The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)

Gene conversion and hypermutation during diversification of VH sequences in developing splenic germinal centers of immunized rabbits. (1/350)

The young rabbit appendix and the chicken bursa of Fabricius are primary lymphoid organs where the B cell Ab repertoire develops in germinal centers (GCs) mainly by a gene conversion-like process. In human and mouse, V-gene diversification by somatic hypermutation in GCs of secondary lymphoid organs leads to affinity maturation. We asked whether gene conversion, somatic hypermutation, or both occur in rabbit splenic GCs during responses to the hapten DNP. We determined DNA sequences of rearranged heavy and light chain V region gene segments in single cells from developing DNP-specific GCs after immunization with DNP-bovine gamma-globulin and conclude that the changes at the DNA level that may lead to affinity maturation occur by both gene conversion and hypermutation. Selection was suggested by finding some recurrent amino acid replacements that may contribute increased affinity for antigen in the complementarity-determining region sequences of independently evolved clones, and a narrower range of complementarity-determining region 3 lengths at day 15. Some of the alterations of sequence may also lead to new members of the B cell repertoire in adult rabbits comparable with those produced in gut associated lymphoid tissues of young rabbits.  (+info)

Antigen-induced somatic diversification of rabbit IgH genes: gene conversion and point mutation. (2/350)

During T cell-dependent immune responses in mouse and human, Ig genes diversify by somatic hypermutation within germinal centers. Rabbits, in addition to using somatic hypermutation to diversify their IgH genes, use a somatic gene conversion-like mechanism, which involves homologous recombination between upstream VH gene segments and the rearranged VDJ genes. Somatic gene conversion and somatic hypermutation occur in young rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue and are thought to diversify a primary Ab repertoire that is otherwise limited by preferential VH gene segment utilization. Because somatic gene conversion is rarely found within Ig genes during immune responses in mouse and human, we investigated whether gene conversion in rabbit also occurs during specific immune responses, in a location other than gut-associated lymphoid tissue. We analyzed clonally related VDJ genes from popliteal lymph node B cells responding to primary, secondary, and tertiary immunization with the hapten FITC coupled to a protein carrier. Clonally related VDJ gene sequences were derived from FITC-specific hybridomas, as well as from Ag-induced germinal centers of the popliteal lymph node. By analyzing the nature of mutations within these clonally related VDJ gene sequences, we found evidence not only of ongoing somatic hypermutation, but also of ongoing somatic gene conversion. Thus in rabbit, both somatic gene conversion and somatic hypermutation occur during the course of an immune response.  (+info)

Secondary rearrangements and hypermutation generate sufficient B cell diversity to mount protective antiviral immunoglobulin responses. (3/350)

Variable (V) region gene replacement was recently implicated in B cell repertoire diversification, but the contribution of this mechanism to antibody responses is still unknown. To investigate the role of V gene replacements in the generation of antigen-specific antibodies, we analyzed antiviral immunoglobulin responses of "quasimonoclonal" (QM) mice. The B cells of QM mice are genetically committed to exclusively express the anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl specificity. However, approximately 20% of the peripheral B cells of QM mice undergo secondary rearrangements and thereby potentially acquire new specificities. QM mice infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, or poliovirus mounted virus-specific neutralizing antibody responses. In general, kinetics of the antiviral immunoglobulin responses were delayed in QM mice; however, titers similar to control animals were eventually produced that were sufficient to protect against VSV-induced lethal disease. VSV neutralizing single-chain Fv fragments isolated from phage display libraries constructed from QM mice showed VH gene replacements and extensive hypermutation. Thus, our data demonstrate that secondary rearrangements and hypermutation can generate sufficient B cell diversity in QM mice to mount protective antiviral antibody responses, suggesting that these mechanisms might also contribute to the diversification of the B cell repertoire of normal mice.  (+info)

Increased junctional diversity in fetal B cells results in a loss of protective anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies in adult mice. (4/350)

Fetal Igs are less diverse than adult Igs, largely because of the lack of N addition in the absence of Tdt. To test whether the absence of Tdt is essential, we generated Tg mice that express Tdt and add N regions in fetal B cells. When challenged as adults with PC-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae, these mice fail to make the hallmark T15 anti-PC Ab encoded by canonical rearrangements of Ig H and L chain genes. The anti-PC Abs from these mice are altered by premature N addition and do not protect against death from virulent pneumococcal infection. These results show that maintenance of lower Ig diversity in early life is essential for the acquisition of a complete functional adult repertoire.  (+info)

Functional diversity of natural IgM. (5/350)

This paper proposes a method for the quantitative characterization of repertoire diversity of an unknown mixture of antibodies on the basis of its reactivity profile in the quantitative immunoblot (QIB). The QIB is calibrated by measuring the reactivity profiles of supernatants of known 'diversity' (i.e. known numbers of B cell clones). We define a quantitative 'index of variability' (IV) which decreases regularly as the diversity increases and the profiles tend towards a common 'convergence profile'. The calibration procedure is consolidated by a mathematical model based on the Poisson distribution; this theoretical model accounts correctly for the observed convergence behavior. On the basis of this calibration curve, it is possible to estimate the diversity of an unknown antibody mixture from a measure of its IV. We conclude that the functional diversity of natural serum IgM in mice can be estimated at approximately 16,000 clones.  (+info)

B cell repertoire diversity and clonal expansion in multiple sclerosis brain lesions. (6/350)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in the CNS are characterized by disseminated demyelination with perivascular infiltrates of macrophages, T cells, and B cells. To investigate the origin and characteristics of the B cell population found in MS plaque tissue, we performed molecular studies in 10 MS patients and 4 non-MS control samples. Ig transcripts from the perivascular infiltrated brain lesions were analyzed by complementary-determining region 3 spectratyping to ascertain the B cell heavy chain gene rearrangement repertoire expressed in MS brains. Significant rearrangement diversity and deviation from the normal Ig heavy (H) chain repertoire was observed. The cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products from families VH1 and VH4 showed a correlation with the profiles obtained by spectratyping. Generally, restricted spectratyping patterns concurred with repetition of in-frame complementary-determining region 3 identical sequences. The analysis of heavy chain variable (VH), diversity (D), and joining (JH) gene segments revealed the increased usage of VH1-69, VH4-34, and VH4-39. Similarly, gene segments from families D2, D3, and JH4 were over-represented. The presence of restricted patterns of rearranged Ig mRNA within the plaque lesion suggests that Ab production in the demyelinating plaque is a local phenomenon and supports the idea that in MS an Ag-driven immune response might be responsible for demyelination.  (+info)

Efficient antibody diversification by gene conversion in vivo in the absence of selection for V(D)J-encoded determinants. (7/350)

Antibody diversification in the bursa of Fabricius occurs by gene conversion: pseudogene-derived sequences replace homologous sequences in rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Bursal cells expressing a truncated immunoglobulin mu heavy chain, introduced by retroviral gene transfer, bypass normal requirements for endogenous surface immunoglobulin expression. Immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements in such cells undergo gene conversion under conditions where the products are not selected based on their ability to encode a functional protein. The efficiency with which gene conversion maintains a productive reading frame exceeds 97% under such non-selective conditions. By analysis of donor pseudogene usage we demonstrate that bursal cell development is not driven by a restricted set of antigenic specificities. We further demonstrate that gene conversion can restore a productive reading frame to out-of-frame VJ(L) junctions, providing a rationale for the elimination of cells containing non-productive VJ(L) rearrangements prior to the onset of gene conversion in normal bursal cell development.  (+info)

Antibody repertoires of four- and five-feature translocus mice carrying human immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa and lambda light chain yeast artificial chromosomes. (8/350)

We have produced mice that carry the human Ig heavy (IgH) and both kappa and lambda light chain transloci in a background in which the endogenous IgH and kappa loci have been inactivated. The B lymphocyte population in these translocus mice is restored to about one-third of normal levels, with preferential (3:1) expression of human lambda over human kappa. Human IgM is found in the serum at levels between 50 and 400 microg/ml and is elevated following immunization. This primary human Ab repertoire is sufficient to yield diverse Ag-specific responses as judged by analysis of mAbs. The use of DH and J segments is similar to that seen in human B cells, with an analogous pattern of N nucleotide insertion. Maturation of the response is accompanied by somatic hypermutation, which is particularly effective in the light chain transloci. These mice therefore allow the production of Ag-specific repertoires of both IgM,kappa and IgM,lambda Abs and should prove useful for the production of human mAbs for clinical use.  (+info)

Antibody diversity refers to the variety of different antibodies that an organism can produce in response to exposure to various antigens. This diversity is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, which occurs during the development of B cells in the bone marrow.

The variable regions of heavy and light chains of antibody molecules are generated by the random selection and rearrangement of gene segments (V, D, and J) from different combinations. This results in a unique antigen-binding site for each antibody molecule, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential pathogens.

Further diversity is generated through the processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, which introduce additional changes in the variable regions of antibodies during an immune response. These processes allow for the affinity maturation of antibodies, where the binding strength between the antibody and antigen is increased over time, leading to a more effective immune response.

Overall, antibody diversity is critical for the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens and protect against infection and disease.

The Immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region is the antigen-binding part of an antibody, which is highly variable in its amino acid sequence and therefore specific to a particular epitope (the site on an antigen that is recognized by the antigen-binding site of an antibody). This variability is generated during the process of V(D)J recombination in the maturation of B cells, allowing for a diverse repertoire of antibodies to be produced and recognizing a wide range of potential pathogens.

The variable region is composed of several sub-regions including:

1. The heavy chain variable region (VH)
2. The light chain variable region (VL)
3. The heavy chain joining region (JH)
4. The light chain joining region (JL)

These regions are further divided into framework regions and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs, particularly CDR3, contain the most variability and are primarily responsible for antigen recognition.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Cytidine deaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of an amino group from cytidine, converting it to uridine. This reaction is part of the process of RNA degradation and also plays a role in the immune response to viral infections.

Cytidine deaminase can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, humans, and other mammals. In humans, cytidine deaminase is encoded by the APOBEC3 gene family, which consists of several different enzymes that have distinct functions and expression patterns. Some members of this gene family are involved in the restriction of retroviruses, such as HIV-1, while others play a role in the regulation of endogenous retroelements and the modification of cellular RNA.

Mutations in cytidine deaminase genes have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders. For example, mutations in the APOBEC3B gene have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, while mutations in other members of the APOBEC3 family have been implicated in the development of lymphoma and other malignancies. Additionally, aberrant expression of cytidine deaminase enzymes has been observed in some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a potential role for these enzymes in the pathogenesis of these conditions.

Immunoglobulin light chains are the smaller protein subunits of an immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. They are composed of two polypeptide chains, called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), which are produced by B cells during the immune response. Each immunoglobulin molecule contains either two kappa or two lambda light chains, in association with two heavy chains.

Light chains play a crucial role in the antigen-binding site of an antibody, where they contribute to the specificity and affinity of the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen. In addition to their role in immune function, abnormal production or accumulation of light chains can lead to various diseases, such as multiple myeloma and amyloidosis.

Somatic hypermutation is a process that occurs in the immune system, specifically within B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. This process involves the introduction of point mutations into the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, which encode for the variable regions of antibodies.

Somatic hypermutation occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles in response to antigen stimulation. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) enzyme is responsible for initiating this process by deaminating cytosines to uracils in the Ig genes. This leads to the introduction of point mutations during DNA replication and repair, which can result in changes to the antibody's binding affinity for the antigen.

The somatic hypermutation process allows for the selection of B cells with higher affinity antibodies that can better recognize and neutralize pathogens. This is an important mechanism for the development of humoral immunity and the generation of long-lived memory B cells. However, excessive or aberrant somatic hypermutation can also contribute to the development of certain types of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas and leukemias.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are Y-shaped immune proteins. These heavy chains, along with light chains, form the antigen-binding sites of an antibody, which recognize and bind to specific foreign substances (antigens) in order to neutralize or remove them from the body.

The heavy chain is composed of a variable region, which contains the antigen-binding site, and constant regions that determine the class and function of the antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their heavy chain constant regions and therefore have different functions in the immune response.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are synthesized by B cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The genetic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes during B cell development results in the production of a vast array of different antibodies with unique antigen-binding sites, allowing for the recognition and elimination of a wide variety of pathogens.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They are composed of four polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains, which are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains contain loops that form the antigen-binding site, allowing each Ig molecule to recognize a specific epitope (antigenic determinant) on an antigen.

Genes encoding immunoglobulins are located on chromosome 14 (light chain genes) and chromosomes 22 and 2 (heavy chain genes). The diversity of the immune system is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, where variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments are randomly selected and assembled to form the variable regions of the heavy and light chains. This results in an enormous number of possible combinations, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential threats.

There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with distinct functions and structures. For example, IgG is the most abundant class in serum and provides long-term protection against pathogens, while IgA is found on mucosal surfaces and helps prevent the entry of pathogens into the body.

Immunoglobulin kappa-chains are one of the two types of light chains (the other being lambda-chains) that make up an immunoglobulin molecule, also known as an antibody. These light chains combine with heavy chains to form the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens or foreign substances in the body.

Kappa-chains contain a variable region that differs between different antibodies and contributes to the diversity of the immune system's response to various antigens. They also have a constant region, which is consistent across all kappa-chains. Approximately 60% of all human antibodies contain kappa-chains, while the remaining 40% contain lambda-chains. The relative proportions of kappa and lambda chains can be used in diagnostic tests to identify clonal expansions of B cells, which may indicate a malignancy such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Antibody affinity refers to the strength and specificity of the interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen at a molecular level. It is a measure of how strongly and selectively an antibody binds to its target antigen. A higher affinity indicates a more stable and specific binding, while a lower affinity suggests weaker and less specific interactions. Affinity is typically measured in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd), which describes the concentration of antigen needed to achieve half-maximal binding to an antibody. Generally, a smaller Kd value corresponds to a higher affinity, indicating a tighter and more selective bond. This parameter is crucial in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as immunoassays and targeted therapies, where high-affinity antibodies are preferred for improved sensitivity and specificity.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

HIV antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the body. These antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific parts of the virus, known as antigens, in order to neutralize or eliminate it.

There are several types of HIV antibodies that can be produced, including:

1. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies: These are antibodies that specifically target the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, respectively.
2. Antibodies to HIV envelope proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the outer envelope of the virus, which is covered in glycoprotein spikes that allow the virus to attach to and enter host cells.
3. Antibodies to HIV core proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the interior of the viral particle, where the genetic material of the virus is housed.

The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood can be detected through a variety of tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. A positive test result for HIV antibodies indicates that an individual has been infected with the virus, although it may take several weeks or months after infection for the antibodies to become detectable.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Bispecific antibodies are a type of artificial protein that have been engineered to recognize and bind to two different antigens simultaneously. They are created by combining two separate antibody molecules, each with a unique binding site, into a single entity. This allows the bispecific antibody to link two cells or proteins together, bringing them into close proximity and facilitating various biological processes.

In the context of medicine and immunotherapy, bispecific antibodies are being investigated as a potential treatment for cancer and other diseases. For example, a bispecific antibody can be designed to recognize a specific tumor-associated antigen on the surface of cancer cells, while also binding to a component of the immune system, such as a T cell. This brings the T cell into close contact with the cancer cell, activating the immune system and triggering an immune response against the tumor.

Bispecific antibodies have several potential advantages over traditional monoclonal antibodies, which only recognize a single antigen. By targeting two different epitopes or antigens, bispecific antibodies can increase the specificity and affinity of the interaction, reducing off-target effects and improving therapeutic efficacy. Additionally, bispecific antibodies can bring together multiple components of the immune system, amplifying the immune response and enhancing the destruction of cancer cells.

Overall, bispecific antibodies represent a promising new class of therapeutics that have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and optimize their clinical use.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Single-chain antibodies (scFvs) are small, artificial protein molecules that contain the antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins. They are formed by linking the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of an antibody via a flexible peptide linker, creating a single polypeptide chain. This design allows scFvs to maintain the specificity of traditional antibodies while being significantly smaller in size, more stable, and easier to produce. They have various applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics, including targeted drug delivery, tumor imaging, and the development of novel therapies for cancer and other diseases.

Blocking antibodies are a type of antibody that binds to a specific antigen but does not cause the immune system to directly attack the antigen. Instead, blocking antibodies prevent the antigen from interacting with other molecules or receptors, effectively "blocking" its activity. This can be useful in therapeutic settings, where blocking antibodies can be used to inhibit the activity of harmful proteins or toxins.

For example, some blocking antibodies have been developed to target and block the activity of specific cytokines, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and immune responses. By blocking the interaction between the cytokine and its receptor, these antibodies can help to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms in certain autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammatory conditions.

It's important to note that while blocking antibodies can be useful for therapeutic purposes, they can also have unintended consequences if they block the activity of essential proteins or molecules. Therefore, careful consideration and testing are required before using blocking antibodies as a treatment.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) Fab fragments are the antigen-binding portions of an antibody that result from the digestion of the whole antibody molecule by enzymes such as papain. An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a Y-shaped protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, or toxins. The antibody has two identical antigen-binding sites, located at the tips of the two shorter arms, which can bind specifically to a target antigen.

Fab fragments are formed when an antibody is cleaved by papain, resulting in two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment. Each Fab fragment contains one antigen-binding site, composed of a variable region (Fv) and a constant region (C). The Fv region is responsible for the specificity and affinity of the antigen binding, while the C region contributes to the effector functions of the antibody.

Fab fragments are often used in various medical applications, such as immunodiagnostics and targeted therapies, due to their ability to bind specifically to target antigens without triggering an immune response or other effector functions associated with the Fc region.

Cultural diversity, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the existence, recognition, and respect of the different cultural backgrounds, beliefs, values, traditions, languages, and practices of individuals or groups. This concept is important in providing culturally competent care, which aims to improve health outcomes by addressing the unique needs and preferences of patients from diverse backgrounds. Cultural diversity in healthcare recognizes that there are variations in how people perceive and experience health and illness, communicate about symptoms and treatments, seek help, and follow medical advice. By understanding and incorporating cultural diversity into healthcare practices, providers can build trust, reduce disparities, and enhance patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment plans.

Molecular Diversity. 17 (3): 605-11. doi:10.1007/s11030-013-9453-y. PMC 3713267. PMID 23690169. Axup JY, Bajjuri KM, Ritland M ... antibody-conjugated nanoparticles and antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates. As the antibody-drug conjugate field has matured, a ... An antibody-drug conjugate consists of 3 components: Antibody - targets the cancer cell surface and may also elicit a ... Alternatives for the antibody targeting component now include multiple smaller antibody fragments like diabodies, Fab, scFV, ...
Imkeller, Katharina; Wardemann, Hedda (2018). "Assessing human B cell repertoire diversity and convergence". Immunological ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. The ... However, these equations are applicable only to a single epitope binding, i.e. one antigen on one antibody. Since the antibody ...
This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody's antigen-binding affinity. Some point ... antibody Neutralizing antibody Optimer Ligand Secondary antibodies Single-domain antibody Slope spectroscopy Synthetic antibody ... Antibody fragments, such as Fab and nanobodies are not considered as antibody mimetics. Common advantages over antibodies are ... Affimer Anti-mitochondrial antibodies Anti-nuclear antibodies Antibody mimetic Aptamer Colostrum ELISA Humoral immunity ...
Russell, CJ (20 October 2011). "Stalking influenza diversity with a universal antibody" (PDF). The New England Journal of ... The antibody binds to the F domain HA trimer, and prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell. The antibody has been ... they isolated four plasma cells that produced an identical antibody, which they called FI6. This antibody binds all 16 HA ... FI6 is an antibody that targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called hemagglutinin. FI6 is the only ...
"Tracking Antibody Diversity". NIH Director's Early Independence Award Highlights. National Institutes of Health. June 26, 2013 ... Award for his work using two-photon microscopy to understand the changes over time of the level of diversity of antibodies in ...
"Reshaping Antibody Diversity". Cell. 153 (6): 1379-93. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.049. PMC 4007204. PMID 23746848. Fish heavy ... an antibody lacking light chains, and can be used to produce single-domain antibodies, which are essentially the variable ... an update on shark VNAR single domain antibody sequences, phage libraries and potential clinical applications". Antibody ... The resulting antibody, IgM, is secreted as a tetramer in teleost fish instead of the typical pentamer found in mammals and ...
June 2013). "Reshaping antibody diversity". Cell. 153 (6): 1379-93. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.049. PMC 4007204. PMID 23746848 ... It is a small region at the tip of the antibody's antigen-binding fragment and contains parts of the antibody's heavy and light ... "Structural and genetic diversity in antibody repertoires from diverse species". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 33: 27- ... Each arm of the Y-shaped antibody has an identical paratope at the end. Paratopes make up the parts of the B-cell receptor that ...
Somatic generation of antibody diversity. Nature, 302(5909), 575-581. Gillies, S. D., Morrison, S. L., Oi, V. T., & Tonegawa, S ... and deleted to form the diversity of the variable region of antibodies. This process is known as V(D)J recombination. In 1983, ... the genetic mechanism which produces antibody diversity. Although he won the Nobel Prize for his work in immunology, Tonegawa ... In experiments beginning in 1976, Tonegawa showed that genetic material rearranges itself to form millions of antibodies. ...
Williamson, A. R. (1972). "Extent and control of antibody diversity". The Biochemical Journal. 130 (2): 325-33. doi:10.1042/ ...
... and especially the origins and functionality of antibody diversity, thus setting an agenda for a generation." 2021 - Prix Jean ... "Maximum entropy models for antibody diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5405-5410. doi: ...
"Broad diversity of neutralizing antibodies isolated from memory B cells in HIV-infected individuals". Nature. 458 (7238): 636- ... Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) are neutralizing antibodies which neutralize multiple HIV-1 viral strains. bNAbs ... bNAber, Database of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies (bNAbs) LANL Antibody Database (All articles with unsourced ... while single cell antibody cloning made it possible to produce large quantities of the antibodies for study. Low levels of ...
Tanford, Charles (1968). "Chemical basis for antibody diversity and specificity". Accounts of Chemical Research. 1 (6): 161-167 ... "Characterizing the Diversity of the CDR-H3 Loop Conformational Ensembles in Relationship to Antibody Binding Properties". ... Antibodies are specific to the target protein of interest, and will contain a fluorescent tag signaling the presence of the ... Antibodies show a strong correlation between rigidity and specificity. This correlation extends far beyond the paratope of the ...
In the future, nanobody/single-domain antibody therapy will surpass natural camel antibodies by reaching locations currently ... Chuluunbat, B.; Charruau, P.; Silbermayr, K.; Khorloojav, T.; Burger, P. A. (2014). "Genetic diversity and population structure ... Normally, the Y-shaped antibody molecules consist of two heavy (or long) chains along the length of the Y, and two light (or ... These "heavy-chain-only" antibodies, discovered in 1993, are thought to have developed 50 million years ago, after camelids ...
Chahwan R, Edelmann W, Scharff MD, Roa S (August 2012). "AIDing antibody diversity by error-prone mismatch repair". Seminars in ... where POLH is used to introduce genetic variation into antibody genes. However, this error-prone MMR pathway may be triggered ...
Her doctoral research looking at the impact of monoclonal antibodies on the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta. Platt was a ... Frances Platt publications from Europe PubMed Central "Fran Platt - Diversity Projects". parking.haiku.fry-it.com. Retrieved ... Judson, Frances (1986). Monoclonal antibody studies on the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta. bath.ac.uk (PhD thesis). OCLC ...
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Such antibodies are found within the egg when it is laid and originated from the yolk of the egg. Kramer and Cho have shown ... This results in a low diversity from gene rearrangements of Ig heavy and light chains. However, clusters of pseudogenes ... Using monoclonal antibodies that are specific for chicken T cell surface antigens, the development of T cells in birds is ... Upon hatch, birds do not have a library of genetic information for B cells to use for antibody production. Instead, J cells ...
"Diversity in oat potential immunogenicity: basis for the selection of oat varieties with no toxicity in coeliac disease". Gut. ... Clinically these antibodies and IgG antibodies to gliadin are abbreviated as AGA. The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but ... Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The IgE antibodies are more typically found ... removal of gluten results in the benign circulation of antibodies. The half life of these antibodies is typically 120 days. ...
"Anti-Cocaine Catalytic Antibodies: A Synthetic Approach to Improved Antibody Diversity". Journal of the American Chemical ... analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies". Immunology ... Catalytic antibodies against cocaine and methods of using and producing same Google patents US 6566084 B1 Deng, Shixian; Bharat ... Monoclonal antibodies generated against BSA-coupled 402e accelerated the rate of cocaine hydrolysis by ~23,000x and eliminated ...
"1987 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award Genetic basis of antibody diversity". Albert And Mary Lasker Foundation built ... Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ... Dreyer on antibody diversity. Dreyer is credited with giving Hood two important pieces of advice: "If you want to practice ... conducted pioneering studies on the structure and diversity of the antibody genes. This research led to verification of the " ...
To avoid antibodies attacking it, the cell has few proteins exposed on the outer membrane sheath. Its chromosome of about 1000 ... To introduce more phenotypic diversity, T. pallidum may undergo phase variation. This process mainly happens in TprF, TprI, ... The outer membrane of T. pallidum has too few surface proteins for an antibody to be effective. Efforts to develop a safe and ... In contrast, some of the known antigens are intracellular, and antibodies are ineffective against them to clear the infection. ...
Nobel Prize recipient for physiology or medicine for his work on antibody diversity. Craig Venter, BA (Biochemistry), 1972; PhD ...
... antibody molecule play important role in antibody diversity and production of different subclasses or classes of antibodies. ... Antibody diversity is produced by genetic rearrangement after shuffling and rejoining one of each of the various gene segments ... These errors are one of the sources of the antibody diversity that is commonly observed in both the light and heavy chains. ... The high concentrations of these mutations at the variable region also produce high antibody diversity. When the B cells get ...
"Covid antibody testing needed to counter false negatives". Newsroom. 8 December 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2021. "NZ to be last in ... "Labour's red tide sees its parliamentary diversity increase". RNZ. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2021. "Opinion: Parmjeet ...
The viruses that cause it frequently share common features such as antigenic diversity, replication ability, or ability to ... They also suggested that the presence of neutralizing antibody or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies ... When an antibody to a virus is unable to neutralize the virus, it forms sub-neutralizing virus-antibody complexes. Upon ... ADE is mainly mediated by IgG antibodies, but IgM and IgA antibodies have also been shown to trigger it. Prior to the COVID-19 ...
It was clear that there should be a mechanism that help the antibody to have diversity and keep it constant. The germ line ... The germ-line theory was a proposed explanation for immunoglobulin diversity that proposed that each antibody was encoded in a ... For decades microbiologists searched for a mechanism that could explain the large diversity of antibody structure. For this ...
"Breadth of neutralizing antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is affected by factors early in infection but ... Blish that have been cited ~100 or more times are: "Genetic and environmental determinants of human NK cell diversity revealed ... October 2013). "Genetic and environmental determinants of human NK cell diversity revealed by mass cytometry". Science ... July 2015). "Human NK cell repertoire diversity reflects immune experience and correlates with viral susceptibility". Science ...
... the PfRH5 antigen appears to have little genetic diversity. It was found to induce very low antibody response in people ... Antibodies that interfere with the binding by either targeting the key region of the DARC or the DBP will prevent the infection ... Antibodies against the Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (PfSEA-1) were found to disable the parasite's ability to rupture from the ... Antibodies are part of the specific immune response. They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating ...
... the isolation of rare broad neutralizing HIV antibodies and their ancestor antibodies; and 8) the development of a new strategy ... the design of mosaic T cell and B cell Env vaccine candidates to overcome HIV diversity; 6) the discovery of the immune ... He led the group that deciphered the maturation pathways of several types of broadly neutralizing antibodies that point the way ... Bonsignori, Mattia (March 2, 2016). "Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody". Cell ...
He defined an antibody classification system to determine where on the receptor binding domain that the antibody attaches. ... "HHMI Selects 15 Hanna Gray Fellows to Support Diversity in Science". HHMI. Retrieved 2022-12-04. "Christopher Barnes". HHMI. ... These antibodies target the N-terminal domain. He is interested in identifying antibodies that can attack all coronaviruses.[ ... "Structures of Human Antibodies Bound to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Reveal Common Epitopes and Recurrent Features of Antibodies". Cell. ...
Evidence of Zika Virus Reinfection by Genome Diversity and Antibody Response Analysis, Brazil On This Page ... Evidence of Zika Virus Reinfection by Genome Diversity and Antibody Response Analysis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... Evidence of Zika Virus Reinfection by Genome Diversity and Antibody Response Analysis, Brazil. Volume 30, Number 2-February ... Evidence of Zika Virus Reinfection by Genome Diversity and Antibody Response Analysis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(2):310 ...
Capturing the natural diversity of the human antibody response against vaccinia virus.. ... The company has collaborations for the development of antibody therapeutics in the infectious disease area with Genentech, and ... Symphogen is a private biopharmaceutical company leading the field of recombinant antibody mixtures for therapeutic use in ... Symphogen is dedicated to bringing truly innovative oncology products to the market, creating optimally selected antibody ...
This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibodys antigen-binding affinity.[47] Some point ... Antibody complexes[edit]. Some antibodies form complexes that bind to multiple antigen molecules.. Secreted antibodies can ... Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds, like antibodies, that can specifically bind antigens. They ... Antibody fragments, such as Fab and nanobodies are not considered as antibody mimetics. Common advantages over antibodies are ...
"Molecular Diversity. 17 (3): 605-11. doi:10.1007/s11030-013-9453-y. PMC 3713267. PMID 23690169.. ... An antibody-drug conjugate consists of 3 components:[29][30] Antibody - targets the cancer cell surface and may also elicit a ... Alternatives for the antibody targeting component now include multiple smaller antibody fragments[57] like diabodies,[58] Fab,[ ... Schematic structure of an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC). Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are a class of biopharmaceutical ...
However, the mechanism that achieves this incredible diversity has remained elusive. Researchers at the Babraham Institute have ... The human immune system employs a multitude of antibodies to combat infections. Remarkably, this vast array stems from the ... 3D Genome Analysis Discloses Mechanism Behind Antibody Diversity. The human immune system employs a multitude of antibodies to ... The team also hypothesizes that DNA folding alterations could influence the diversity of antibodies over time. As we grow older ...
Fewer antibody diversity as we age March 28, 2022 Ageing Immunobiology Studies in African killifish reveal how the immune ... Göttingen researchers have developed mini-antibodies that efficiently block the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its dangerous new ...
Transmission of Neisseria meningitidis among asymptomatic military recruits and antibody analysis - Volume 109 Issue 2 ... Clonal diversity of Neisseria meningitidis from a population of asymptomatic carriers. Infect Immun 1988; 56: 2060-8.Google ... NadA Diversity and Carriage in Neisseria meningitidis . Infection and Immunity, Vol. 72, Issue. 7, p. 4217. ... Antibody responses to serogroup B meningococcal outer membrane antigens after vaccination and infection. J Clin Microbiol 1988 ...
Browse a full range of Antibody Panels and Kits products from leading suppliers. Shop now at Fisher Scientific for all of your ... Antibody Panels and Kits. Antibody Panels and Kits. Combinations of antibody-related products that may include sets of ... antibodies in pairs and cocktails, control particles, buffers, and other kits and panels; for use in specific applications such ...
The diversity of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) antigens. Wiik A., Stummann L., Kjeldsen L., ... Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic, Antigens, Autoantibodies, Autoimmune Diseases, Epitopes, Humans, Neutrophil Activation ...
... antibody-antibody contacts. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a critical role of the L9 light chain in integrity of the ... The cryo-EM structure of the highly potent malaria antibody L9 reveals a key role of light-chain derived homotypic interactions ... we solved a cryo-EM structure of the highly potent anti-PfCSP antibody L9 in complex with recombinant PfCSP. We found that L9 ... A primary objective in malaria vaccine design is the generation of high-quality antibody responses against the circumsporozoite ...
Greater Breadth of Vaccine-Induced Immunity in Females than Males Is Mediated by Increased Antibody Diversity in Germinal ... and antibodies from females recognized a greater number of unique, linear HA epitopes than did antibodies from males. While ... Inactivated influenza vaccines induce greater antibody responses in females than males among both humans and mice. To test the ... We hypothesized that female-biased immunity and protection would be dependent on the extent of virus diversity as well as ...
Unique Human Monoclonal Antibody Targets RSV. August 28, 2013. Low Diversity of Intestinal Bacteria Increases Asthma Risk for ...
Anatomic and Functional Diversity in Neurons of Different Layers. In the mature neocortex, neurons of different layers display ... Figure 3: Laminar structure of cerebral cortex of rat shown by multiplexed immunofluorescence with the Anti- CUX1 antibody ( ... A):Immunohistochemical staining with Anti-LHX2 antibody (AMAb91404) shows strong immunoreactivity in the developing cortex and ... HPA003277, in blue), the Anti-NECAB1 (AMAb90800, in green) and the Anti-FOXP2 antibody (AMAb91362, in red). Note that CUX1 is ...
... is a monoclonal IgG antibody specific for human Toll-like receptor 6 (hTLR6, CD286). Anti-hTLR6-IgG can be used for the ... Human genetic diversity regulating the TLR10/TLR1/TLR6 locus confers increased cytokines in response to Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Neutralizing monoclonal antibody against human TLR6 Anti-hTLR6-IgG (clone C5C8) is a monoclonal antibody specific for human ... Anti-hTLR6-IgG is a potent neutralization antibody. Increasing concentrations of Anti-hTLR6-IgG were incubated for 30 minutes ...
We further comprehensively analyzed the impact of Omicron mutations on antibody epitopes and classified these antibodies ... We found that the epitopes of the H-RBD class antibodies were significantly less affected by Omicron mutations than other ... Cryo-EM results showed that this class of antibodies utilized a conserved mechanism to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Our results ... In this work, we carried out a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the reported spike protein antibodies, counting the ...
3D genome analysis reveals secrets to antibody diversity. View all news 20/09/2023. ...
... antibody development and screening, application-specific testing, and antibody manufacturing at a scale relevant to your goals ... antibody development services take advantage of extensive in-house expertise, ... These stable immortalized cell lines provide extensive clonal selection and preserve immunization diversity. In contrast, other ... ZooMAb® Antibodies. ZooMAb® recombinant antibodies represent a new generation of monoclonal antibodies that are specifically ...
Adaptive immunitys success relies on the extraordinary diversity of protein receptors on B cell membranes. Recent progress in ... Abstract: L11.00003 : Statistical analysis of sharing in antibody repertoires. 8:48 AM-9:00 AM Live ... J recombination model enhanced by a selection factor that describes repertoire diversity and that predicts with high accuracy ... deviation is a sign of a stronger antigen driven selection that opens the possibility of finding antigen-specific antibodies. ...
... and comprise the humoral antibodies produced by lampreys and hagfishes. The diversity of the molecules is generated by stepwise ... Previously, target-specific monovalent VLRB antibodies were isolated from sea lamprey larvae after immunization with model ... The diversity of the molecules is generated by stepwise genomic rearrangements of LRR cassettes dispersed throughout the VLRB ... The variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) consist of leucine rich repeats (LRRs) and comprise the humoral antibodies produced by ...
The presence of auto-antibodies that target synaptic machinery proteins was documented recently in immune-mediated cerebellar ... Despite their immune diversity, the majority of IMCAs is commonly associated with auto-antibodies against cerebellar ... Pathogenic actions of anti-GAD65 antibody. Anti-GAD65 antibody (Ab) can be internalized, presumably during exocytosis or ... Table 1 Auto-antibodies toward ion channel- and synapse-related antigens commonly found in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias ...
Genetic Diversity and Virulence Factors of S. aureus Isolated from Food, Humans, and Animals. *. Elizabeth ... antibodies and covid 19 antibodies covid antibodies defined antibodies definition antibodies for coronavirus antibodies for ... antibodies and covid 19 antibodies covid antibodies defined antibodies definition antibodies for coronavirus antibodies for ... immunity antibodies for covid-19 antibodies in blood antibodies in saliva antibodies in spanish antibodies song antibodies test ...
... in order for B cells to produce antibodies. Some polysaccharide antigens do not require T cell help for antibody production. ... The structural diversity of Ig isotypes is reflected in their functions. IgG isotypes represent the major component ( ... The human immune system is capable of producing up to 109 different antibody species to interact with a wide range of antigens ... Hematology Half-Time Report: Bispecific Antibodies for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma 0.5 CME / ABIM MOC ...
View Recombinant Antibody PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. Learn new and interesting things. Get ... ANTIBODY STRUCTURE AND THE GENERATION OF B-CELL DIVERSITY - ANTIBODY STRUCTURE AND THE GENERATION OF B-CELL DIVERSITY WHAT ARE ... Antibody Detection Relevance of cII-Specific Antibody - Antibody Detection Relevance of cII-Specific Antibody Andrea A. Zachary ... ANTIBODY STRUCTURE AND THE GENERATION OF B-CELL DIVERSITY WHAT ARE ANTIBODIES? Antigen specific proteins produced by plasma ...
This identification provided important context regarding BA.2.86 geographic spread and diversity. Although virus isolation was ... surveillance and sample collection are important to enable rapid laboratory characterization of variant sensitivity to antibody ...
Categories: Antibody Diversity Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
... "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity" ... Discoveries in JAX-founded Collaborative Cross, Diversity Outbred populations show value of multi-parent model organism systems ... JAX establishes The JAX Endowment for Diversity Initiatives, a fund created to advance JAXs reputation as a place where ... in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies" ...
David Lin discuss Heterophile Antibodies in this May 2017 Pearl of Laboratory Medicine. ... heterophile antibodies can arise naturally in the body as the result of antigen diversity. Furthermore, the production of ... antibodies is also often used to refer to human anti-animal antibodies, such as human-anti-mouse antibodies, or HAMA. And these ... Others define heterophile antibodies as "Nonspecific antibodies that interact poorly with immunoassays antibodies". And finally ...
2019Commonality despite exceptional diversity in the baseline human antibody repertoireNature. 566:393-397https://doi.org/ ... Beyond gp41-targeting antibodies and lipid antibodies in autoinflammatory diseases49, 50 or microbial infections51, 52, we ... 2009Role of HIV membrane in neutralization by two broadly neutralizing antibodiesProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106:20234-20239 ... 2010Crystal structure of a non-neutralizing antibody to the HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external regionNat Struct Mol Biol. 17 ...
Leukocyte-endothelial cell recognition: three (or more) steps to specificity and diversity. Cell1991;67:1033-6. ... The existence of memory in the antibody response, and the presence of long lasting circulating antibodies, means that it is ... These antibodies opsonised mucosal bacteria greatly enhancing PMN respiratory bursts. The existence of circulating antibodies ... To compare specific IgG subclass antibody responses and to normalise concentrations of each antibody, it was necessary to ...
  • To allow the immune system to recognize millions of different antigens, the antigen-binding sites at both tips of the antibody come in an equally wide variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies attach themselves to the antigens on the surface of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diversity of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Previously, target-specific monovalent VLRB antibodies were isolated from sea lamprey larvae after immunization with model antigens. (usgs.gov)
  • As you can probably tell from the figure, each antibody has 2 antigen binding sites, which allows the antibody to bind to specific antigens in a lock-and-key-like mechanism. (aacc.org)
  • Systemic antibody responses were measured against total antigens and surface antigens of these organisms in UC and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, together with healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • Virus-induced immune complex disease: identification of specific viral antigens and antibodies deposited in complexes during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Human monoclonal antibodies (huMab) are desired in precision medicine, but there remains a need for methods that can enable rapid cloning of antibodies to specific antigens in patients who have run a particular clinical course (e.g., cure from cancer or other deadly disease). (mainlinehealth.org)
  • In particular, there is a technical gap in the ability to clone human antibodies against native configurations of many membrane-bound antigens, often greatly desired as therapeutic targets. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • The antibodies then specifically bind to only those particular antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Variable region constitutes the antibody binding region of the molecule to the different antigens as it consists of about 110 amino acids that vary widely among the different antibody molecules. (medscape.com)
  • Following maA/Cal/09 vaccination , females produced greater virus -specific, class-switched total IgG and IgG2c antibodies against the vaccine and all mutant viruses , and antibodies from females recognized a greater number of unique, linear HA epitopes than did antibodies from males . (bvsalud.org)
  • Vaccinated females benefited from the greater production of class-switched, somatically hypermutated antibodies generated in germinal center B cells , which increased recognition of more diverse maA/Cal/09 hemagglutinin antigen epitopes . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this work, we carried out a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the reported spike protein antibodies, counting the epitopes and genotypes of these antibodies. (nature.com)
  • We further comprehensively analyzed the impact of Omicron mutations on antibody epitopes and classified these antibodies according to their binding patterns. (nature.com)
  • We found that the epitopes of the H-RBD class antibodies were significantly less affected by Omicron mutations than other classes. (nature.com)
  • A comprehensive and systematic analysis of the epitopes and modes of action of these antibodies can help us deeply understand the working mechanism of antibodies. (nature.com)
  • Our results showed that Omicron mutations affected the epitopes of most of the existing antibodies in Protein Data Bank (PDB). (nature.com)
  • Based on the binding mode of antibodies, we classified these antibodies and found that the epitopes of the H-RBD class antibodies were significantly less affected by Omicron mutations than other classes. (nature.com)
  • The work provides insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies associate with lipids proximal to membrane-associated epitopes to drive neutralization. (elifesciences.org)
  • Antibodies can target epitopes on integral membrane proteins very near to the lipid bilayer surface, even those partially embedded within the headgroup region. (elifesciences.org)
  • A better understanding of how antibodies develop membrane affinity and target membrane-proximal epitopes would be impactful for antibody therapeutics, auto-immunity, and vaccine development 10 - 12 . (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the first VAR2CSA subunit vaccines failed to induce broadly neutralizing antibody and it is known that naturally acquired antibodies target both variant-specific and conserved epitopes. (elifesciences.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that a single VAR2CSA ectodomain variant displays conserved epitopes that are targeted by neutralizing (or binding-inhibitory) antibodies shared by multiple parasite strains, including maternal isolates. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the fact that these antibodies can identify various epitopes on a given antigen creates a plethora of further advantages. (prospecbio.com)
  • These five antibodies could be differentiated by competitive immunoassay as recognizing at least two antigenically distinct epitopes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Several different neutralization profiles were obtained, suggesting that point mutations resulted in conformational changes at topographically selected distinct epitopes recognized by the remaining antibodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The novel technology developed at LIMR permits human hybridomas to display the antibodies they express on their cell surface, thereby enabling a new suite of useful methods to obtain antibodies against epitopes otherwise difficult or impossible to clone from patients. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs), the term is sometimes used interchangeably with "antibodies," are glycoprotein molecules produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to an immunogen or after recognition of specific epitopes on the antigen. (medscape.com)
  • The company has collaborations for the development of antibody therapeutics in the infectious disease area with Genentech, and in immuno-oncology with Shire. (symphogen.com)
  • Learn how innovative technologies, such as bioreactors and recombinant antibody methods, are revolutionizing the manufacturing of antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. (powershow.com)
  • First-generation immuno-oncological antibody therapeutics involved checkpoint modulators targeting common T-cell checkpoints such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. (news-medical.net)
  • Therapeutics of this nature capitalize on the exquisite specificity of antibody biologics to directly target tumor cells with cytotoxic agents (for example, ADCs) or indirectly target tumor cells by actively recruiting other immune cells (such as T-cells and macrophages) via multi-specific antibody formats. (news-medical.net)
  • One problem that antibody-engineering companies have long struggled with is the host immune response to biologic therapeutics. (genengnews.com)
  • They can now accelerate the timeline in which critical therapeutics can make it to the clinic," said Eric Hobbs, Ph.D., president of Antibody Therapeutics at Berkeley Lights. (businesswire.com)
  • Specificity of the PR-Set7 antibody. (powershow.com)
  • Our traditional hybridoma discovery approach triages antibody candidates in a high-throughput manner by specificity, affinity, and oftentimes functionality early in the workflow. (news-medical.net)
  • Ablexis' AlivaMab® Mouse platform is used by the majority of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies as the platform of choice for the rapid and efficient generation of diverse panels of antibodies with inherent qualities needed for antibody drugs, including affinity, potency, specificity and developability. (pharmiweb.com)
  • It has been shown that within the variable regions of even fully human antibodies, somatic mutations and other alterations in sequence information can stimulate a powerful reaction on the part of the host. (genengnews.com)
  • Many antibodies, including humanized and fully human antibodies, did not present serious immune dysfunction issues until they had been approved and a large body of documentation concerning their performance had accumulated," Dr. Baker continues. (genengnews.com)
  • SAN DIEGO and EMERYVILLE, Calif., April 22, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Ablexis, LLC , AlivaMab Discovery Services, LLC ("ADS") and Berkeley Lights, Inc. today announced the rapid generation and recovery of sequences encoding a rich panel of human antibodies against the S1 spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (pharmiweb.com)
  • LIMR's technology enables rapid cloning of human antibodies that may be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods (e.g., against membrane-bound proteins in native configuration). (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Human antibodies encompass greater antigenic diversity and reflect the experience of the patient, for example, in overcoming an aggressive cancer (where effective cancer-fighting antibodies may be found). (mainlinehealth.org)
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, [1] though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of slightly low immunoglobulin (IgG) where antibody production is intact, watchful waiting is encouraged. (medscape.com)
  • Some individuals will have low immunoglobulin without disruption of ability to produce antibody, and require no intervention. (medscape.com)
  • The remaining four directed against a second epitope gave significant persistent fractions which could be reduced by addition of complement, anti-mouse immunoglobulin, or antibody 2.25.4. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibodies belong to immunoglobulin family of protein and have 5 isotypes (G, A, M, E, D) with further subclasses of G and A. The classes are differentiated with the characteristics of the Ig heavy chain of the antibody. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of the development of conventional monoclonal antibodies to ZooMAb ® recombinant antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The lampribodies can be individually purified and ostensibly utilized for applications for which conventional monoclonal antibodies are employed. (usgs.gov)
  • Earlier this week, we reported on the clinical and non-clinical study portion of the guidelines ( see ' EMA Publishes Guidelines for Biosimilar Antibodies - Part I '). The EMA released a second set of guidelines along that directly deals with one of the premier safety challenges in working with mAbs -- immunogenicity. (patentdocs.org)
  • Due to the diversity of complications involved, standards for immunogenicity of mAbs simply cannot be generalized. (patentdocs.org)
  • When compared to mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) pAbs were found to have significantly lower levels of concentration. (prospecbio.com)
  • In 2015 the global monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) market accounted for US $85.4B and is expected to exhibit a growth rate of 5.7% over the 2015 - 2024 period, according to the market research firm Grand View Research. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Anti-hTLR6-IgG (clone C5C8) is a monoclonal antibody specific for human Toll-like receptor 6 (hTLR6, CD286). (invivogen.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: NMDAR1 Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (JM11-26) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-42468, RRID AB_2911609. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells were probed with NMDAR1 Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (Product # MA5-42468) at a dilution of 1:50 for 1 hour at room temperature, washed with PBS. (thermofisher.com)
  • This technology, known as the On-Cell Monoclonal antibody display System (OCMS), provides biotechnology companies with the ability to clone the broadest array of medicinal candidates from patients with a desired clinical experience. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Another polyclonal antibody, Rho(D) immune globulin, has been used to help pregnant mothers. (prospecbio.com)
  • Unlike conventional monoclonal and polyclonal technologies, ZooMAb ® recombinant antibodies are developed from a proprietary B cell immortalization and recombinant expression platform using tissue culture-based methods. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ZooMAb ® recombinant antibodies represent a new generation of monoclonal antibodies that are specifically engineered using our proprietary technologies that provide state-of-the-art consistency and applications performance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A potent class of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targets the envelope glycoprotein's membrane proximal exposed region (MPER) through a proposed mechanism where hypervariable loops embed into lipid bilayers and engage headgroup moieties alongside the epitope. (elifesciences.org)
  • We sought to address this phenomenon for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) 4E10, PGZL1, 10E8, and LN01 of unique lineages which all target the semi-concealed membrane-proximal epitope region (MPER) 13 - 16 of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). (elifesciences.org)
  • Of interest, in 3 of those patients, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased again after 6 months of ZIKV infection, concomitantly with real-time reverse transcription PCR re-positivity, supporting ZIKV reinfection events. (cdc.gov)
  • While females had greater neutralizing antibody titers against the vaccine virus , both sexes showed a lower neutralization capacity against mutant viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • AlivaMab Discovery Services immunized AlivaMab Mouse by expressing native trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in vivo using its propriety AMMPD-DNA technology, a process validated for rapidly eliciting strong IgG titers, and molecularly diverse, high affinity (very low picomolar) antibodies. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Please give an overview of the state of immuno-oncological therapeutic antibodies being researched and on the market. (news-medical.net)
  • AlivaMab Discovery Services was founded by a team with proven success in the development and use of transgenic animals in the discovery of human therapeutic antibodies. (pharmiweb.com)
  • An anticancer drug is coupled to an antibody that targets a specific tumor antigen (or protein ) that, ideally, is only found in or on tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary objective in malaria vaccine design is the generation of high-quality antibody responses against the circumsporozoite protein of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP). (nature.com)
  • Adaptive immunity's success relies on the extraordinary diversity of protein receptors on B cell membranes. (aps.org)
  • Here's the basic structure of an antibody (Ab), which is defined as a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. (aacc.org)
  • Ancillary protein-lipid contacts reveal surprising contributions from antibody framework regions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Based on multiplex screening assays performed on the Beacon® platform, these SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies may be binned into subsets based on their binding to the receptor binding domain (S1 B ) of SARS-CoV2, blocking of S1 B binding to the ACE2 receptor, and cross-reactivity with the S1 spike protein of the SARS-CoV virus. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This means that we develop antibodies without knowing the protein target and instead we develop antibodies based on their function. (lu.se)
  • When you find antibodies with the desired function, then you try to figure out what the actual protein target is afterward, because that's needed before you can enter clinical trials. (lu.se)
  • Antibodies can be found on the surface of lymphocytes as an integral part of the cell membrane protein or can be freely circulating in the blood or be part of one of the body's gland secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 k Da ) proteins of about 10 nm in size, [7] arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of auto-antibodies that target synaptic machinery proteins was documented recently in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias. (springer.com)
  • Among these diverse features, it should be acknowledged that auto-antibodies toward glutamate receptors, GABA receptors, and K + channel-related proteins are preferentially found in autoimmune limbic encephalitis but not in IMCAs [ 10 ] (Table 1 ). (springer.com)
  • The modeling platform developed here uncovers insights into lipid participation in antibodies' recognition of membrane proteins and highlights antibody features to prioritize in vaccine design. (elifesciences.org)
  • But in at least 50% of cases, the patients produce neutralizing antibodies, rendering therapy with these proteins ineffective. (genengnews.com)
  • Plasma samples from a cross-sectional study of well-characterized SLE patients ( n = 379) and matched population controls ( n = 316) were analyzed by antibody suspension bead array targeting 281 proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In two independent antibody purification/depletion experiments with permutated order of VAR2CSA variants, IgG purified on the first VAR2CSA antigen displayed broad cross-reactivity to both recombinant and native VAR2CSA variants, and inhibited binding of all isolates to CSA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Individuals exposed to the parasite naturally generate antibodies that block a wide array of variants from attaching to CSA. (elifesciences.org)
  • set out to find VAR2CSA structures that could be recognized by antibodies targeting an array of variants. (elifesciences.org)
  • Their plasma was passed over five different large VAR2CSA variants in order to isolate and purify antibodies that attached to these structures. (elifesciences.org)
  • Variants of Tacaribe virus resistant to neutralization by antibody 2.25.4 were obtained by growth in the presence of this antibody and neutralization kinetics were reexamined using the heterologous monoclonal neutralizing antibodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • ADCs are complex molecules composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic (anticancer) payload or drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diversity of the molecules is generated by stepwise genomic rearrangements of LRR cassettes dispersed throughout the VLRB locus. (usgs.gov)
  • GAD65 is involved in the synthesis, packaging, and release of GABA, whereas the other three play important roles in the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Thus, the auto-antibodies toward these synaptic molecules likely impair fundamental synaptic machineries involved in unique functions of the cerebellum, potentially leading to the development of cerebellar ataxias (CAs). (springer.com)
  • In the process of engaging the antigen, antibodies complementarity-determining regions (CDR) may need to navigate interactions with or concealment by lipid molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • We leverage a number of proprietary immunization strategies for tough target antibody discovery along with a suite of premium downstream characterization assays to ultimately deliver a panel of fully characterized lead molecules ready for development. (news-medical.net)
  • Even molecules not usually recognized as foreign (such as humanized antibodies), when pumped into the circulation in quantities large enough to perform their therapeutic function, can activate an autoimmune response. (genengnews.com)
  • Antibody-based therapies tailored to specific disease molecules are the main biologics being developed as precision medicine. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells , which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells , which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these fluids were traditionally known as humors , antibody-mediated immunity is sometimes known as, or considered a part of, humoral immunity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Greater Breadth of Vaccine-Induced Immunity in Females than Males Is Mediated by Increased Antibody Diversity in Germinal Center B Cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • We hypothesized that female -biased immunity and protection would be dependent on the extent of virus diversity as well as molecular mechanisms in B cells which constrain the breadth of epitope recognition. (bvsalud.org)
  • My research encompasses theoretical, methodological and empirical studies related to various eco-immunological issues such as the identification and quantification of immune costs (both in terms of physiology and Darwinian fitness), direct and long-term (hidden) costs of infection (telomeres and senescence), sexual selection and honest signaling, sexually antagonistic selection (e.g. on immune gene (MHC) diversity and immunity effects of maternal programming (antibody and hormone transfer to offspring). (lu.se)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize it directly (for example, by blocking a part of a virus that is essential for its invasion). (wikipedia.org)
  • The constant region at the trunk of the antibody includes sites involved in interactions with other components of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies from different classes also differ in where they are released in the body and at what stage of an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with B and T cells , antibodies comprise the most important part of the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The human immune system employs a multitude of antibodies to combat infections. (seqanswers.com)
  • Binding and virus neutralization experiments showed that such antibodies could effectively inhibit the immune escape of Omicron. (nature.com)
  • In order to study the immune escape of Omicron in more detail, we comprehensively and systematically studied the interaction between the antibodies reported in PDB and current Omicron strains. (nature.com)
  • Despite their immune diversity, the majority of IMCAs is commonly associated with auto-antibodies against cerebellar autoantigens. (springer.com)
  • Abveris is a contract research organization specializing in critical reagent and therapeutic antibody discovery for a wide range of targets, including those in the immune-oncology research space. (news-medical.net)
  • Having been exposed to the parasite in prior pregnancies generates antibodies that target VAR2CSA, stopping the infected blood cells from latching onto placental CSA or tagging them for immune destruction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Polyclonal antibodies known as Digoxin Immune Fab are used to help people suffering from toxic poisoning brought on as a side effect from taking too much digoxin medication. (prospecbio.com)
  • Further, there is a gap in the ability to retain all the human post-translational modifications of the antibody to confer the highest degree of natural immune character, potency and function. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Antibody drugs are a type of drug therapy that uses your body's immune system against diseases, including cancer. (lu.se)
  • For example, you have a cancer cell, and you want antibodies that can kill the cancer cell or activate a certain immune cell or so on, and then you develop the antibodies based on this. (lu.se)
  • Although virus isolation was not successful in this case, continued surveillance and sample collection are important to enable rapid laboratory characterization of variant sensitivity to antibody neutralization and antiviral drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular studies of LCM virus-induced immunopathology: development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to LCM virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Pichinde viruses: generation, characterization and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We found that L9 Fab binds multivalently to the minor (NPNV) repeat domain, which is stabilized by a unique set of affinity-matured homotypic, antibody-antibody contacts. (nature.com)
  • It's been estimated that up to 40% of the general population have antibodies with affinity to animal antibodies, but not all of them will be problematic for laboratory testing. (aacc.org)
  • One important thing to note is that there are papers in the literature that draw a distinction between heterophile antibodies and human anti-animal antibodies such as HAMA, largely because of differences in their origin and binding affinity. (aacc.org)
  • Nonetheless, in cases of chronic inflammation and infection as in HIV, rare antibodies with lipid affinity can emerge 5 - 8 . (elifesciences.org)
  • Symphogen is dedicated to bringing truly innovative oncology products to the market, creating optimally selected antibody mixtures that address multiple oncology targets in a single drug product. (symphogen.com)
  • An antibody-drug conjugate consists of 3 components: Antibody - targets the cancer cell surface and may also elicit a therapeutic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contract ZooMAb ® antibody development services are the solution for generating antibodies for your desired targets to meet your research and production needs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our discovery workflow capitalizes on a proprietary hyperimmune mouse model that has been engineered for epitopic diversity and optimized response to traditionally difficult targets. (news-medical.net)
  • Due to our unique combination of engineered mouse models, proprietary immunization techniques, and premium high-throughput and high-content screening capabilities, we specialize in high homology targets, constrained epitope targeting, and tough cell surface targets, all of which exist within the immuno-oncological antibody research space. (news-medical.net)
  • With its abilities to deliver against a range of targets that fail with traditional technologies, combined with the proven immunological diversity inherent in its PentaMice® platform, Curia expects to deliver unique and diverse antibody sequences with comprehensive data analysis under timelines that are weeks in duration rather than months, and development candidates in six months or fewer. (businesswire.com)
  • With the goal to broaden the availability of antibody-based drugs for patients with cancer and other diseases, she has spent the past several years working to develop new methods that can be used to identify new antibodies and antibody targets. (lu.se)
  • Although there tend to be many antibodies for the most popular targets, so there remains a great need to find new targets. (lu.se)
  • Global And China Recombinant Antibody Market Research Report 2017 - The Global And China Recombinant Antibody Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Recombinant Antibody industry. (powershow.com)
  • Even more precise targeting is on the horizon: for example, technologies that limit antibody activity to the tumor microenvironment and reduce cytotoxic activity in healthy tissue, resulting in a holistic attack on tumor cells with minimal adverse effects. (news-medical.net)
  • To enable rational antigen design, we solved a cryo-EM structure of the highly potent anti-PfCSP antibody L9 in complex with recombinant PfCSP. (nature.com)
  • Anti-hTLR6-IgG is a potent neutralization antibody. (invivogen.com)
  • This valuable study reports multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate a class of highly potent antibodies that simultaneously engage with the HIV-1 Envelope trimer and the viral membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient-related factors also present a substantial challenge over classic small-molecule drugs, as the MHC and human leukocyte antigen alleles of each patient are different, as well as the physiological rate of innate antibody production. (patentdocs.org)
  • Still another object of the present invention is to provide a nucleic acid molecule encoding the antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof, a recombinant expression vector containing the nucleic acid molecule, and a cell transformed with the recombinant expression vector. (justia.com)
  • Inactivated influenza vaccines induce greater antibody responses in females than males among both humans and mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Adult females develop greater antibody responses to influenza vaccines than males . (bvsalud.org)
  • The common clinical feature of symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia is a predisposition toward infections that normally are defended against by antibody responses (including but not limited to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infections). (medscape.com)
  • Distinct differences were observed in some bacterial populations in UC biopsies, which were generally reflected in antibody responses towards these organisms. (bmj.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to murine hepatitis virus-4 (strain JHM) define the viral glycoprotein responsible for attachment and cell-cell fusion. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Diversity of the murine antibody response targeting influenza A(H1N1pdm09) hemagglutinin. (cdc.gov)
  • Heterophile antibodies can interfere with both competitive immunoassay and sandwich immunoassay. (aacc.org)
  • Intriguingly, they observed that the organization of antibody DNA differs across cells. (seqanswers.com)
  • This mystery of how B cells produce an extensive array of antibodies to fend off various pathogens has long puzzled immunologists. (seqanswers.com)
  • As we grow older, the spectrum of antibodies produced narrows due to B cells opting for a limited gene pool, especially sidelining the distant genes. (seqanswers.com)
  • Second, these antibodies impair the induction of synaptic plasticity, rebound potentiation, and LTD, on Purkinje cells, resulting in loss of restoration and compensation of the distorted "internal models. (springer.com)
  • The humoral response involves interaction of B cells with antigen (Ag) and their differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells. (powershow.com)
  • B-cells producing antibodies targeting host membranes are downregulated in healthy organisms 1 - 4 . (elifesciences.org)
  • The mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) is replete with antibody producing plasma B cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN). (bmj.com)
  • This combination of effector cells requires a crosslinking antigen to evoke an antibody driven PMN inflammatory response via their Fc receptors. (bmj.com)
  • Curia is showing their commitment to adopting cutting-edge technologies that more rapidly and effectively find the best cells, especially for hard-to-identify antibodies. (businesswire.com)
  • Polyclonal antibodies (abbreviated as pAbs) are created in the body by B Cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prendergast GC, Chumakov K and Dessain SK (2019) Capture and display of antibodies secreted by human hybridoma cells enables on-cell screening . (mainlinehealth.org)
  • In my first paper, we describe the entire antibody discovery process where we developed antibodies capable of depleting chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells using primary cells obtained from patients. (lu.se)
  • The cellular response is mainly a lymphocyte-mediated reaction, whereas the humoral response includes production of antibodies against the antigen by the plasma cells. (medscape.com)
  • Coarse-grained simulations effectively capture antibodies embedding into membranes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The anti-tyrosinase antibody is expected to be effectively utilized for improving skin whitening or treating skin pigmentation disorders by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. (justia.com)
  • One antibody (2.25.4) effectively neutralized all infectious virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cryo-EM results showed that this class of antibodies utilized a conserved mechanism to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. (nature.com)
  • Preclinical validation of several classes of huMab cloned by the LIMR Center for Human Antibody Technology (CHAT) has been demonstrated using the OCMS platform, most recently antibodies that neutralize poliovirus or rabies virus or that bind the NMDA receptor in the brain and can be used to diagnose a potentially fatal encephalitis (brain inflammation). (mainlinehealth.org)
  • In contrast, other recombinant antibody development methods require immediate cloning to ensure clone viability, limiting the number of clones for further screening which results in the loss of highly specific candidates and creates the need for reimmunization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A significantly higher immortalization rate compared to the typical rabbit hybridoma fusion rate provides a wide diversity of clones, increasing the likelihood of finding the desired clone for your application. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are a class of biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for treating cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Antibody-drug conjugates are an example of bioconjugates and immunoconjugates . (wikipedia.org)
  • The guaranteed shelf life from date of receipt for antibodies and conjugates is listed on the product information sheet. (biotium.com)
  • Antibodies and other conjugates often are functional for significantly longer than the guaranteed shelf life. (biotium.com)
  • For lyophilized antibodies, we recommend reconstituting the antibody with glycerol and antimicrobial preservative like sodium azide for the longest shelf life (note that sodium azide is not compatible with HRP-conjugates). (biotium.com)
  • We believe the key to anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development is to rapidly screen and recover functionally diverse antibodies from an in vivo model", said Eric Hobbs, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of Berkeley Lights. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Using the Berkeley Lights platform with our process of ultra high-throughput function-first screening, we efficiently recovered different categories of antibodies with diverse activities, each of which we believe could contribute to the fight against this terrible disease. (pharmiweb.com)
  • EMERYVILLE, Calif. & ALBANY, N.Y.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Berkeley Lights, Inc. (Nasdaq: BLI), a leader in digital cell biology, and Curia, formerly AMRI, a leading contract research, development and manufacturing organization (CDMO), today announced Curia's adoption of The Beacon® Optofluidic system and workflows from Berkeley Lights to accelerate and expand its antibody-based drug discovery capabilities. (businesswire.com)
  • Advanced technologies such as the Berkeley Lights platform are revolutionizing antibody discovery, tackling key pain points that confront innovators, such as long timelines and limited number of sequences. (businesswire.com)
  • We are excited to partner with Curia, a leading CDMO, in their adoption of the Berkeley Lights platform for antibody discovery. (businesswire.com)
  • The variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) consist of leucine rich repeats (LRRs) and comprise the humoral antibodies produced by lampreys and hagfishes. (usgs.gov)
  • Detection of antibodies against mAb using ELISAs or radio-immunoprecipitation are difficult because of nonspecific binding, thus requiring a new generation of assays to be developed which are not yet sensitive enough to rely on in the clinical setting. (patentdocs.org)
  • We have observed excellent combinatorial and somatic diversity in this panel of antibodies selected for activities consistent with possible therapeutic mechanisms of action. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This antibody can be used for the neutralization of hTLR6, it blocks cellular activation induced by agonists that are recognized by TLR6 and TLR2, such as FSL-1 . (invivogen.com)
  • Engineered mutations to the 10E8 paratope at light-chain solvent-exposed residues that add positive charge or hydrophobic sidechains proved to increase antibody association to anionic phospholipid vesicles in vitro and also boosted neutralization potency 27 . (elifesciences.org)
  • All those patients showed an increase in neutralizing antibody levels, followed by a decline at the convalescent phase of ZIKV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The observed diversity includes activities consistent with different mechanisms of action hypothesized for highly efficacious antibody therapy and prophylaxis of infection by SARS-CoV-2. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In contrast, first-generation vaccines based on VAR2CSA fragments have only induced variant-specific antibodies, therefore offering limited protection against infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • Blood samples revealed the monkeys developed antibodies built to target SARS-CoV-2 shortly after infection, with significant concentrations appearing in the blood by the 14th day and remaining elevated when checked 21 and 28 days after infection. (livescience.com)
  • These stable immortalized cell lines provide extensive clonal selection and preserve immunization diversity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The stable immortalized cell line enables the extensive clonal selection process and preserves the diversity from the initial immunization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The secreted antibody (Ab) binds to the antigen and facilitates its clearance from the body. (powershow.com)
  • In the mature neocortex, neurons of different layers display anatomical and functional diversity, including cell morphology, physiological propertiesand anatomical connections. (atlasantibodies.com)
  • We feel the ability of EpiScreen to recognize these problematic antibodies early in their development is an important tool for insuring highly successful biologics. (genengnews.com)
  • Rising incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases is engendering the high demand for biologics, which is serving as the key contributing factor for the growth of the monoclonal antibodies industry. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Anti-GAD65 antibody (Ab) acts on the terminals of inhibitory neurons that suppress GABA release, whereas anti-VGCC, anti-mGluR1, and anti-GluR Abs impair LTD induction. (springer.com)
  • If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesn't perform as described on our website or datasheet,we'll replace the product at no cost to you, or provide you with a credit for a future purchase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Meanwhile, it also provides guidance and insights for developing Omicron antibodies and vaccines. (nature.com)
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • This service takes advantage of extensive expertise in immunogen design and preparation, antibody development and screening, application-specific testing, and antibody manufacturing at the scale that is relevant to your goals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The antibodies developed using our award-winning innovative technology exhibit lot-to-lot consistency, reproducibility, and application performance with the option to formulate the final buffer presentation for your specific downstream applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This deviation is a sign of a stronger antigen driven selection that opens the possibility of finding antigen-specific antibodies. (aps.org)
  • The aim of this investigation was to compare the principal culturable bacterial populations on the rectal mucosa of UC patients, and to determine whether specific antibodies towards these bacteria can activate infiltrating PMN through opsonisation. (bmj.com)
  • That said, all four monkeys appeared susceptible to COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, developed symptoms that were similar to humans and generated specific antibodies in response to the virus. (livescience.com)
  • Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits. (thermofisher.com)
  • The present invention relates to an anti-tyrosinase antibody for inhibiting tyrosinase and use thereof, and more particularly, to an anti-tyrosinase antibody including a heavy chain CDR and a light chain CDR of specific sequences, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof. (justia.com)
  • This organization permits genes, even those located distantly, to coalesce during antibody formation, leading to a robust defense mechanism. (seqanswers.com)
  • One way the cell achieves this is cutting and pasting from a suite of options for the antibody genes, but the puzzling thing is genes that are far away from the location of this event are used just as often as ones close by, so there must be some way of bringing everything together and making sure that everything needed is at hand. (seqanswers.com)
  • In addition to charting antibody gene interactions, associations between essential genes crucial for B cell development were also identified. (seqanswers.com)
  • Dr. Corcoran further added, "We found that the antibody genes were in close proximity to a small proportion of other genes on different chromosomes. (seqanswers.com)
  • Changes in DNA folding might render certain genes inaccessible, hence not chosen for antibody formation. (seqanswers.com)
  • In autoimmune limbic encephalitis, it is assumed that these auto-antibodies diffusely interfere with basal synaptic transmission or neural excitability and weaken overall functions of the temporal lobe [ 18 ]. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the production of heterophile antibodies has been associated with patients with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. (aacc.org)
  • Structurally an antibody is also partitioned into two antigen-binding fragments (Fab), containing one V L , V H , C L , and C H 1 domain each, as well as the crystallisable fragment (Fc), forming the trunk of the Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of recombinant antibody fragments capable of detecting azaspiracid - Edwina Stack, Richard O' Kennedy, Linda Steward and Chris Elliott. (powershow.com)
  • As humans, we all fall into different diversity categories, and so creating space for more people that "look like me" allows for a more legitimate, human experience in the workspace. (vectorlabs.com)
  • They can also bind to antibodies in the immunoassay, such as the capture or the signal antibodies, as well as other components of an immunoassay, such as the conjugate and other parts of a detection system. (aacc.org)
  • The diversity within the patients obstructs clinical trials but may also reflect differences in underlying pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • We believe that these findings could be of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis and diversity of SLE, as well as for selection of patients in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Capturing the natural diversity of the human antibody response against vaccinia virus. (symphogen.com)
  • Antibodies from UC patients greatly enhanced the respiratory burst in PMN, in response to individual bacterial species. (bmj.com)
  • Antibiotic treatment may diminish the antibody response. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes in mucosal bacteria, and a switch from internal to surface antigen/antibody reactivity of a predominantly IgG1 type, leads to greater opsonisation of the respiratory burst in PMN, providing a mechanism for maintaining the inflammatory state in UC. (bmj.com)
  • Evaluation of plaque size reduction as a method for the detection of Pichinde virus antibody. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Therefore, the use of a combination of antibody- and antigen-detection methods for the diagnosis of chlamydiosis is recommended, particularly when only one bird is tested. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the genetic profile of diversity and virulence of S. aureus strains isolated from food (29 strains), men (43 strains), and animals (8 strains). (aabioetica.org)
  • Then we'll quickly review immunoassay and look at some examples of how heterophile antibodies can interfere with immunoassays. (aacc.org)
  • So how do these heterophile antibodies interfere with immunoassays? (aacc.org)