Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)MissouriFlavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Hemoglobin M: A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Famous PersonsBird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster: Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.ArgentinaDengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.FloridaForensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Columbian ground squirrel
Highlands J virus
During the 1990-1991 St. Louis encephalitis outbreak in Missouri, 4 patients were found to be comorbidly infected with SLE and ... A limited survey of swamp-dwelling rodents in Florida found one cotton mouse and one cotton rat with antibodies to HJ, both ... A 1995 study conducted in Florida swampland found that 15% of swamp-dwelling jays tested positive for HJ antibodies, all of ... Though nearly identical in structure and natural cycle to the Eastern equine encephalitis virus, it is considerably less ...
California encephalitis virus
Other viruses with similar disease symptoms but genetically unrelated include: St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Virus. It ... due to the presence of neutralizing antibodies linked to California encephalitis. Since then, most cases of encephalitis have ... California encephalitis virus was discovered in Kern County, California and causes encephalitis in humans. Encephalitis is an ... St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. Factors influencing the transmission and control ...
Terminal (Cook novel)
Additional possible viral causes are arbovirus (St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse ... Antibody-mediated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis and Rasmussen encephalitis are examples of autoimmune ... Rasmussen's encephalitis Bickerstaff's encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis Wernicke's encephalopathy Meningitis Cerebritis ... Herpes simplex encephalitis has an incidence of 2-4 per million population per year. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as ...
The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis is diagnosed by commercially available tests detecting JE virus-specific IgM antibodies in serum and /or ... 1995). "Japanese encephalitis vaccine: persistence of antibody up to 3 years after a three-dose primary series (letter)". J ... Japanese Encephalitis Japanese encephalitis resource library  CDC Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia ...
Rocio viral encephalitis
St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses. During 1975 and 1976, Rocio virus was ... About 25% of wild birds in the epidemic zone tested during the time of the outbreaks were found to have antibodies to ... Rocio viral encephalitis is an epidemic flaviviral disease of humans first observed in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975. Low- ... The encephalitis outbreak in the western hemisphere caused by West Nile virus, a related flavivirus, highlights the potential ...
Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory
White blood cell
St. Louis, Missouri, US: Mosby Elsevier. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-323-04950-4. "Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No. 247 (03/ ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, pneumonia, rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, ... Lymphocytes include: B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...
Mites of livestock
Dermanyssus gallinae has been shown to transmit between chickens the virus causing St Louis encephalitis (the main transmitters ... and because it feeds on inflammatory exudate which contains antibodies reactive against antigens in the mite's gut. The ... Smith, M. G. (1947). St. Louis encephalitis: transmission of virus to chickens by infected mites Dermanyssus gallinae and ... St. Louis: Mosby / Elsevier, ISBN 0-323-0776-17. Lancaster, J.L. & Meisch, M.V. (1986). Arthropods in Livestock and Poultry ...
Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis, Rift Valley fever, Ross River fever, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus ... Blood test may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies. IgM antibodies are highest 3 to 5 weeks after ... Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River ... Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occurs in the United States where it causes disease in ...
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome
It is hypothesized that a viral infection (perhaps St. Louis encephalitis, Epstein-Barr, Coxsackie B, enterovirus, or just a ... The role of anti-neuronal antibodies in late sequelae of OMA needs further clarification". Another study states that: "Residual ... Antibody information related to opsocponus Laurie-Ann Duchaine Foundation: a non-profit foundation dedicated to funding to help ... clinical outcome and antineuronal antibodies-a report from the Children's Cancer Group Study". Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 36 (6): 612 ...
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Louis A. Magnarelli (2004-2013) Dr. Theodore G. Andreadis (2013-present) In 1909 station chemist Thomas B. Osborne began ... 1882: The Station moves to its current location on Huntington Street in New Haven, land purchased from the Eli Whitney, Jr. ... 1960: R.C. Wallis of the Station and collaborators isolated a virus that causes encephalitis from Aedes vexans, mosquitoes ... Scientists at the Station were also instrumental in developing antibody tests to identify patients infected with Lyme disease ...
St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to diagnostic ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Herpes Encephalitis at eMedicine Jocelyn A. Lieb; Stacey Brisman; Sara Herman; Jennifer MacGregor; Marc E. Grossman (2008). " ... Rowe, AM; St Leger, AJ; Jeon, S; Dhaliwal, DK; Knickelbein, JE; Hendricks, RL (January 2013). "Herpes keratitis". Progress in ...
St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. .. *^ Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to ... Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Armstrong GL, Schillinger J, Markowitz L, Nahmias AJ, Johnson RE, McQuillan GM, St Louis ME (May 2001). "Incidence of herpes ...
... was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a study of an epidemic in St. Louis. Although not the cause of the outbreak, ... The introduced mouse will seroconvert, allowing use of immunofluorescence antibody (IFA), MFIA or ELISA to detect antibodies. ... The onset of the second phase occurs several days after recovery, and consists of symptoms of meningitis or encephalitis. ... In one study, antibodies to LCMV were detected in 0.8% of normal infants, 2.7% of infants with neurological signs and 30% of ...
St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. .. *^ Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to ... Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... Until the 1980s serological tests for antibodies to HSV were rarely useful to diagnosis and not routinely used in clinical ... Armstrong GL, Schillinger J, Markowitz L, Nahmias AJ, Johnson RE, McQuillan GM, St Louis ME (May 2001). "Incidence of herpes ...
Other members of the same genus include yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese ... Various antibodies are generated; some bind closely to the viral proteins and target them for phagocytosis (ingestion by ... St. Georgiev, Vassil (2009). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH (1 ed.). Totowa, N.J.: Humana. p. 268. ... Tests for dengue virus-specific antibodies, types IgG and IgM, can be useful in confirming a diagnosis in the later stages of ...
Lyme disease microbiology
St. Louis: Warren H. Green, Inc. Habálek, Z.; Halouzka, J. (1997-12-01). "Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ... However, rounded cell types triggered by an antibody binding to the OspB surface protein are damaged and dying forms of the ... "Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia". Int J Med ... It is a two-strain, multiantigen vaccine which induces an antibody response to bacterial proteins OspA and OspC. Samuels DS, ...
Lorenzo LE, Magnussen C, Bailey AL, St Louis M, De Koninck Y, Ribeiro-da-Silva A (September 2014). "Spatial and temporal ... Antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are increasingly found in patients with other symptoms indicative ... limbic encephalitis, and epilepsy. Erlander MG, Tillakaratne NJ, Feldblum S, Patel N, Tobin AJ (July 1991). "Two genes encode ... Manto MU, Hampe CS, Rogemond V, Honnorat J (February 2011). "Respective implications of glutamate decarboxylase antibodies in ...
St. Louis: Mosby. pp. 81-97. ISBN 0-323-01756-8. Ohri, Linda K.; Jonathan G. Marquess (1999). "Polio: Will We Soon Vanquish an ... Encephalitis, an infection of the brain tissue itself, can occur in rare cases, and is usually restricted to infants. It is ... Antibodies to poliovirus can be diagnostic, and are generally detected in the blood of infected patients early in the course of ... The disease may be diagnosed by finding the virus in the feces or detecting antibodies against it in the blood. The disease ...
Bolognia JL; Jorizzo JL; Rapini RP (2007). Dermatology (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. [page needed] Mast ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... Mild encephalitis may lead to memory loss, sleep disturbances, or mood changes. In addition, some case reports have described ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics. As antibody levels are ...
A serological assay can also be performed on the sample to look for virus-specific antibodies present in the sample, thus ... 72 (8). MD, Patrick R. Murray, PhD, Ken S. Rosenthal, PhD, Michael A. Pfaller, (2013). Medical microbiology (7th ed.). St. ... Louis, Mo.: Mosby. ISBN 9780323086929. MicrobiologyBytes - Reoviruses Viralzone: Orthoreovirus ICTV. ... The syncytia inducing capabilities of this class of orthoreoviruses combined with their association to encephalitis in baboons ...
Infections associated with diseases
doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.2.404. PMID 9472881. Ponzetto, A; Marchet, A; Pellicano, R; Lovera, N; Chianale, G; Nobili, M; Rizzetto, ... The cause of viral encephalitis was discovered in Russia based upon epidemiological clustering of cases. The virus causing this ... Atkinson, Richard L.; Lee, Insil; Shin, Hye-Jung; He, Jia (2010). "Human adenovirus-36 antibody status is associated with ... McAllister, Emily; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Keith, Scott; Aronne, Louis; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth; Biggio, Joseph ...
Mosby's pocket dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions (6th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier. 2010. p. ... "Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 11 December 2007. ... identification of antibodies to viruses) may be useful in viral meningitis. If tuberculous meningitis is suspected, the sample ... Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) or its blood vessels (cerebral vasculitis), as well as the formation of blood clots in ...
Louis ED, Ottman R (November 2013). "Is there a one-way street from essential tremor to Parkinson's disease? Possible ... Paraneoplastic syndrome: neurological symptoms caused by antibodies associated with cancers. *Rapid onset dystonia ... Encephalitis lethargica. *HIV infection and AIDS. Toxins. *Annonaceae ...
St. Louis. Retrieved 2016-12-02. "Print Friendly". www.lifeextension.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02. Reddy M, Gill SS, Wu W, et al ... For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Louis Pasteur proved beyond doubt that certain diseases are caused by infectious agents, and developed a vaccine for rabies. ...
White blood cell
LaFleur-Brooks M (2008). Exploring Medical Language: A Student-Directed Approach (7th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri, US: Mosby ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ...
White blood cell
LaFleur-Brooks M (2008). Exploring Medical Language: A Student-Directed Approach (7th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri, US: Mosby ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ...
Lorenzo LE, Magnussen C, Bailey AL, St Louis M, De Koninck Y, Ribeiro-da-Silva A (September 2014). "Spatial and temporal ... limbic encephalitis, and epilepsy. The pattern of anti-GAD antibodies in epilepsy differs from type 1 diabetes and stiff- ... Antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are increasingly found in patients with other symptoms indicative ... Stiff man human cerebellum stained with a reference anti-GAD65 monoclonal antibody. Thin arrows show presynaptic terminals ...
Louis I of Spain in 1724 (died), Peter II of Russia in 1730 (died), George Washington (survived), king Louis XV in 1774 ( ... This form was marked by a fever that occurred after the usual incubation period and could be confirmed only by antibody studies ... Downie, A. W.; Fedson, D. S.; Vincent, L. St; Rao, A. R.; Kempe, C. H. (December 1969). "Haemorrhagic smallpox". Epidemiology ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ...
জাপানীজ এন্কেফেলাইটিছ - অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়া
St. Louis encephalitis) ভাইৰাছৰ ওচৰ সম্পৰ্কীয়৷  ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercial assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM antibodies" ... "Japanese encephalitis-a pathological and clinical perspective". PLoS Negl Trop Dis খণ্ড 3 (9): e437. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd. ... Solomon, T. (2006). "Control of Japanese encephalitis - within our grasp?". New England Journal of Medicine খণ্ড 355 (9): 869- ...
Ebola virus disease
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... "The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.. ... Detecting antibodies against the virus is most reliable in the later stages of the disease and in those who recover. ...
সংক্ৰমণ - অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়া
"প্ৰকাশক St. Louis. https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/bacterial-pathogenesis/deck/11094651. ... For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Louis Pasteur proved beyond doubt that certain diseases are caused by infectious agents, and developed a vaccine for rabies. ...
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever, Ebola virus ... Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... Carroll SA, Bird BH, Rollin PE, Nichol ST (2010). "Ancient common ancestry of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus". Mol ... As of 2011[update] the use of Immunoglobulin preparations has remained unproven and antibody engineering, which raised hopes ...
Typhidot is a medical test consisting of a dot ELISA kit that detects IgM and IgG antibodies against the outer membrane protein ... Baddam R, Kumar N, Thong KL, Ngoi ST, Teh CS, Yap KP, Chai LC, Avasthi TS, Ahmed N (2012). "Genetic fine structure of a ... communities did not identify the role of microorganisms in infectious disease until the work of Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur . ... Encephalitis. *Respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and acute bronchitis. *Neuropsychiatric symptoms (described as "muttering ...
St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.. *^ Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to ... Herpes Encephalitis at eMedicine. *^ Jocelyn A. Lieb; Stacey Brisman; Sara Herman; Jennifer MacGregor; Marc E. Grossman (2008 ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Rowe, AM; St Leger, AJ; Jeon, S; Dhaliwal, DK; Knickelbein, JE; Hendricks, RL (January 2013). "Herpes keratitis". Progress in ...
中東呼吸綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
圣路易斯脑炎（英语：Saint Louis encephalitis） *SLEV（英语：St. Louis encephalitis virus） ... Tianlei Ying, Haoyang Li, Lu Lu, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Shibo Jiang, "Development of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for ... 虫媒病毒性脑炎：Tick-borne encephalitis（英语：Tick-borne encephalitis） *TBEV（英语：Tick-borne encephalitis virus） ... Australian encephalitis（英语：Murray Valley encephalitis virus） *MVEV（英语：Murray Valley
Other members of the same genus include yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese ... Detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, yellow fever, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis[ ... St. Georgiev, Vassil (2009). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH (1 ed.). Totowa, N.J.: Humana. p. 268. ... Varatharaj A (2010). "Encephalitis in the clinical spectrum of dengue infection". Neurology India. 58 (4): 585-91. doi:10.4103/ ...
History of virology
Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know ... Hartman AL, Towner JS, Nichol ST (March 2010). "Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 30 (1): ... Misra UK, Kalita J (June 2010). "Overview: Japanese encephalitis". Progress in Neurobiology. 91 (2): 108-20. doi:10.1016/j. ... developed assays based on haemagglutination to quantify a wide range of viruses as well as virus-specific antibodies in serum.[ ...
Middle East respiratory syndrome
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... MERS-CoV is a betacoronavirus derived from bats. Camels have been shown to have antibodies to MERS-CoV but the exact source ... McKay, Betsy (3-4 May 2014). "American Returns from Mideast With MERS Virus". The Wall Street Journal. pp. A3.. ... Ren Z, Yan L, Zhang N, Guo Y, Yang C, Lou Z, Rao Z (April 2013). "The newly emerged SARS-like coronavirus HCoV-EMC also has an ...
anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] | GeneTex
Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] for ELISA, ICC/IF. Anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus mAb (GTX39036) is tested in ... St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] See all St. Louis Encephalitis Virus products ... Specifications: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1]. Specificity. This antibody reacts with other members of ... Primary Antibodies Secondary Antibodies Proteins & Peptides Lysates & Slides Serum & Reagents Research Kits Isotype Controls ...
West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence in naturally infected pig...
Hukkanen RR, Liggitt HD, Kelley ST, Grant R, Anderson DM, Hall RA et al. West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody ... West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence in naturally infected pig- ... West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence in naturally infected pig- ... West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence in naturally infected pig- ...
Detection of antibodies to West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in horses
St. Louis encephalitis. En: Monath TP, ed. The arboviruses: Epidemiology and ecology. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1988; vol. IV ... Detection of antibodies to West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in horses ... To the editor: West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic ... Ulloa and colleagues detected antibodies to SLEV in 20 of 202 (9.9%) domestic animals sampled in Chiapas State in 2001.12 In ...
St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, Serum
Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, Serum,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis IgG (CSF). 5. Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis IgM (CSF). 6. Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis ... St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgM by IFA, CSF. 8. St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, CSF. 9. St. Louis ... California Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, CSF. 11. California Encephalitis Antibody, IgM by IFA, CSF. ...
Mouse Anti-St. Louis encephalitis Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 6B5A-2 from ABR-Affinity BioReagents
Louis encephalitis Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 6B5A-2 from ABR-Affinity BioReagents,St. Louis encephalitis -20 C, ... St. Louis encephalitis Immunogen: St. Louis encephalitis. Storage: -20 C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles. ... Mouse Anti-St. Louis encephalitis Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 6B5A-2 from ABR-Affinity BioReagents. ... Mouse Anti-Human S-100 alpha/beta chain Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 8B10 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.. 5. ...
A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis...
A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... This assay was developed for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and St. Louis ... Chickens were experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis and bled on a daily ... of the St. Louis encephalitis virus antisera. Sera from sentinel chicken flocks in Maryland were also assayed. These data ...
ArboCat Virus: St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV)
Avian Hosts of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, 1991 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and...
No antibody to eastern equine encephalitis virus was detected. The prevalence of antibody to SLE virus varied among the sites ... Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus activity in the avian population in Pine Bluff, Arkansas was conducted from August 30, 1991 ... The antibody prevalence was higher in immature birds (27%) than in adult birds (15%), but the antibody titers were higher in ... The overall SLE antibody prevalence and the prevalence for house sparrows were significantly higher than the average prevalence ...
Serologic surveys for antibodies to Western, Eastern, California, and St. Louis Encephalitis and Dengue 3 arboviruses in Middle...
Serologic surveys for antibodies to Western, Eastern, California, and St. Louis Encephalitis and Dengue 3 arboviruses in Middle ... Serologic surveys for antibodies to Western, Eastern, California, and St. Louis Encephalitis and Dengue 3 arboviruses in Middle ... The Ministry of Health of Argentina had confirmed new cases of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus infection. Until 29 March ... Epidemiological Alert, New Confirmed Cases of Saint Louis Encephalitis in Capital City and Province of Buenos Aires, Risk of ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | St. Louis Encephalitis in Panama
St. Louis encephalities (SLE) and Ilhéus viruses. Capacity to neutralize 2 or more logs of virus was observed in 8.4% against ... in a forested area of the Province of Darién in Panama near the Colombian border were tested for neutralizing antibodies ... St. Louis Encephalitis in Panama II. Survey of Human Blood for Antibodies against St. Louis and Two Related Group B Viruses, ... St. Louis encephalities (SLE) and Ilhéus viruses. Capacity to neutralize 2 or more logs of virus was observed in 8.4% against ...
A Literature Review of Zika Virus - Volume 22, Number 7-July 2016 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
WNV or St. Louis encephalitis virus); presence of antibodies confounds diagnosis (Technical Appendix reference 63). ... Isolation of the virus or of anti-Zika virus antibodies from various nonhuman primates and other wild and domestic animals ... against YFV or Japanese encephalitis virus) or infected with another flavivirus (e.g., ...
Powassan Virus Disease | Tick-borne Diseases | Ticks | CDC
Cross-reaction with other flaviviruses (e.g., West Nile, dengue, or St. Louis encephalitis viruses) can occur; plaque reduction ... Measurement of virus-specific IgM antibodies in serum or CSF. ... Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis ... Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis-Maine and Vermont, 1999-2001. MMWR 2001;50(35):761-764. ... Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2008;8(6):733-740. ...
Fatal Yellow Fever in a Traveler Returning from Amazonas, Brazil, 2002
St. Louis encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses); serum samples collected on days 3--7 also were ... Although antibodies are not always present in the first week of illness, detection of YF-specific IgM antibody by capture ELISA ... Tests performed at CDC on serum samples collected on the second day of illness were negative for IgM and IgG antibody to South ... A postmortem serum sample was negative for IgM and IgG antibody to Leptospira spp. and New World arenaviruses, and negative for ...
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
Cross-protection between Group B arboviruses: Resistance in mice to Japanese B encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses ... Reported Cases Of Encephalitis By Age. Figure 6. History Of Development Of Inactivated JE Vaccine. Figure 10. Antibody Response ... The acute disases St. Louis encephalitis. In: Monath TP ed. Am Publ Health Assoc. Washington, DC. 503-534, 1980. * Gutierrez K ... The St. Louis and Japanese B types of epidemic encephalitis. Development of noninfectious vaccines: Report of basic data. JAMA ...
CNS Flashcards by Aron Chacko | Brainscape
West Nile Virus | Encyclopedia.com
The virus, which is closely related to the St. Louis encephalitis virus found in the United States, causes an encephalitis ( ... Louis encephalitis (SLE) should be considered. There is also a test that measures SLE virus-specific antibodies. Currently, ... which includes St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Kunjin virus. Zoonotically maintained, infections occur ... For example, another mosquito borne flavivirus causes St. Louis encephalitis in humans. ...
St. Louis Encephalitis - Epidemiology
Louis encephalitis diagnosed?. Diagnosis is based on tests of blood or spinal fluid. These tests typically look for antibodies ... What is St. Louis encephalitis?. St. Louis encephalitis is a rare disease that is related to the West Nile virus and is ... How can I get more information about St. Louis encephalitis?. *If you have concerns about St. Louis encephalitis, contact your ... Who gets St. Louis encephalitis?. Anyone bitten by a mosquito in an area where the virus is circulating can become infected ...
Volume 43 Issue 4 | Journal of Wildlife Diseases
... and for antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis virus. All test results were negative. ... KEYWORDS: Argentina, avian influenza virus, Hemoproteus, Newcastle disease virus, Patagonia, Plasmodium, Red knot, St. Louis ... Shawn L. Locke, Matthew W. Cook, Louis A. Harveson, Donald S. Davis, Roel R. Lopez, Nova J. Silvy, Mark A. Fraker ... Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus has been recognized as affecting horses and humans in the eastern United States for 70 ...
Shelby County, TN - Official Website
These animals serve as a reservoir for the St. Louis encephalitis virus. Positive antibody testing serves as an early warning ... 1. What Is St. Louis encephalitis (SLE)?. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) is an inflammation of the brain. This viral infection is ... A virus carried by an infected mosquito from the culex genus family causes St. Louis encephalitis. To contract SLE, you have to ... Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on birds infected with the St. Louis encephalitis virus.. When the virus enters the blood ...
Detection of Anti-Arboviral Immunoglobulin G by Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay |...
1984) Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis. J. Clin. ... These were as follows: Flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) 6B6C-1 (18), dengue 2 (DEN2) D14G2415 (usually referred to as ... 1983) Identification of epitopes on the E glycoprotein of Saint Louis encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Virology ... 1988) Stability of St. Louis encephalitis viral antigen detected by enzyme immunoassay in infected mosquitoes. J. Clin. ...
Results matching category of Public Health Surveillance, type of Calendars, and topic of st. louis encephalitis virus disease |...
Categories , Public Health Surveillance View Types , Calendars Tags , st. louis encephalitis virus disease Clear All ... antibody antibody * anxiety anxiety * appropriations appropriations * astdd astdd * at-risk at-risk ... st. louis encephalitis virus disease st. louis encephalitis virus disease Show All... ... st. louis virus disease st. louis virus disease * status status * streptococcal toxic shock syndrome streptococcal toxic shock ...
Results matching category of Policy Surveillance, topic of st. louis encephalitis virus disease, and domain of chronicdata.cdc...
Categories , Policy Surveillance Tags , st. louis encephalitis virus disease Federated Domains , chronicdata.cdc.gov Clear All ... antibody antibody * anxiety anxiety * appropriations appropriations * astdd astdd * at-risk at-risk ... st. louis encephalitis virus disease st. louis encephalitis virus disease Show All... ... st. louis virus disease st. louis virus disease * status status * streptococcal toxic shock syndrome streptococcal toxic shock ...
Martin DA[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m antibodies.. Johnson AJ, Cheshier RC, Cosentino G, Masri HP, Mock V, Oesterle R, ... Validation of a microsphere-based immunoassay for detection of anti-West Nile virus and anti-St. ... Anti-IL-17 receptor antibody AMG 827 leads to rapid clinical response in subjects with moderate to severe psoriasis: results ... Brief Report: Pharmacodynamics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of AMG 811, a Human Anti-Interferon-γ Antibody, in Patients With ...
Antibodies and ELISA Kits against Viral Targets
St. louis encephalitis virus. Product Details. Sudan ebolavirus. Product Details. Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV). Product ... Antibodies against viral targets. Viral Target. Pubmed References?. Available Antibodies. Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV). yes. ... Antibodies-online offers ELISA kits and antibodies for research of over 150 viral targets and virus like particles to assist ... The use of antibodies in viral research is essential in the continuing efforts to develop vaccines and drug therapies for ...
Columbian ground squirrel - Wikipedia
EEEP - Clinical: Eastern Equine Encephalitis Antibody, IgG and IgM, Serum
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is within the alphavirus group. It is a low prevalence cause of human disease in the eastern ... Since cross-reactivity with dengue fever virus does occur with St. Louis encephalitis antigen and, therefore, cannot be ... Eastern equine encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis viruses show some cross-reactivity; however, antibody response to ... although Western equine encephalitis and Eastern equine encephalitis antigens will show a noticeable cross-reactivity. ...
CAES: State of Connecticut Mosquito Trapping and Arbovirus Testing Program--Historical Information
Louis encephalitis viruses. A molecular technique (RT-PCR) is also used to identify WNV. Weekly test results are reported to ... 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511 / Phone: 203-974-8500 Home , CT.gov Home , Send Feedback , Login , Register. State ... against specific reference antibodies to seven viruses known to occur in North America. These include: West Nile, Eastern ... Map of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity 2007. Map of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity 2006. Map of Eastern ...
Deferiprone Rescues Behavioral Deficits Induced by Mild Iron Exposure in a Mouse Model of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation |...
A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... The evaluation was done with antibodies against tyrosine-hydrolase to stain for dopaminergic neurons and antibodies against ... First antibodies against p-S129-aSyn (# ab59264, Abcam, Cambridge, UK, dil. 1:100) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, T7451, Sigma, ... Both, the hippocampus (CA3, DG) and the CX, displayed almost no reactivity for the p-S129-aSyn antibody, and the analysis of ...
What is included in long-term monitoring of West Nile virus infection?
The neurobehavioural consequences of St. Louis encephalitis infection. Brain Inj. 2002 Oct. 16(10):917-27. [Medline]. ... Greco M, Cofano P, Lobreglio G. Seropositivity for West Nile Virus Antibodies in Patients Affected by Myasthenia Gravis. J Clin ... Rehabilitation outcomes in encephalitis--a retrospective study 1990-1997. Brain Inj. 1999 Feb. 13(2):139-46. [Medline]. ... Sampson BA, Armbrustmacher V. West Nile encephalitis: the neuropathology of four fatalities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Dec. 951: ...
PrevalenceHemagglutinationWest NileCalled Japanese B encephalitMonoclonal AntibodyCenters for DiseasAssaySpecific antibodiesSerologicAssaysFlaviviridaeDetectablePowassanMeningitis and encephalitisMosquitoesCrosseHemagglutination inhibitionEquine encephalomyelitis virusSeraOccurEpidemicVenezuelan EquinIncludes Japanese encephalitisDiagnosisWestern EquineSLEVAlphavirusPathogensEtiology of encephalitisPatient with encephalitisNeurologicSpeciesOutbreakZikaSymptomsFatal encephalitisHerpes encephalitisDevelop encephalitisSporadic encephalitisArboviral encephalitisCulexMAbsOnsetSerological
- This antibody reacts with other members of Flaviviridae including Japanese Encepahalitis (Nakayama), West Nile (EG101), Murray Valley Encephalitis (Original), Yellow Fever (17D), Dengue 1 (Hawaii), Dengue 2 (New Guinea C), Dengue 3 (H87) and Dengue 4 (H241). (genetex.com)
- Pig-tailed macaques (Macaco nemestrina) naturally infected with West Nile virus were monitored from 1999 to 2005 to determine virus-specific antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence. (utmb.edu)
- West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which includes St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Kunjin virus. (encyclopedia.com)
- St. Louis encephalitis is a rare disease that is related to the West Nile virus and is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. (virginia.gov)
- Such an introduction occurred in 1999, resulting in an outbreak of West Nile (WN) encephalitis in the New York City area ( 11 ). (asm.org)
- West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus ). (scielo.org.mx)
- Although antibodies against this epitope fail to recognize fully mature West Nile virus (WNV) virions and accordingly neutralize infection poorly in vitro , their functional properties in vivo remain less well understood. (asm.org)
- During 1999, Station scientists were the first to culture and characterize the West Nile encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected in North America. (ct.gov)
- Brain injury from West Nile virus encephalitis or meningitis can result in cognitive, gross motor, and fine motor delays. (medscape.com)
- Elderly patients who are severely deconditioned because of West Nile virus encephalitis may be predisposed to deep venous thrombosis (DVT). (medscape.com)
- West Nile virus (WNV), a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus, is the etiologic agent of West Nile encephalitis. (asm.org)
- These include St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. (ufl.edu)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody prepared against the envelope glycoprotein of West Nile virus (WNV) was purified from clone E58 hybridoma supernatant by protein G affinity chromatography. (atcc.org)
- Encephalitis is more commonly reported than meningitis, and concomitant muscle weakness and flaccid paralysis may provide a clinical clue to the presence of West Nile virus infection. (annals.org)
- To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. (ajtmh.org)
- For decades, vector-control agencies in California, responsible for fighting insidious disease-carrying pests and rodents, have relied on the domesticated fowl as a surveillance tool to predict when human cases of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis are likely to occur. (presstelegram.com)
- In California, West Nile replaced St. Louis Encephalitis as the premier threat in the early 2000s. (presstelegram.com)
- Other viruses with similar disease symptoms but genetically unrelated include: St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Virus. (wikipedia.org)
- More than 50% of the known flaviviruses have been associated with human diseases and can cause conditions ranging from haemorrhagic fever, in the case of yellow fever virus, and dengue virus, to encephalitis, in the case of Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and ROCV, among others (Travassos da Rosa et al. (scielo.br)
- Antigens capable of fixing complement specifically with the appropriate antibodies have been prepared from brain tissue of hamsters and mice infected with the viruses of St. Louis, Japanese, Western, and Eastern encephalitis, and with the West Nile virus. (rupress.org)
- No relationship was detectable by this procedure between St. Louis, Japanese, and West Nile viruses. (rupress.org)
- These findings emphasize the need for further investigation and correlation of the immunological reactions of the groups of neurotropic viruses, since the equine agents are apparently unrelated when studied by neutralization and cross-immunity tests while these methods provide evidence of the presence of common antigenic structures in the St. Louis, Japanese, and West Nile agents. (rupress.org)
- Zika targets the nervous and reproductive system and is supported 99 percent within the clade shared by West Nile (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE). (infobarrel.com)
- Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, belonging to West Nile (WNV) subgroup, is antigenically closely related to viruses in the same subgroup, i.e. (infobarrel.com)
- In Diamond, Michael S. (Ed.), West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection: Viral Pathogenesis and the Host Immune Response 1st ed. (pp. 427-451) New York: Springer Science + Business Media. (edu.au)
- In J.S. Mackenzie, A.D.T. Barrett and V. Deubel (Ed.), Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses 1st ed. (pp. 49-73) Germany: Springer-Verlag. (edu.au)
- SLEV is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex and is closely related to West Nile Virus (WNV). (federallabs.org)
- Each sample is tested for West Nile virus, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis. (fightthebite.net)
- Substantial serological cross-reactivity exists among the flaviviruses (dengue virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus) and current IgM antibody assays cannot reliable distinguish among them. (nphl.org)
- Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. (cdc.gov)
- To define the virus specificity of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) among the medically important members of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus serocomplex of flaviviruses, 103 IgM-positive human serum samples from patients with confirmed West Nile (WN) virus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, or JE virus infections were assembled and simultaneously tested against all three viral antigens in a standardized MAC-ELISA. (nih.gov)
- This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). (eurekaselect.com)
- Genetic determinants of differential oral infection phenotypes of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Culex spp. (elsevier.com)
- West Nile virus belongs to a group of similar viruses, including others that are less severe, such as the viruses that cause dengue fever and St. Louis encephalitis. (canada.com)
- Infection with West Nile Virus can result in encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (an inflammation of the linings that cover the brain). (canada.com)
- West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are both arthropod-borne viruses within the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex (Murphy et al. (zoologix.com)
- Like West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, SLE is transmitted primarily through Culex species mosquitoes and birds. (zoologix.com)
- Duplex microsphere-based immunoassay for detection of anti-West Nile virus and anti-St. Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M antibodies. (forgottenlanguages.org)
- Like the Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile arboviruses, the virus remains dormant in bird populations until transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Culex mosquito. (hypochondriacheaven.com)
- Powassan (POW) virus is a Flavivirus related to West Nile , St. Louis encephalitis, and other Tick-borne encephalitis viruses. (pestworld.org)
- The 1999 New York epidemic of human West Nile virus (WN) encephalitis and meningitis was preceded by a crow die-off also caused by WN infection. (journalmap.org)
- JEV is also a member of the Japanese encephalitis serology complex, which includes West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- We have used our recombinant JEV NS1 proteins to raise a panel of specific antibodies to JEV NS1, all of which are highly specific and show no cross-reactivity with NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses, including Dengue, Yellow Fever and West Nile viruses. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- West Nile (WN) virus is a human pathogen in the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, which also includes Japanese encephalitis (JE), yellow fever (YF), dengue (DEN) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Our chimeric flavivirus envelope antibody is based upon the popular clone 4G2, which is specific for a well-defined conserved epitope on many key flaviviruses, including Denque, Zika, West Nile and Yellow Fever viruses. (2bscientific.com)
Called Japanese B encephalit1
Centers for Diseas1
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Therefore, the cross-reactivity of the applied TBEV serology test systems - enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) - as well as the longevity of TBEV antibody titres in sheep and goats were investigated in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to establish an accurate, ready-to-use assay for simultaneous detection of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), we developed one duplex TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, which can be used in human and vector surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Within a few days after having been bitten by a mosquito infected with a virus the chickens develop specific antibodies to that virus. (fightthebite.net)
- The use of a p.o. administered compound that inhibits the proliferation of HNSCC has several advantages over treatment with receptor-specific antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
- We discovered a novel anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by low-dose IVIG that protected 129S6 mice from fatal HSE by modulating CNS inflammation independently of HSV specific antibodies or sIgG. (prolekare.cz)
- However, cross-reactivity of JEV specific antibodies with other Flaviviruses that co-circulate with JEV, such as Dengue virus, can be a challenge and can prevent accurate diagnosis ( 2 ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- There is a long history of using various serologic methods in clinical virology laboratories for antibody detection. (asmscience.org)
- Serologic (Antibody Detection) Methods, p 105-116. (asmscience.org)
- Serologic tests for syphilis, Epstein-Barr virus, and HIV antibody were negative except for a p24 antigen level of 5100 pg/mL. (thefreedictionary.com)
- these generally include cultures and analysis (i.e., antigen detection and nucleic acid amplification tests, such as PCR) of body fluid specimens, biopsy of specific tissues (with culture, antigen detection, PCR, and histopathologic evaluation) outside the CNS, and serologic testing (for specific IgM and acute- and convalescent-phase IgG antibody titers). (docplayer.net)
- Antibodies persisted for up to 36 months, as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent and hemagglutination inhibition assays. (utmb.edu)
- Exposure to cocirculating St. Louis encephalitis virus was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. (utmb.edu)
- Recent studies have shown that assays performed with these MAbs detect antibodies to WNV in taxonomically diverse North American avian species ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, assays performed with MAb 3.1112G discriminate between WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus infections in birds. (cdc.gov)
- Antigen-binding assays measure the attachment of antibodies to pathogen proteins which have been attached to a surface (e.g., bead, slide, plate) (Fig. 1i). (springer.com)
- In patients infected with this virus, IgG antibody is generally detectable within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking within 1 to 2 months, and declining slowly thereafter. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Negative - No significant level of detectable Zika IgM antibody. (nphl.org)
- In some birds, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies are not detectable for 4 to 5 days, and then build to a peak at 7 to 8 days or 3-4 weeks, respectively, before antibody levels start to decline ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- 2. Immunofluorescence tests (IFAT) give qualitative depending on the presence of antibody-antigen binding (Fig. 3) at serial dilutions, and can be used to give quantitative results depending on which dilution(s) the antibodies were detectable. (springer.com)
- Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis-Maine and Vermont, 1999-2001. (cdc.gov)
- Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, USA. (cdc.gov)
- Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. (cdc.gov)
- Emerging cases of Powassan virus encephalitis in New England: Clinical presentation, imaging, and review of the literature. (cdc.gov)
- What is Powassan Encephalitis? (hnhu.org)
- Powassan encephalitis is a serious but rare tick-borne illness caused by the Powassan virus. (hnhu.org)
- Between 1958 and 1999, only 12 human cases of Powassan encephalitis have been known to occur in Canada. (hnhu.org)
- Even with a bite from an infected tick, there is only a small chance of getting Powassan encephalitis. (hnhu.org)
- The Powassan encephalitis virus causes inflammation and swelling in the lining of the brain and spinal cord (encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). (hnhu.org)
- How is Powassan Encephalitis diagnosed? (hnhu.org)
- There is no specific treatment or medication for Powassan encephalitis. (hnhu.org)
- If Powassan encephalitis develops, supportive care can be provided. (hnhu.org)
- Powassan encephalitis generally shows first symptoms after 1-3 weeks. (pestworld.org)
- The Powassan virus infects the central nervous system and can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord). (pestworld.org)
- Unfortunately, 10-15% of Powassan virus encephalitis cases are fatal and long-term neurologic problems are common. (pestworld.org)
Meningitis and encephalitis1
- The La Crosse Virus from the same genus is also a common cause of encephalitis in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
- WNV disease can be clinically confused with many other viral diseases such as enteroviral disease, influenza, and herpes encephalitis, as well as other arboviral diseases such as La Crosse virus disease, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, and dengue. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- We analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in wild birds during the 1990 SLE epidemic in Indian River County. (columbia.edu)
- In this chapter, we will focus on antibody detection methods used in clinical virology laboratories: neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, and Western blot. (asmscience.org)
Equine encephalomyelitis virus1
- Since cross-reactivity with dengue fever virus does occur with St. Louis encephalitis antigen and, therefore, cannot be differentiated further. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Seizures occur in encephalitis in as many as 40-50% of patients. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- An investigation of the extent of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus activity in the avian population in Pine Bluff, Arkansas was conducted from August 30, 1991 through September 5, 1991, following an SLE epidemic that resulted in 25 human cases. (ajtmh.org)
- The surveillance protocols developed at the FMEL were first tested during the summer and autumn of 1990 when a large St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) epidemic struck south Florida. (ufl.edu)
- In May 1995, during a dengue virus type 2 epidemic in the city of Salvador, three patients who were initially suspected to be infected with dengue virus presented with IgM antibodies against ROCV. (scielo.br)
- 2 Armstrong, C., and Lillie, R. D. : Experimental Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis of Monkeys and Mice Produced by a Virus Encountered in Studies of the 1933 St. Louis Encephalitis Epidemic. (army.mil)
Includes Japanese encephalitis1
- Specimens drawn within the first 2 weeks after onset are variably negative for IgG antibody and should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of arboviral disease. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- The two methods employed for the laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis were (1) isolation and identification of the virus and (2) demonstration of the appearance, or rising titer, of the specific complement-fixing or neutralizing antibodies of lymphocytic choriomeningitis. (army.mil)
- Noninfectious CNS diseases (e.g., vasculitis, collagen vascular disorders, and paraneoplastic syndromes) can have clinical presentations similar to those of infectious causes of encephalitis and should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. (docplayer.net)
- In the approach to the patient with encephalitis, an attempt should be made to establish an etiologic diagnosis. (docplayer.net)
- For over 30 years, associations have been explored between antibody classes and subclasses and the response to particular pathogens ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Although humoral and cell-mediated immunity both play roles in the body's specific immunity against viral pathogens, testing antibody response for humoral immunity is much more common and is also easier in clinical virology laboratories than testing for cell-mediated immunity because of the convenience of antibody serological testing methods. (asmscience.org)
- Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. (thefreelibrary.com)
- St. Louis Encephalitis: Global Status is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore all individual infectious diseases, drugs, vaccines, outbreaks, surveys and pathogens in every country of the world. (gideononline.com)
- Based on antigenic cross-reactivity, the virus is grouped in the JE complex of flaviviruses together with other human pathogens including JE, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Rocio (ROC), and Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE). (mdpi.com)
Etiology of encephalitis1
Patient with encephalitis1
- Individuals with encephalitis may have a decreased level of consciousness, or they may suffer from dysphagia related to their neurologic injury, predisposing them to aspiration pneumonia. (medscape.com)
- Altered mental status, with or without localized neurologic abnormalities, is the hallmark of encephalitis, in contrast to aseptic meningitis where cerebral function is largely intact. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- Immunocompromised children appear to be at higher risk of severe neurologic disease, but both encephalitis and flaccid paralysis due to WNV have been described in immunocompetent children. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Encephalitis is defined by the presence of an inflammatory process of the brain in association with clinical evidence of neurologic dysfunction. (docplayer.net)
- The prevalence of antibody to SLE virus varied among the sites from 11% to 44%, but the prevalence at each site was influenced by the avian species composition. (ajtmh.org)
- The two most abundant species captured in the city, the American robin (43%) and house sparrow (42%), also had the highest prevalence of antibody. (ajtmh.org)
- In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows ( Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. (sciencemag.org)
- In total, 94 birds, representing 5 orders and 19 species, were positive for antibodies to WNV ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- The first documented occurrence of WNV in the Western Hemisphere was during an outbreak of encephalitis in Queens, New York, in the late summer of 1999. (uspharmacist.com)
- In late August and early September 1999, New York City and surrounding areas experienced an outbreak of human encephalitis consistent with an arboviral etiology. (sciencemag.org)
- A similar outbreak forty-two years earlier that had been dubbed 'St. Louis Encephalitis' after thousands of cases suddenly appeared in Missouri. (hypochondriacheaven.com)
- Equivocal - Borderline levels of IgM antibody to Zika virus. (nphl.org)
- Positive - IgM antibody to Zika virus detected, reflexed for confirmation testing. (nphl.org)
- Researchers measured the immune response by monitoring levels of Zika virus-neutralizing antibodies in the blood. (bionity.com)
- Our humanised antibodies to Zika and Dengue NS1 can be used as serological controls. (2bscientific.com)
- What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis? (virginia.gov)
- The signs and symptoms of St. Louis encephalitis may become more severe as the disease progresses. (shelbycountytn.gov)
- Classic symptoms in herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis include personality changes and psychiatric complaints, but these are not pathognomonic. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- more often, however, these hosts are only slightly ill or experience no symptoms at all and develop antibodies to the virus. (ufl.edu)
- A virus carried by an infected mosquito from the culex genus family causes St. Louis encephalitis. (shelbycountytn.gov)
- The initial presence of SLE HI antibody was associated significantly with modeled drought 15 wk prior, wetting conditions 1 wk prior, and the emergence of the Florida SLE virus vector, Culex nigripalpus, 5 wk prior. (columbia.edu)