Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A plant genus of the family NYSSACEAE (sometimes classified in the CORNACEAE family). It is a source of CAMPTOTHECIN.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)

In vitro antibody-dependent enhancement assays are insensitive indicators of in vivo vaccine enhancement of equine infectious anemia virus. (1/83)

We have previously demonstrated a high propensity for enhancement of virus replication and disease resulting from experimental immunization of ponies with a baculovirus recombinant envelope (rgp90) vaccine from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The current studies were undertaken to examine the correlation between the observed in vivo vaccine enhancement and in vitro assays for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of EIAV replication. Toward this goal an optimized EIAV in vitro enhancement assay was developed using primary equine macrophage cells and used to evaluate the enhancement properties of immune serum taken from rgp90 immunized ponies that displayed various levels of vaccine enhancement after experimental challenge with EIAV. For comparison, we analyzed in parallel immune serum samples from a group of ponies immunized with a viral envelope subunit vaccine (LL-gp) that produced sterile protection from EIAV challenge. The results of these assays demonstrated that the rgp90 immune serum had a greater propensity for in vitro enhancement of EIAV replication than serum from the protected LL-gp immunized ponies; in vitro enhancement levels for the rgp90 immune sera averaged about 1.5, with a maximum enhancement value of about 2.0. While distinguishing between immune serum produced by the rgp90 and LL-gp immunizations, the in vitro enhancement assay failed to reliably correlate with the severity of in vivo enhancement observed among the rgp90 vaccine recipients. Vaccinated ponies that experienced moderate to no disease signs displayed levels of in vitro enhancement similar to those of ponies that experienced severe and fatal enhancement of disease after viral challenge. The observed in vitro enhancement was demonstrated to be dependent on serum immunoglobulin, but independent of complement. These studies demonstrate in the EIAV system that in vitro ADE assays appear to be relatively insensitive indicators of the severity of in vivo enhancement and that relatively low levels of in vitro ADE can be associated with severe to fatal enhancement of virus replication and disease in vivo. These observations suggest that relatively low levels of serum ADE observed in other lentivirus systems, including HIV-1, may have more profound effects on in vivo virus replication and disease than previously recognized.  (+info)

Infection of human cells by dengue virus is modulated by different cell types and viral strains. (2/83)

Although prior studies have investigated cellular infection by dengue virus (DV), many have used highly passaged strains. We have reassessed cellular infection by DV type 2 (DV2) using prototype and low-passage isolates representing genotypes from different geographic areas. We observed marked variation in the susceptibility to infection among cell types by different DV2 strains. HepG2 hepatoma cells were susceptible to infection by all DV2 strains assayed. Although the prototype strain generated higher titers of secreted virus than the low-passage isolates, this difference did not correspond to positive- or negative-strand viral RNA levels and thus may reflect variation in efficiency among DV2 isolates to translate viral proteins or package and/or secrete virus. In contrast, human foreskin fibroblasts were susceptible to the prototype and low-passage Thai isolates but not to five Nicaraguan strains tested, as reflected by the absence of accumulation of negative-strand viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. A similar pattern was observed with the antibody-dependent pathway of infection. U937 and THP-1 myeloid cells and peripheral blood monocytes were infected in the presence of enhancing antibodies by the prototype strain but not by low-passage Nicaraguan isolates. Again, the barrier appeared to be prior to negative-strand accumulation. Thus, depending on the cell type and viral isolate, blocks that limit the production of infectious virus in vitro may occur at distinct steps in the pathway of cellular infection.  (+info)

Specific ablation of antiviral gene expression in macrophages by antibody-dependent enhancement of Ross River virus infection. (3/83)

Ross River virus (RRV) is an indigenous Australian arthropod-borne alphavirus responsible for epidemic polyarthritis (EPA), myalgia, and lethargy in humans. Macrophages and monocytes have been associated with human RRV disease, and previous studies have shown that RRV is capable of infecting macrophages via both a natural virus receptor and by Fc receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Similar to other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus and dengue virus, ADE infection results in dramatic RRV growth increases for in vitro macrophage cultures. This study demonstrates that RRV could resist lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced antiviral activity in macrophage cultures when infection was via the ADE pathway. Investigation of this infection pathway found that RRV was able to suppress the transcription and translation of key antiviral genes (tumor necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase) in LPS-stimulated macrophages by disrupting the transcription into mRNA of the genes coding for the associated transcription factors IRF-1 and NF-kappaB. The transcription of non-antiviral control genes was not perturbed by RRV-ADE infection, and de novo protein synthesis also was not significantly affected in RRV-ADE infected cells. The ADE pathway of infection allowed RRV to specifically target antiviral genes in macrophages, resulting in unrestricted virus replication. As ADE has been observed for several virus families and associated with disease and adverse vaccination outcomes, these findings may have broad relevance to viral disease formation and antiviral vaccination strategies.  (+info)

Infectivity-enhancing antibodies to Ebola virus glycoprotein. (4/83)

Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, resulting in mortality rates of up to 100%, yet there are no satisfactory biologic explanations for this extreme virulence. Here we show that antisera produced by DNA immunization with a plasmid encoding the surface glycoprotein (GP) of the Zaire strain of Ebola virus enhances the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the GP. Substantially weaker enhancement was observed with antiserum to the GP of the Reston strain, which is much less pathogenic in humans than the Ebola Zaire and Sudan viruses. The enhancing activity was abolished by heat but was increased in the presence of complement system inhibitors, suggesting that heat-labile factors other than the complement system are required for this effect. We also generated an anti-Zaire GP monoclonal antibody that enhanced viral infectivity and another that neutralized it, indicating the presence of distinct epitopes for these properties. Our findings suggest that antibody-dependent enhancement of infectivity may account for the extreme virulence of the virus. They also raise issues about the development of Ebola virus vaccines and the use of passive prophylaxis or therapy with Ebola virus GP antibodies.  (+info)

Enhancement of adenovirus vector entry into CD70-positive B-cell Lines by using a bispecific CD70-adenovirus fiber antibody. (5/83)

Although many recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) have been developed, especially by using group C adenoviruses, to transfer and express genes, such rAd do not readily infect B-cell lines due to the lack of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor. Bispecific antibodies have been used in different cell systems to facilitate entry of rAd into otherwise nonpermissive cells. Bispecific antibody is synthesized by covalently linking two monoclonal antibodies with distinct specificities. It has been shown that lymphoproliferative tumors commonly express the cell surface protein CD70, while this receptor is normally expressed on only a small subset of highly activated B cells and T cells. We therefore investigated whether a bispecific antibody with specificities for the adenovirus fiber protein and CD70 can facilitate rAd entry and subsequent expression of rAd-encoded genes in CD70-positive B cells. We found high CD70 expression on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), as well as some, but not all, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines. We show here that rAd encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) infects EBV-transformed LCLs and a CD70-positive BL line 10- to 20-fold more efficiently in the presence of the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody. In contrast, the bispecific antibody does not enhance Ad-GFP infection in CD70-deficient BL cells. Using the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody, we increased the ability of rAd vectors encoding the EBV immediate-early proteins BZLF1 and BRLF1 to induce the lytic form of EBV infection in LCLs. These results indicate that the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody can enhance rAd infection of CD70-positive B cells and suggest the use of this vector to explore EBV-positive LCLs.  (+info)

Antibody-dependent enhancement of coxsackievirus B4 infectivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells results in increased interferon-alpha synthesis. (6/83)

IgG devoid of neutralizing activity and isolated from donor plasma by chromatography formed immune complexes with coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and significantly increased the infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CVB4. The major host cells for CVB4 infection enhanced with IgG are monocytic CD14+ cells. The roles of CVB and adenovirus receptor and Fcgamma receptor II and III have been shown. Increased viral replication and the release of infectious particles were demonstrated when interferon (IFN)-alpha produced by infected cells was first neutralized by use of antibodies. The CVB4 IgG-induced synthesis of IFN-alpha by monocytes reflected entry and uncoating of CVB4 but not of viral replication and required the presence of CVB4 RNA inside the cells. Thus, CVB4 can infect monocytes by an antibody-dependent mechanism through interactions between the virus, antiviral antibodies, and specific receptors that result in IFN-alpha production.  (+info)

Enhancement of coxsackievirus B3 infection by antibody to a different coxsackievirus strain. (7/83)

Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are a major cause of viral myocarditis and pancreatitis in humans and produce a similar pattern of disease in inbred strains of mice. As there are six strains of CVBs, individuals can be infected with multiple serotypes. This raises the possibility of antibody enhancement of infectivity (AEI) by cross-reactive but non-neutralizing antibody to a different strain from a prior infection. To determine whether AEI plays a role in coxsackievirus pathogenesis, an in vitro system using the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 was tested for enhanced infection when incubated with CVB3 plus anti-CVB2 antibody. Yields of virus were found to increase by 10-50-fold and the percentage of infected cells increased proportionately. The effect was Fc-mediated as F(ab')2 fragments of the antibody could not mediate the effect. To determine whether AEI could also be demonstrated in vivo CVB3 was injected into 5-week-old mice together with mouse polyclonal anti-CVB2. Controls included mice injected with PBS or CVB3 alone. Results showed that the titres of virus in tissues of animals injected with virus plus antibody were 1-2 logs higher than when virus was injected alone. This was accompanied by greater histopathological damage, particularly in the heart. These results have implications for human disease as infection with multiple strains likely occurs during the lifetime of an individual.  (+info)

Complement-mediated enhancement of antibody function for neutralization of pseudotype virus containing hepatitis C virus E2 chimeric glycoprotein. (8/83)

We previously reported a number of features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimeric glycoproteins related to pseudotype virus entry into mammalian cells. In this study, pseudotype virus was neutralized by HCV E2 glycoprotein-specific antibodies and infected human sera. Neutralization (50% reduction of pseudotype virus plaque formation) was observed with two human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) at concentrations of between 2.5 and 10 microg/ml. A hyperimmune rabbit antiserum to an E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) mimotope also exhibited an HCV E2 pseudotype virus neutralization titer of approximately 1/50. An E1 pseudotype virus used as a negative control was not neutralized to a significant level (<1/10) by these MAbs or rabbit antiserum to E2 HVR1. Since HCV probably has a lipid envelope, the role of complement in antibody-mediated virus neutralization was examined. Significant increases in the neutralization titers of the human MAbs (approximately 60- to 160-fold higher) and rabbit antiserum to HVR1 mimotopes (approximately 10-fold higher) were observed upon addition of guinea pig complement. Further, these studies suggested that complement activation occurred primarily by the classical pathway, since a deficiency in the C4 component led to a significant decrease in the level of virus neutralization. This same decrease was not observed with factor B-deficient complement. We also determined that 9 of 56 HCV-infected patient sera (16%) had detectable pseudotype virus neutralization activity at serum dilutions of between 1/20 and 1/50 and that complement addition enhanced the neutralization activity of some of the HCV-infected human sera. Taken together, these results suggest that during infection, HCV E2 glycoprotein induces a weak neutralizing antibody response, that those antibodies can be measured in vitro by the surrogate pseudotype virus plaque reduction assay, and that neutralization function can be augmented by complement.  (+info)

There are concerns about the potential for more serious adverse events-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) following infection and a subtype of ERD, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) following infection after vaccine administration. There are two mechanisms of ADE, both of which occur when non-neutralizing antibodies or antibodies at sub-neutralizing levels bind to viral antigens without blocking or clearing infection. In ADE via enhanced infection, non-neutralizing antibodies bound to the virus enhance infection rates in target cells, such as macrophages, leading to more severe disease. In the second type described by Lee et al., ADE via enhanced immune activation, binding of non-neutralizing antibody to the virus leads to the formation of immune complexes in lung tissues, which, in turn, lead to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the complement cascade. The ensuing inflammation can lead to airway obstruction and can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome in ...
Persons who have been VACCINATED against COVID-19 are now subject to Antibody-Dependent Enhancement which is highly likely to . . . kill them. This is the absolute worst-case scenario with any vaccine. People who took the vax should be quarantined and isolated immediately. The
Background Improvement in dengue vaccine development has been hampered by limited understanding of protective immunity against dengue disease infection. samples (75%, 60/80) shown DENV neutralizing activity (PRNT5010) and infection-enhancing activity. Eleven of 18 serum samples from individuals with acute secondary DENV infection shown neutralizing activity to the infecting serotype determined by using FcR-negative BHK cells (PRNT5010), but not when determined by using FcR-expressing cells. Summary Human serum samples with low neutralizing activity determined by using FcR-negative cells showed DENV infection-enhancing activity using FcR-expressing cells, whereas those with high neutralizing activity determined by using FcR-negative cells demonstrate low or no infection-enhancing activity using FcR-expressing cells. The results suggest an inverse relationship between neutralizing antibody titer and infection-enhancing activity, which neutralizing activity dependant on using FcR-expressing cells, ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to gain entry. The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane. The viruses bind to the antigen binding site at the other end of the antibody. ADE is common in cells cultured in the laboratory, but rarely occurs in vivo except for dengue virus. This virus can use this mechanism to infect human macrophages, causing a normally mild viral infection to become life-threatening. The most widely known example of ADE occurs in the setting of infection with the dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It causes a disease of varying severity in humans, from dengue fever (DF), which is usually self-limited, to dengue ...
Read Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using FcγR-expressing BHK cells, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is certainly a well-described phenomenon that is certainly structured on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fc receptors expressed on myeloid cells. mediated attachment of the computer virus to the plasma membrane also at neutral pH, thereby increasing viral infectivity. Since antibody-induced enhancement of binding was not only observed with cells but also with liposomes, it is usually likely that increased contamination was due to FL-lipid interactions and not PF-3644022 to interactions with cellular plasma membrane proteins. The novel mechanism of antibody-induced contamination enhancement adds a new facet to the complexity of antibody interactions with flaviviruses and may have implications for yet unresolved effects of polyclonal antibody responses on biological properties of these viruses. Author summary Antibodies are an important component of antiviral host responses and their ...
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DENV infection elicits primarily a poor quality immune response directing a high proportion of antibody against non-protective, potentially pathogenic epitopes and only a small proportion against potently neutralizing and protective epitopes. In this report we have shown the manipulation of these potentially pathogenic epitopes as a vaccine strategy [41] that can reduce ADE in vitro and in vivo. Immunization of mice demonstrated that knocking out immunodominant cross-reactive epitopes in the EDIIFP and EDIII did not significantly effect DENV-2 neutralization, however the removal of these epitopes dramatically altered the vaccine induced antibody repertoire and sera from vaccinated mice shows reduced ADE in vitro and reduced lethal enhancement of DENV in vivo. Such a strategy could be applicable to other DENV vaccine formats, however, it might not be applicable to DENV live-attenuated vaccines because mutations in the EDIIFP can be lethal [42].. Our findings demonstrate that by introducing ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Video articles in JoVE about west nile virus include In Vitro Analysis of Myd88-mediated Cellular Immune Response to West Nile Virus Mutant Strain Infection, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Genome-Wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy, Detection of Infectious Virus from Field-collected Mosquitoes by Vero Cell Culture Assay, Efficient Agroinfiltration of Plants for High-level Transient Expression of Recombinant Proteins, Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency, Rescue and Characterization of Recombinant Virus from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone, A Simple Flow Cytometry Based Assay to Determine In Vitro Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Using Zika Virus Convalescent Serum, Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds, High-throughput Screening for
Immunopathogenesis of Intense Dengue in Secondary Infections.The kinetics of viremia inside of a individual with secondary dengue, the timing of typical difficulties, and achievable mechanistic results in are proven. Early in secondary an infection (or Most important infection of infants), antibody-dependent enhancement is assumed to boost in vivo concentrations of virus.17 Antibody-dependent improvement is associated with the existence of non-neutralizing or subneutralizing levels of dengue virus-reactive IgG induced by a Principal an infection, or obtained passively in newborns. A large infected cell mass leads to elevated concentrations of acute-period reaction proteins, cytokines, and chemokines; technology of immune complexes; and use of enhance and launch of break up products. The activation, proliferation, and secretion of cytokines in tissues by memory T lymphocytes recognizing conserved and altered peptide ligands are postulated to incorporate on the inflammatory milieu throughout ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been proposed as a mechanism to explain dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the course of a secondary dengue infection. roles in virus attachment to cells and fusion with membranes, and is the major target for neutralizing antibody. It contains the main epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies (virus-particular and cross-reactive epitopes) [5,6]. This proteins offers three structural and practical domains: domain II provides the inner fusion peptide (in charge of the fusion of flaviviruses with their target cellular material) and domain III the cellular receptor-binding motifs [7,8]. Domains I and III consist of predominantly subcomplex- and type-particular epitopes, whereas domain II provides the main flavivirus group and subgroup cross-reactive epitopes [9C11]. M protein could be within two forms. In cell-connected (immature) virions, prM (the precursor of M proteins) is noticed, which forms a heterodimer with the Electronic protein (prM-Electronic ...
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells - that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system. Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region. Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. There are several different types of Fc receptors (abbreviated FcR), which are classified based on the type of antibody that they recognize. The Latin letter ...
Antibodies that enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity have been found in the blood of infected individuals and in infected or immunized animals. These findings raise serious concern for the development of a safe vaccine against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To address the in vivo relevance and mechanism of this phenomenon, antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity in peripheral blood macrophages, lymphocytes, and human fibroblastoid cells was studied. Neither Leu3a, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD4 receptor, nor soluble recombinant CD4 even at high concentrations prevented this enhancement. The addition of monoclonal antibody to the Fc receptor III (anti-FcRIII), but not of antibodies that react with FcRI or FcRII, inhibited HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 enhancement in peripheral blood macrophages. Although enhancement of HIV infection in CD4+ lymphocytes could not be blocked by anti-FcRIII, it was inhibited by the addition of human immunoglobulin G ...
Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) are reputed to be the most cost-effective tools for controlling epidemics. With increasing disease outbreaks caused by virus infections, vaccines will have to be delivered to both adults and children, who may have pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies due to previous exposure with an antigenically related virus strain. We and others have shown in vitro that cross-reactive antibodies can improve vaccine efficacy by enhancing LAV infection in Fc gamma-receptor (FcgR) expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs), a process known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). However, the relevance and occurrence of ADE has yet to be demonstrated clinically. We conducted an open-label trial where subjects are sequentially immunized with the inactivated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine (Ixiaro®) followed by a live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (Stamaril®). To generate a range of cross-reactive antibodies concentrations, subjects were divided into 3 groups, where ...
Antibodies created during a viral infection or in response to a vaccine help to prevent reinfection with that specific virus but can, in some cases, worsen infections by similar ones. This phenomenon, called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), is particularly problematic for the related flaviviruses Zika and dengue. Researchers are therefore developing vaccination strategies to avoid the issue, and results from the latest incarnation tested in mice were reported yesterday (May 11) in Cell Reports. In the vaccine field, people have been focused on eliciting antibody responses, and thats great of course, but . . . T cells are also important in mediating protective immunity, says immunologist Sujan Shresta of the La Jolla Institute for Immunology who works on Zika and dengue vaccination strategies and has developed her own T cell-boosting vaccine but was not involved in the new study. Her progress together with yesterdays report really challenges the dogma, that antibodies are the most ...
Antibodies, Antibody-dependent Enhancement, Concentrations, Dengue, Dengue Virus, Disease, Epitopes, Fc Receptor, Glycoprotein, Histories, Human, Infection, Inhibition, Liposome, Monoclonal Antibodies, Mosquito, Mutations, Patients, Proteins, Therapeutic
We are starting to see a few mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that impact the spike surface antigen, said Alexandre Le Vert, Executive Chairman and co-founder of the French vaccine firm Osivax. If these mutation trends persist and increase with the worldwide spread of the virus, we believe that the vaccines targeting the spike surface antigen might have limited efficacy.. Furthermore, Le Vert pointed out that mutations in surface proteins on the SARS-CoV-2 virus could even cause some vaccines to exacerbate the infection. This can happen via a phenomenon known as antibody-dependent enhancement, where certain antibodies stick to the virus incorrectly and make it even better at infecting cells.. So how can we make sure that Covid-19 vaccines wont get outpaced by an evolving virus? According to the UK company Emergex, a key clue lies in studying vaccines for other viral infections that have proved effective for decades.. Last week, Emergex released the results of an investigation into immune ...
Therapies to prevent maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its subsequent fetal developmental complications are urgently required. We isolated three potent ZIKV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) from the plasmablasts of a ZIKV-infected patient-SMZAb1, SMZAb2, and SMZAb5-directed against two different domains of the virus. We engineered these nmAbs with Fc LALA mutations that abrogate Fcg receptor binding, thus eliminating potential therapy-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement. We administered a cocktail of these three nmAbs to nonhuman primates 1 day before challenge with ZIKV and demonstrated that the nmAbs completely prevented viremia in serum after challenge. Given that numerous antibodies have exceptional safety profiles in humans, the cocktail described here could be rapidly developed to protect uninfected pregnant women and their fetuses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced antiviral transcription factor (STAT1 and NF-kB) complexes by antibody-dependent enhancement of macrophage infection by Ross River virus. AU - Mahalingam, Surendran. AU - Lidbury, Brett. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Subneutralizing concentrations of antibody may enhance virus infection by bringing the virus-antibody complex into contact with the cell surface Fc receptors; this interaction facilitates entry of virus into the cell and is referred to as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Northern analysis of macrophage RNA demonstrated that ADE infection by the indigenous Australian alphavirus Ross River (RRV-ADE) ablated or diminished message for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric-oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), as well as for IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-beta; the transcription of a control gene was unaffected. Additionally, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland. AU - ENYEDI, PETER. AU - FREDHOLM, BERTIL B.. PY - 1984/4. Y1 - 1984/4. N2 - The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to ...
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Current Research and Scholarly Interests Studies in our lab are aimed at defining mechanisms in human immunity and disease. We are particularly interested the hypothesis that IgG repertoire diversity is a central driver of heterogeneity in human immune functioning and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Our work is defining how diversity that exists in the IgG Fc domain repertoire among people, which we define by serum IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions, impacts immune processes such as vaccine responses and susceptibility to antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue disease (Wang TT, Cell. 2015 and Wang TT, Science. 2017). IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions are key regulators of immunity because these determine the structure of Fc domains within immune complexes that form during vaccination or infection. Fc structure, in turn, determines the affinity of immune complexes for various Fc receptors on effector cells. Thus, we are studying how the Fc domain repertoire of an ...
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Studies in our lab are aimed at defining mechanisms in human immunity and disease. We are particularly interested the hypothesis that IgG repertoire diversity is a central driver of heterogeneity in human immune functioning and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Our work is defining how diversity that exists in the IgG Fc domain repertoire among people, which we define by serum IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions, impacts immune processes such as vaccine responses and susceptibility to antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue disease (Wang TT, Cell. 2015 and Wang TT, Science. 2017). IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions are key regulators of immunity because these determine the structure of Fc domains within immune complexes that form during vaccination or infection. Fc structure, in turn, determines the affinity of immune complexes for various Fc receptors on effector cells. Thus, we are studying how the Fc domain repertoire of an ...
Brazilian soldiers last year led a battle against Zika in a door-to-door campaign about how to control mosquitoes that carry the disease. EVARISTO SA/AFP/GETTY IMAGES. CLICK HERE - Science - Enhancement of Zika virus pathogenesis by preexisting antiflavivirus immunity. sciencemag.org - by Jon Cohen - March 30, 2017. Close relatives have complicated relationships with each other even in the viral world. A new mouse study shows that if the animals have antibodies from dengue or West Nile virus, it sets them up for more severe disease from their close cousin, Zika virus.. If such antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) also takes place in people, it could have helped fuel Zikas recent explosion in Brazil, where more than 90% of people in some communities have been infected with dengue. ADE could also complicate the development of vaccines for West Nile, dengue, and Zika. And with the onset of spring reigniting local transmission of Zika last week in the continental United States-where West Nile is ...
What transpired next is what keeps me awake at night given the number of family and friends who have been vaccinated. The lab animals that developed antibodies once they got jabbed were wiped out once their short-lived immunity wore off and they were reintroduced to SARS. What led to their wholesale extermination was a condition called Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE). An autoimmune disease much like HIV/AIDS, ADE hijacks immune systems and turns an organisms natural defense systems against its own vital organs.. If we actually had a free-press, the breathtaking developments in the UK would be treated as breaking news and politicians would treat this devastating development as the crisis it truly is. To the contrary, the political class and their enablers in mainstream media are bandying talking points stating that 99% of Covid-19 deaths in America are attributed to the unvaccinated. What they are omitting from this propaganda is that they are not using the same PCR [enlargement] ...
In contrast, Hashimotos thyroiditis develops in chickens, rats, mice, dogs, and marmosets. More than 17 million mink are being culled and dumped in mass graves in Denmark today in a desperate bid to eradicate a mutated strain of coronavirus. Attempts to induce an immune response in mice to the luteinizing-hormone receptor suggested that autoantigen glycosylation was one parameter involved in breaking self-tolerance. Importance Graves disease is the most common cause of persistent hyperthyroidism in adults. A report by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases suggests that individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease and diabetes limit their intake of certain foods, including grapes . Goals / Objectives The morbidity and mortality associated with obesity is directly related to the increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, as well as the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Although suspected, such antibody-dependent enhancement of severe disease ...
Antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an immunologic cytotoxic effector mechanism that is dependent on the cooperative interaction of humoral and cellular effector elements
Dengue virus infection is one of the most common mosquito-borne illnesses worldwide, with nearly four billion people living in at risk areas throughout the world. Reported cases to World Health Organization continue to rise exponentially with an estimated 50 - 100 million symptomatic cases, mostly in Asia. Most clinical cases present with a self-limited viral illness, but some experience life-threatening severe disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus exist; infection by one serotype confers long lasting homotypic immunity, but does not confer heterotypic immunity to another serotype. Subsequent infection from a different dengue serotype can lead to the development of severe dengue. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection has been implicated in the development of severe disease. There have been various efforts to develop vaccines against dengue, including subunit vaccines that use only the viral envelope glycoprotein, or portions thereof. Those efforts are hampered by the ...
Although endothelial cells have been speculated to be a target in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), there has been little evidence linking dengue virus infection to any alteration in endothelial cell function. In this study, we show that human umbilical vein endothelial cells become activated when exposed to culture fluids from dengue virus-infected peripheral blood monocytes. Maximum activation was achieved with culture fluids from monocytes in which virus infection was enhanced by the addition of dengue virus-immune serum, thus correlating with epidemiological evidence that prior immunity to dengue virus is a major risk factor for DHF. Activation was strongest for endothelial cell expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In contrast, activation of endothelial cell E-selectin expression appeared to be more transient, as indicated by its detection at 3 h, but not at 16 h, of treatment. Treatment of monocyte culture fluids with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody ...
The dogma of the antibody-dependent enhancement model (ADE) for the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is being challenged by research published this week in PLoS Medicine.
The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated in the IPL is critical in order to understand how the visual message is processed in the retina. The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured chick amacrine cells. This mGluR5-dependent enhancement occurred through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway and was dependent upon ...
1. Chen, Z., Luo, H. Y., Steinberg, M. H., and Chui, D. H. BCL11A represses HBG transcription in K562 cells. Blood Cells Mol Dis, 42: 144-149, 2009. 2. Konishi, E., Tabuchi, Y., and Yamanaka, A. A simple assay system for infection-enhancing and -neutralizing antibodies to dengue type 2 virus using layers of semi-adherent K562 cells. J Virol Methods, 163: 360-367. 3. Navarro, F., Gutman, D., Meire, E., Caceres, M., Rigoutsos, I., Bentwich, Z., and Lieberman, J. miR-34a contributes to megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells independently of p53. Blood, 114: 2181-2192, 2009. 4. Reuter, S., Charlet, J., Juncker, T., Teiten, M. H., Dicato, M., and Diederich, M. Effect of curcumin on nuclear factor kappaB signaling pathways in human chronic myelogenous K562 leukemia cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1171: 436-447, 2009. 5. Salvatori, F., Cantale, V., Breveglieri, G., Zuccato, C., Finotti, A., Bianchi, N., Borgatti, M., Feriotto, G., Destro, F., Canella, A., Breda, L., Rivella, S., and Gambari, R. ...
Research recently published in PLoS Medicine challenges the dogma of the antibody-dependent enhancement model (ADE) for the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Dengue virus infection usually causes a severe flu like illness, although symptoms may be mild in young children. DHF, however, is a severe and sometimes fatal complication of dengue virus infection that affects about half a million people every year. DHF patients usually fall into two groups; children and adults who become infected with a second dengue virus serotype after an initial primary dengue virus infection with a different serotype, and infants with primary dengue virus infections born to mothers who have some dengue virus immunity. The current model for development of DHF in infants around 6 months old is that anti-dengue virus antibodies transferred from a dengue-immune mother to her child somehow enhance dengue virus infection, resulting in more severe symptoms (the antibody-dependent enhancement model). A ...
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important human diseases transmitted by an arthropod vector and the incidence of dengue virus infection has been increasing - over half the worlds population now live in areas at risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic, but a subset of patients experience a potentially fatal shock syndrome characterised by plasma leakage. Severe forms of dengue are epidemiologically associated with repeated infection by more than one of the four dengue virus serotypes. Generally attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, recent observations indicate that T-cells may also influence disease phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) showing high level cross reactivity between dengue serotypes could be expanded from blood samples taken during the acute phase of secondary dengue infection. These could not be detected in convalescence when only CTL populations demonstrating significant serotype specificity were
Dengue virus is a human pathogen that causes dengue fever, which can either resolve after mild fever or lead to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. The role of dengue virus levels in the blood and the kinetics of infection and immune response that results in severe dengue disease in humans is not well characterized. In this study, we analyzed 97 children with varying degrees of dengue disease, and we show that the dengue virus quantity in blood does not show any significant association with severe disease. However, most severe dengue patients had lower levels of interferons and Th1 cytokines and increased levels of secreted factors such as IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 that could potentially cause leakage in blood capillaries. Our results indicate that monocytes, which are infected with dengue virus in patients, could possibly play a major role in dengue pathogenesis. Furthermore, using computational analysis we identified association of some of the secreted factors with severe disease ...
Dengue disease (DENV) an infection of human beings is presently the main arthropod-borne viral global risk, for which zero suitable or reliable pet model exists. Reviews addressing the result of DENV on vascular elements apart from endothelial cells lack. Dengue virus an infection of vascular even muscle cells, which play a physiological compensatory response to hypotension in arterioles and arteries, is not characterized, hence precluding our knowledge of the function of these vascular parts in dengue pathogenesis. Consequently, we analyzed the permissiveness of main human being umbilical artery clean muscle mass cells (HUASMC) to DENV 1C4 illness and compared with the infection in the previously reported main human being umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the classically used, non-transformed, and highly permissive Lilly Laboratories Cell-Monkey Kidney 2 cells. Our outcomes present that HUASMC are successful and vunerable to an infection using the four DENV serotypes, although to a ...
A dengue disease epidemic model with nonlinear incidence is formulated and analyzed. The equilibria and threshold of the model are found. The stability of the system is analyzed through a geometric approach to stability. The proposed model also exhibits backward bifurcation under suitable conditions on parameters. Our results imply that a nonlinear incidence produces rich dynamics and they should be studied carefully in order to analyze the spread of disease more accurately. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the analytical findings.
The dengue viruses are spread by mosquitoes and infect up to 390 million individuals annually in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue disease has emerged as the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Dengue virus infection generally results in dengue fever, a debilitating but self limited febrile disease. However, complications may arise, leading to the potentially fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndromes (DHF/DSS). Despite intensive research over recent years, the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS is still poorly understood and there is neither a safe and effective vaccine nor suitable anti-viral treatments to control dengue disease.. Current investigations in the laboratory focus on understanding the role of specific viral proteins in the virus lifecycle and the role they play in perturbing host cellular processes. Our studies use a dengue virus reverse genetic system, in combination with structural, biochemical and high throughput transcriptomic and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolonged persistence of IgM against dengue virus detected by commonly used commercial assays. AU - Chien, Yu-Wen. AU - Liu, Zi Hu. AU - Tseng, Fan Chen. AU - Ho, Tzu Chuan. AU - Guo, How-Ran. AU - Ko, Nai-Ying. AU - Ko, Wen-Chien. AU - Perng, Guey-Chuen. PY - 2018/4/2. Y1 - 2018/4/2. N2 - Background: Initial symptoms of dengue fever are non-specific, and thus definite diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Detection of IgM against dengue virus (DENV) has become widely used for dengue diagnosis. Understanding the persistence of anti-DENV IgM in subjects after acute infection is essential in order to interpret test results correctly. Although the longevity of anti-DENV IgM has been vehemently investigated in symptomatic children, anti-DENV IgM persistence in adults and in asymptomatically infected people have seldom been reported. Methods: We prospectively investigated 44 adults with detectable anti-DENV IgM in a serosurvey conducted in the 2015 dengue epidemic in Tainan, ...
The immunopathology of severe dengue remains incompletely understood. Most patients who develop severe dengue have had prior infection with one or more dengue serotypes. When an individual is infected... more
The immunopathology of severe dengue remains incompletely understood. Most patients who develop severe dengue have had prior infection with one or more dengue serotypes. When an individual is infected... more
Dengue virus (DENV) has spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. The control of DENV infection has not yet been fully successful due to lack of effective therapeutics or vaccines. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the immune responses against DENV infection may reveal new strategies for eliciting and improving antiviral immunity. T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. Following activation, CD8 T cells can migrate to sites of infection and kill infected cells, whereas CD4 T cells contribute to the elimination of pathogens by trafficking to infected tissues and providing help to innate immune responses, B cells, as well as CD8 T cells. However, it is now evident that CD4 T cells can also perform cytotoxic functions and induce
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
(HealthDay)-Dengue virus infection is associated with an increased risk for leukemia, according to a study published online Feb. 12 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
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It is known that antibodies to dengue viruses at subneutralizing concentrations enhance dengue virus infection of Fc gamma R+ cells. This phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when virus-antibody complexes bind to the Fc gamma R via the Fc portion of the Ig. It has been hypothesized that ADE may be responsible for the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of dengue virus infection including dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. To further analyze the mechanisms of ADE, we prepared bispecific antibodies by chemically cross-linking antidengue virus antibodies to antibodies specific for Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII and the non-Fc R molecules beta2 microglobulin, CD15 or CD33 and examined whether these bispecific antibodies could enhance infection. Bispecific antibodies targeting dengue virus to Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII enhanced dengue virus infection, consistent with previous reports using conventional antibodies. Furthermore, bispecific antibodies targeting ...
Author Summary Dengue disease is a tropical and subtropical mosquito-borne viral illness and is a major health concern in the Philippines. To determine the dengue disease burden in the Philippines and identify gaps and future research needs, we conducted a literature analysis and review to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease. We used well-defined methods to search and identify relevant research conducted between 2000 and 2011. This long-term review highlights an increase in the reported incidence of dengue disease in the Philippines. The rising incidence of dengue disease may be related to a growing population, increasing urbanization, improvements in surveillance, and the limited success of vector control measures. Gaps in the epidemiological information available in the Philippines during the period 2000-2011 include comprehensive national and regional data that describe the proportion of severe dengue disease, including hospitalizations and mortality, and incidence data per 100,000 population
AFUCOSYLATED MATERNAL ANTI-DENGUE IGGS ARE A BIOMARKER FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SEVERE DENGUE DISEASE IN INFANTS. Researchers at Stanford, funded in part by the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, have developed a method for determining infant susceptibility to severe dengue disease through measurement of maternal anti-dengue IgG. Mortality rates in severe dengue disease can exceed 20% when patients are not hospitalized but can be reduced to less than 1% with inpatient care. Therefore, the identification of biomarkers for increased susceptibility to dengue disease could dramatically reduce mortality rates by enabling early hospitalization of those at highest risk for disease progression. Here, the inventors conducted a global analysis of anti-dengue IgGs from mothers of infants with known disease severity during primary dengue infections in order to identify features of maternal IgGs that indicate dengue disease risk in infants.. Stage of Research The glycosylation state of the IgG Fc domain plays a role in ...
The cell viability and DNA damage in unstimulated sheep primary lymphocytes subjected to different extremely low electromagnetic field intensities (5, 50 and 100 µT; 50 Hz) were studied with special emphasis on apoptosis. Sheep primary lymphocytes cultured in RPMI, supplemented with 10% FBS in the absence of mitogens, were exposed till 16 h. The cell viability assessment by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed a dose dependent enhancement of viability at 16 h. Further, quantitative DNA laddering and flow cytometric analysis showed a significant decrease in apoptosis of the cells subjected to 100 (p
Sonodynamic therapy, the ultrasound dependent enhancement of cytotoxic activities of certain compounds (sonosensitizers) in studies with cells in vitro and in tumor bearing animals, is reviewed. The attractive features of this modality for cancer treatment emerges from the ability to focus the ultrasound energy on malignancy sites buried deep in tissues and to locally activate a preloaded sonosensitizer. Possible mechanisms of sonodynamic therapy include generation of sonosensitizer derived radicals which initiate chain peroxidation of membrane lipids via peroxyl and/or alkoxyl radicals, the physical destabilization of the cell membrane by the sonosensitizer thereby rendering the cell more susceptible to shear forces or ultrasound enhanced drug transport across the cell membrane (sonoporation). Evidence against the role of singlet oxygen in sonodynamic therapy is discussed. The mechanism of sonodynamic therapy is probably not governed by a universal mechanism, but may be influenced by multiple factors
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical resource-poor countries. Dengue illness can range from a nonspecific febrile illness to a severe disease, Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), in which patients develop circulatory failure. Earlier diagnosis of severe dengue illnesses would have a substantial impact on the allocation of health resources in endemic countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared clinical laboratory findings collected within 72 hours of fever onset from a prospective cohort children presenting to one of two hospitals (one urban and one rural) in Thailand. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop diagnostic algorithms using different categories of dengue disease severity to distinguish between patients at elevated risk of developing a severe dengue illness and those at low risk. A diagnostic algorithm using WBC count, percent monocytes, platelet count, and hematocrit achieved 97% sensitivity to identify patients who went on to develop DSS while
Background Dengue pathogen (DENV) contamination may trigger serious hemorrhagic disease in human beings. when KU812 cells had been transfected with the autophagy-inhibiting Atg4BC74A mutant. Findings/Significance Our outcomes demonstrate a significant induction of autophagy in antibody-enhanced DENV contamination of pre-basophil-like KU812 and immature mast cell-like HMC-1 cells. Also, autophagy takes on an essential part in DENV contamination and duplication in these cells. Provided the importance of ADE and FcR-bearing cells such as monocytes, basophil/mast and macrophages cells in dengue disease, the outcomes offer information into dengue pathogenesis and restorative means of control. Intro Dengue disease is usually a serious wellness issue in exotic or subtropical areas of the globe [1], [2]. Dengue computer virus (DENV) contamination can trigger 1255517-77-1 supplier moderate dengue fever to serious life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue surprise symptoms [3]C[5]. Many systems ...
The presence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies is an indication of long-term, acquired immunity from a past DENV infection. Moreover, IgG antibody titer differences can identify an acute dengue infection when paired serum samples, consisting of acute (0 to 5 days after onset of illness) and convalescent (,5 days after onset of illness) samples, are available. However, an anti-DENV IgG result in a single sample cannot clinically diagnose an acute infection. The Focus anti-DENV IgG ELISA (catalog no. EL1500G) used in this study is an indirect ELISA, which immobilizes DENV antigens on a solid surface. The DENV antigen is then recognized by anti-DENV IgG antibodies in the tested sample. A detector antibody that is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase binds nonspecifically to human IgG and amplifies the signal for detection. The indirect anti-DENV IgG ELISA is often used for epidemiologic studies to determine past DENV exposure because of its improved sensitivity and specificity compared to the direct ...
In a prospective study in the outpatients department of three large hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, we will determine the early diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two NS1 diagnostic tests in severe dengue cases.. The study is intended to develop a prognostic algorithm for the early identification of severe dengue cases.. Routine demographic, haematological and biochemical laboratory markers will be utilized to derive a prognostic algorithm that is clinically-useful for guiding patient triage and interventions.. We hope to discover and evaluate new early biomarkers of severe dengue and will evaluate candidate host response molecules and virological markers for their prognostic value.. We further plan to understand the phylogeography of DENV in the super-urban setting of HCMC.. We will use genome scale sequencing of DENV together with geospatial information on the residential addresses of patients to better understand transmission dynamics in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The exploration of risk factors of concurrent bacteraemia in patients critically ill with severe dengue. AU - Chen, Chin Ming. AU - Chan, Khee Siang. AU - Cheng, Kuo Chen. AU - Chou, Willy. AU - Chao, Hui Chun. AU - Yeh, Chiu Yin. AU - Yu, Wen Liang. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - We investigated the clinical features of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with concomitant severe dengue infection and bacteraemia to identify risk factors for this comorbidity. The records of all ICU dengue patients admitted during the period of 31 July-30 November 2015 were reviewed. Patients with concurrent bacteremia (positive bacterial blood culture within 72 h of ICU admission) were identified. ICU admission was required for 142 patients, of which 22 (15.5%) had concurrent bacteraemia. Species of the genus Streptococcus was the most common pathogens, followed by Escherichia coli then species of the genus Staphylococcus. Patients with a severe dengue infection and bacteraemia had higher ...
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La Jolla Institute scientists have proved a hypothesis that said antibodies contribute to severe dengue virus-induced disease.
Dengue fever, caused by infections with the dengue virus (DENV), affects nearly 400 million people globally every year. Early diagnosis and management can reduce the morbidity and mortality rates of severe forms of dengue disease as well as decrease the risk of wider outbreaks. ...
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Antibody-dependent enhancement. *ADF *(i) Australian Defence Force. *African Development Foundation. *ADGB - Air Defence of ...
... enhancement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; and CR3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Complement-dependent ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) requires antibodies to bind to target cell surfaces. Antibodies are formed ... Naked monoclonal antibodies are antibodies without added elements. Most antibody therapies use this antibody type. Conjugated ... Chimeric antibodies attempt to reduce murine antibodies' immunogenicity by replacing part of the antibody with the ...
"Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection". Journal of Virology 77 (13): 7539-7544. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.13.7539- ... "Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection: molecular mechanisms and in vivo implications.". Reviews in Medical Virology ... Saphire, EO (2013 Nov). "An update on the use of antibodies against the filoviruses.". Immunotherapy 5 (11): 1221-33. PMID ... "Spatial and temporal patterns of Zaire ebolavirus antibody prevalence in the possible reservoir bat species". The Journal of ...
A plausible hypothesis is the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). American virologist Scott Halstead was one of ... "Sanofi restricts dengue vaccine but downplays antibody enhancement". CIDRAP. Retrieved 2 December 2017. "DOJ orders NBI to ... "Sanofi restricts dengue vaccine but downplays antibody enhancement". CIDRAP. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2020. " ... Phillip Russell proposed that the vaccine only be used after antibody testing, to rule out prior dengue exposure and avoid ...
One of the concerns is that a vaccine could increase the risk of severe disease through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). ... The most widely accepted hypothesis is that of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The exact mechanism behind ADE is unclear ... Various antibodies are generated; some bind closely to the viral proteins and target them for phagocytosis (ingestion by ... A number of tests are available to confirm the diagnosis including detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA. A vaccine for ...
27 November 2020). "No evidence that COVID-19 vaccines cause more severe disease; antibody-dependent enhancement has not been ... Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is the phenomenon by which the immune system can overreact to the introduction of material ... Early genetic and antibody analyses refute the idea that the virus was in the United States prior to January 2020.[needs update ... against which it already has antibodies.[citation needed] ADE has been observed in animal studies during the development of ...
The most widely accepted hypothesis is that of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The exact mechanism behind ADE is unclear ... One of the concerns is that a vaccine could increase the risk of severe disease through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).[ ... "Sanofi restricts dengue vaccine but downplays antibody enhancement". CIDRAP. Retrieved 2 December 2017.. ... Detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA[2]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, yellow fever, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis[ ...
Dengue fever becomes more virulent during a second infection by means of antibody dependent enhancement. After the first ... The serum urea and creatine may be raised but this is dependent on the hydration status of the patient. The bleeding time tends ... By attaching to these antibodies, dengue viruses from a second infection are better able to infect the macrophages, thus ... infection, macrophages display antibodies on their cell membranes specific to the dengue virus. ...
He was one of the first researchers to identify the phenomenon known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), where the ... Halstead, Scott B. (December 2002). "Dengue hemorrhagic fever: two infections and antibody dependent enhancement, a brief ... a phenomenon now known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). This discovery influenced the future development of the dengue ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Sanofi restricts dengue vaccine but downplays antibody enhancement". CIDRAP. 2017-12- ...
Ferguson, N.; Anderson, R.; Gupta, S. (1999). "The effect of antibody-dependent enhancement on the transmission dynamics and ...
... antibody-dependent enhancement). As of 2019, researchers are still trying to find out why some vaccines produce life-long ... In addition to the formed antibodies in the body there remains a small number of memory T and B cells that make up the cellular ... Memory B cells are plasma cells that are able to produce antibodies for a long time. Unlike the native B cells involved in the ... However, there remain antibodies previously created in the body that represent the humoral component of immunological memory ...
A related assay tests for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon where non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses ... "A simple flow cytometry based assay to determine in vitro antibody dependent enhancement of dengue virus using Zika virus ... RVPs are most commonly used in neutralization assays, which measure the ability of serum or antibodies to prevent virus ... "Dengue Reporter Virus Particles for measuring neutralizing antibodies against each of the four dengue serotypes". PLoS ONE. 6( ...
Among the possible causes are cross-serotypic immune response, through a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement, ... possibly lead to severe dengue hemorrhagic shock when infected with another serotype due to antibody-dependent enhancement. ... Unfortunately, D7 proteins provoke immune responses, which raise anti-D7 antibody levels. These antibodies inhibit the function ... The human antibodies Ede1-C10, Ede2-A11, and Ede2-B7 potently neutralize all four DENV serotypes. Their Fab or scFv fragments ...
... the vaccine needs to minimize the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. As of March 31, 2017 ... The goal of a Zika virus vaccine is to produce specific antibodies against the Zika virus to prevent infection and severe ...
... antibody-dependent enhancement, whereby development of antibodies could facilitate viral entry into host cells, has been ... By the time of presention, children have often developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, but test negative for the virus at RT-PCR. ... It also requires that there should either be a positive antigen/antibody SARS-CoV-2 test or COVID-19 exposure in the 4 weeks ... antigen or antibody tests are not always positive. Exclusion of alternative causes, including bacterial and other infections, ...
One model to explain this process is known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which allows for increased uptake and ... Relation of disease severity to antibody response and virus recovered". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 42 (5): 311- ...
... a laboratory of the DRD O in India Adverse Drug Event Antibody-dependent enhancement ADE (chemotherapy), a chemotherapy regimen ...
This immune phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and is perhaps best known in cases of Dengue fever when ... It is thought to occur when weakly cross-reactive antibodies form bridging complexes to facilitate uptake and replication of ... The phenomenon of cross-reacting antibodies that facilitate infection is best known in dengue infections, according to ... contacts of the infected patients did not become ill and they all tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies ...
Algebraic differential equation Antibody-dependent enhancement ADF (i) Australian Defence Force African Development Foundation ... Administration for Native Americans Afghan National Army All Nippon Airways Anti-Nuclear Anti-body (a) Australian National ... American Physical Society Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome AQ (i) AdventureQuest (s) American Samoa (FIPS 10-4 territory code ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement Cell mediated immunity Humoral immunity Polyclonal response FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation ... these antibodies inhibit the activation of higher-affinity naive B cells that would be able to make more effective antibodies ... Antibodies or T-cells induced during infections with the first variant of the pathogen are subject to a form of original ... However, the antibodies produced by these B cells generally ineffectively bind to the altered epitopes. In addition, ...
... a vaccine may have an unintended opposite effect by causing antibody-dependent disease enhancement (ADE), which increases the ... The antibody response to a vaccine is a variable of vaccine technologies in development, including whether the vaccine has ... Although the quality and quantity of antibody production by a potential vaccine is intended to neutralize the COVID‑19 ... Iwasaki A, Yang Y (21 April 2020). "The potential danger of suboptimal antibody responses in COVID-19". Nature Reviews ...
... official downloadable content published via the World Wide Web for a video game Antibody-dependent enhancement, an increase in ... Enhancement may refer to: Breast enhancement, breast enlargement or contouring Cleavage enhancement, an increase in the ... Genetic enhancement, the use of genetic engineering to modify a person's nonpathological human traits Human enhancement, ... Image enhancement, improvement to perceived image quality Shadow and highlight enhancement, an image processing technique to ...
... (ADE), sometimes less precisely called immune enhancement or disease enhancement, is a ... Gras GS, Dormont D (January 1991). "Antibody-dependent and antibody-independent complement-mediated enhancement of human ... They also suggested that the presence of neutralizing antibody or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies ... "Modulation of Dengue/Zika Virus Pathogenicity by Antibody-Dependent Enhancement and Strategies to Protect Against Enhancement ...
... antibodies Antibody Antibody opsonization Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity Antibody-dependent enhancement Antigen ... immune enhancement therapy Autophagy Beta-2 microglobulin Binding antibody Biological response modifiers Blocking antibody ... Molecular mimicry Monoclonal antibody Monoclonal antibody therapy Monokine Mononuclear phagocyte system Monospecific antibody ... antibodies Polyclonal B cell response Polymersome Pox party Precipitin Premunition Premunity Primary and secondary antibodies ...
Beberapa il;muwan ngawatirake bahwa vaksin bisa ningkatake resiko keparahan lelara lumantar antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE ... Sapérangan khawatir manawa vaksin bisa ningkatke resiko keparahan lelara lumantar antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).[40] ... Saliyané kanggo tes antibody, tes laboratorium mung bisa kanggo mbantu diagnosis demam dengue akut (awal) tahap saka sakite. ... Nanging, tes antibody bisa kanggo nemtoake manawa wong kena dengue ing tahap lanjutsaka infeksi.Awak nggawé antibodi kang ...
Martín-Acebes MA, Saiz JC, Jiménez de Oya N «Antibody-Dependent Enhancement and Zika: Real Threat or Phantom Menace?» (en ... Koma T, Veljkovic V, Anderson DE, Wang LF, et al «Zika virus infection elicits auto-antibodies to C1q» (en anglès). Sci Rep, ... Li C, Gao F, Yu L, Wang R, et al «A Single Injection of Human Neutralizing Antibody Protects against Zika Virus Infection and ... Hasan, SS; Miller, A; Sapparapu, G; Fernandez, E; et al «A human antibody against Zika virus crosslinks the E protein to ...
... সর্বাধিক গ্রাহ্য অনুমান হ'ল অ্যান্টিবডি-নির্ভরতা বৃদ্ধি বা antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)। ADE-র পিছনের কলাকৌশল অস্পষ্ট। ... প্রথম প্রচেষ্টা হ'ল ভাইরাল RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (কোড NS5) -এর প্রতিরোধ, যা জিনগত বস্তুর প্রতিরূপ তৈরি করে নিউক্লিওসাইড ...
Having too little CD32B has been associated with dysregulated antibody function, as well as increased antibody-dependent ... this is attributed to an enhancement of FcR-dependent phagocytic functions. CD32B imbalance is also associated with ... When expressed, CD32C plays an important role in the activation of antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Animal studies ... CD32 has a low-affinity for the Fc region of IgG antibodies in monomeric form, but high affinity for IgG immune complexes. CD32 ...
... by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. There are several different types of Fc receptors ( ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ... This process is known as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). FcγRIII on NK cells can also associate with ... Another process involving Fc receptors is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). During ADCC, FcγRIII ...
A neutralizing antibody for HGF, but not for IGF-1 or EGF, was found to attenuate the proliferation of breast epithelial tissue ... dependent on dose and type of estrogen administered), as well as increases levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein ... Hormonal breast enhancement or augmentation is a highly experimental potential medical treatment for the breasts in which ... Moreover, a trial of hormonal breast enhancement in 45 young women with very high doses (80 mg/injection) of intramuscular, ...
The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... Antibiotics are the primary treatment.[2][23] The specific approach to their use is dependent on the individual affected and ... burgdorferi in ticks and for enhancement of spirochetemia in mice". Cell. 89 (7): 1111-9. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80298-6. ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ...
TrkB autophosphorylation is dependent upon its ligand-specific association with BDNF, a widely expressed activity-dependent ... Zhong L, Yan CH, Lu CQ, Xu J, Huang H, Shen XM (September 2009). "Calmodulin activation is required for the enhancement of ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... Synaptogenesis is dependent upon the assembly of new synapses and the disassembly of old synapses by β-adducin.[57] Adducins ...
An enhancement of virtual simulation is 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), in which the profile of each ... Targeting can also be achieved by attaching the radioisotope to another molecule or antibody to guide it to the target tissue. ... Side effects are dose- dependent; for example higher doses of head and neck radiation can be associated with cardiovascular ... CD20 monoclonal antibody conjugated to yttrium-90.[75] In 2003, the FDA approved the tositumomab/iodine (131I) tositumomab ...
This enhances natural and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are about 100-1000 times more ... increasing sensitivity to FAS mediated cell death and enhancement of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand. They have also been ... Lenalidomide is also approved for transfusion-dependent anemia due to low or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes ... shown to cause dose dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines where the analogs showed 100 times more potency ...
... misuse appears to occur both for performance enhancement and their euphorogenic effects, the latter being related to ... Ramón Peces; Navascués, RA; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J (1999). "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated ... Some effects are dependent upon the route of administration, with intravenous use associated with the transmission of many ... and cingulate cortices of METH-dependent individuals (Sekine et al., 2006) .... Neuropsychological studies have detected ...
This is dependent on the concentration of endogenous factors (such as sex hormones, metabolic hormones and growth hormones), ... These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity.[24] ... antibodies and T cytotoxic cells.[38][39] However, the mechanism linking physical activity to immune system is not fully ...
... may be context dependent and may occur in diverse ways.[13] Microbiota that are expected to be present, and that under normal ... direct enhancement of mineral uptake, and protection from pathogens.[35][36] PGPBs may protect plants from pathogens by ... Their innate immune systems do not produce antibodies, and they should seemingly not be able to respond to new challenges ... which enables the tissue to produce antibodies for pathogens that may enter the gut.[39] ...
Caspases are proteins that are highly conserved, cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases. There are two types of ... resulting in the increase of p53 protein level and enhancement of cancer cell-apoptosis.[79] p53 prevents the cell from ... these mice demonstrated a deficiency in the maturation of an antibody response; they were able to generate normal levels of IgM ... In order to be released, the protein is cleaved by a calcium-dependent calpain protease. ...
"New plastic surgery statistics reveal trends toward body enhancement". Plastic Surgery. 11 March 2019. Archived from the ... Trivalent (serotypes A, B, E) botulinum antitoxin is derived from equine sources using whole antibodies. The second antitoxin ... product-dependent, with some patients experiencing a longer duration of effect.[37] Injection of botulinum toxin into the ... is heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (serotypes A, B, C, D, E, F, G), which is derived from equine antibodies which have been ...
The aerobic exercise training-induced changes to miRNA profile in the brain seem to be intensity-dependent [164]. These few ... as corroborated by blocking the effects of exercise using antibodies against IGF-1 (47) or VEGF (63).. ... enhancements in neurogenesis (Trejo et al. 2001; Fabel et al. 2003).. ... and this has introduced the possibility that proliferating neurons could contribute to the cognitive enhancement observed with ...
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) slightly damages the surface of skin and causes a time-dependent defect allowing easier penetration ... Skin with high permeability allowed quantum dots with an antibody attached to the surface for active targeting to successfully ... chemical enhancement applies chemicals such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and oleic acid to the ... May 2003). "Real-Time Vital Optical Imaging of Precancer Using Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies Conjugated to ...
2005) observed a suppression of antibody-specific T cell responses mediated by mosquito saliva and dependent on mast cells and ... Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character '១'. "The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito ... "Mast cell-dependent down-regulation of antigen-specific immune responses by mosquito bites"។ Journal of Immunology 176 (7): ... Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the ...
... by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.[1] ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ... Principal antibody ligand. Affinity for ligand. Cell distribution. Effect following binding to antibody ... Induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Induction of cytokine release by macrophages ...
Analytical or capture protein arrays display antigens and antibodies to profile protein or antibody expression in serum. These ... Differentiation in stem cells is dependent on many factors, including soluble and biochemical factors, fluid shear stress, cell ... Fluorescence-based optical techniques use markers that emit light at specific wavelengths and the presence or enhancement/ ... Reverse-phase protein arrays test replicates of cell lysates and serum samples with different antibodies to study the changes ...
"Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognition and behavior". Arch. Gen. ... "Presence and persistence of psychotic symptoms in cocaine- versus methamphetamine-dependent participants.". Am J Addict 27 (2 ... ""Bread madness" revisited: screening for specific celiac antibodies among schizophrenia patients". European Psychiatry 19 (5 ...
"Genetic Enhancement". National Human Genome Research Institute.. *^ Begley S (28 November 2018). "Amid uproar, Chinese ... Roque AC, Lowe CR, Taipa MA (2004). "Antibodies and genetically engineered related molecules: production and purification". ... "Use of PCR to isolate genes encoding sigma54-dependent activators from diverse bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (13): ... monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs.[84][85] Mouse hybridomas, cells fused together to ...
Moreover, antibodies anti-NIS have been found in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Using RT-PCR tests, it has been proved that there ... Kogai T, Taki K, Brent GA (2007). "Enhancement of sodium/iodide symporter expression in thyroid and breast cancer". Endocr. ... upstream enhancer of the rat sodium/iodide symporter gene and participates in both thyroid-specific and cyclic-AMP-dependent ...
1994) summed up the phenomenon of gustatory enhancement by certain cannabinoids.[79] Recently, a paper by Yoshida et al. showed ... Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (20 ... These metabolites are the chemicals recognized by common antibody-based "drug tests"; in the case of THC or others, these loads ... Next, CBGA is independently converted to either CBG, THCA, CBDA or CBCA by four separate synthase, FAD-dependent dehydrogenase ...
Jin, Y; Xu X L, Yang M C, Wei F, Ayi T C, Bowcock A M, Baer R (1997). «Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 ... In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies». J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17276-80. PMID 11278964. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Xia, Yan; Pao Gerald M, Chen Hong-Wu, Verma Inder M, Hunter Tony (2003). «Enhancement of BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity ... Ouchi, T; Monteiro A N, August A, Aaronson S A, Hanafusa H (1998). «BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression». Proc. Natl ...
April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ... resulting in the increase of p53 protein level and enhancement of cancer cell-apoptosis.[71] p53 prevents the cell from ... these mice demonstrated a deficiency in the maturation of an antibody response; they were able to generate normal levels of IgM ... Caspases are proteins that are highly conserved, cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases. There are two types of ...
... which is accomplished by labeling an antibody with a fluorophore and allowing the antibody to find its target antigen within ... Mazel, C. H. (2004). "Fluorescent Enhancement of Signaling in a Mantis Shrimp". Science. 303 (5654): 51. doi:10.1126/science. ... The causes and magnitude of Stokes shift can be complex and are dependent on the fluorophore and its environment. However, ... Immunology: An antibody is first prepared by having a fluorescent chemical group attached, and the sites (e.g., on a ...
1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1994). "Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 interfere with T-cell-dependent B cell differentiation: role of CD4-MHC class II ...
The incubation period can vary between a few weeks to many months, and is largely dependent on the number of hookworm parasites ... Additionally, both malaria and helminth infection can cause anemia, but the effect of co-infection and possible enhancement of ... a vaccine that could induce antibodies for these antigens could interfere with the hookworm's digestive pathway and impair the ...
... on priming and effector stages of a T cell-dependent antibody response". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (2): 445-9. doi:10.1002/eji. ... "Enhancement of host susceptibility to lethal endotoxin shock by staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C". Infect. Immun. 36 ... Immunoglobulin pools are able to neutralize specific antibodies and prevent T-cell activation. Synthetic antibodies and ... Similar endogenous SAg-dependent selection has yet to be identified in the human genome, but endogenous SAgs have been ...
ChIP-on-chip assays, which is based on the ability of commercially prepared antibodies to bind to DNA methylation-associated ... Zheng H, Jiang SW, Wu H (2011). "Enhancement on the predictive power of the prediction model for human genomic DNA methylation ... was shown to induce MCT3 expression in a dose dependant manner, as all hypermethylated sites in the exon 2 CpG island became ...
In this type of system biotin is coupled to the antibody. The biotin molecule has no influence on the working of the antibodies ... This enzyme has both RNA-dependent reverse transcriptase and DNA-dependent polymerase activity. However, the active center of ... Carrington, J.C. and Freed, D.D. (1990). Cap-independent enhancement of translation by a plant potyvirus 5' nontranslated ... This, in turn, can be detected as described above and is then referred to as the double antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA. Both of ...
February 16, 2006). "Distortion-dependent Raman spectra and mode mixing in RMnO3 perovskites (R=La,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Y ... Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy - Term used to describe Raman spectroscopy without enhancement of sensitivity. ... Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies.[18 ... Polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy uses (plane) polarized laser excitation from a polarizer. The Raman scattered light ...
Fluorescence enhancement assays with Tb3+/DPA: This method is based on the fact that chelate of Tb3+/DPA is 10,000 times more ... The resulting "hybridoma" from this combination expresses a desired antibody as determined by the B-cell involved, but is ... Assays evaluating lipid mixing make use of concentration dependent effects such as nonradiative energy transfer, fluorescence ... Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 ...
Ive had several questions about antibody-dependent enhancement, which has always been a worry as the coronavirus vaccines have ... Antibody-Dependent Enhancement. By Derek Lowe 18 December, 2020. Ive had several questions about antibody-dependent ... The process is called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), where a vaccine generates antibodies and binds the virus but does ... Do concerns persist that COVID-19 vaccines could cause antibody-dependent enhancement, which can potentiate viral entry into ...
They confirmed that antibody-dependent enhancement of disease occurs at a specific range of antibody concentrations. Low levels ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of severe dengue disease in humans. By Leah C. Katzelnick, Lionel Gresh, M. Elizabeth Halloran, ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of severe dengue disease in humans. By Leah C. Katzelnick, Lionel Gresh, M. Elizabeth Halloran, ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of severe dengue disease in humans Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
The other good news is that this team looked for the signs of an #antibody-dependent-enhancement response, which would be bad ... model-of-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-22403433 ... "If there is enhancement, thats a big stop sign for everything ... "antibody-dependent_enhancement" (#facilitation_de_linfection_par_des_anticorps ▻https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilitation_de_ ... Disease enhancement has been seen in animal studies of vaccines developed to fight a close cousin of the virus that causes ...
Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.. Chan KR1, Zhang SL, Tan ... Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection ... Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection ... Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection ...
... known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral infection, depends on the cross-linking of complexes of virus-antibody ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection: molecular mechanisms and in vivo implications.. Takada A1, Kawaoka Y. ... Besides the common receptor/coreceptor-dependent mechanism of cellular attachment, some viruses rely on antiviral antibodies ... antibody-mediated modulation of the interaction between viral protein and its coreceptor (human immunodeficiency virus) and ...
After vaccination, macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection or ... ability of a virus to enter cells and cause a worsening of disease through a mechanism called antibody-dependent enhancement ( ... However, not all antibody responses are created equal. Sometimes antibodies do not prevent cell entry and, on rare occasions, ... A major goal of antibodies is to bind to the pathogen and prevent it from infecting, or entering, a cell. Antibodies that ...
In vitro antibody-dependent enhancement assays are insensitive indicators of in vivo vaccine enhancement of equine infectious ... Monoclonal antibodies to the spike protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of ... Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection. Ayato Takada, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Yoshihiro Kawaoka ... Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. Kuan Rong Chan, Summer Li- ...
... via antibody bound Fc receptor uptake of virus. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) may be involved in the clinical ... Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) may be involved in the clinical observation of increased severity of symptoms associated ... cross-reactive antibodies, variabilities in antibody levels over time, and pregnancy. These models place increased emphasis on ... SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bound to mast cells may be involved in MIS-C and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nat Microbiol. 2020 Oct;5(10):1185-1191. doi: 10.1038/ ... For the COVID-19 vaccine, please comment on antibodydependent enhancement and other potential adverse effects of COVID-19 ... antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) following infection after vaccine administration. There are two mechanisms of ADE, both of ... "occur when non-neutralizing antibodies or antibodies at sub-neutralizing levels bind to viral antigens without blocking or ...
Antibody dosages for antibody-dependent enhancement of coronavirus entry. (A) Impact of antibody dosages on MERS-CoV ... IMPORTANCE Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral entry has been observed for many viruses. It was shown that antibodies ... Antibody dosages for antibody-dependent enhancement of coronavirus entry.To determine the range of Mersmab1 dosages in ADE, ... Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when antibodies facilitate viral entry into host cells and enhance viral infection ...
... and this phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement. This is caused by the uptake of dengue virus-antibody complexes ... Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.. R Littaua, I Kurane and F A Ennis ... Based on these results we conclude that Fc gamma RII mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in ... Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. ...
Persons who have been VACCINATED against COVID-19 are now subject to Antibody-Dependent Enhancement which is highly likely to ... "In antibody-dependent enhancement, sub-optimal antibodies bind to both viruses and gamma receptors expressed on immune cells, ... Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is a safety concern for vaccine strategies. In a recent publication, Li et al ... Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) is every virologists worst nightmare. It means the vaccine does the opposite of what was ...
This phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when virus-antibody complexes bind to the Fc gamma R via the ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other ...
... Díaz de Ståhl, T Uppsala ... This thesis deals with the in vivo regulatory properties of antibodies and their specific Fc receptors. ... Circulating immune complexes play an important role in the modulation of antibody responses and in the pathogenesis of immune ... Immunization with soluble antigens in complex with specific IgG leads to an augmentation of antibody production. The cellular ...
COVID-19; SARS‐CoV‐2; Denguefieber; antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Abstract. SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic and recurrent dengue ... Here, we review the possible antibodydependent enhancement (ADE) occurrence, known for dengue infections, when there is a ... Dengue fever, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), and Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE): A perspective. ... Consequently, preexisting antibodies do not neutralize infection, but enhance it, possibly by triggering Fcγ receptor‐mediated ...
Japanese encephalitis virus-primed CD8+ T cells prevent antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus pathogenesis.. Jun 8, 2020 ... the viral burden and mortality of ZIKV-infected mice and abrogating the lethal effects of antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV ... However, it is unclear how the interplay between cross-reactive antibodies and T cells tilts the balance toward pathogenesis ... Conversely, cross-reactive anti-ZIKV antibodies or CD8+ T cells displayed the same pathogenic or protective effects upon JEV ...
Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12. Quoc H. Nguyen, ... Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 ... Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 ... Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 ...
"Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using FcγR ... Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using FcγR ... Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using FcγR ... Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other ...
Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) infection has been reported in various viruses and has been shown to contribute to disease ... In this study, the presence of sub-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated to enhance EV71 infection in THP-1 cells and increase ... and raise practical issues of vaccine development and antibody-based therapy. ... Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection is a phenomenon in which preexisting sub-neutralizing antibodies ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), sometimes less precisely called immune enhancement or disease enhancement, is a ... Gras GS, Dormont D (January 1991). "Antibody-dependent and antibody-independent complement-mediated enhancement of human ... They also suggested that the presence of neutralizing antibody or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies ... "Modulation of Dengue/Zika Virus Pathogenicity by Antibody-Dependent Enhancement and Strategies to Protect Against Enhancement ...
Another way a vaccine can cause harm is through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). This means that antibodies produced ... Antibody-dependent enhancement. The failure of the RSV vaccine highlights the importance of fully understanding the immune ... This occurs through a process called antibody affinity maturation.. In the failed RSV vaccine, there was a lack of antibody ... conducted much later showed that the vaccine failed because it did not generate the necessary protective antibodies as the ...
... this interaction facilitates entry of virus into the cell and is referred to as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ... Subneutralizing concentrations of antibody may enhance virus infection by bringing the virus-antibody complex into contact with ... transcription factor complexes was shown to depend on replicating virus and was not simply a result of general antibody-Fc- ... Molecular mechanisms involved in antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in humans.. Jacky Flipse, Jan C. ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement - Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibody-dependent_enhancement. See all results for this ... Dengue antibodies may provide some protection against COVID-19. www.thehealthsite.com/news/previous-exposure-to... ... Avian anti-NS1 IgY antibodies neutralize dengue virus .... www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S... ...
Ill also have an important message about antibody dependent enhancement. Cases continued to rise unchecked in the US, ... Case Update: July 7th, 2020; Antibody Dependent Enhancement. July 7, 2020. All Articles, Antibody, Case Update, Fatality Rate, ... Antibody Dependent Enhancement: Several years ago, scientists were developing a vaccine against Dengue Fever, a mosquito borne ... 1 thought on "Case Update: July 7th, 2020; Antibody Dependent Enhancement" * Pingback: Americas Frontline Doctors Video , ...
... yet they do not have antibody-dependent enhancement activity. ... Furthermore, antibodies indudced by these HA stems have broad ... Passive transfer of immune serum demonstrates the protection is mediated by stem-specific antibodies. ... HA stem-directed broadly neutralizing antibodies with high affinity. Mice vaccinated with the group 1 HA mini-stems are ... report the design of a bacterially expressed polypeptide that mimics a H5 HA stem by protein minimization to focus the antibody ...
Tag Archives: Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) (UPDATED) Exclusive Summary: Covid-19 Vaccine Concerns. Posted on September ... 16, 2021 with Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) study. *Updated Aug. 5, 2021 with heart disorders more common than CDC ... Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE), blood clots, Functional Neurological Disorder (FND), Guillain-Barre syndrome autoimmune ...
Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus ... Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus ...
When Good Antibodies Go Bad: Antibody-Dependent Enhancement. Posted by ERV on February 19, 2010 ... antibodies even make nice cancer therapies. One of the great things about antibodies is that the cells that make them? They ... Antibodies are normally a good thing. Neutralize viruses and bacterial toxins, tag bacteria for complement so they get blown up ... No meaningful anti-XMRV antibodies. Still no XMRV in the Europe. Longer "Absence… ...
Pathogenic Priming and Antibody-Dependent Enhancement. Another significant problem is that we dont know whether antibody ... and antibody-dependent enhancement of pathology and clinical severity has been described. ... of reports in the medical literature have indeed highlighted the risk of pathogenic priming and antibody-dependent enhancement ... Antibody response is often a poor marker of prior coronavirus infection, particularly in mild infections, and is shorter-lived ...
  • Recent studies have shown that antibodies neutralize DENV by either preventing virus attachment to cellular receptors or inhibiting viral fusion intracellularly. (nih.gov)
  • This mechanism, known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral infection, depends on the cross-linking of complexes of virus-antibody or virus-activated complement components through interaction with cellular molecules such as Fc receptors or complement receptors, leading to enhanced infection of susceptible cells. (nih.gov)
  • After interaction with the virus the antibody binds Fc receptors (FcR) expressed on certain immune cells or some of the complement proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bound to Fc receptors on macrophages and mast cells may represent two different mechanisms for ADE in patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • In antibody-dependent enhancement, sub-optimal antibodies bind to both viruses and gamma receptors expressed on immune cells, then promoting infection of these cells. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • This thesis deals with the in vivo regulatory properties of antibodies and their specific Fc receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • These receptors allow NK cells to kill antibody-coated target cells, thus providing another form of immune defense ( 12 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • We have shown that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection with Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) is mediated by interaction of virus-specific antibodies with Fc receptors or complement component C1q and its receptors in vitro. (utmb.edu)
  • Strategies to eliminate ADE were explored by altering the antibody Fc structures responsible for binding to Fc receptors. (pnas.org)
  • ADE has been repeatedly demonstrated in vitro using dengue immune sera or monoclonal antibodies and cells of monocytic and recently, B lymphocytic lineages bearing Fc receptors ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, we characterized MAb dosages in viral-receptor-dependent, Fc-receptor-dependent, and both-receptors-dependent viral entry pathways, delineating guidelines on MAb usages in treating viral infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • We further evaluated how antibody dosages impacted viral entry into cells expressing viral receptor, Fc receptor, or both receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is certainly a well-described phenomenon that is certainly structured on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fc receptors expressed on myeloid cells. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • In some instances, however, antibodies at sub-neutralizing concentrations can enhance contamination of certain cells, because they facilitate the uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes through interactions with antibody-specific cellular receptors (Fc receptors). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Right here a story is certainly defined by us system of infections improvement by antibodies that is certainly indie of connections with Fc receptors, using another essential human-pathogenic flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis pathogen. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • The ADE of virus infection is a phenomenon in which virus-specific antibodies enhance the entry of virus, and in some cases the replication of virus, into monocytes/macrophages and granulocytic cells through interaction with Fc and/or complement receptors. (williambowles.info)
  • In the present study, we sought to establish proof-of-concept by evaluating several DENV-neutralizing antibodies for their ability to protect rhesus macaques against viremia following live virus challenge, including human anti-dengue ISG, and a human Mab (Mab11/wt) and its genetically engineered variant (Mab11/mutFc) that is unable to bind to cells with Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and potentiate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). (ajtmh.org)
  • Given the significance of Fcγ-receptors (FcγR) in antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of flavivirus infection, non-FcγR and FcγR-expressing cell lines were used in the EMNT to allow the detection of the sum of neutralizing and immune-enhancing antibody activity as the neutralizing titer. (mdpi.com)
  • The Wang laboratory uses in vivo and in vitro systems to study how antibodies can modulate viral infections or anti-viral vaccine responses through signaling interactions with Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs). (stanford.edu)
  • In this process, the antibody binds the virus and then interacts with complement receptors, usually the FC receptors released by the host cell to destroy the virus. (dodbuzz.com)
  • It is known that E protein is not only a functional protein molecule that binds to receptors on the host cell membrane but also a major antigen, which can induce neutralizing antibody and host specific protective immunity [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • I've had several questions about antibody-dependent enhancement, which has always been a worry as the coronavirus vaccines have been developed. (sciencemag.org)
  • Trials will need to assess if the vaccines cause disease enhancement - a potentially dangerous side effect in which the vaccine makes the disease worse in some individuals instead of preventing it. (seenthis.net)
  • Disease enhancement has been seen in animal studies of vaccines developed to fight a close cousin of the virus that causes COVID-19. (seenthis.net)
  • Many vaccines work by inducing neutralizing antibodies. (chop.edu)
  • ADE risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 has implications for COVID-19 and MIS-C treatments, B-cell vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 antibody therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy for patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • These two different ADE risks have possible implications for SARS-CoV-2 B-cell vaccines for subsets of populations based on age, cross-reactive antibodies, variabilities in antibody levels over time, and pregnancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • These models place increased emphasis on the importance of developing safe SARS-CoV-2 T cell vaccines that are not dependent upon antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the COVID-19 vaccine, please comment on antibody‐dependent enhancement and other potential adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines. (acoem.org)
  • Adaptive immunity involves the production of specific antibodies, which is what the majority of vaccines aim to achieve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The protective responses induced by current human influenza vaccines still primarily depend on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the HA head 1 . (nature.com)
  • For over a year, intensive research conducted by health experts has brought to light increasing concerns about "Antibody-Dependent Enhancement" (ADE), a phenomenon where vaccines make the disease far worse by priming the immune system for a potentially deadly overreaction. (tapnewswire.com)
  • With billions of people already injected, the findings of this scientific study suggest that it perfectly plausible that billions of people could die due to antibody-dependent enhancement or other devastating effects caused by the Covid-19 vaccines such as spike protein vascular damage, and evidence from Public Health England shows that it is already beginning to happen in the United Kingdom. (tapnewswire.com)
  • Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The research community is certainly aware of the possibility of ADE, which is why there are so many studies ongoing to assess the efficacy of vaccines and antibody-based treatments against the variants (as discussed above throughout the thread). (physicsforums.com)
  • Not only will these studies show whether the viruses can evade protection from the vaccines or treatments, but they can also show whether the vaccines or treatments lead to ADE and give worse outcomes for people given the vaccines or antibodies. (physicsforums.com)
  • These results suggest that serum from HIV-1-immunized chimpanzees might be tested to determine whether current HIV-1 candidate vaccines induce production of antibodies that mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection in this in vitro assay. (duke.edu)
  • The study, 1 "Informed Consent Disclosure to Vaccine Trial Subjects of Risk of COVID-19 Vaccine Worsening Clinical Disease," published in the International Journal of Clinical Practice , October 28, 2020, points out that "COVID-19 vaccines designed to elicit neutralizing antibodies may sensitize vaccine recipients to more severe disease than if they were not vaccinated. (williambowles.info)
  • The vaccines have a tendency to trigger antibody-dependent enhancement. (williambowles.info)
  • 1 Convalescent plasma, or purified antibodies from the plasma (hyperimmune globulin), was often used in clinical practice before the advent of vaccines, including during the influenza pandemic of 1918. (bmj.com)
  • There is an urgent need to understand the principles by which antibodies inactivate virus infectivity since, at present, we are unable to rationally construct effective vaccines against new agents like the human immuno- deficiency viruses or to improve existing vaccines. (springer.com)
  • COVID-19 mRNA vaccines will become deadly a few months after administration because the antibodies they create have been shown to cause deadly immune reactions resulting in damage to the lungs. (snopes.com)
  • The problem is that the antibodies that [mRNA COVID-19 vaccines] generate are going to be deadly," she said in an interview with activist Reinette Senum. (snopes.com)
  • Examples include cancer vaccines and CAR-T cell, and targeted antibody therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possibility is that an antibody that would be neutralizing if present in sufficient amounts can actually enhance infection in lower dilutions, which has been seen with influenza antibodies and other viruses as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • For dengue viruses 1 to 4 (DENV1-4), a specific range of antibody titer has been shown to enhance viral replication in vitro and severe disease in animal models. (sciencemag.org)
  • Aggregation of viruses enabled antibodies to cross-link the inhibitory FcγRIIB, which is expressed at low levels but which inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and hence prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Besides the common receptor/coreceptor-dependent mechanism of cellular attachment, some viruses rely on antiviral antibodies for their efficient entry into target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have suggested that additional mechanisms underlie ADE: involvement of complement component C1q and its receptor (Ebola virus), antibody-mediated modulation of the interaction between viral protein and its coreceptor (human immunodeficiency virus) and suppression of cellular antiviral genes by the replication of viruses entering cells via ADE (Ross River virus). (nih.gov)
  • It is known that antibodies to dengue viruses at subneutralizing concentrations enhance dengue virus infection of Fc gamma R+ cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) infection has been reported in various viruses and has been shown to contribute to disease severity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When scientists are creating tests to detect viruses, they need to balance two factors: Sensitivity Specificity A 'sensitive' test is no good if it cross-reacts with other proteins/viruses/antibodies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Neutralize viruses and bacterial toxins, tag bacteria for complement so they get blown up, tag invading parasites/worms/ew so your immune cells can kill them, antibodies even make nice cancer therapies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • More broadly, if FcRn is mechanistically involved in DV replication in the presence of antibody, it is very plausible that a similar mechanism might be involved in the replication of any of the several viruses whose life cycle requires the acidic milieu of the endosome. (grantome.com)
  • Hamster antisera against three parental bunyaviruses, Batai, Bunyamwera and Maguari viruses, and six recombinant viruses which carried the nucleocapsid protein of one parent and the glycoproteins of the other, have been tested for their interaction with each of the nine viruses under study by two assays, plaque reduction neutralization and antibody-dependent plaque enhancement. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • ADE occurs when cross-reactive weakly- or non-neutralizing antibodies bind to viruses and form antibody-virus complexes that enhance infection of Fcγ receptor bearing cells resulting in an increase in virus load. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism for antibody-enhanced viral entry and can guide future vaccination and antiviral strategies .IMPORTANCE Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral entry has been observed for many viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • It was shown that antibodies target one serotype of viruses but only subneutralize another, leading to ADE of the latter viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • The novel mechanism of antibody-induced contamination enhancement adds a new facet to the complexity of antibody interactions with flaviviruses and may have implications for yet unresolved effects of polyclonal antibody responses on biological properties of these viruses. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Understanding neutralization is particularly relevant to an appreciation of the interaction between a virus and its antibody-synthesizing host since it is likely that viruses and the antibody system have evolved in response to reciprocally imposed selective pressures. (springer.com)
  • Neutralization of viruses which only infect non-antibody-synthesizing hosts, while of considerable interest from of points of view is de facto without any such evolutionary signifi- a number cance. (springer.com)
  • In this second category are viruses of plants, invertebrates, vertebrates below fish in the evolutionary scale which do not synthesize antibody and most bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Viruses of organisms parasitic on or commensal with antibody- synthesizing vertebrates, such as enteric bacteria, protozoa or metazoan parasites, will be in contac, with antibody at some stage of their existence, and arthropod-borne viruses which have a higher vertebrate as second host are obviously bona fide members of the first category. (springer.com)
  • However, whether the antibody blocks attachment or fusion, the resulting immune complexes are expected to be phagocytosed by Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells and cleared from circulation. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing antibody concentration inhibits immune complex internalization by THP-1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Adaptive immune responses include antibodies. (chop.edu)
  • ADE occurs when the antibodies generated during an immune response recognize and bind to a pathogen, but they are unable to prevent infection. (chop.edu)
  • Instead, these antibodies act as a "Trojan horse," allowing the pathogen to get into cells and exacerbate the immune response. (chop.edu)
  • If a person is infected by one serotype of dengue virus, they typically have mild disease and generate a protective immune response, including neutralizing antibodies, against that serotype. (chop.edu)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), sometimes less precisely called immune enhancement or disease enhancement, is a phenomenon in which binding of a virus to suboptimal antibodies enhances its entry into host cells, followed by its replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiviral antibodies promote viral infection of target immune cells by exploiting the phagocytic FcγR or complement pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus "deceives" the process of phagocytosis of immune cells and uses the host's antibodies as a Trojan horse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating immune complexes play an important role in the modulation of antibody responses and in the pathogenesis of immune diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Research conducted much later showed that the vaccine failed because it did not generate the necessary protective antibodies as the immune system had not been properly primed against the virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The immune system requires these cells to produce strongly binding antibodies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Normally, for the annual flu let's say, a person gets infected by the flu, is sick for a few days, and the immune system develops a response by creating antibodies against that specific strain of the flu. (doubloondiagnostic.com)
  • Part of the immune response is that some immune cells display antibodies on their surface to capture new invaders. (doubloondiagnostic.com)
  • But if they get infected with a slightly different strain months or years later, instead of being protected, the virus attaches to antibodies displayed on immune cells and uses the antibodies as a site of entry into the immune system. (doubloondiagnostic.com)
  • Passive transfer of immune serum demonstrates the protection is mediated by stem-specific antibodies. (nature.com)
  • ADE occurs when antibodies elicited by infection with a heterologous DV strain form immune complexes (ICs) that allow virus entry into endosomes of myeloid cells via Fc? (grantome.com)
  • What the paper is describing is classic antibody-dependent enhancement, meaning a hyperinflammatory reaction can kill the person as their "primed" immune system overreacts to new infections. (tapnewswire.com)
  • At present, there are no known clinical findings, immunological assays or biomarkers that can differentiate any severe viral infection from immune-enhanced disease, whether by measuring antibodies, T cells or intrinsic host responses . (physicsforums.com)
  • Second, because ADE of disease cannot be reliably predicted after either vaccination or treatment with antibodies-regardless of what virus is the causative agent-it will be essential to depend on careful analysis of safety in humans as immune interventions for COVID-19 move forward. (physicsforums.com)
  • At the end of the section assessing the risk of ADE of disease with SARS-CoV-2, the authors write 'In summary, current clinical experience is insufficient to implicate a role for ADE of disease, or immune enhancement by any other mechanism, in the severity of COVID-19 (Table 1 ),' which is consistent with the information I posted previously. (physicsforums.com)
  • 100% (38 out of 38) of trial participants demonstrated overall immunological responses based on binding and neutralizing antibody responses and T cell immune responses. (prnewswire.com)
  • The current model for development of DHF in infants around 6 months old is that anti-dengue virus antibodies transferred from a dengue-immune mother to her child somehow enhance dengue virus infection, resulting in more severe symptoms (the 'antibody-dependent enhancement' model). (biology-online.org)
  • Passive immunization with anti-dengue virus (DENV) immune serum globulin (ISG) or monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) may serve to supplement or replace vaccination for short-term dengue immune prophylaxis. (ajtmh.org)
  • We are particularly interested the hypothesis that IgG repertoire diversity leading to diversity in antibody-based signaling, is a central driver of heterogeneity in human immune functioning and susceptibility to infectious diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • An antibody is basically a protein with a 'Y' shape that makes the immune system stronger. (dodbuzz.com)
  • This Antibody Mediated Viral Enhancement ultimately causes the death of the immune cells making the host body severely ill. (dodbuzz.com)
  • Cancer immunotherapy exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the tumor antigens marking and identifying the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, specific antibodies can be developed that recognize cancer cells and target them for destruction by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive antibody therapies aim to increase the activity of the immune system without specifically targeting cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • par lequel une infection antérieure par un coronavirus non SRAS, comme ceux qui causent le rhume, pourrait entraîner la création d'anticorps anti coronavirus peu neutralisants en réponse à la vaccination. (seenthis.net)
  • Importantly, anti-stem broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are detectable in some individuals at a low level, suggesting they can be induced naturally by infection and optimized by vaccination. (nature.com)
  • Kabir, KMA & Tanimoto, J 2020, ' Cost-efficiency analysis of voluntary vaccination against n-serovar diseases using antibody-dependent enhancement: A game approach ', Journal of Theoretical Biology , vol. 503, 110379. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to the absence of signs of disease, it is difficult to study DENV-induced pathology in NHP, but NHP can be used for testing immunogenicity, safety, and/or protective efficacy of dengue vaccine candidates by measuring induction of anti-DENV antibodies and magnitude and duration of viremia after vaccination or challenge ( 14 - 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, in the context of vaccination, the antibody and viremia data from NHP models have been used to provide correlates of protection from infection but not from pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • We all know that vaccination is actually a process of injecting antibodies into the body of a living organism. (dodbuzz.com)
  • These results have implications for studies of dengue pathogenesis and for vaccine development, because enhancement, not just lack of protection, is of concern. (sciencemag.org)
  • These opposing outcomes of dengue antibodies have hampered dengue vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • VADE might hamper vaccine development, as a vaccine may trigger the production of antibodies which, via ADE and other mechanisms, worsen the disease the vaccine is designed to protect against. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral entry has been a major concern for epidemiology, vaccine development, and antibody-based drug therapy. (asm.org)
  • The present findings indicate ADE might contribute to the pathogenesis of severe EV71 infection, and raise practical issues of vaccine development and antibody-based therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to trigger most cases of severe DV infection and is a key consideration in DV vaccine development. (grantome.com)
  • This research may lead to new therapeutic strategies for treating severe dengue virus infections, such as the use of FcRn-blocking antibodies or drugs, and to novel insights into DV vaccine development. (grantome.com)
  • Dengue vaccine development is complicated by the possibility of vaccine-enhanced severe dengue disease due to antibody-dependent enhancement by pre-existing cross-reactivity, as well as homotypic antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Using multiple statistical approaches to study a long-term pediatric cohort in Nicaragua, we show that risk of severe dengue disease is highest within a narrow range of preexisting anti-DENV antibody titers. (sciencemag.org)
  • The interaction of antibodies, dengue virus (DENV), and monocytes can result in either immunity or enhanced virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that only antibodies that are able to block fusion intracellularly would be able to neutralize DENV upon FcγR-mediated uptake by monocytes whereas other antibodies would have resulted in enhancement of DENV replication. (nih.gov)
  • Data are normalized against cells infected with only virus (without antibodies) to account for differences in uptake for different DENV serotypes. (nih.gov)
  • We examined antibody concentration and virus concentration and analyzed whether antibody concentration or DENV-antibody ratio determines ADE activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • The assay allowed the detection of DENV growth with inoculation doses ranging from 10 2 PFU/ml to 10 6 PFU/ml using monoclonal antibodies and undiluted or diluted serum samples. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results indicate that antibody concentration rather than DENV-antibody ratio determines the demonstration of ADE activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) antibody-dependent enhancement of infection upregulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, but suppresses anti-DENV free radical and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in THP-1 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Infection with dengue virus (DENV) or any other flavivirus induces cross-reactive, but weakly neutralizing or nonneutralizing, antibodies that recognize epitopes involving the fusion peptide in the envelope glycoprotein. (pnas.org)
  • mAb IgG 1A5 up-regulated DENV infection by a mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in a variety of Fc receptor-bearing cells in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • A 10- to 1,000-fold increase of viral yield in K562 cells, dependent on the DENV serotype, was observed over a range of subneutralizing concentrations of IgG 1A5. (pnas.org)
  • Considering the abundance of these cross-reactive antibodies, our observations confirm that significant viral amplification could occur during DENV infections in humans with prior infection or with maternally transferred immunity, possibly leading to severe dengue. (pnas.org)
  • IgG 1A5 variants, containing amino acid substitutions from the Fc region of IgG2 or IgG4 antibodies, reduced but did not eliminate DENV-4-enhancing activity in K562 cells. (pnas.org)
  • ADE occurs because preexisting subneutralizing antibodies and the infecting DENV form complexes that bind to Fc receptor-bearing cells, leading to increased virus uptake and replication ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Infection with DENV or any other flavivirus induces broadly cross-reactive but weak or nonneutralizing antibodies ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The envelope (E) glycoprotein is responsible for eliciting the majority of the protective DENV antibody response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Particular neutralizing IgG Moxifloxacin HCl cell signaling antibody against the Moxifloxacin HCl cell signaling infecting DENV lasts years, while cross-reactive neutralizing activity declines as time passes [22,23]. (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • In a second experiment to test the effect of higher antibody doses on short-term protection, groups received either ISG, Mab11/wt, Mab11/mutFc (each at 25 mg/kg) or saline followed by challenge with DENV-2 on day 10. (ajtmh.org)
  • For the coronavirus, a straightforward example of a neutralizing antibody would be on that binds to the tip of the Spike protein, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that is the part that recognizes and binds to the human ACE2 protein on a cell surface. (sciencemag.org)
  • So there are plenty of ways to get neutralizing antibodies, with various ways of binding to the Spike protein and in binding to other coronavirus proteins as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • But there are also plenty of ways to get non -neutralizing antibodies, ones that stick to some part of the coronavirus particle without really inconveniencing it much. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we investigated how a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), which targets the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus spike, mediates viral entry using pseudovirus entry and biochemical assays. (asm.org)
  • No clinical data exist indicating such mechanism for SARS‐CoV‐2, but previous coronavirus infections or infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 convalescent with different SARS‐CoV‐2 strains could promote ADE, as experimentally shown for antibodies against the MERS‐CoV or SARS‐CoV spike S protein. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus-primed CD8+ T cells prevent antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus pathogenesis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This system is certainly specified antibody-dependent improvement of infections and suggested as a factor in the pathogenesis of dengue and perhaps Zika pathogen attacks, both mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • However, it is unclear how the interplay between cross-reactive antibodies and T cells tilts the balance toward pathogenesis versus protection during secondary Zika virus ( ZIKV ) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent studies, including one published in Science , suggest that certain levels of dengue antibody caused by prior dengue infection may be protective against future infection with Zika virus. (healio.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that certain levels of dengue antibody may protect people from Zika virus infection. (healio.com)
  • Because we can see that high levels of anti-dengue antibodies showed some protection against Zika, perhaps if you immunize a person against dengue, you could reduce the risk for Zika as well," Marques said. (healio.com)
  • Some studies have demonstrated that prior dengue infection could actually intensify Zika infection through a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement, or ADE. (healio.com)
  • A team of biologists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City have now found that mice with antibodies from dengue or West Nile virus have a greater risk of developing Zika. (wired.co.uk)
  • Zika surface proteins are of the same flavivirus family as dengue and the close similarities between the two mean that their antibodies can respond to each other in complex and dangerous ways. (wired.co.uk)
  • In 2016, a team from Imperial College London found that the Zika virus is far more likely to infect human cells if they had already been exposed to dengue antibodies. (wired.co.uk)
  • If antibodies in the blood hinder the body's efforts to fight off the Zika virus, how then are healthcare systems meant to protect those at greatest risk ? (wired.co.uk)
  • This is caused by the uptake of dengue virus-antibody complexes by Fc gamma R. We previously reported that Fc gamma RI can mediate antibody-dependent enhancement. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study we use an erythroleukemia cell line, K562, which has Fc gamma RII, but does not have Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RIII, to determine if Fc gamma RII can mediate infection by dengue virus-antibody complexes. (jimmunol.org)
  • This phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when virus-antibody complexes bind to the Fc gamma R via the Fc portion of the Ig. (jimmunol.org)
  • Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced antiviral transcription factor (STAT-1 and NF-kappa B) complexes by antibody-dependent enhancement of macrophage infection by Ross River virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The suppression of antiviral transcription factor complexes was shown to depend on replicating virus and was not simply a result of general antibody-Fc-receptor interaction. (edu.au)
  • You don't have to just completely cap the end of the Spike protein to shut it down - as it turns out, you can bind an antibody further down the Spike and have it be neutralizing, just so long as it interferes with the structural changes that the Spike protein needs to undergo when it starts binding to a human cell membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • A major goal of antibodies is to bind to the pathogen and prevent it from infecting, or entering, a cell. (chop.edu)
  • But, if that person is infected with a second serotype of dengue virus, the neutralizing antibodies generated from the first infection may bind to the virus and actually increase the virus's ability to enter cells, resulting in ADE and causing a severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. (chop.edu)
  • ADE may occur due to the non-neutralizing characteristic of the antibody, which bind viral epitopes other than those involved in a host cell attachment and entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two mechanisms of ADE, both of which "occur when non-neutralizing antibodies or antibodies at sub-neutralizing levels bind to viral antigens without blocking or clearing infection. (acoem.org)
  • Challberg explained that this occurs when antibodies that bind to and protect against one virus cross-react with a related virus. (healio.com)
  • Each antibody can bind with only one particular antigen. (dodbuzz.com)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) stem is a promising target for universal influenza vaccine as stem-specific antibodies have the potential to be broadly cross-reactive towards different HA subtypes. (nature.com)
  • In general, virus-specific antibodies are considered antiviral and play an important role in the control of virus infections in a number of ways. (williambowles.info)
  • However, in some instances, the presence of specific antibodies can be beneficial to the virus. (williambowles.info)
  • Plasma from people recovering from infection, particularly after severe illness, may contain high levels of polyclonal, pathogen specific antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • However, not all antibody responses are created equal. (chop.edu)
  • It is hypothesized that the children developed antibody responses that were not capable of neutralizing the natural virus circulating in the community. (chop.edu)
  • These findings imply that antibody-mediated suppression of humoral responses against particulate antigens is Fc-independent and that the major operating mechanism is masking of epitopes. (diva-portal.org)
  • An analysis of the ability of IgG3 to mediate this regulation indicated that, in contrast, this subclass of IgG augments antibody responses independently of FcγRI (and FcγRIII). (diva-portal.org)
  • The accumulation of amino acid changes and glycosylation sites in the globular head domain might render pre-existing antibody responses obsolete. (nature.com)
  • After some days, humoral responses develop against the virus, eliminating infection through allosteric and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro systems and animal models do not predict the risk of ADE of disease, in part because protective and potentially detrimental antibody-mediated mechanisms are the same and designing animal models depends on understanding how antiviral host responses may become harmful in humans. (physicsforums.com)
  • Author summary Antibodies are an important component of antiviral host responses and their binding to the surface of computer virus particles usually leads to neutralization of viral infectivity. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • To gain a better insight into the humoral responses in the context of epidemiologic and clinical settings, we analyzed the neutralizing antibody data, along with a variety of epidemiologic elements in the database. (cdc.gov)
  • B cell clonal expansion and convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. (stanford.edu)
  • Broad Anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Responses Are Associated with Improved Clinical Disease Parameters in Chronic HCV Infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These patterns occur due to antibody-dependent-enhancement (ADE) among serotype diseases, which leads to infection of secondary infectious classes. (elsevier.com)
  • These studies suggested that DHF/DSS is 15C80 times more frequent in secondary infections than in primary ones, and that up to 99% of DHF cases reveal heterotypic antibodies to the dengue serotype causing the DHF [27]. (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • Hepatitis C patient-derived glycoproteins exhibit marked differences in susceptibility to serum neutralizing antibodies: genetic subtype defines antigenic but not neutralization serotype. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ADE may also happen due to the presence of sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies (binding to viral epitopes below the threshold for neutralization). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the NTD is also targeted by neutralizing antibodies, our data suggest that the balance between neutralizing and facilitating antibodies in vaccinated individuals is in favor of neutralization for the original Wuhan/D614G strain. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Neutralization was clearly related to the specificity of the parental glycoproteins rather than the nucleoprotein, but the antibody-dependent plaque enhancement assay showed greater cross-reactivity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Alongside neutralization, Fc-mediated effector functions, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP), may be critical for in vivo bNAb antiviral activity. (edu.au)
  • Structural Insights into the Neutralization Properties of the Fully Human, Anti-interferon Monoclonal Antibody Sifalimumab. (astrazeneca.com)
  • While the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is considered the gold standard for determining neutralizing antibody levels to flaviviruses, the assay is time-consuming and laborious. (mdpi.com)
  • A Diverse Panel of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Use in Vaccine Research Reveals Extremes of Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Resistance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ADE has been seen with HIV infection (where it may be mediated by one of the complement pathways , which kicks in after an antibody binds to its target), with Ebola (where a completely different complement-driven mechanism seems to be operating), with coxsackievirus (and other picornaviruses), and in many others. (sciencemag.org)
  • Evolutionarily, you'd figure that developing such things would be under positive selection pressure: higher organisms are constantly fighting off viral infections by raising antibodies to them, so something that causes this to backfire would probably be an advantage for any virus that hits on such a mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sometimes antibodies do not prevent cell entry and, on rare occasions, they may actually increase the ability of a virus to enter cells and cause a worsening of disease through a mechanism called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). (chop.edu)
  • Our results suggest a novel mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection, one that would account for the dire outcome of Ebola outbreaks in human populations. (asm.org)
  • Here we present evidence indicating that antibodies able to enhance infectivity of authentic Ebola Zaire virus are produced in humans and propose a novel mechanism for this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in which the complement protein C1q mediates the enhancement. (asm.org)
  • We propose investigating a novel mechanism by which antibodies enhance dengue virus infection. (grantome.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been proposed as an underlying pathogenic mechanism of DHF/DSS ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we identify a novel mechanism for ADE a neutralizing antibody binds to the surface spike protein of coronaviruses like a viral receptor, triggers a conformational change of the spike, and mediates viral entry into IgG Fc receptor -expressing cells through canonical viral-receptor-dependent pathways. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been proposed as a mechanism to explain dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the course of a secondary dengue infection. (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • Newborn mononuclear cells (MNCs) have decreased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) compared to the ADCC of MNCs from adults ( 11 , 12 ), and newborns have decreased numbers of NK cells with both CD16 and CD56, a phenotype associated with greater cytotoxicity ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Our research provides brand-new insights into mechanisms that potentially modulate the antiviral effects of antibody populations present in post-infection sera. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ascites fluid production in mice is a well described method of antibody production, although ethical questions regarding the pain and distress of the animals utilized in this process have been raised. (hindawi.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ascites fluid production in mice is a well described method of antibody production [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • FN1 Conflict of interest: Wayne A. Marasco is an inventor on a provisional patent entitled, "Flavivirus neutralizing antibodies and methods of use thereof" that is owned by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and covers the monoclonal antibody used in these studies. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 expand cellular tropism by infecting some phagocytic cells (immature macrophages and dendritic cells) via antibody bound Fc receptor uptake of virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • This includes selecting specific epitopes within the receptor binding domain of the spike protein as targets for a neutralizing antibody response. (acoem.org)
  • Meanwhile, MAb binds to cell surface IgG Fc receptor, guiding viral entry through canonical viral-receptor-dependent pathways. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest that the antibody/Fc-receptor complex functionally mimics viral receptor in mediating viral entry. (asm.org)
  • Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • We hypothesize that directing dengue virus to the cell surface by a bispecific antibody facilitates the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor, thereby increasing its infectivity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consequently, preexisting antibodies do not neutralize infection, but enhance it, possibly by triggering Fcγ receptor‐mediated virus uptake. (fraunhofer.de)
  • These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fcγ receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to immediate virus-cell connections, antibodies guaranteed to trojan contaminants can mediate connection of such resistant processes to Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing cells like monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, leading to endocytosis andin the total case of incomplete trojan neutralizationto improvement of an infection [13C15]. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Molecular basis for antagonistic activity of anifrolumab, an anti-interferon-α receptor 1 antibody. (astrazeneca.com)
  • They confirmed that antibody-dependent enhancement of disease occurs at a specific range of antibody concentrations. (sciencemag.org)
  • Low levels of antibody did not enhance disease, intermediate levels exacerbated disease, and high antibody titers protected against severe disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although suspected, such antibody-dependent enhancement of severe disease has not been shown to occur in humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • By contrast, we observe protection from all symptomatic dengue disease at high antibody titers. (sciencemag.org)
  • ADE along with type 2 T helper cell-dependent mechanisms may contribute to a development of the vaccine associated disease enhancement (VADE), which is not limited to respiratory disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are concerns about the potential for more serious adverse events- enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) following infection and a subtype of ERD, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) following infection after vaccine administration. (acoem.org)
  • In ADE via enhanced infection, non-neutralizing antibodies bound to the virus enhance infection rates in target cells, such as macrophages, leading to more severe disease. (acoem.org)
  • If the patient is exposed to a different strain the following year, they may still get sick, but the antibodies they developed the year before may help them have less severe disease and recover more quickly. (doubloondiagnostic.com)
  • 2.?Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Secondary Disease and Antibody-Dependent Improvement Dengue infection could be asymptomatic or within two clinical types of disease, dengue fever (DF) and the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • A prospective nested case-control study of infant dengue carried out by Daniel Libraty (of the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA) and colleagues reveals that maternal antibodies against dengue protect infants from the full spectrum of dengue disease. (biology-online.org)
  • Crucially, there has been no evidence so far of antibody mediated enhancement of disease in covid-19 patients given convalescent plasma despite suggestions that this might be a possibility in the presence of reactive but non-neutralisng antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. (bmj.com)
  • However, when antibodies from one type are leftover and another strain takes hold, the matching antibodies can actually feed the spread of the illness through the human body, with the potential to create a fatal hemorrhagic disease. (wired.co.uk)
  • Natural infection and the attenuated vaccine induce antibodies that enhance the update of the homologous virus and H1N1 virus isolated several years later, demonstrating that a primary influenza A virus infection results in the induction of infection enhancing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell 184 :1-17, 2021) have reported that infection-enhancing antibodies directed against the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein facilitate virus infection in vitro, but not in vivo. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • and explains that while the current injections may provide some level of immunity against the alleged original covid virus, they present an unfortunate side effect - The acceleration of "infection-enhancing antibodies" which overreact to Delta variant infections. (tapnewswire.com)
  • However, in case of a low NAb titer, ADE may be observed following binding of the SARS‐CoV‐2/antibody complex to ACE2, internalization of the complex and IgG induced stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • With a linear mixed model, neutralizing antibody titer was shown to peak between week 5 and week 8 after onset and to decline thereafter, with a half-life of 6.4 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Remember that there are "neutralizing" antibodies as opposed to non-neutralizing ones - a neutralizing antibody, as the name implies, binds to its target in a way that shuts its function down. (sciencemag.org)
  • FcγR binds antibody via its fragment crystallizable region (Fc). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is resistant to thermal/chemical stress and it binds to conformation-specific, HA stem-directed broadly neutralizing antibodies with high affinity. (nature.com)
  • Here, we aimed to augment the Fc-dependent effector functions of a chimeric human-bovine bNAb, NC-Cow1, which binds the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) an. (edu.au)
  • It is known that anti-dengue virus antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of IgG FcR (Fc gamma R)-positive cells, and this phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement. (jimmunol.org)
  • Polyclonal mouse anti-dengue virus antibody significantly augments dengue virus infection of K562 cells, whereas normal mouse serum does not. (jimmunol.org)
  • A major subset of these cross-reactive antibodies is directed to immuno-dominant epitopes involving determinants mapped to the flavivirus-conserved fusion peptide in the envelope glycoprotein (E) ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibodies and clinical samples, the utility of EMNT was evaluated by comparing the end-point titers of the EMNT and the PRNT. (mdpi.com)
  • Plasma or serum from convalescing patients enhanced the infection of primate kidney cells by the Zaire virus, and this enhancement was mediated by antibodies to the viral glycoprotein and by complement component C1q. (asm.org)
  • Complement and anticomplement antibody. (asm.org)
  • ADE is mainly mediated by IgG antibodies, however, IgM along with complement, and IgA antibodies have also been shown to be trigger ADE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-neutralizing antibodies protect from chronic LCMV infection independently of activating FcγR or complement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection: molecular mechanisms and in vivo implications. (nih.gov)
  • However, in the case of the Delta variant, neutralizing antibodies have a decreased affinity for the spike protein, whereas facilitating antibodies display a strikingly increased affinity. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Here, we report the design of a bacterially expressed polypeptide that mimics a H5 HA stem by protein minimization to focus the antibody response towards the HA stem. (nature.com)
  • Although fresh chimpanzee serum was found to have pronounced infection-enhancing properties in the absence of antibody to HIV-1, this effect was abolished by heat inactivation (57 degrees C, 1 hr) or treatment with cobra venom anticomplementary protein. (duke.edu)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy with dengue specific antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-mouse IgG antibody clearly showed that recombinant protein Co1-scEDIII-AGA was localized on the cell surface of the respective clones in comparison with scEDIII-Co1 and Mock cells with no fluorescence. (springer.com)
  • William Dall'Acqua is Senior Director Research & Development at MedImmune, Gaithersburg, where he supervises a group in the Department of Antibody Discovery and Protein Engineering. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Based on recent reports of antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected humans, sera from HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was evaluated for enhancing activity in an in vitro infection assay that uses MT-2 cells (a human lymphoblastoid cell line). (duke.edu)
  • This study, therefore, aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based microneutralization test (EMNT) for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Progression to this phase coincidently coincides with timing of anticipated humoral immunity antibody response from memory B-cells for cross reactive antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • These antibodies may confer passive immunity to recipients, and in viral diseases are thought to act mainly by neutralising viral particles. (bmj.com)
  • The lab animals that developed antibodies once they got jabbed were wiped out once their short-lived immunity wore off and they were reintroduced to SARS. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Using monoclonal antibodies, we identified ZEBOV-specific ADE epitopes. (utmb.edu)
  • It contains the main epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies (virus-particular and cross-reactive epitopes) [5,6]. (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody production in response to TD-Ags in vivo and in vitro was significantly lower in old than in young B6 mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected and passively immunized chimpanzees. (duke.edu)
  • Heat-inactivated, HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzee serum could enhance HIV-1 infection of MT-2 cells in vitro when combined with fresh, normal human serum. (duke.edu)
  • Using the Taiwan nationwide laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) database, we analyzed neutralizing antibody in relation to clinical outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum from Ebola survivors should have antibodies that would neutralize infection when given to other patients. (forbes.com)
  • Interestingly, compared with ZEBOV, Reston Ebola virus (REBOV) had substantially weaker potential to induce ADE antibodies. (utmb.edu)
  • Here we show that Ebola Zaire virus infection in humans induces antibodies that enhance viral infectivity. (asm.org)
  • To detect virus-infected cells, we used rabbit antiserum to VP40 of Ebola Zaire species ( 12 ) as a primary antibody to abolish any cross-reactivity with the mouse MAb. (asm.org)
  • Os primeiros gromos coñecidos desta enfermidade aconteceron en 1976 no sur do Sudán e en rexións preto do río Ébola (ou Ebola), na actual República Democrática do Congo (antes Zaire). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a mouse animal model, phagocytic cells contribute to the antibody-mediate elimination of SARS-CoV-1 ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on these results we conclude that Fc gamma RII mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in addition to Fc gamma RI. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings suggest that distinct mechanisms mediate the enhancing effect of different subclasses of antibodies. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we review the possible antibody‐dependent enhancement (ADE) occurrence, known for dengue infections, when there is a second infection with a different virus strain. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Major goal: To define the role of Fc?RIIIa in antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue infections. (stanford.edu)
  • In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity of commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) for detection of ZIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in sera of febrile patients with ZIKV infections. (springer.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced as described previously ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, 35 hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Hbl L 2 , L 1 and B were generated. (mdpi.com)
  • We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. (asm.org)
  • Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Phagocytosis in Anti-HIV-1 Human-Bovine Chimeric Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies. (edu.au)
  • Enhancement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by endowing IgG with FcαRI (CD89) binding. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Antibodies that prevent entry into cells are called neutralizing antibodies. (chop.edu)
  • They suggest that evidence that a vaccine triggers the production of neutralizing antibodies could be sufficient to progress to widespread implementation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The conserved stem domain contains a greater proportion of vulnerable sites targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) than the variable head domain 6 . (nature.com)
  • By serial serum samples from three HIV-1-infected chimpanzees, HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzees are shown to develop enhancing antibodies early in infection (2 mo postchallenge), whereas neutralizing antibodies develop later. (duke.edu)
  • Preliminary reports also suggest that in human beings there is a continuous selection process of populations of dengue-virus neutralizing-antibodies with increasing homologous reactivity and concurrent decrease in heterotypic cross reactions [24]. (aboutsciencenow.info)
  • The inhibition of viral growth due to neutralizing antibodies was determined colorimetrically by using EMNT. (mdpi.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies have a role in controlling hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A successful vaccine will need to elicit potently neutralizing antibodies that are capable of preventing the infection of genetically diverse viral isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • and chicken IgG purified from antiserum to human C1q (Immunsystem, Uppsala, Sweden) were used for enhancement and enhancement inhibition assays and for flow cytometric analysis. (asm.org)
  • In ADCC assays with chicken erythrocyte targets, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased the cytotoxicities of both cord blood and adult MNCs, with greater enhancement again seen with cord blood cells. (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies and human serum samples were used in the assays. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, antibody concentration rather than multiplicity of infection was defined as the main determinant in ADE assays using FcγR-expressing BHK cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • So it's been known since the 1890s in the case of diphtheria, that you could take serum containing antibodies or plasma containing antibodies from children or adults who recovered. (harvard.edu)
  • Conversely, cross-reactive anti- ZIKV antibodies or CD8+ T cells displayed the same pathogenic or protective effects upon JEV infection , with the exception that maternally acquired anti- ZIKV antibodies had no effect on JEV infection of the neonates . (bvsalud.org)
  • Usually the process of phagocytosis is accompanied by the virus degradation, however, if the virus is not neutralized (either due to low affinity binding or targeting to a non-neutralizing epitope), antibody binding might result in a virus escape and therefore, enhanced infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, an antibody prevents a virus' effects on the body by a process called Phagocytosis. (dodbuzz.com)
  • Seroprevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus antibodies, French Polynesia, 2014-2015. (umn.edu)