild pH ... Stem Cell Embryoid Body Formation. This video shows a novel method of forming human embryoid bodies in a polystyrene dish ... After washing, unbound antibodies are removed. The more analytes in the sample, the less antibodies will be able to bind to ... Antibody Conjugation - Biotinylation. Antibodies labeled with biotin provide the user with a tool for increasing the ...
Anti-Podoplanin antibody, Mouse monoclonal is suitable for flow cytometry, western blot, immunoprecipitation, ... It is involved in lymphatic vessel formation and might be associated with tissue development and repair. Podoplanin is detected ... Applications in which this antibody has been used successfully, and the associated peer-reviewed papers, are given below.. ...
  • Our RabMAb ® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are valuable tools both in therapy and in diagnostic. (
  • The conjugation of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is used in immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies. (
  • Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as atezolizumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (
  • Cetuximab is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Now, with a further nine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies approved for use and some 16 in phase III trials or beyond, are we still grappling with the same old issues or are magic bullets finally hitting the mark? (
  • When Kohler and Milstein demonstrated that antibodies could be cloned from mice immunised with the antigen of interest, expectations for the potential of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics soared (Figure 2). (
  • The 1980s saw a proliferation of companies founded to exploit monoclonal antibodies and in 1986, OKT3 became the first monoclonal antibody to receive marketing approval for the treatment of acute transplant rejection. (
  • Some unique considerations in IBD management are: 1) symptoms do not always correlate with bowel inflammation, 2) anxiety and depression are increased in patients with IBD, 3) surgery is effective, but disease can recur after these interventions, and 4) enteric protein loss can affect the clearance of monoclonal antibodies when they are used for treatment. (
  • Motoiu I, Dumitrescu A, Ursea C, Gociu M, Berceanu S. [Blast study in acute leukemia using monoclonal antibodies]. (
  • Non-specific protein-protein interactions are also of interest in the formulation of biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies and other biologic drugs. (
  • Currently, bone metastases from solid tumors (BMSTs) represent a significant clinical problem, triggering the search and development of new treatments, including monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Cells were transduced with K b -GFP or HA-K b -GFP and tested for specificity on Y3 or anti-HA antibody micropatterns. (
  • Specific, reproducible, and reliable - A recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody produced using RabMAb ® technology ensures reliability, reproducibility, and specificity of the supply. (
  • These two key properties of antibodies: their exquisite binding specificity and high affinity for the target antigen, have rendered them supremely attractive as therapeutics (Figure 1). (
  • Modification in the structure of the native Protein A, such as single domain multimer and multiple binding sites, results in its high specificity towards the Fc region of antibodies, high binding capacity, and good physicochemical stability. (
  • Due to its specificity, the resin is preferred as a standard technique to capture antibodies in purification processes. (
  • The titers of the control, unvaccinated persons, averaged 14, raising questions about the importance and specificity of the residual antibody in vaccinated persons. (
  • Furthermore, we assessed the specificity of these antibodies to detect mouse BRCA1 protein through the use of testis tissue and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Brca1 +/+ and Brca1 Δ11/Δ11 mice. (
  • We share these results here with the goal of helping the community combat the common challenges associated with anti-BRCA1 antibody specificity and reproducibility and, hopefully, better understanding BRCA1 functions at cellular and tissue levels. (
  • Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (
  • When ACTH was administered during the period of immunization, in a daily dose just sufficient to prevent body weight increase relative to the non-treated, immunized controls, serum antibody levels against the specific antigen employed were significantly depressed. (
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen . (
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (
  • To allow the immune system to recognize millions of different antigens, the antigen-binding sites at both tips of the antibody come in an equally wide variety. (
  • The class hence determines the function triggered by an antibody after binding to an antigen, in addition to some structural features. (
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells , which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells , which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (
  • Structurally an antibody is also partitioned into two antigen-binding fragments (Fab), containing one V L , V H , C L , and C H 1 domain each, as well as the crystallisable fragment (Fc), forming the trunk of the Y shape. (
  • Upon specific antibody-antigen interaction, K b -GFP is captured on its extracellular epitope by the Y3 antibody pattern elements (see enlargement). (
  • Prednisone also inhibits antigen presentation, T lymphocyte activity, and (at higher doses) antibody production. (
  • e) Specific immune globulin: Special preparations obtained from blood plasma from donor pools preselected for a high antibody content against a specific antigen (e.g., hepatitis B immune globulin, varicella-zoster immune globulin, rabies immune globulin, tetanus immune globulin, vaccinia immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus immune globulin). (
  • Antibodies stick around in the body after they're created in case the particular antigen they were designed to hunt shows back up. (
  • The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). (
  • The immune system produces antibodies against specific proteins in the skin and mucous membranes. (
  • Ha, J. H., Kim, J. E. & Kim, Y. S. Immunoglobulin Fc heterodimer platform technology: from design to applications in therapeutic antibodies and proteins. (
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 k Da ) proteins of about 10 nm in size, [7] arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (
  • In an electrophoresis test of blood proteins , antibodies mostly migrate to the last, gamma globulin fraction. (
  • The formation of intracellular amyloid-like inclusions by mutant proteins is a feature of two groups of codon reiteration diseases, for which there are currently no treatments. (
  • In mammalian cell based models of both polyglutamine and polyalanine diseases, the mutant proteins are much more prone to aggregate formation than their wild-type counterparts and cause significantly more cell death. (
  • Proteins were visualized using chemiluminescence detection by incubation with HRP Goat anti-Mouse secondary antibody (Cat. (
  • Its high selectivity towards antibodies facilitates the effective clearance of host cell proteins, DNA, and viruses. (
  • In the Moodboard several scenes used for the development of the medical animation videos can be observed, among them the parasite in the form of promastigote, the production of a large number of antibodies against Leishmania that together with the parasitic proteins from circulating immunocomplexes that are deposited in tissues and organs, and the production of anti-protein Q antibodies. (
  • Vaccination with LetiFend produces anti-protein Q antibodies and stimulates the formation of memory cells.If the dog comes into contact with the parasite after vaccination, complement proteins are activated and attack the parasite more effectively. (
  • Through parasite lysis, its proteins remain exposed and are captured by the anti-protein Q antibodies which eliminate them. (
  • With fewer parasitic proteins, the formation of immune complexes is much lower. (
  • It has been established that blisters and blisters on the body appear during the formation of antibodies that attack normal proteins in a woman's body during pregnancy. (
  • Conditioned cell culture medium spiked with Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor X (Catalog # 1063-SE ), see our available Western blot detection antibodies . (
  • This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to elicit an antibody response and infertility in mice. (
  • Oral immunization of female BALB/c mice with the recombinant Salmonella vaccine strain expressing mZP3 induced significant levels of anti-native ZP IgG antibodies in serum and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. (
  • LM10 antibody has no cross-reactivity to highly substituted xylan such as wheat arabinoxylan where the xylan backbone is substituted with sidechains of arabinofuranosyl residues. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Matrilin 2 (MATN2) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • This video shows the procedure of sandwich ELISA assay for anti-PEG antibody pair. (
  • Find Otopetrin 1 Antibodies validated for a specific application such as WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC (p). (
  • We detected antibodies against NF155, NF186, CNTN1, CNTN2, CASPR1 and PLA2R in blood samples of a patient with clinically manifested MN and concomitant peripheral neuropathy via double immunofluorescence staining and conducted a quantitative measurement of anti-PLA2R IgG antibodies via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • The Proteintech guarantee covers Proteintech antibodies in any species and any application, including those not listed on the datasheet. (
  • Because antibodies raised against ZP3 block sperm-egg interaction, ZP3 has been considered a candidate immunogen in the development of a contraceptive vaccine. (
  • Find Otopetrin 1 Antibodies with a specific conjugate such as Biotin, FITC, HRP. (
  • Sacituzumab govitecan (Immunomedics) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of an anti-troponin (Trop)-2 antibody conjugated to SN-38. (
  • Following the binding to Trop-2, the antibody-drug conjugate is internalized into the cell where it releases SN-38, thus delivering a concentrated dose of SN-38 to the tumor. (
  • The aim of our research was to determined antibody response of ducks and chickens against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 after intranasally immunization. (
  • f) Antitoxin: A solution of antibodies (e.g., diphtheria antitoxin and botulinum antitoxin) derived from the serum of animals immunized with specific antigens. (
  • Serum sickness could result from the formation of antibody complexes and local injection site reactions were common. (
  • However, the neutralizing activity in unvaccinated control serum may not be mainly IgG antibody since neutralizing activity was reduced by an average of 48%, favoring nonspecific inhibitors. (
  • Nisonoff, A., Wissler, F. C. & Lipman, L. N. Properties of the major component of a peptic digest of rabbit antibody. (
  • The influence of various dietary zinc levels on the fibrotic aspects of granuloma formation and on the humoral response to schistosome egg antigens was investigated in CB57B1/6 mice by feeding groups of animals zinc-deficient diets. (
  • The animals were maintained on their respective diets for eight weeks postinfection, then all animals were killed and analyzed for body weight, spleen weight, collagen content of the liver, in vivo granulomatous histopathology, and antibody responses to soluble egg antigens. (
  • The term bispecific antibody (bsAb) is used to describe a large family of molecules designed to recognize two different epitopes or antigens. (
  • Such antibodies may engage two or more antigens at once, serving as force multipliers that can exploit opportunities beyond the reach of monospecific antibodies, whether they are deployed solo or in teams. (
  • Antibodies are a natural part of the human immune system, capable of selectively binding with high affinity to antigens, mediating rapid neutralisation and clearance from the circulation. (
  • When everything is working normally, antibodies arrive on the scene shortly after antigens -- bacteria, viruses or other unwanted invaders -- are detected in the body. (
  • Antibodies hunt them down and bind themselves to the antigens. (
  • Exposure to these antigens will stimulate an immune response in the chicken and formation of antibodies which will protect the bird if it is exposed to a field strain of the disease virus. (
  • The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS . (
  • Exposures to airborne protein antigens, aeroallergens, may cause sensitization with production of Th2-depend- ent antibodies, including IgE. (
  • Brinkmann, U. & Kontermann, R. E. The making of bispecific antibodies. (
  • Although CAR T-cell therapies clearly have fight in them, they may cede some anticancer glory to bispecific antibodies (bsAbs). (
  • Western Blot: Aurora A Antibody [NBP1-51843] - WB detection of Aurora A in HeLa whole cell lysate. (
  • This AURKA antibody is useful for Immunohistochemistry and Western blot, where a band is seen ~45 kDa. (
  • Untreated HUVEC cells, HUVEC cells (treated with 0.5 µg/ml LPS for 24 hours, then add 300 ng/ml protein transport inhibitor last 20 hours) were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 21865-1-AP (IL-6 antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (
  • In search of reliable and specific BRCA1 antibodies (Abs), particularly antibodies recognizing mouse BRCA1, we performed a rigorous validation of a number of commercially available anti-BRCA1 antibodies, using proper controls in a panel of validation applications, including Western blot (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and immunofluorescence (IF). (
  • It allows stringent purity levels during the purification of therapeutic antibodies. (
  • Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. (
  • In contrast, none of the mice that received Salmonella containing the vector plasmid produced antibodies to ZP and all were fertile. (
  • Antibodies in mice and humans are encoded by a range of genes specific for heavy and light variable regions, constant regions and junction regions which join the variable and constant domains. (
  • TDI-speific antibody generation is altered in tumor necrosis factor R1/R2 double knockout mice following exposure to the chemical. (
  • Similar results were obtained in normal mice receiving TNF neutralizing antibody prior to TDI exposure. (
  • Thus, the levels of residual antibody in vaccinated persons are either not protective or only partially protective in mice. (
  • A new monoclonal antibody has been discovered which disassociates bacterial biofilms and stops bacteria from entering into circulation has been tested in mice. (
  • The researchers then tested the antibody in mice infected with catheter-associated S. Typhimurium biofilm. (
  • These data demonstrate preserved antiviral antibody responses, with only moderately reduced kinetics with some drugs, most notably gemcitabine. (
  • Active immunization is the production of antibody or other immune responses through the administration of a vaccine or toxoid. (
  • Western blots using CYP3A4 antibody demonstrated a dose responsive increase from 0.5 to 1 µM followed by decreasing responses at higher concentrations. (
  • The IgE antibodies and associated cellular responses are responsible for the allergic airway diseases, allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, which are increasing in societies with Western life style. (
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography. (
  • Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) is the most common method for preparing affinity chromatography to purify antibody because of its simplicity and mild pH conditions. (
  • The Protein A affinity chromatography technique is extensively used in labs to capture and purify immunoglobulins, such as IgG and monoclonal antibody products. (
  • Total lysates (15 µg protein) from HeLa (Low expression negative control) and PC-3 (Positive control) were resolved by electrophoresis (4-20% Tris-glycine gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with 1:500 (1 µg/ml) purified anti-Nestin antibody, clone 10C2. (
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (4% PFA) fixed mouse eye tissue using Lamin B1 antibody (66095-1-Ig, Clone: 3C10G12 ) at dilution of 1:400 and CoraLite®488-Conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG(H+L). (
  • Cell/antibody interactions in vitro against microfilariae of Onchocerca gibsoni / by Syamsul Bahri Siregar. (
  • Conclusions Our results support that neutrophil attack towards antibody-opsonized cancer cells by trogocytosis induces an active repair process by the exocyst complex in vitro. (
  • To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (
  • Oncolytic reovirus therapy for cancer induces a typical antiviral response to this RNA virus, including neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Reovirus neutralizing antibody data were aggregated from separate phase I clinical trials of reovirus administered as a single agent or in combination with gemcitabine, docetaxel, carboplatin and paclitaxel doublet or cyclophosphamide. (
  • All patients ultimately produced an effective neutralizing antibody response. (
  • The evidence that cell-mediated immunity and neutralizing antibody persist after one vaccination is conflicting ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • Consistent with the reported protection by the higher levels of antibody, vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), which contains 500 neutralizing U/mL, is effective under some conditions ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Initially, all antibodies are of the first form, attached to the surface of a B cell - these are then referred to as B-cell receptors (BCR). (
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, [1] though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (
  • This previously unknown cytotoxic process of neutrophils is dependent on antibody opsonization, Fcγ receptors and CD11b/CD18 integrins. (
  • The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. (
  • Even while monospecific antibody-based checkpoint inhibition therapies and CAR T-cell therapies continue to be improved, bispecific and multispecific antibodies are shaping up as a cancer immunotherapy options that may provide significant advantages. (
  • At present, companies such as Amunix Operating, Invenra, Glycotope, and Xencor are working independently and in collaboration with larger pharmaceutical companies, such as Novartis, Daiichi Sankyo, and Roche, to bring bispecific and higher-order antibodies into the cancer immunotherapy market. (
  • He was diagnosed with anti-CNTN1 antibody-associated AN and recovered well after immunotherapy. (
  • The early detection and isotyping of anti-CNTN1 and anti-PLA2R antibodies and the monitoring of isotype switching may be essential for suspected CIDP patients. (
  • [4] Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids , as well as many secretions . (
  • It is involved in lymphatic vessel formation and might be associated with tissue development and repair. (
  • The study showed that this antibody has a beneficial effect by means of a double mechanism: on the one hand, it reduces the deposition of fibrous tissue which limits the heart's pump function, and on the other, it promotes the survival of heart muscle cells. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human pancreas cancer tissue slide using 66095-1-Ig (Lamin B1 antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 (under 10x lens. (
  • The major reasons for this poor spontaneous repair capacity seem to be the insufficient growth response of neurons to injury, the growth-inhibitory components of the adult CNS tissue, and the formation of cysts and scar tissue at the injury site. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Matrilin 2 (MATN2) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Find Otopetrin 1 Antibodies for a variety of species such as anti-Mouse Otopetrin 1, anti-Human Otopetrin 1, anti-Rat Otopetrin 1. (
  • [10] In between them is a hinge region of the heavy chains, whose flexibility allows antibodies to bind to pairs of epitopes at various distances, to form complexes ( dimers , trimers, etc.), and to bind effector molecules more easily. (
  • Specific interactions - those that lead to formation of well-defined complexes consisting of exact molecular stoichiometries (e.g., protein-ligand complexes). (
  • while they may lead to the formation of complexes or loosely-bound aggregates, these typically do not exhibit a well-defined stoichiometry or oligomeric state. (
  • Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that depletes the number of mature B -cells. (
  • Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (
  • We have found that inhibition of myosin II, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, has remarkably opposite effects on myelin formation by Schwann cells (SC) and oligodendrocytes (OL). (
  • Myosin II is necessary for initial interactions between SC and axons, and its inhibition or down-regulation impairs their ability to segregate axons and elongate along them, preventing the formation of a 1:1 relationship, which is critical for peripheral nervous system myelination. (
  • In contrast, OL branching, differentiation, and myelin formation are potentiated by inhibition of myosin II. (
  • SN-38 prevents DNA from unwinding by inhibition of topoisomerase I. SN-38 is moderately toxic, allowing it to be conjugated at a drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of 7.6:1, which is approximately twice the DAR of other antibody-drug conjugates. (
  • C ) Schematic displaying the different antibody epitopes on the K b molecule. (
  • We also analyzed anthers from wild-type Arabidopsis and three mutants defective in PE formation by immunofluorescence, carefully tracing several carbohydrate epitopes in PE and nearby anther tissues during the tetrad and the early free-microspore stages. (
  • Abcam is a global life sciences company providing highly validated antibodies and other binders and assays to the research and clinical communities to help advance the understanding of biology and causes of disease. (
  • Antibodies against P. acnes were characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in patients with acne vulgaris [ 3 ] and in patients with prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia [ 4 ]. (
  • Join us as we discuss our solutions and products available for antibody discovery, functionality analysis and functional assays. (
  • Section 2 addresses the role and activity of idiotypic and antiidiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune system. (
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize it directly (for example, by blocking a part of a virus that is essential for its invasion). (
  • The constant region at the trunk of the antibody includes sites involved in interactions with other components of the immune system. (
  • Together with B and T cells , antibodies comprise the most important part of the adaptive immune system . (
  • Both exercise and happiness lead to increased production of antibodies , which are a special type of protein produced by the immune system. (
  • Antibodies also help produce other cells that aid and assist in the immune system. (
  • Also, it can damage the immune system by changing blood levels of antibodies and causing the loss of white blood cells. (
  • Rosette Formation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Aurora A Antibody [NBP1-51843] - HeLa cells were fixed and permeabilized for 10 minutes using -20C MeOH. (
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Aurora A Antibody [NBP1-51843] - IF Confocal analysis of HeLa cells using Aurora A antibody (NBP1-51843, 1:10). (
  • Immunobiologic: Immunobiologics include antigenic substances, such as vaccines and toxoids, or antibody-containing preparations, such as globulins and antitoxins, from human or animal donors. (
  • c) Immune globulin (IG): A sterile solution containing antibodies from human blood. (
  • Antibody capable of binding specifically to the human c-Met receptor and/or capable of specifically inhibiting the tyrosine kinase activity of said receptor, with an improved antagonistic activity, said antibody comprising a modified hinge region. (
  • The present invention relates to a novel divalent antibody capable of binding specifically to the human c-Met receptor and/or capable of specifically inhibiting the tyrosine kinase activity of said receptor, as well as the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences coding for said antibody. (
  • Immunohistochemistry (formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) of human DLB brain stained with anti-alpha synuclein filament antibody [MJFR14-6-4-2] (ab209538). (
  • Numerous techniques have been employed to reduce/eliminate the immunogenicity of murine antibodies and, in the main, these approaches have sought to maximise the amount of human sequence. (
  • Initially, the similarities in sequence and structure between murine and human antibodies were exploited to generate chimaeric (Figure 3b) and later, humanised antibodies (Figure 3c). (
  • Humanisation involves the transfer of the CDRs (complementarity determining regions) which are primarily responsible for the unique characteristics of an antibody, into a human framework. (
  • In an attempt to maximise the 'human' content of the antibody still further, a number of techniques were developed to generate 'fully-human' antibodies (Figure 3d). (
  • However, while each of these approaches may claim to produce antibodies of '100% human sequence', each antibody will have a unique sequence that determines its unique binding characteristics such that that exact sequence may not even be present in any human. (
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Kallikrein 3/PSA Antibody (KLK3/801) [NBP2-44886] - Human Prostate Carcinoma stained with PSA Monoclonal Antibody (KLK3/801). (
  • Using specific polyclonal antibodies, we firstly demonstrated that human PINK1 was cleaved and localized to mitochondria. (
  • In experiments with infectious Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , which forms biofilms in the human intestinal tract and on medical devices, Tukel's team found that amyloid binding by 3H3 disrupted biofilm formation, causing the separation of bacterial cells within the film. (
  • Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody (IgG2) whose mechanism of action inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival, causing a decrease in bone resorption. (
  • Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rosette Formation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rosette Formation" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rosette Formation" by people in Profiles. (
  • Because these fluids were traditionally known as humors , antibody-mediated immunity is sometimes known as, or considered a part of, humoral immunity . (
  • Passive immunization means the provision of temporary immunity by the administration of preformed antibodies. (
  • Next generation vector vaccines for poultry can be administered in the hatchery and are minimally interfered with by maternal antibodies, are safer to use than live attenuated whole virus vaccines and offer the potential for lifetime immunity for the bird. (
  • Molecular imprinting technology (MIT) has emerged as an important biomimetic molecular recognition methodology that allows for the rational development of antibody and enzyme alternatives for many applications. (
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (-20°C Ethanol) fixed HepG2 cells using 66095-1-Ig (Lamin B1 antibody) at dilution of 1:500 and CoraLite488-Conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG(H+L). (
  • Formation of pollen wall exine is preceded by the development of several transient layers of extracellular materials deposited on the surface of developing pollen grains. (
  • This antibody is provided in phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide. (
  • 200ug/ml of antibody purified from Bioreactor Concentrate by Protein A or G. Prepared in 10 mM PBS with 0.05% BSA & 0.05% azide. (
  • Antibody with azide - store at 2 to 8C. (
  • Antibody without azide - store at -20 to -80C. (
  • Fundamentally, their engineered expression platforms focus on streamlining novel antibody development, reducing the risk factors to patients, and optimizing tumor destruction. (
  • Can Thiopurines Prevent Formation of Antibodies Against Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists After Failure of These Therapies? (
  • Background Neutrophils kill antibody-opsonized tumor cells using trogocytosis, a unique mechanism of destruction of the target plasma. (
  • Results We found that tumor cells can evade neutrophil antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by Ca 2+ -dependent cell membrane repair, a process induced upon neutrophil trogocytosis. (
  • Our findings provide insight to the possible contribution of neutrophils in current antibody therapies and the tolerance mechanism of tumor cells and support further studies for potential use of the exocyst components as clinical biomarkers. (
  • The invention finally comprises products and/or compositions comprising such an antibody in combination with other antibodies and/or chemical compounds directed against other growth factors involved in tumor progression or metastasis and/or compounds and/or anti-cancer agents or agents conjugated with toxins and their use for the prevention and/or the treatment of certain cancers. (
  • It works by stopping the formation of blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to tumor. (
  • This provides an antibody-mediated blockade of Fas-Fas ligand interactions involved in the epidermal necrosis of toxic epidermal necrolysis-like cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (
  • An attractive bsAb feature is their potential for novel functionalities - that is, activities that do not exist in mixtures of the parental or reference antibodies. (
  • Antibodies were typically of murine origin and when these antibodies were administered to patients, they rapidly elicited an immune response, often causing adverse reactions, ranging from mild allergies to extreme and often fatal anaphylactic shock. (
  • The results of this study suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF participates in the murine, immune response to TDI including TDI-specific antibody production and class switching. (
  • The LM10, rat, monoclonal antibody was generated using a neoglycoprotein (xylopentaose-BSA) and is a high affinity antibody to the non-reducing end of (1,4)-β-D-xylosyl residues that constitute the backbone of xylans. (
  • It's used for the one-step purification of monoclonal antibody products (mAb) and immunoglobulins from a cell culture media. (
  • The modified features have also resulted in the formation of a highly stable and robust Protein A affinity resin, which is extensively used in biotechnology and immunology research studies for downstream processing and purification processes. (
  • Addgene: Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. (
  • 1 Nevertheless, strategies that target protein misfolding frequently reduce aggregate formation and cell death in parallel. (
  • 10, 11 In such models, aggregate formation and cell death can be reduced by overexpressing yeast and bacteria derived chaperones that do not appear to protect against some other cell death pathways. (
  • 11 We have previously shown that HDJ1, an HSP40 family member, reduced aggregate formation and cell death in cell models of HD and OPMD. (
  • Characteristics of Antibody Cell Clones Specific for Poly-O-Acetyl- d -Serine and Poly- d -Alanine" by M. Bosma and G. Davis in the September 1972 issue of the Journal of Immunology, Volume 109, Number 3, page 489, the precipitin arcs in Figure 1 did not show clearly. (
  • Specific capture of cell surface K b on antibody micropatterns. (
  • Advance your antibody research with these optimized solutions for B cell isolation, sequencing, and functional testing . (
  • In this study, we investigated whether the 11 Tudor domains fulfil specific functions for polar granule assembly,germ cell formation and abdomen formation. (
  • In stark contrast, we find a requirement for specific Tudor domains in germ cell formation, Tudor localization and polar granule architecture. (
  • BRCA1 functions in multiple important cellular processes including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint activation, protein ubiquitination, chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, as well as R-loop formation and apoptosis. (
  • Trop-1 and Trop-2 are located at contact sites between adjacent cells, where they bind to each other and take part in the formation of specialized cell-cell adhesion structures. (
  • These antibodies break the bonds between skin cells. (
  • Staerz, U. D., Kanagawa, O. & Bevan, M. J. Hybrid antibodies can target sites for attack by T cells. (
  • Then the cells were intracellularly stained with 2 µg/mL anti-Nestin Antibody (10C2) and followed by DyLight™ 594 goat anti-mouse IgG (red) for 1 hour at room temperature. (
  • A ) Cells expressing HA-K b -GFP were captured on Y3 or anti-HA antibody micropatterns and incubated at 25 or 37°C to allow for the dissociation of β 2 m. (
  • B ) Cells were incubated on anti-HA or Y3 antibody micropatterns at different temperatures. (
  • WB result of Lamin B1 antibody (66095-1-Ig, 1:300,000) with si-Control and si-Lamin B1 transfected HepG2 cells. (
  • Directly after injury, half of the animals were implanted with mAb IN-1-secreting hybridoma cells, whereas the others received cells secreting a control antibody (anti-HRP). (
  • Trisomy 8+ cells showed a significant positive correlation with apoptotic CD34+ cells and capacity for colony formation. (
  • Following up on this data we propose a refined risk prediction tool based on: a) whole exome sequencing in 350 transplant pairs from our prospective transplant biobank to cover individual level genetic variation that can not be identified using genotyping and b) a refined bioinformatics pipeline to identify immunogenic variants by integrating antibody accessibility (protein structure) and indirect allorecognition by recipient T-cells (MHC-restriction). (
  • By increasing numbers of 'hunters' (antibodies) and 'killers' (T-cells), it's no wonder a workout keeps you healthier. (
  • Specific antibodies called ANCAs cause inflammation by attaching to immune cells called neutrophils. (
  • In GPA, inflammation causes the formation of granulomas, small clusters of immune cells. (
  • The Y3 epitope reacts specifically with residues of the α 2 helix of K b -GFP whereas the anti-HA antibody recognizes the additional HA-tag that was N-terminally fused to K b -GFP. (
  • Find Otopetrin 1 Antibodies with a specific epitope. (
  • Benefits and risks are associated with using all immunobiologics (i.e., an antigenic substance or antibody-containing preparation). (
  • Antibody micropatterns determine stability of the captured K b population. (
  • Therefore, it doesn't break or get damaged even during harsh elution conditions, such as while removing bound antibodies. (
  • It has been 16 years since the first monoclonal antibody was approved for therapy in acute transplant rejection. (