Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Antibody-Dependent Enhancement: Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Mice, Inbred C57BLNatural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

Early membrane rupture events during neutrophil-mediated antibody-dependent tumor cell cytolysis. (1/1442)

Although cell-mediated cytolysis is a fundamental immune effector response, its mechanism remains poorly understood at the cellular level. In this report, we image for the first time transient ruptures, as inferred by cytoplasmic marker release, in tumor cell membranes during Ab-dependent cellular cytolysis. The cytosol of IgG-opsonized YAC tumor cells was labeled with tetra-methylrhodamine diacetate followed by the formation of tumor cell-neutrophil conjugates. We hypothesized that tumor cell cytolysis proceeds via a series of discrete membrane rupture/resealing events that contribute to marker release. To test this hypothesis, we occluded the fluorescence image of the labeled tumor cells by passing an opaque disk into a field-conjugated plane between the light source and the sample. Multiple small bursts of fluorescent label release from tumor cells could be detected using a photomultiplier tube. Similarly, multiple fluorescent plumes were observed at various sites around the perimeter of a target. These findings support a multihit model of target cytolysis and suggest that cytolytic release is not focused at specific sites. Cytolytic bursts were generally observed at 20-s intervals, which match the previously described reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate and superoxide release oscillation periods for neutrophils; we speculate that metabolic oscillations of the effector cell drive the membrane damage of the target.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity of human and baboon mononuclear phagocytes against schistosomula in vitro: induction by immune complexes containing IgE and Schistosoma mansoni antigens. (2/1442)

Normal human blood monocytes, pre-incubated at 37 degrees C with sera from patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, strongly adhered to S. mansoni schistosomula in vitro, whereas no significant adherence was induced by sera from uninfected individuals. Comparable adherence occurred with normal baboon blood monocytes or peritoneal macrophages when these cells were incubated with sera from S. mansoni-infected baboons. Adherence of macrophages to schistosomula was associated with damage to the larvae, as estimated by a 51Cr release technique. Neither adherence nor cytotoxicity was induced by pre-incubation of the schistosomula, instead of the monocytes, with immune serum. The relevant factor in immune serum was heat-labile, but was not a complement component. Absorption and ultracentrifugation experiments showed that immune complexes, containing S. mansoni-specific IgE antibody and soluble parasite antigens, produced monocyte or macrophage adherence and cytotoxicity. Similar observations have been reported previously in the rat model. Since the production of large amounts of IgE is a predominant feature of schistosome infections in man and experimental animals, it is possible that this new mode of mononuclear phagocyte activation could act as an immune effector mechanism against S. mansoni.  (+info)

Improving the efficacy of antibody-interleukin 2 fusion proteins by reducing their interaction with Fc receptors. (3/1442)

Fusion proteins between whole antibodies (Abs) and cytokines (immunocytokines) such as interleukin 2 have shown efficacy in several mouse tumor models despite a circulating half-life that is significantly shorter than that of the original Ab. We have examined the potential mechanisms responsible for clearance and shown that an important factor is enhanced binding to Fc receptor (FcR). Improvements in the half-lives of two different immunocytokines were made by changing the isotype of the human heavy chain C region from IgG1 or IgG3 to those with reduced binding to FcR, e.g., IgG4. The same effect could also be achieved through site-directed mutagenesis of the FcR binding site in the IgG1 H chain. In vitro studies using mouse J774 FcR-expressing cells showed increased binding of interleukin 2-based immunocytokines, relative to their corresponding Abs, and that this was reversed in those fusion proteins made with IgG4 or mutated IgG1 H chains. All of the fusion proteins showing reduced FcR binding also had reduced Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, as measured in 4-h chromium release assays. A complete loss of complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity was seen with an IgG4-based immunocytokine derived from an IgG1 Ab with potent activity. Despite these reduced effector functions, the IgG4-based immunocytokines with extended circulating half-lives showed equivalent (in the case of severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft models) or better (in the case of syngeneic models) efficacy in mouse tumor models than the original IgG1-based molecules. These novel immunocytokines may show improved efficacy in therapeutic situations where T cell- rather than natural killer- or complement-mediated antitumor mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent cytolysis by neutrophils exposed to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: intervention of FcgammaRII (CD32), CD11b-CD18 integrins, and CD66b glycoproteins. (4/1442)

Murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Lym-1 is an IgG2a able to bind HLA-DR variants on malignant B cells and suitable for serotherapeutic approaches in B-lymphoma patients. We have previously shown that Lym-1 can synergize with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to trigger neutrophil cytolysis towards Raji cells used as a model of B-lymphoma targets. Here we provide evidence for the intervention of certain neutrophil receptors or surface molecules in this model of cell-mediated lysis. The lysis was completely inhibited by the anti-FcgammaRII MoAb IV.3 and unaffected by the anti-FcgammaRIII MoAb 3G8. This suggests that neutrophil cytolysis involves FcgammaRII without cooperation of this receptor with FcgammaRIII. Moreover, the lysis was inhibited by an anti-CD18 MoAb (MEM48) and by a MoAb specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like and glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-linked glycoproteins (CD66b). Using an immunofluorescence staining procedure, cross-linking of CD66b induced the redistribution of CD11b on neutrophils with distinct areas of CD11b clustering via a process susceptible of inhibition by D-mannose. This is consistent with the ability of CD11b-CD18 and CD66b to undergo lectin-like physical interactions on the neutrophil surface. Such a type of interaction is presumably instrumental for neutrophil cytolytic activity in that the lysis was inhibited by D-mannose and enhanced by the MoAb VIM-12, which mimics the cooperation between CD11b and GPI-anchored molecules by specifically interacting with CD11b lectin-like sites. Therefore, the present results prove the absolute requirement for FcgammaRII in neutrophil GM-CSF/Lym-1-mediated cytolysis and, on the other hand, define the crucial role of CD66b and CD11b/CD18 in the expression of the cell lytic potential.  (+info)

Natural cytotoxic and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic activity of cells in the decidua basales and metrial glands of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata. (5/1442)

Cytotoxic cells are present in the uterine wall of pregnant rats. To determine if the cytotoxic activity arises in response to semen or the products of conception, the profile of cytotoxic activity in deciduomata of pseudopregnant rats was examined. To examine NK activity, Yac-1 cells were used as targets in chromium release cytotoxicity assays and an antibody to Yac-1 cells was included in some assays to determine antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) activity. Cells from the metrial glands and deciduae of deciduomata of rats at days 10 and 13 of pseudopregnancy did not show NK activity but ADCC activity was present. To examine natural cytotoxic (NC) activity, Wehi 164 cells were used as targets in chromium release cytotoxicity assays. Cells isolated from the metrial glands and deciduae of rats at day 10 of pseudopregnancy were able to kill Wehi 164 cells after 21 h assays, thus demonstrating NC activity. The profile of cytotoxic activity in the uterine wall of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata is similar to that found in pregnancy and is thus independent of semen or the products of conception.  (+info)

Human CD16 as a lysis receptor mediating direct natural killer cell cytotoxicity. (6/1442)

In addition to their role in peptide antigen presentation, class I MHC proteins also play a critical role in inhibiting natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity through interaction with NK inhibitory receptors. Thus, NK cells are cytotoxic to virus-infected and tumor cells that have lost class I MHC protein expression. However, the nature of the receptors involved in the triggering of lysis of target cells is poorly understood. CD16 (Fcgamma receptor III) has been described as a receptor expressed on NK cells that facilitates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by binding to the Fc portion of various antibodies. However, we show here that CD16 has a broader function and is directly involved in the lysis of some virus-infected cells and tumor cells, independent of antibody binding. The presence of a putative CD16 ligand on appropriate target cells has also been demonstrated by the use of a CD16-Ig fusion protein.  (+info)

C-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides can induce apoptosis and down-regulate Fas expression in rheumatoid synoviocytes. (7/1442)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of c-myc in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the mechanism of synovial apoptosis. METHODS: Using cultured human synoviocytes from patients with RA and c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS ODN), we examined the inhibition of cell proliferation by the MTT assay and the induction of apoptosis with TUNEL staining and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of c-myc on down-regulation of Fas expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Treatment with c-myc AS ODN induced inhibition of cell proliferation, along with down-regulation of c-Myc protein and c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The morphologic changes of synovial cell death were typical of apoptosis. In addition, c-myc AS ODN treatment down-regulated expression of Fas mRNA but not Fas antigen. Analysis of the involvement of the caspase cascade revealed that the cytotoxic activity of c-myc AS ODN was completely blocked by inhibitors of both caspase 1 (YVAD-FMK) and caspase 3 (DEVD-FMK). CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that c-myc AS ODN might be a useful therapeutic tool in RA and clarify that cell death by c-myc AS ODN is induced through the caspase cascade, similar to Fas-induced apoptosis. In addition, combination therapy with anti-Fas antibody and c-myc AS ODN reduced Fas-dependent cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Differential involvement of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) receptor/ligand system on apoptosis induced by the wild-type p53 gene transfer in human cancer cells. (8/1442)

The CD95 (Fas/APO-1) system regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes of cell death. The ligand for CD95 induces apoptosis in sensitive target cells by interacting with a transmembrane cell surface CD95 receptor. We previously reported that the recombinant adenovirus-mediated transfer of the wild-type p53 gene caused apoptotic cell death in a variety of human cancer cells. To better understand the mechanism responsible for this cell death signaling, we have investigated the potential involvement of the CD95 receptor/ligand system in p53-mediated apoptosis. The transient expression of the wild-type p53 gene upregulated the CD95 ligand mRNA as well as protein expression in H1299 human lung cancer cells deficient for p53 and in DLD-1 and SW620 human colon cancer cells with mutated p53, all of which constitutively expressed CD95 receptor as shown by a flow cytometric analysis, and induced rapid apoptotic cell death as early as 24 h after gene transfer. However, the sensitivity to the cytolytic effect of agonistic anti-CD95 antibody (CH11) varied among these cell lines: CH11 induced apoptosis in H1299 cells, but not in DLD-1 and SW620 cells despite their abundant CD95 receptor expression, suggesting that the CD95 receptors on DLD-1 and SW620 cells might be inactivated. In addition, an antagonistic anti-CD95 ligand antibody (4H9) that interfered with the CD95-receptor-ligand interaction partially reduced the apoptosis induced by the wild-type p53 gene transfer in H1299 cells, whereas apoptosis of DLD-1 and SW620 cells occurred in the presence of 4H9. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that the CD95 receptor/ligand system is differentially involved in p53-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that the restoration of the wild-type p53 function may mediate apoptosis through CD95 receptor/ligand interactions as well as an alternative pathway.  (+info)

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

The four known IgG subclasses are involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Antibodies are a key component of the ... can affect T cell functions directly and indirectly via cells such as Treg cells. CD8 cells can be suppressed by B cells ... Monoclonal antibodies can target tumor cells or abnormal cells in the body that are recognized as body cells, but are ... Tumor vasculature helps tumors preferentially recruit other immune cells over T cells, in part through endothelial cell (EC)- ...

*Antibody-dependent enhancement

... or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies (ADCC) in the serum contains infection enhancing antibodies( ... Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, ... 2008). "Role of Dendritic Cells in Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection". Journal of Virology. 82 (8): 3939 ... The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma ...

*Fc receptor

... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ... This process is known as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). FcγRIII on NK cells can also associate with ... Another process involving Fc receptors is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). During ADCC, FcγRIII ... B cells). They allow these cells to bind to antibodies that are attached to the surface of microbes or microbe infected cells, ...

*Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a ... "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 ... Wang, W; Erbe, AK; Hank, JA; Morris, ZS; Sondel, PM (2015). "NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in ... ISBN 1-55581-246-5. University of Leicester, Virus Immunopathology Notes Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity at the US ...

*Anti-thyroid autoantibodies

They cause thyroid cell damage by complement activation and antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity. However, anti-TPO antibodies ... The production of antibodies in Graves' disease is thought to arise by activation of CD4+ T-cells, followed by B-cell ... These B-cells produce antibodies specific to the thyroid antigens. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, activated CD4+ T-cells produce ... of anti-TPO antibody positive cases also demonstrate thyroglobulin antibodies. Anti-Na+/I− symporter antibodies are a more ...

*Girentuximab

It triggers antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). It does this by activating natural killer cells by binding to ... CAIX is expressed on the surface of most renal cancer cells and is hypothesized to be on the surface of other tumor cells. It ... Its development was suspended as a "naked" or unconjugated antibody during phase III trials due to efficacy. Girentuximab was ... Bedke J, Stenzl A (2013). "Immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: where are we now?". Expert ...

*Natural killer cell

The contribution of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to tumor cell killing can be measured with a specific test ... CD16 (FcγIIIA) plays a role in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; in particular, they bind IgG. Killer-cell ... NK cells are thought to be an important cell type in this process. These cells are known as "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) and ... These NK cells have the ability to elicit cell cytotoxicity in vitro, but at a lower level than peripheral NK cells, despite ...

*Timothy J. Yeatman

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: detection by automated flow cytometry with ultramicro techniques. Science. 1980 ... Prognostic and predictive value of a malignancy-risk gene signature in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of the ... Increased Src activity disrupts cadherin/catenin-mediated homotypic adhesion in human colon cancer and transformed rodent cells ...

*Type II hypersensitivity

Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting ... These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell ... B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the foreign blood type are produced. IgG and IgM antibodies bind to ... the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies (IgG or IgM). These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer cells (NK ...

*Monocyte

... s are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Vacuolization may ... "Nr4a1-Dependent Ly6Clow Monocytes Monitor Endothelial Cells and Orchestrate Their Disposal". Cell. 153: 362-375. doi:10.1016/j. ... the slan cell surface marker was shown to give an unequivocal separation of the two cell types. Ghattas et al. state that the " ... bipotent cells that differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity MeSH G04.610.270.500 --- macrophage activation MeSH G04.610.484.100 --- clonal anergy MeSH ... antibody-dependent enhancement MeSH G04.185.515.880.210 --- cell transformation, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.225 --- ... cell enlargement MeSH G04.335.233.750 --- cell proliferation MeSH G04.335.233.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G04.335.233.750. ... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G04.610.626.325.211 --- gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ...

*Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Nevertheless, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is a substantial factor behind the apoptotic fall-out of ... Activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells) in response to cell-mediated immune response affected by helper T- ... anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO, or TPOAb) and anti-microsomal antibodies can help obtain an accurate diagnosis. ... cells with intensely eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm, a metaplasia from the normal cuboidal cells that constitute the lining ...

*Alemtuzumab

It is an unconjugated antibody, thought to work via the activation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ... October 1983). "Removal of T cells from bone marrow for transplantation: a monoclonal antilymphocyte antibody that fixes human ... Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell ... It is a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD52, a protein present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) requires antibodies to bind to target cell surfaces. Antibodies are formed ... known as complement-dependent cytotoxicity; enhancement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; and CR3-dependent ... Once bound to a cancer antigen, antibodies can induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, activate the complement ... "Natural killer cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in tumor immunotherapy with therapeutic antibodies". ...

*Ibritumomab tiuxetan

... the antibody itself may trigger cell death via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent ... The antibody binds to the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B cells (but not B cell precursors), ... Together, these actions eliminate B cells from the body, allowing a new population of healthy B cells to develop from lymphoid ... Compared to other monoclonal antibody treatments (many of which are well over US$ 40,000 for a course of therapy), this drug is ...

*CD16

... bind to the Fc portion of IgG antibodies which then activates the NK cell for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ( ... It can be used to isolate populations of these cells by antibodies directed towards CD16, using fluorescent-activated cell ... "CD16 is indispensable for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by human monocytes". Scientific Reports. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/ ... and can kill primary leukemic cells, cancer cell lines, and cells infected with hepatitis B virus. A lack of CD16 in a given ...

*Hemagglutinin (influenza)

... the efficacy of these antibodies in vivo is believed to be a result of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and the ... In contrast, some antibodies have been found to have no effect on attachment. Instead, this latter group of antibodies acts by ... It is responsible for binding the virus to cells with sialic acid on the membranes, such as cells in the upper respiratory ... Firstly, it allows the recognition of target vertebrate cells, accomplished through the binding to these cells' sialic acid- ...

*Trogocytosis

Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity). It was shown that in order to initiate ADCC in vitro, PMN's have to adhere to ... On T cells and B cells, trogocytosis is triggered when the T cell receptor (TCR) on T cells or B cell receptor (BCR) on B cells ... from the cells they scan. The transfer was cell contact-dependent and occurred in the context of cell-conjugate formation. ... affinity T cell down-modulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells mediated by T cells leads to regulation of T cell ...

*Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation

That is, the infected cell is not attacked as in Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, instead the virions are rapidly ... Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation (IAMD) is a neutralization mechanism of intracellular antibody-mediated immunity ... specifically to the target antigen presented on the pathogen extracellularly The antibody bound pathogen infects a host cell In ... Proteasomal pathway Mallery DL, McEwan WA, Bidgood SR, Towers GJ, Johnson CM, James LC (2010). "Antibodies mediate ...

*FCAR

... the neutrophils not only perform antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but also release the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β ... antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, production of reactive oxygen species, and antigen presentation. Despite ... antibodies. FcαRI is present on the cell surface of myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and ... van Egmond M, Bakema JE (June 2013). "Neutrophils as effector cells for antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer". Seminars in ...

*Immunoglobulin G

IgG also plays an important role in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and intracellular antibody-mediated ... IgG antibodies can prevent IgE mediated anaphylaxis by intercepting a specific antigen before it binds to mast cell-associated ... IgG molecules are created and released by plasma B cells. Each IgG has two antigen binding sites. Antibodies are major ... Antibodies of the IgG class are predominantly active during a secondary antibody response. Thus, the appearance of specific IgG ...

*Immunoglobulin A

Ligation of FcαRI by IgA containing immune complexes causes antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), degranulation ... Production of sIgA against specific antigens depends on sampling of M cells and underlying dendritic cells, T cell activation, ... It binds to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, and is taken up into the cell ... see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. ...

*Eosinophil

... eosinophils as well as the number of eosinophils leading to inflammation through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ... suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and stimulate fibroblast cells to secrete mucus ... "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule proteins on IMR-32 nerve cell signaling and survival". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ... These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity ...

*Cancer immunoprevention

... antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ADCC). Moreover, antibody binding interferes with the cellular functions of the ... stimulates major histocompatibility complex expression in tumor cells and inhibits cell proliferation. Antibodies binding to ... whereas long term immunity from reinfection is provided by antibodies. Both gamma-interferon and antibodies prevent tumor ... If the target antigen controls cell growth (e.g. if it is the product of an oncogene), then a block of signaling can disrupt ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper cells) - T8 cells - Tanner staging - TAT - TB - template - TeachAIDS - ... cells - CDC National AIDS Hotline (CDC-NAH) - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell- ... AVN B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ...

*Rituximab

... a polarization of B cells that augments its therapeutic function in NK-cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ... The Fc portion of rituximab mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ...

*Ocaratuzumab

... increased antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and for improved treatment of low-affinity FcγRIIIa allotypes. ... Libraries of antibody Fab (fragment, antigen binding) regions were generated with codon substituted variations of the antibody ... "Results of a Phase 1 Study of AME-133v (LY2469298), an Fc-Engineered Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibody, in FcγRIIIa- ... The antibody is engineered for enhanced affinity to the CD20 antigen on B-lymphocytes, ...
Synonyms for Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. 1 word related to cytotoxicity: toxicity. What are synonyms for Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity?
Abstract Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in reinfection immunity to schistosomes in the rat involves either IgG2a anaphylactic antibody and eosinophils or IgE antibody and macrophages. The first system requires two signals, one by the antibody through the eosinophil Fc receptor, another by mast cells through the release of mediators among which is ECF-A. IgE antibody complexed with schistosome antigen binds to an IgE-specific receptor on the macrophage and triggers the cell to release enzymes and superoxide. Immunity in rat schistosomiasis is antibody-dependent, abolished in anti-µ treated neonate rats or by passive serum transfer after selective depletion of either IgG2a or IgE. The two anaphylactic antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity systems are in a permanent balance in immune rats, eosinophils being blocked by IgG2a immune complexes when this cell is inefficient. Anaphylactic antibodies thus play a key role in triggering and modulating effector cell function.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, as part of the humoral immune response, can act to limit and contain infection. ADCC is independent of the immune complement system that also lyses targets but does not require any other cell. ADCC requires an effector cell which classically is known to be natural killer (NK) cells that typically interact with IgG antibodies. However, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. ADCC is part of the adaptive immune response due to its dependence on a prior antibody response. The coating of target cells with antibodies is ...
INDICATIONS. Septilin is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory herbal formulation, which strengthen the immune responses of the body. Septilin stimulates phagocytosis by macrophage activation and increases the polymorphonuclear cells and helps overcome infection. It builds up resistance to disease and helps prevent reinfection, augments granulocyte-macrophage differentiation, natural killer cell activity and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. Septilins stimulatory effect on the humoral immunity increases the antibody forming cells, thereby enhancing the secretion of antibodies into the circulation. Septilin also augments the population of erythropoietic and granulopoietic precursor cells, stab cells and primary.. INSTRUCTIONS Take 1 or 2 pills twice daily, preferably with meals. Allow several weeks for full benefit. The use of natural products provides progressive but long-lasting results.. If you miss a dose of this medicine and you are using it regularly, take it as soon as possible. ...
Home » T lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes, cytotoxic Immunised t-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (mlc), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (gvh) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumour cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (cml). These cells are distinct from natural killer cells (killer cells, natural) and from killer cells mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. ...
Lymphocytes T Cytotoxiques 0 questions Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2. ...
Most therapies for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases either neutralize or suppress production of inflammatory cytokines produced by activated macrophages (e.g., TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, GM-CSF). However, no approved therapies directly target this activated subset of macrophages. First, we undertook to examine whether the folate receptor beta (FR-β) positive subpopulation of macrophages, which marks the inflammatory subset in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, might constitute the prominent population of macrophages in inflamed lesions in humans. Next, we utilized anti-FR-β monoclonal antibodies capable of mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) to treat animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and peritonitis. Human tissue samples of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, and scleroderma are all characterized by
Antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an immunologic cytotoxic effector mechanism that is dependent on the cooperative interaction of humoral and cellular effector elements
COURTOIS, Anthony et al. Complement dependent cytotoxicity activity of therapeutic antibody fragments is acquired by immunogenic glycan coupling. Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.5, pp.5-5. ISSN 0717-3458.. Oligosaccharides are implicated in the development of the immune response notably in complement activation. Anti-tumoural immunotherapy by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers some advantages to chemotherapy including cell targeting but some of them are inefficient to generate cytotoxicity dependent complement (CDC) known to be important in the antibody s efficacy. The aim of this study is to give a CDC activity of mAb by linkage of a complement activating oligosaccharide to this antibody via a hetero-bifunctional linker allowing control of the conjugation reaction. We worked on non Hodgkin Burkitt s lymphoma as cancer source, Fab fragments of rituximab devoid of complement activity as mAb and the trisaccharide Galα(1→3)Galβ(1→4)GlcNAc as immunogenic glycan. The ...
HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid the exposure of Env ADCC epitopes by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env on the cell surface. In HIV-1, substitution of large residues such as histidine or tryptophan for serine 375 (S375H/W) in the gp120 Phe 43 cavity, where Phe 43 of CD4 contacts gp120, results in the spontaneous sampling of an Env conformation closer to the CD4-bound state. While residue S375 is well conserved in the majority of group M HIV-1 isolates, CRF01_AE strains have a naturally occurring histidine at this position (H375). Interestingly, CRF01_AE is the predominant circulating strain in Thailand, where the RV144 trial took place. In this trial, which resulted in a modest degree of protection, ADCC responses were identified as being part of the ...
Monoclonal antibodies against tumour cells mainly act via antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity.. They also act via complement mediated lysis and by induction of apoptosis.. ...
Protection against disease-causing pathogens, known as immunity, involves numerous cells organs, tissues and their products. To able to understand the biology of immune cells (hematopoietic cells) and their role in an immune system, we have used several different methods, including transcriptome analyses, bioinformatics, production of recombinant proteins and analyses of some of them, focusing on the granule proteases by substrate phage display.. Hematopoietic cells express surface receptors interacting with the constant region of immunoglobulins (Igs) known as Fc receptors (FcRs). These receptors play major roles in the immune system, including enhancing phagocytosis, activating antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity and cell activation. A detailed bioinformatics analysis of FcRs reveals that the poly-Ig receptors (PIGR), FcR-like molecules and common signalling γ chain all appeared very early with the appearance of the bony fishes, and thereby represent the first major evolutionary step in ...
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays play an integral part in the antibody therapeutic drug discovery process. New, non-radioactive assay chemistries are discussed in this scientific poster from BioTek. The homogeneous low volume 384-well assay format described is easily automatable and amenable to higher throughput experimentation.
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays play an integral part in the antibody therapeutic drug discovery process. New, non-radioactive assay chemistries are discussed in this scientific poster from BioTek. The homogeneous low volume 384-well assay format described is easily automatable and amenable to higher throughput experimentation.
Regulation of complement activity by immunoglobulin. I. Effect of immunoglobulin isotype on C4 uptake on antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes and solid phase immune complexes.
Background: Cetuximab is an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that prolongs survival in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), but only in 10-20%. An immunological mechanism of action including natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been suggested. We investigated the effects of activating toll-like receptor (TLR)-8 to enhance activity of cetuximab-stimulated, FcγR bearing cells.. Objective: To determine the capability of TLR8-stimulation to enhance the activation and function of NK cells and dendritic cells (DC) in the presence of cetuximab-coated HNC cells.. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), NK, DC and CD8+ T cells were isolated and analyzed using 51Cr release ADCC, flow cytometry analysis, cytokine ELISA, and EGFR853-861 tetramer staining.. Results: TLR8 stimulation of unfractionated PBMC led to enhanced cetuximab-mediated ADCC in healthy donors (p=0.01) and HNC patients (p,0.05), ...
HIV-1 Nef clones isolated from a rare subset of HIV-1-infected elite controllers (EC), with the ability to suppress viral load to undetectable levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, are unable to fully downregulate CD4 from the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells. Residual CD4 left at the plasma membrane allows Env-CD4 interaction, which leads to increased exposure of Env CD4-induced epitopes and increases susceptibility of infected cells to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC is mediated largely by natural killer (NK) cells, which control their activation status through the cumulative signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Recently, the activating NKG2D receptor was demonstrated to positively influence ADCC responses. Since HIV-1 Nef has been reported to reduce the expression of NKG2D ligands, we evaluated the relative abilities of Nef from EC and progressors to downmodulate NKG2D ligands. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of EC and progressor ...
These studies support our commitment to advancing the clinical development of genolimzumab (CBT-501) as an immuno-oncology therapy for many types of cancer. Based on these findings, a Phase 1 dose escalation and dose and disease expansion study will be initiated in the first half of 2017," said Gavin Choy, Pharm.D., Chief Operating Officer at CBT Pharmaceuticals.. Genolimzumab Injection (CBT-501). CBT-501 is a novel humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody targeting the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) membrane receptor on T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. CBT-501 has a comparable efficacy profile in in vitro and in vivo studies to marketed anti-PD-1 antibodies and has a superior safety profile with very low undesirable antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity. The antibody (GB226) has been developed by Genor BioPharma Co. Ltd., a Walvax Company, who owns development and commercialization rights in China. CBT Pharmaceuticals, ...
Background: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) has been shown to exhibit a potent immunostimulatory activity. Therefore, CpG ODN has been considered to be a promising material for enhancing the therapeutic effect of anticancer monoclonal antibody. We have previously identified bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) as a therapeutic target of endometrial cancer cells and also demonstrated that an anti-BST2 antibody showed a potent anti-tumor effect by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against BST2 positive cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic anti-tumor effect by combination of anti-BST-2 antibody and CpG ODN, and to clarify the mechanisms of its anti-tumor effect, using xenograft model of anti-BST2 positive endometrial cancer cells.. Material and Method: We implanted 7-8 week-old female SCID mice with 5×106 HEC-88 nu endometrial cancer cells subcutaneously. Mice with tumor were treated by intra-peritoneal ...
Background: Treatments that generate T cell-mediated immunity to a patients unique neoantigens are the current holy grail of cancer immunotherapy. In particular, treatments that do not require cumbersome and individualized ex vivo processing or manufacturing processes are especially sought after. Here we report that AGI-134, a glycolipid-like small molecule, can be used for coating tumor cells with the xenoantigen Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (alpha-Gal) in situ leading to opsonization with pre-existing natural anti-alpha-Gal antibodies (in short anti-Gal), which triggers immune cascades resulting in T cell mediated anti-tumor immunity. Methods: Various immunological effects of coating tumor cells with alpha-Gal via AGI-134 in vitro were measured by flow cytometry: (1) opsonization with anti-Gal and complement, (2) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, and (3) phagocytosis and antigen cross-presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). A viability kit was used to test AGI
NK cells have evolved multiple innate mechanisms to eliminate tumor and virus-infected cells and can also participate in the adaptive immune response by serving as effector cells for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. NK cells bind antibodies via CD16, also called FcRIII, and traditionally utilize an adaptor molecule gamma-chain for activating downstream signaling pathways after engaging Fc regions of multiple immune-complex associated antibodies. Identification of memory and memory-like NK cells in mice, primates and humans has garnered an intense interest in understanding mechanisms underlying the development and function of these novel cell types. Recent relevant discoveries suggest that after losing expression of the Fc receptor associated gamma-chain signaling, memory NK cells can acquire adaptive-like features in response to viral infections such as HIV or CMV. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory has identified that reduced gamma-chain expression results in ...
Definition noun A type of T cell that does not express markers of either T orB-cell lineage, but may possess fc receptors for immunoglobulin g. It functions by killing target cell through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or through perforin formation, killing cells without prior sensitization (hence, the name). ...
Introduction: Rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) remains the standard of care for patients with previously untreated DLBCL. Approximately 40% of patients are not cured with R-CHOP; thus, new therapies are needed. Obinutuzumab (GA101, G) is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with improved direct cell death and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compared to rituximab, and may have improved outcomes in certain patient subsets (Vitolo, ASH 2016). In addition, polatuzumab vedotin (pola) is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) designed to deliver the potent microtubule inhibitor MMAE to cells expressing CD79b. Thus, pola has the potential to replace vincristine with a targeted agent (Tilly, ICML 2017). The dose escalation phase established a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of pola at 1.8 mg/kg. We report updated results for this multicenter, open-label Phase Ib/II study of pola combined G-CHP at the RP2D (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01992653). Methods: In the dose escalation phase of this ...
Immune cells within the tumor microenvironment are now well recognized as to be targets of interest for cancer treatment. However there are no available pre-clinical models that will accurately support the pre-clinical development of such therapeutic approaches. Humanized NOG (NOD/shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull) mice, bearing human immune cells with or without human target tumor cells, are relevant models to test various therapeutic strategies (e.g. antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity, Treg targeting antibodies, TLR agonists, vaccines, adoptive T cells transfer, …) in various pathologies (e.g. oncology, autoimmune disease, inflammation, transplantation, …). Humanization of NOG mice was already characterized and validated using freshly collected human PBMCs or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in both newborn and adult NOG mice.. The complete characterization of the reconstituted NOG mice was done in peripheral blood as well as central lymphoid organs such as bone marrow, spleen and thymus, using FACS ...
Another mechanism by which mAbs have antitumor activity is through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). To study the ADCC potential of HER2dMAb, we incubated OVCAR3 cells with or without peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in the presence of sera from HER2dMAb- or empty vector-treated mice. HER2dMAb sera effectively killed the ovarian cancer cells in the presence of PBMCs, similar to commercially available Hu4D5, but not in their absence. No killing was observed in the control sera conditions (Figure 3B and Supplemental Figure 1B) or against HER2-cell lines, such as MDA-MB-231 (Supplemental Figure 1C). Similarly, HER2dMAb showed antibody-dependent phagocytosis activity (Supplemental Figure 1D).. HER2dMAb delays cancer progression in vivo. To determine the antitumor effects of HER2dMAb in vivo, we challenged nude mice with the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell line. Nude mice have no T cells but present enhanced NK and macrophage activity (13), and their splenocytes can lyse OVCAR3 ...
We have demonstrated that an F-IgG construct could bind to the FR of tumor cells. Tumor-bound F-IgG triggered the MAPK pathway in NK cells and coating FR-bearing tumor cells with F-IgG led to enhanced NK cell-mediated ADCC and CD69 expression. Pretreatment of NK cells with IL2, IL12, IL15, or IL21 enhanced ADCC beyond that observed with F-IgG alone. The addition of IL12 to the F-IgG stimulus resulted in robust production of IFNγ, MIP-1α, and RANTES by NK cells, significantly exceeding concentrations observed with either stimulus alone. Cytokines produced from the coculture of NK cells and F-IgG-coated tumor cells treated with IL12 mediated significant T-cell chemotaxis. The conjugate bound to FR+ tumor cells in vivo, but normal tissues showed no obvious adverse effects. Administration of IL12 in combination with F-IgG elicited an antitumor response in a murine tumor model when compared with mice receiving IL12, F-IgG, or C-IgG alone. The antitumor effects of the combination therapy were ...
An immune-based approach to allow antibodies in the plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals to regain their activity of antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (2010 ...
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific antibodies create an immunologic barrier to transplantation. Current therapies to modify donor-specific antibodies are limited and ineffective in the most highly HLA-sensitized patients. The IgG-degrading enzyme derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS), an endopeptidase, cleaves human IgG into F(ab)2 and Fc fragments inhibiting complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which suggests that IdeS might be useful for desensitization. We report on the combined experience of two independently performed open-label, phase 1-2 trials (conducted in Sweden and the United States) that assessed the efficacy of IdeS with regard to desensitization and transplantation of a kidney from an HLA-incompatible donor.. METHODS: We administered IdeS to 25 highly HLA-sensitized patients (11 patients in Uppsala or Stockholm, Sweden, and 14 in Los Angeles) before the transplantation of a kidney from an HLA-incompatible donor. Frequent monitoring for ...
The clinical introduction of rituximab has dramatically changed the treatment strategy for follicular lymphoma. The improvement in time to progression with rituximab-combined chemotherapy has been reported (14). Relapsed cases are often resistant to doxorubicin; therefore, when the total dose of doxorubicin is taken into consideration, the development of cardiotoxicity by salvage therapy is worrisome. Recently, several studies reported that the cytotoxic effect of rituximab is increased by combination with various cytokines (15-17). It has been suggested that the treatment effect of rituximab is increased by combination with G-CSF because G-CSF increases the cytotoxicity of neutrophils through ADCC (18). We previously reported that when the R-CHOP regimen was combined with G-CSF, G-CSF increased FcγR1 (CD64) expression on neutrophils and ADCC activity. Because there were no significant differences in the degree of increase of CD64 expression and ADCC activity between those who had been treated ...
Although the ability of neutralizing antibodies to protect against HIV infection has been demonstrated in vivo (Mascola et al., 2000; Trkola et al., 2005; Hessell et al., 2009a), whether one or more actions, direct virus neutralization, induction of phagocytosis, inhibition of transfer (e.g., via DCs) to target cells, or killing of infected cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, are key to block transmission is currently not known (Hessell et al., 2007; Huber and Trkola, 2007). Both gp120 shedding and antibody-induced conformational changes can lead to irreversible inactivation of HIV, which may positively influence in vivo efficacy of antibody neutralization (McDougal et al., 1996; Poignard et al., 1996). The impact of antibodies mediating reversible neutralization may depend on rapid clearance of neutralized virions by phagocytes as influences of the milieu (e.g., migration to anatomical sites with lower antibody concentration; engulfment by DCs) may lead to antibody dissociation ...
Antibody-dependent CD56 T cell responses are functionally impaired in long-term HIV-1 infection. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Ting, C; Nunn, N E.; Park, J Y.; and Herberman, R B., "Comparison of three isotopic assays of cell-mediated cytotoxicity against mouse tumor cells. II. Sensitivity and specificity of the assays and characteristics of effector and sensitizing cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1932 ...
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BioAssay record AID 102327 submitted by ChEMBL: Cytotoxicity activity on LoVo/Dx human adenocarcinoma cell line after 1 hr of drug exposure.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target Cell destruction by non-sensitized effector Cells. The identity of the target Cell varies, but it must possess surface Immunoglobulin G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector Cell is a "killer" Cell possessing Fc Receptors. It may be a Lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-Cell markers, or a Monocyte, Macrophage, or polynuclear Leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target Cell. The reaction is Complement-independent ...
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target Cell destruction by non-sensitized effector Cells. The identity of the target Cell varies, but it must possess surface Immunoglobulin G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector Cell is a "killer" Cell possessing Fc Receptors. It may be a Lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-Cell markers, or a Monocyte, Macrophage, or polynuclear Leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target Cell. The reaction is Complement-independent ...
Franco, P; Veronese, F; Levi, F; Goldin, A; and Nicolin, A, "Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against drug-induced antigens in l5178y mouse lymphoma." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3308 ...
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a widely expressed Ag that is successfully targeted in tumor patients by mAbs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A clinical study in non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a positive correlation between EGFR expression levels and the therapeutic efficacy of the EGFR mAb cetuximab. However, the impact of EGFR expression on the different mechanisms of action (MoAs) triggered by the EGFR mAb has not been defined. In this study, BHK-21 cells were stably transfected to express different EGFR levels, which were quantified by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and compared with EGFR levels of clinical non-small cell lung cancer samples. These cells were used to systematically investigate the impact of target Ag expression levels on Fab- or Fc-mediated MoAs of EGFR mAb. A negative correlation between EGFR levels and potency of Fab-mediated MoA was observed. Interestingly, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, monocytes, ...
Introduction: Elotuzumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to SLAMF7 expressed on myeloma and natural killer (NK) cells, has a dual mode of action; it causes targeted myeloma cell death by directly activating NK cells and enhances NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Elotuzumab combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) has been approved in Japan for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). In a 4-y follow-up of the phase 3 ELOQUENT-2 study (NCT01239797) in patients (pts) with RRMM, ELd demonstrated a sustained 29% reduction in risk of disease progression/death and an overall survival benefit vs Ld (Dimopoulos M et al. Haematologica 2017), consistent with prior reports (Dimopoulos M et al. Br J Haematol 2017). We present the first report on the efficacy/safety of ELd vs Ld in pts with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Methods: In this phase 2, open-label, multicenter study (NCT02272803) in Japan enrolling pts with NDMM ...
Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunological threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors ...
The characterization of protective Ab responses to influenza virus in mouse models has typically focused on Nab function. However, recent studies suggest that the nonneutralizing functions provided by the Fc region of the Ab are important for the potency and the protective ability of HA-specific Abs (22, 51). A study by Corti et al. (22) showed that the broadly neutralizing human FI6 Ab attributes most of its in vivo activity to its FcR-binding properties. Mice administered 3 mg/kg of the FcR mutant (termed FI6-LALA) FI6 Ab had a 60% reduction in survival compared with FI6 Ab or FI6 complement mutant (termed FI6-KA) when challenged with a lethal dose of PR8 virus. However, the transfer of human IgG1 Abs into mice that express mouse FcR may be suboptimal. A recent study by DiLillo et al. (52) showed that administration of 4 mg/ml of a mouse IgG2a form of FI6 Ab (which can mediate ADCC in mice) protected mice from lethal challenge, whereas 4 mg/ml of mouse IgG1 FI6 Ab form (which does not mediate ...
These are all influencing factors of the interaction between the mAb and the antigen (or mAb and effector molecules) and thus should be evaluated at an early stage of biosimilar development prior to final lead molecule identification.. In particular, the carbohydrate profile is important for the evaluation of complex effector functions, including Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) and Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC).. The glycosylation profile of a mAb can vary in terms of:. ...
Campath-1H is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against the CDw52 membrane antigen of lymphocytes, which causes complement and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Campath-1H has...
Natural killer (NK) cells are important lymphocytes with potent anti-tumor and anti-viral functions. In recent years there has been a significant increase in knowledge about the mechanisms regulating NK-cell functions. Furthermore, NK cells play an important role in preventing relapse in patients with myeloid malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.1,2 Also, due to their anti-leukemia properties, there has been a keen interest in the use of NK cells in novel adoptive transfer protocols for patients with hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies.3-5. Human NK cells are negative for CD3 expression but uniformly express CD56, and based on CD56 and CD16 expression, two main subsets are present in the peripheral blood: CD56highCD16low/− and CD56lowCD16high. CD16 is the low affinity IgG receptor (FcγRIII) and human NK cells exclusively express CD16a, a transmembrane protein critical for mediating antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) function of NK cells. CD16 is ...
In preclinical studies, MOR202 mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in MM cells derived from patients in vitro. Either Velcade® (bortezomib) or Revlimid® (lenalidomide) enhanced the cytotoxic activity of MOR202 in vitro and also the inhibition of MM-mediated bone lysis and tumor load in vivo. The enhancement by bortezomib was mediated through a direct cytotoxic effect on MM cells.. Lenalidomide synergistically enhanced MOR202 activity by several mechanisms identified to be direct cytotoxicity, activation of effector cells and increased CD38 expression levels on MM cells. In an orthotopic xenograft murine model of multiple myeloma, MOR202 reduced tumor load and tumor mediated bone lysis. Co-administration of MOR202 with either bortezomib or lenalidomide completely abolished bone lysis in a synergistic manner. These findings support further investigation of MOR202 combination regimens in clinical trials. MOR202 is currently being tested in a phase 1/2a trial in patients with ...
In preclinical studies, MOR202 mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in MM cells derived from patients in vitro. Either Velcade® (bortezomib) or Revlimid® (lenalidomide) enhanced the cytotoxic activity of MOR202 in vitro and also the inhibition of MM-mediated bone lysis and tumor load in vivo. The enhancement by bortezomib was mediated through a direct cytotoxic effect on MM cells.. Lenalidomide synergistically enhanced MOR202 activity by several mechanisms identified to be direct cytotoxicity, activation of effector cells and increased CD38 expression levels on MM cells. In an orthotopic xenograft murine model of multiple myeloma, MOR202 reduced tumor load and tumor mediated bone lysis. Co-administration of MOR202 with either bortezomib or lenalidomide completely abolished bone lysis in a synergistic manner. These findings support further investigation of MOR202 combination regimens in clinical trials. MOR202 is currently being tested in a phase 1/2a trial in patients with ...
BSB 753A-B. Research Interests. The primary focus of my laboratory is directed towards understanding the mechanisms underlying the involvement of immunoglobulin Fc (GM) and Fcgamma receptor genes in immunity to various malignant and infectious diseases. These studies are supported in part by grants and contracts from the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense.. Recent Publications , Additional Publications. Pandey JP, Namboodiri AM. (2014) Genetic variants of IgG1 antibodies and FcgRIIIa receptors influence the magnitude of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells. OncoImmunology 3:e27317.. Pandey JP, Kistner-Griffin E, Black L, Namboodiri AM, Iwasaki M, Kasuga Y, Hamada GS, Tsugane S. (2014) IGKC and FcgR genotypes and humoral immunity to HER2 in breast cancer. Immunobiology 219:113-117.. Pandey JP. (2014) Genetic etiology of schizophrenia: possible role of immunoglobulin g genes. Psychiatr Genet 24:83-86.. Pandey JP, Namboodiri AM, Ohue ...
Purpose: Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are an important immunotherapy for B-cell lymphoma, and provide evidence that the immune system may be harnessed as an effective lymphoma treatment approach. ALT-803 is a superagonist IL-15 mutant and IL-15Rα-Fc fusion complex that activates the IL-15 receptor constitutively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that ALT-803 would enhance anti-CD20 mAb-directed NK-cell responses and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).. Experimental Design: We tested this hypothesis by adding ALT-803 immunostimulation to anti-CD20 mAb triggering of NK cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell lines and primary human lymphoma cells were utilized as targets for primary human NK cells. Two complementary in vivo mouse models were used, which included human NK-cell xenografts in NOD/SCID-γc−/− mice.. Results: We demonstrate that short-term ALT-803 stimulation significantly increased degranulation, IFNγ production, and ADCC by human NK cells ...
ROTTERDAM, Netherlands, GHENT, Belgium, and PRINCETON, N.J., July 26, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- arGEN-X, a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of human monoclonal antibodies from its proprietary SIMPLE Antibody(TM) platform, announces it has signed a non-exclusive license agreement with BioWa Inc., the exclusive worldwide licensor of POTELLIGENTÃ ® Technology. arGEN-Xs SIMPLE Antibody(TM) platform is unique in providing human variable regions of unprecedented diversity, allowing the rapid selection of antibodies with superb functional potency. In under two years, these attributes have already been validated preclinically in seven in vivo and ex vivo models, highlighting the productivity of the technology.. POTELLIGENTÃ ® Technology is a clinically validated approach to producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with significantly enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and tumor cell killing activity. By combining the power of the SIMPLE Antibody(TM) ...
Struchium sparganophora (Linn) Ktze, (Asteraceae) is a culinary herbs used as part of a traditional dish in Nigeria and a medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments in Africa. Dried leaf, stem and root parts of this plant were extracted with n-hexane, chloroform and methanol respectively, concentrated under reduced pressure, freeze dried and evaluated for their antimicrobial and anti tumour activities. The antimicrobial test involved microdilution titre technique while cytotoxicity activities was evaluated using the 3,-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. The extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against Gram- positive and Gram-negative organism of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 to 6.25 mg/ml but this activity is less than that of anti-microbial standard drug amoxicillin which had MIC of 0.78 to 6.25 mg/ml except against Klebsiella aerogenes on which the extracts had a similar activity to that amoxicillin of MIC 6.25 ...
Rituximab is a therapy no used in both indolent and aggressive B cell lymphomas. What is the mechanism of action of Rituximab? List the major disorders for which Rituximab is approved for use.. Recall that CD20 is expressed on over 90% of B cells and is a protein that is not shed or internalized.. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody that on contact to CD20 on the surface of a B cell causes cytotoxicity mediated by compliment and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.. Indications for Rituximab use:. ...
Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig
The Thermo Scientific Easy-Titer Human IgG (gamma chain) Assay Kit includes antibody-sensitized microspheres to measure the specific concentration of antibodies by an easy and rapid microagglutination technique using standard microplates and UV-Vis plate reader (spectrophotometer). This kit is speci
Many broadly reactive human being monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) stem of influenza A trojan have been established for therapeutic applications. inhibiting trojan particle discharge. These findings broaden our understanding of the systems where broadly reactive stem-targeting antibodies inhibit viral replication and offer valuable details for general vaccine development. by interfering with viral membrane fusion during viral entrance predominantly. A number of the anti-HA stem antibodies need Fc receptor-mediated antibody-dependent mobile cytotoxicity (ADCC) to cover efficient protection to lessen the amount of contaminated cells (DiLillo et al., 2014, DiLillo et al., 2016, Jegaskanda et al., 2014). Hence, many antibody-dependent inhibitory systems serve to safeguard against influenza A trojan infection Protective Efficiency from the mAbs in Mice Baseline body weights of 6-week-old feminine BALB/c mice (Japan SLC) had been assessed. Four mice (arbitrarily chosen) per group ...
Antibody testing standards are well underway. But validation relies on numerous orthogonal methods, and for best results, a combination of antibody-dependent and antibody-independent testing methods is suggested.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monocyte- and natural killer cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity against human noncultured solid tumor cells. AU - Itoh, Kyogo. AU - Platsoucas, Chris D.. AU - Balch, Charles M.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exhibited spontaneous cytotoxicity against noncultured solid tumor targets in a 12- to 24-hr 51Cr release or 111In release assay. Both purified monocytes (, 99% monocytes) and natural killer (NK)-enriched lymphocytes exhibited comparable levels of spontaneous cytotoxicity against fresh melanoma tumor targets. This cytotoxicity was observed under endotoxin-free conditions. NK-depleted lymphocytes did not lyse the melanoma targets. Culture supernatants of monocytes incubated with the melanoma tumor cells did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against these targets. Purified monocytes lacked NK activity against the K562 targets in a 4-hr 51Cr release assay. Treatment of the monocytes with anti-Leu 11b and ...
In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Forlenza et al found that noninteracting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes were associated with better response to anti-GD2 antibody treatment in neuroblastoma.. Study Details. Treatment of neuroblastoma with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (eg, the recently approved dinutuximab [Unituxin]) directs natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells. Cytotoxicity is reduced by ligation of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) by HLA class I molecules, and KIR3DL1 polymorphism affects the ability of the receptor to engage HLA-Bw4 ligands. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that poorly interacting combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA ligands are more permissive of monoclonal antibody-mediated antitumor effects.. In the study, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtyping were performed in a group of 245 patients treated with the anti-GD2 antibody 3F8 for high-risk neuroblastoma. The ...
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells - that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system. Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region. Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. There are several different types of Fc receptors (abbreviated FcR), which are classified based on the type of antibody that they recognize. The Latin letter ...
Background Inside our efforts to develop novel effective treatment regimens for multiple myeloma we evaluated the potential benefits of combining the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide with daratumumab. cytotoxicity of purified primary multiple myeloma cells, as well as of the UM-9 cell line, was significantly augmented by lenalidomide pre-treatment of the effector cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. More importantly, we demonstrated a clear synergy between lenalidomide and daratumumab-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directly in the bone marrow mononuclear cells of multiple myeloma patients, indicating that lenalidomide can also potentiate the daratumumab-dependent lysis of myeloma cells by activating the autologous effector cells within the natural environment of malignant cells. Finally, daratumumab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from 3 multiple ...
Recent clinical outcomes and subsequent approvals of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade antibodies, which mitigate inhibitory signaling that decreases antitumor T cell responses, have ignited extraordinarily broad efforts to develop the potential of cancer immunotherapy (Pardoll, 2012; Topalian et al., 2015). Unlike strategies that typically elicit antitumor responses of limited duration and nearly inevitable treatment resistance, immunotherapeutics can achieve durable and long-lasting antitumor responses in a minority of patients with advanced disease (Sharma and Allison, 2015). To build upon this success, combination immunotherapies are a next logical step (Gajewski et al., 2013; Spranger and Gajewski, 2013).. One such approach combines a tumor-specific antibody to drive antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) through neutrophil- and eosinophil-mediated attack and an extended serum half-life IL-2 fusion to activate CD8+ T cells and NK cells. However, this strategy is ...
A multi-institutional trials program was initiated to define the effects of interferons in disseminated human breast carcinoma. Interferon alpha, prepared from buffy coats, was administered intramuscularly at 3 ×106 U daily for an initial period of 28 days. Of 23 patients who entered the program, five had an objective partial response of 92 days mean duration at diverse sites of involvement. Patients who responded were significantly older (p = 0.05) than nonresponders. Dose escalation in eight patients did not result in any clear evidence of additional responses. Major toxicities were fatigue, anorexia with weight loss, and reversible leukopenia (less than 3.5 ×109 leukocytes/L in 16 patients). Natural killer cell and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity were significantly (p , 0.05) enhanced 48 hours after interferon administration began but subsequently declined despite continued therapy. Serum β2microglobulin concentration increased on day 15 (p , 0.05) and remained significantly ...
Background: Lenalidomide, a synthetic immunomodulatory drug, has a wide range of features including anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative properties. To date, researchers have shown that lenalidomide is capable of ameliorating the immune system factors and antitumor responses. Most researchers have reported that lenalidomide enhances the immune response in certain cancer patients through several pathways including the stimulation of Natural Killer cells; notwithstanding, it is still crucial to investigate the effect of lenalidomide on the activity of NK cell cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Objective: To evaluate the in vitro impact of lenalidomide, of different doses, on NK cytotoxicity activity and an in vivo investigation to find the adjuvant behavior of lenalidomide. Methods: NK cytotoxocity was measured with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay via K562 cells. Lenalidomide was prepared at 1 mM, 2 mM, 4 mM and 8 mM for in vitro study. In addition, the adjuvant properties of
Preferred Name: Obinutuzumab Definition: A glycoengineered, humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Obinutuzumab, a third generation type II anti-CD20 antibody, selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of the human CD20 antigen on malignant human B cells. The Fc region carbohydrates of the antibody, enriched in bisected non-fucosylated glycosylation variants, contribute to its higher binding affinity for human FcgammaRIII receptors compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and caspase-independent apoptosis. In addition, modification of elbow hinge sequences within the antibody variable framework regions may account for the strong apoptosis-inducing activity of R7159 upon binding to CD20 on target cells. Display Name: Obinutuzumab Label: Obinutuzumab NCI Thesaurus Code: C70741 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C2742503 (see NCI Metathesaurus ...
IMAB362 is a monoclonal antibody specific for gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinoma. Preclinically IMAB362 was shown to inhibit tumor growth and to kill cancer cells by indirect (complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) and direct mechanisms (antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects). The aim of this phase II study is to establish efficacy and safety of multiple doses of IMAB362 as monotherapy in patients suffering from metastatic, refractory or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the stomach or the lower esophagus ...
NEO-102 (NPC-1C, ensituximab) is a novel chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting a variant of MUC5AC that is specific to colorectal cancer (CRC). Its mechanism of action is through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). An earlier, phase 1 study established the maximum tolerated dose at 3.0 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks with encouraging early signs of clinical activity.1 Kim and colleagues reported initial results of the subsequent phase 2 study, which was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical trial of NEO-102 in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who had failed at least 2 lines of standard chemotherapy.2 An immunohistochemistry-based companion diagnostic assay was used to select eligible patients whose tumors expressed the target in >20% of tumor cells. NEO-102 at 3.0 mg/kg intravenously was administered every 2 weeks in patients with metastatic, locally advanced, unresectable, or recurrent CRC until disease progression or dose-limiting toxicity. The primary end ...
Human large bowel lamina propria lymphoid cells have been isolated using both mechanical and enzymatic techniques. Their separation from other cell types after isolation was effected with greater efficiency by sedimentation on isokinetic gradients than by filtration through glass bead columns. After being purified, the capacity of the lamina propria lymphocytes to function in vitro as effector cells in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was determined. Mechanical distruption of the mucosa gave low yields of lymphoid cells, which lacked the capacity for cytotoxicity. Enzymatic digestion of mucosal tissue, by comparison, yielded large numbers of viable lymphoid cells which retained a significant level of cytotoxic activity. Investigation revealed that mechanical homogenisation stimulated the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, and inhibitor studies showed that this mediator was responsible for the lack of cytotoxic activity in mechanically-liberated lymphocytes.. ...
Il 3F8 è anticorpo monoclonale di topo IgG3, che si lega agli antigeni GD2. È stato usato per diagnosticare e trattare il neuroblastoma. Nelle tecniche di imaging per il neuroblastoma viene legato chimicamente ad uno dei radioisotopi dello iodio-124 o iodio-131. ^ Kushner BH, Cheung NK, GM-CSF enhances 3F8 monoclonal antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma and neuroblastoma, in Blood, vol. 73, nº 7, 1989, pp. 1936-41, PMID 2653466. ^ Sloan-Kettering - Neuroblastoma: 3F8 Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Q & A, mskcc.org. URL consultato il 19 febbraio 2008. ^ Yeh SD, Larson SM, Burch L, et al., Radioimmunodetection of neuroblastoma with iodine-131-3F8: correlation with biopsy, iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine and standard diagnostic modalities, in J. Nucl. Med., vol. 32, nº 5, 1991, pp. 769-76, PMID 1902508. ^ Dauer LT, St Germain J, Williamson MJ, et al., Whole-body clearance kinetics and external dosimetry of 131I-3F8 monoclonal antibody for radioimmunotherapy of ...
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. In healthy tissue, PRAME expression is limited to the testes and ovaries, making it a highly attractive cancer target. PRAME is an intracellular protein that cannot currently be drugged. After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 complex. Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 binding markedly ...
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. In healthy tissue, PRAME expression is limited to the testes and ovaries, making it a highly attractive cancer target. PRAME is an intracellular protein that cannot currently be drugged. After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 complex. Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 binding markedly ...
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. In healthy tissue, PRAME expression is limited to the testes and ovaries, making it a highly attractive cancer target. PRAME is an intracellular protein that cannot currently be drugged. After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 complex. Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 binding markedly ...
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. In healthy tissue, PRAME expression is limited to the testes and ovaries, making it a highly attractive cancer target. PRAME is an intracellular protein that cannot currently be drugged. After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 complex. Pr20 is an immunological tool and potential therapeutic agent. Pr20 bound to PRAME+HLA-A2+ cancers. An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. In some tumors, Pr20 binding markedly ...
The underlying causes of AdCC are still unknown. Researchers have proved that this disorder is not hereditary and is not inherited by a child from the mother. It has also been proved that the common risk factors for cancer, such as drinking alcohol and smoking, are not responsible for this type of cancer.. Naturally, researchers have assumed a working hypothesis regarding its causes. According to this theory, AdCC is caused by various environmental factors responsible for some genetic changes in the normal cells of the body that results in uncontrolled growth. Recently, researchers have found a common genetic change in a number of AdCC tumors. This new fused gene (named MYB-NFIB) is formed as a result of the fusion of the broken number 6 and number 9 chromosomes. This "translocation" is believed to be a key factor in the development of the tumor in many cases of the condition. ...
Empliciti with NDC 0003-4522 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by E.r. Squibb & Sons, L.l.c.. The generic name of Empliciti is elotuzumab.
Käännös haulle immunologic cytotoxicity englannista suomeksi. Suomienglantisanakirja.fi on suomen ja englannin kääntämiseen keskittyvä ilmainen sanakirja.
Safety as measured by the rate of AEs, SAEs, deaths is the primary endpoint of this Phase 1 study. All subjects who receive at least one (full or partial) dose of Elotuzumab, Lirilumab or Urelumab will be evaluated for ...
We have investigated the hemolytic mechanisms in a patient with acquired immune hemolytic anemia whose red cells appeared to be coated with IgA alone. The clinical course was similar to that of patients with hemolytic anemia mediated by warm-reacting IgG antibody. Splenic sequestration of red cells was demonstrated, and marked reduction of hemolysis occurred after corticosteroid therapy. Antibody was eluted from the patients red cells and used to sensitize normal red cells in vitro. These sensitized red cells were not lysed by fresh autologous serum, nor did they fix detectable amounts of C3. However, red cells sensitized by eluted antibody were lysed by normal human peripheral blood monocytes in a system designed to demonstrate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Monocyte-mediated hemolysis of sensitized red cells was inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of normal serum IgA to the system, but not by IgG. The ability of the eluate to induce monocyte-mediated hemolysis was ...
Read Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies From Bench to Clinic by with Rakuten Kobo. 70-chapter authoritative reference that covers therapeutic monoclonal antibody discovery, development, and clinical app...
article{ff4f8a23-6ca4-4f67-9971-6842888c6b56, abstract = {Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. Conceivably, comparative studies on immune responsiveness of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected hosts may help to explain differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection. In the present study we have further examined the function of the humoral immune response and studied the potentiating effect of complement (C) on antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. Neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells. Results ...
Mechanism of Action Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD52 antigen on most (,95%) normal lymphocytes, and T-cell & B-cell lymphoma cells. Alemtuzumab binds to the CD52 antigen on the cell surface, activating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement binding, apoptosis, cellular opsonization, and antitumour T-cell activity. Alemtuzumab has been used for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, low grade lymphomas and other non-cancerous indications.. ...
Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke‐NUS Medical School, Singapore, SingaporeDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, SingaporeSaw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, SingaporeInfectious Diseases Interdisciplinary Research Group, Singapore MIT Alliance Research and Technology CREATE Campus, Singapore, Singapore ...
We report herein the role of XIAP, an antiapoptotic protein that can inhibit both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis, to play a key role in therapeutic sensitivity in IBC cells. A distinct mechanism of increased expression of XIAP and survivin, key members of the BIRC/IAP protein family post-trastuzumab treatment, was observed in ErbB2-overexpressing SUM190PT IBC cells, an established ErbB2-overexpressing IBC line isolated from a primary tumor of an IBC patient (30). In contrast, decrease in tumor cell viability in response to treatment with the small-molecule ErbB2-targeting agent, GW583340, correlated with a significant decrease in XIAP and survivin abundance. Further, XIAP inhibition was only seen at concentrations wherein there was ,50% cell death.. Our data reveal that trastuzumab can bind effectively to cell surface ErbB2 and elicit a potent ADCC response in both sensitive SKBR3 non-IBC and resistant SUM190PT IBC cells (Fig. 6A and B, 1). Whether this immune-mediated ...
Assay Kits , Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Kits , Sensolyte Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit-Larger size; The damage of cell membrane leads to release of cytoplasmic enzymes. The measurement of released cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a well-accepted assay to estimate cell membrane integrity and quantify cytotoxicity. The SensoLyte Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit uses resazurin as a sensitive fluorogenic indicator (Ex/Em=560 nm/590 nm upon conversion) to measure LDH activity. The assay can be performed in a mixed population of damaged and viable cells, but only measure the LDH released from damaged cells. The cytoplasmic LDH in living cells produces little signals under assay condition. There is no need of extra steps to separate living cells and supernatant. The fluorescent signal is proportional to the number of damaged cells (up to 2.5X104 cell, r2>0.95) with the detection limit reaching 100 dead cells. The kit is suitable for high throughput screening of
CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control the progression of autoimmune diabetes, but when, where and how they exert their influence in this context are questions even now less than energetic controversy. afterwards. Interferon (IFN)- affected extensively on the gene-expression program of the local CD4+ effector cell population, unleashing it to aggressively attack the islets, and very HSP90AA1 crucial for the development of diabetes. Thus, Tregs rein in pancreatic autoimmunity through control of a central innate immune system player, NK cells. INTRODUCTION Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs Xanomeline oxalate manufacture regulate a variety of immune responses, including autoimmunity, allergy, inflammation, infection and tumorigenesis (Zheng and Rudensky, 2007; Sakaguchi et al., 2008). This cell population is required life-long to guard against autoimmunity, perhaps best illustrated by the multi-organ infiltrates that arise a few weeks after its acute ablation in adult mice (Kim et al., 2007). In ...
Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Colorimetric) (ab112118). 1000 tests. Quantify as few as 300 cells. Higher sensitivity than MTT and XTT. HTP ready.
IgG and IgM based immunopathological reaction (reaction of hypersensitivity type II). = antibody-dependent. antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patients own cell surfaces. intrinsic (self antigen, innately part of the patients cells). Slideshow 5264714 by charo
Protein levels regressed against four cytotoxicity phenotypes using fixed effect or mixed effect models representing the three biological replicates.We analyzed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced antiviral transcription factor (STAT1 and NF-kB) complexes by antibody-dependent enhancement of macrophage infection by Ross River virus. AU - Mahalingam, Surendran. AU - Lidbury, Brett. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Subneutralizing concentrations of antibody may enhance virus infection by bringing the virus-antibody complex into contact with the cell surface Fc receptors; this interaction facilitates entry of virus into the cell and is referred to as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Northern analysis of macrophage RNA demonstrated that ADE infection by the indigenous Australian alphavirus Ross River (RRV-ADE) ablated or diminished message for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric-oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), as well as for IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-beta; the transcription of a control gene was unaffected. Additionally, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) ...
Immunologic injury to cultures of skeletal muscle was studied in patients with polymyositis by means of a 51Cr release method that allows quantitation of myocyte injury. Lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity was elevated in a group of nine patients with active disease (p,0.001) but was normal in four patients with inactive disease. There was no evidence of antibody-mediated cytotoxicity.. Lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity in the active group was analyzed in relation to treatment and immunosuppression in six of the nine patients. Seven tests on patients on immunosuppressive therapy gave normal lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity values of 1.0 ± 4.2 per cent (mean ± S.D.), whereas eight tests on patients who were on less than immunosuppressive therapy yielded elevated lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity: 24.4 ± 10.6 per cent, with a significant difference between these two groups (p , 0.001). These data suggest that the pathogenesis of polymyositis involves a cell-mediated immunologic reaction directed against ...
There are several potential mechanisms by which opioids may alter human immunity. Opioids may have an indirect effect on immune function through alterations in effector cell populations. A decrease in effector cell density in any immune compartment (thymus, spleen, peripheral blood, lymph node) will alter functional assays that use mixed cell populations taken from any one compartment and tested without subset analysis of different cell types. Animal studies document sustained narcotic effects on effector cell populations. For example, morphine pellet implantation in mice results in significant thymic and splenic atrophy with an increased ratio of CD4 sup +/CD8 sup + cells but a decreased total number of both cell populations. [32] This effect was observed within 24 h after pellet implantation. Similarly, long-term daily morphine administration to rhesus monkeys results in decreased CD16 sup + cells (NK cells) in peripheral blood along with suppression of CD4 sup + cells. [33] Alterations in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Design, synthesis and potent cytotoxic activity of novel 7-(N-[(substituted-sulfonyl)piperazinyl]-methyl)-camptothecin derivatives. AU - Zhu,Gao Xiang. AU - Cheng,Pi Le. AU - Goto,Masuo. AU - Zhang,Na. AU - Morris-Natschke,Susan L.. AU - Hsieh,Kan Yen. AU - Yang,Guan Zhou. AU - Yang,Qian Ru. AU - Liu,Ying Qian. AU - Chen,Hai Le. AU - Zhang,Xiao Shuai. AU - Lee,Kuo Hsiung. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - In an effort to discover potent camptothecin-derived antitumor agents, novel camptothecin analogues with sulfonylpiperazinyl motifs at position-7 were designed and synthesized. They were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity with the sulforhodamine-B (SRB) method in five types of human tumor cell lines, A-549, MDA-MB-231, KB, KB-VIN and MCF-7. With IC50 values in the low μM to nM level, most of the new analogues showed greater cytotoxicity activity than the reference compounds irinotecan and topotecan. Furthermore, compounds 12l (IC50, 1.2 nM) and 12k (IC50, 20.2 nM) displayed the ...
Monocytes that traffic to lymph nodes and the spleen ultimately function in low O2 environments. While low O2 alters FcγR expression transcriptionally (Bosco et al, 2006), it is unknown how FcγR protein levels and other cellular functions that are affected can impact DENV infection. This study thus provides a first molecular view of the contributory role of low‐oxygen environments on cellular functions that impact dengue pathogenesis.. Oxygen level is known to affect viral pathogenesis in different ways. Generally, hypoxia impairs viruses that naturally infect tissues with high atmospheric oxygen concentration such as influenza virus (Magill & Francis, 1936), adenovirus (Pipiya et al, 2005), and simian virus 40 (Riedinger et al, 1999). In contrast, hypoxia has been shown to increase the infection of viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) (Vassilaki et al, 2013) and sendai virus (Ebbesen et al, 1991), which naturally target organs with low oxygen concentrations such as the liver, spleen, ...
Immunopathogenesis of Intense Dengue in Secondary Infections.The kinetics of viremia inside of a individual with secondary dengue, the timing of typical difficulties, and achievable mechanistic results in are proven. Early in secondary an infection (or Most important infection of infants), antibody-dependent enhancement is assumed to boost in vivo concentrations of virus.17 Antibody-dependent improvement is associated with the existence of non-neutralizing or subneutralizing levels of dengue virus-reactive IgG induced by a Principal an infection, or obtained passively in newborns. A large infected cell mass leads to elevated concentrations of acute-period reaction proteins, cytokines, and chemokines; technology of immune complexes; and use of enhance and launch of break up products. The activation, proliferation, and secretion of cytokines in tissues by memory T lymphocytes recognizing conserved and altered peptide ligands are postulated to incorporate on the inflammatory milieu throughout ...
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Buy Phosphorus 200K 1000K 10000K Boiron Homeopathic globules in Dose € 2.02 on Care and nature, your bio pharmacy online. Easy, reliable and secure! Order here Phosphorus dilution Korsakovian dose Boiron cells.
Real-time detection of cell death. The CellTox Green Cytotoxicity Assay measures changes in membrane integrity that occur as a result of cell death. The assay is intended to assess cytotoxicity in cell culture after experimental manipulation.
Using kinetic monitoring of cytotoxicity with CellTox™ Green Dye you can identify an exact point in time when changes in membrane integrity begin. This can be beneficial for mode-of-action studies where additional biomarkers, such as caspase, may be of interest.
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from healthy volunteers and exposed in vitro to phenytoin or carbamazepine, two widely used antiepileptic drugs (AED). This study investigated the effects of these drugs on natural killer (NK) cell activity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), which are both thought to protect against developing neoplasms. Also, the genotoxicity of phenytoin on human PBMC was investigated by gravity-flow alkline elution. Concentrations of phenytoin considered therapeutic (10 and 20 μg/ml) and a dose considered acutely toxic (40 μg/ml) were used while carbamazepine levels of 8 μg/ml (therapeutic) and 10 and 16 μg/ml (acutely toxic) were tested. Phenytoin at all three concentrations significantly suppressed NK cell activity in a dose-dependent manner. Carbamazepine had no significant effect on NK cell activity at the dose levels studied. Incubation in propylene glycol, the diluent for carbamazepine, significantly decreased NK cell
In this study, we analyzed the influence of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from lymph nodes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, on effector functions and differentiation of Vδ2 T lymphocytes. We show that: i) lymph-node mesenchymal stromal cells of non-Hodgkin lymphoma inhibit NKG2D-mediated lymphoid cell killing, but not rituximab-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, exerted by Vδ2 T lymphocytes; ii) pre-treatment of mesenchymal stromal cells with the aminobisphosphonates pamidronate or zoledronate can rescue lymphoma cell killing via NKG2D; iii) this is due to inhibition of transforming growth factor-β and increase in interleukin-15 production by mesenchymal stromal cells; iv) aminobiphosphonate-treated mesenchymal stromal cells drive Vδ2 T lymphocyte differentiation into effector memory T cells, expressing the Thelper1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma lymph-nodes, Vδ2 T cells were mostly naive; upon co-culture with autologous ...
When mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) sensitized with rabbit antibody to mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were stimulated by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I cells, a conspicuous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was observed in the absence
Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be highly effective in vitro in destroying B lymyhocytes using either human complement or antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity. The drug action has also been reported to be equally efficient in vivo, as B lymphocytes became undetectable in peripheral blood after a single dose of drug.5 In view of its unique pharmacological property and highly selective action on CD20+ cells, rituximab has been chosen for treatment of various types of B lymphocyte mediated immune diseases, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma,6 myasthenia gravis,7 IgM related polyneuropathies,8 systemic lupus erythematosus,9 immune thrombocytopenia,10,11 and cold agglutinin disease.12 Recently, anti-B cell targeted immunotherapy has been tried on patients with refractory autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with various degree of success.2-4 However, its use in newborn infants has not been reported. This case report describes our experience of using this new ...
NK cells respond to tumor and virus-infected cells directly through several activation receptors, including natural cytotoxicity receptors, or indirectly through the activating Fc receptor CD16 for antibody-coated cells. Triggering of NK-cell effector functions through these receptors depends on physically associated transmembrane signaling adaptors, such as FcRγ (also known as FcεRIγ) and CD3ζ, both of which have been traditionally believed to be expressed by all mature NK cells. However, we have identified a distinct subset of human NK cells that are deficient for FcRγ expression but express normal levels of CD3ζ. FcRγ-deficient NK cells were readily detectable in about one-third of the healthy individuals examined. The deficiency was confined to the CD56dim population and was due to low FcRγ mRNA. FcRγ-deficient NK cells displayed dramatically reduced expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp46 and NKp30 but still expressed substantial levels of CD16. Compared to ...

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity - WikipediaAntibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity - Wikipedia

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a ... "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 ... Wang, W; Erbe, AK; Hank, JA; Morris, ZS; Sondel, PM (2015). "NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in ... ISBN 1-55581-246-5. University of Leicester, Virus Immunopathology Notes Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity at the US ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibody-dependent_cell-mediated_cytotoxicity

51Cr Release Assay of Antibody‐Dependent Cell‐Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) - Current Protocols51Cr Release Assay of AntibodyDependent Cell‐Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) - Current Protocols

... dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an immunologic cytotoxic effector mechanism that is dependent on the cooperative ... Antibodydependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an immunologic cytotoxic effector mechanism that is dependent on the ... 51Cr Release Assay of AntibodyDependent Cell‐Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC). David L. Nelson1, Carole C. Kurman1, Deborah E. ... Antibody‐coated and non‐antibody‐coated 51Cr‐labeled target‐cell (e.g., Chang‐cell) suspensions in complete RPMI‐10 medium (1 ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-im0727.html

Parcourir les catégories - lookformedical.comParcourir les catégories - lookformedical.com

KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes ... cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell ... They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant ... These include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells. ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/fr/categories/anatomie/cellules/cellules-sanguines/leucocytes/agranulocytes/lymphocytes/sous-populations-de-lymphocytes/sous-populations-de-lymphocytes-t

Buy Septilin  Online Without Prescriptions. No Prescription Needed. Only $38.58. Order Septilin  Online Without...Buy Septilin '' Online Without Prescriptions. No Prescription Needed. Only $38.58. Order Septilin '' Online Without...

... natural killer cell activity and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. Septilins stimulatory effect on the humoral immunity ... increases the antibody forming cells, thereby enhancing the secretion of antibodies into the circulation. Septilin also ... Septilin stimulates phagocytosis by macrophage activation and increases the polymorphonuclear cells and helps overcome ... augments the population of erythropoietic and granulopoietic precursor cells, stab cells and primary. ...
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CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS | Free Medical TextbookCHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS | Free Medical Textbook

... of Natural Killer Cell Functions Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Production of Cytokines Physiologic Roles of Natural Killer Cells ... LANIER Identification and Definition of Natural Killer Cells Definition Morphology Origin and Tissue Distribution Mechanisms ... CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS Williams Hematology CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS GIORGIO ... When CD16 is cross-linked by IgG antibodies bound to a target cell surface, it triggers antibody-dependent cell-mediated ...
more infohttps://medtextfree.wordpress.com/2012/01/12/chapter-85-functions-of-natural-killer-cells/

Identification of human NK cells that are deficient  for signaling adaptor FcRγ and specialized for antibody-dependent immune...Identification of human NK cells that are deficient for signaling adaptor FcRγ and specialized for antibody-dependent immune...

... including natural cytotoxicity receptors, or indirectly through the activating Fc receptor CD16 for antibody-coated cells. ... including natural cytotoxicity receptors, or indirectly through the activating Fc receptor CD16 for antibody-coated cells. ... compared to FcRγ-expressing NK cells. Thus, our study reveals FcRγ-deficient NK cells as a novel subset of human NK cells that ... FcRγ-deficient NK cells displayed dramatically reduced expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp46 and NKp30 but ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/intimm/dxs080

Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicities - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicities - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicities. The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target Cell destruction by non-sensitized effector ... The effector Cell is a "killer" Cell possessing Fc Receptors. It may be a Lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-Cell markers ... The identity of the target Cell varies, but it must possess surface Immunoglobulin G whose Fc portion is intact. ... or a Monocyte, Macrophage, or polynuclear Leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target Cell. The reaction is Complement- ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antibody-dependent-cell-cytotoxicities.html

Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllersHeterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers

... ... antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as autoantibody levels, were quantified in plasma from 22 controllers and ... Regardless of the type of antibody tested, there was no correlation with HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses. ADCC was detectable ... The levels of these different antibody responses and HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses quantified by enzyme-linked ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002030-200905150-00004

Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary...Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary...

Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary ... Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary ... Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary ... Elements Related to Heterogeneity of Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity in Patients Under Trastuzumab Therapy for Primary ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/24/11991.abstract

Clinical Cancer Therapy by NK Cells via Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated CytotoxicityClinical Cancer Therapy by NK Cells via Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

... Kory L. Alderson1,2 and Paul M. Sondel1, ... cells are powerful effector cells that can be directed to eliminate tumor cells through tumor-targeted monoclonal antibodies ( ... Therefore more research is needed that focuses on evaluating which NK cell and tumor criteria are best predictive of a clinical ... Strategies to augment the antitumor response by NK cells have led to an increased understanding of how to improve their ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/379123/abs/

Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay.  - PubMed - NCBIDevelopment and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay. - PubMed - NCBI

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important biological function attributed to the mechanism of action ... Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay.. Parekh BS1, Berger E, ... Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay ... Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22531445

Development of a Murine FcgRIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity Reporter Assay PosterDevelopment of a Murine FcgRIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity Reporter Assay Poster

ADCC pathway activation by target cell-bound antibodies is achieved via FcgRIV-mediated NFAT activation and consequent ... induction of reporter luciferase activity in dual engineered Jurkat effector cells. ... Development of a Murine FcgRIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity Reporter Assay Poster. ... ADCC pathway activation by target cell-bound antibodies is achieved via FcgRIV-mediated NFAT activation and consequent ...
more infohttps://www.promega.com/resources/scientific_posters/posters/development-murine-fcgrivspecific-adcc-reporter-assay--poster/

Measure Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) | tebu-bios blogMeasure Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) | tebu-bio's blog

... which can replace NK cells or PBMCs in such a cellular assays, based on Jurkat cells that stably express human FcγRIIIa (CD16a ... Build up a cellular ADCC screening system with BPS Biosciences reporter cell lines, ... ADCC Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity CD16 Fc receptor FcγRIIIa Natural killer cells NK cells ... Antibodies bind to specific antigens on the surface of the target cell (see Fig 1). PBMCs or natural killer (NK) cells, express ...
more infohttps://www.tebu-bio.com/blog/2016/10/14/how-to-measure-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-adcc/

Potentiation of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Target Cell-Bound C3b | The Journal of ImmunologyPotentiation of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Target Cell-Bound C3b | The Journal of Immunology

Potentiation of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Target Cell-Bound C3b. Berhane Ghebrehiwet, Rudolf G. Medicus ... Potentiation of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Target Cell-Bound C3b ... Identification and Separation of Thy-1 Positive Mouse Spleen Cells Active in Natural Cytotoxicity and Antibody-Dependent Cell- ... Potentiation of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Target Cell-Bound C3b ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/123/3/1285

The Use of Elplasia™ Microplates for Antibody-Dependent Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Applications | SelectScienceThe Use of Elplasia™ Microplates for Antibody-Dependent Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Applications | SelectScience

Traditional pharmacological studies done in cell monolayers have limited translational value; because, they do not capture the ... The need for biologically relevant assays with clinical translatability has brought the 3D cell culture model to the forefront ... Application Note: The Use of Elplasia™ Microplates for Antibody-Dependent Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Applications. 6 ... the suitability of Kurarays Elplasia Square Type plates for antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity assays, using 3D ...
more infohttps://www.selectscience.net/application-articles/the-use-of-elplasia--microplates-for-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-

Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) | January 31, 2012Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) | January 31, 2012

Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) ... Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is part of a host immune defense where an effector cell of the immune ... One of the most common effector cell types is natural killer (NK) cells. Antibodies recruit effector cells such as NK cells ... Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) Download ...
more infohttps://www.biotek.com/resources/application-notes/semi-automation-of-a-non-radioactive-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-adcc-assay-part-i/

Development of IgG Mediated Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the Serum and Genital Mucosa of HIV...Development of IgG Mediated Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the Serum and Genital Mucosa of HIV...

We measured antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in serum and genital fluids of heterosexually exposed ... 1987) Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis ... 2011) Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity synapses form in mice during tumor-specific antibody immunotherapy. Cancer research ... 2014) Comparison of antibodies that mediate HIV type 1 gp120 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in asymptomatic HIV ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/development-of-igg-mediated-antibody-dependent-cellmediated-cytotoxicity-adcc-in-the-serum-and-genital-mucosa-of-hiv-seroconverters-2155-6113-1000479.php?aid=58033

Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses |...Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses |...

Tetherin antagonism by Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against reactivated HIV-1-infected cells. J Virol 90:2021-2030. doi:10.1128/JVI.02717- ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys. J Virol 85:6906-6912. ... Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/91/7/e02452-16?ijkey=bc96994d93e2fb194a9bf21ec27cbffc5379826e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Augmentation of antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity following in vivo therapy with recombinant interleukin 2. -...Augmentation of antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity following in vivo therapy with recombinant interleukin 2. -...

... were used to target immunologically activated effector cells in an in vitro antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC ... cells. Antibodies may also be used to broaden the range of tumor types susceptible to immune mediated cytotoxicity by the ... Each of these mAB was able to mediate ADCC with fresh effector cells and antibody binding targets. When peripheral blood ... The cells responsible for this ADCC had the CD16+ Fc receptor. Combining IL-2 with mAB in clinical tumor therapy may lead to a ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Augmentation-of-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-in-Hank-Robinson/026fe70152792ad9a368d569b0f07781e58910e2

MEDI-563, a humanized anti-IL-5 receptor alpha mAb with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity functionMEDI-563, a humanized anti-IL-5 receptor alpha mAb with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity function

... and it inhibits IL-5-mediated cell proliferation. MEDI-563 potently induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of ... and it inhibits IL-5-mediated cell proliferation. MEDI-563 potently induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of ... Primary human eosinophils and basophils were used to demonstrate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The binding ... CONCLUSIONS: MEDI-563 might provide a novel approach for the treatment of asthma through active antibody-dependent cell- ...
more infohttps://www.garvan.org.au/research/publications/10750

Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) - Immunology - Medbullets Step 1Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) - Immunology - Medbullets Step 1

Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a cooperative response involving *binding of antibodies produced by B- ... Eosinophils require which antibody isotype to destroy these parasites via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity? Review ... recruitment of immune cells by the constant fragment (Fc) of the antibody including *granulocytes such as *neutrophils ... specific binding of circulating antibodies to antigens using *IgG antibodies for the majority of responses ...
more infohttps://step1.medbullets.com/immunology/105048/antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-adcc

The participation of antibody in spontaneous and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the pig | IslandScholarThe participation of antibody in spontaneous and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the pig | IslandScholar

The participation of antibody in spontaneous and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the pig. Primary tabs. *View( ... The participation of antibody in spontaneous and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the pig ... PK15-TGE cells), but had no effect on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). SCMC activity was partially ... PK15-TGE cells), but had no effect on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). SCMC activity was partially ...
more infohttp://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:ir-batch6-3274

Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 | Clinical and...Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 | Clinical and...

1996) Interleukin-12 administered in vivo decreases human NK cell cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cytotoxicity to human ... 1993) Natural killer cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ... Target cells were K562 cells, and the assay ran for 3 h. Cells from healthy adults were tested at an effector cell:target cell ... and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/5/1/98

A prospective study: Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein-Barr...A prospective study: Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein-Barr...

A prospective study: Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein-Barr ... A prospective study: Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein-Barr ... A prospective study : Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein-Barr ... title = "A prospective study: Evaluation of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay in Chronic active Epstein- ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/a-prospective-study-evaluation-of-the-antibody-dependent-cell-med

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity | Article about antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by The Free...Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity | Article about antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by The Free...

Find out information about antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. An immunologic response in which an immunologic ... effector cell binds to a target cell coated with antibodies, triggering a series of metabolic events that... Explanation of ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity , Article about antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by The Free ... Related to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/antibody-dependent+cell-mediated+cytotoxicity
  • Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the cell culture medium by means of a gamma counter or scintillation counter. (wikipedia.org)
  • During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. (wikipedia.org)
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