Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Antibody-Dependent Enhancement: Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Mice, Inbred C57BLNatural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

Early membrane rupture events during neutrophil-mediated antibody-dependent tumor cell cytolysis. (1/1442)

Although cell-mediated cytolysis is a fundamental immune effector response, its mechanism remains poorly understood at the cellular level. In this report, we image for the first time transient ruptures, as inferred by cytoplasmic marker release, in tumor cell membranes during Ab-dependent cellular cytolysis. The cytosol of IgG-opsonized YAC tumor cells was labeled with tetra-methylrhodamine diacetate followed by the formation of tumor cell-neutrophil conjugates. We hypothesized that tumor cell cytolysis proceeds via a series of discrete membrane rupture/resealing events that contribute to marker release. To test this hypothesis, we occluded the fluorescence image of the labeled tumor cells by passing an opaque disk into a field-conjugated plane between the light source and the sample. Multiple small bursts of fluorescent label release from tumor cells could be detected using a photomultiplier tube. Similarly, multiple fluorescent plumes were observed at various sites around the perimeter of a target. These findings support a multihit model of target cytolysis and suggest that cytolytic release is not focused at specific sites. Cytolytic bursts were generally observed at 20-s intervals, which match the previously described reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate and superoxide release oscillation periods for neutrophils; we speculate that metabolic oscillations of the effector cell drive the membrane damage of the target.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity of human and baboon mononuclear phagocytes against schistosomula in vitro: induction by immune complexes containing IgE and Schistosoma mansoni antigens. (2/1442)

Normal human blood monocytes, pre-incubated at 37 degrees C with sera from patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, strongly adhered to S. mansoni schistosomula in vitro, whereas no significant adherence was induced by sera from uninfected individuals. Comparable adherence occurred with normal baboon blood monocytes or peritoneal macrophages when these cells were incubated with sera from S. mansoni-infected baboons. Adherence of macrophages to schistosomula was associated with damage to the larvae, as estimated by a 51Cr release technique. Neither adherence nor cytotoxicity was induced by pre-incubation of the schistosomula, instead of the monocytes, with immune serum. The relevant factor in immune serum was heat-labile, but was not a complement component. Absorption and ultracentrifugation experiments showed that immune complexes, containing S. mansoni-specific IgE antibody and soluble parasite antigens, produced monocyte or macrophage adherence and cytotoxicity. Similar observations have been reported previously in the rat model. Since the production of large amounts of IgE is a predominant feature of schistosome infections in man and experimental animals, it is possible that this new mode of mononuclear phagocyte activation could act as an immune effector mechanism against S. mansoni.  (+info)

Improving the efficacy of antibody-interleukin 2 fusion proteins by reducing their interaction with Fc receptors. (3/1442)

Fusion proteins between whole antibodies (Abs) and cytokines (immunocytokines) such as interleukin 2 have shown efficacy in several mouse tumor models despite a circulating half-life that is significantly shorter than that of the original Ab. We have examined the potential mechanisms responsible for clearance and shown that an important factor is enhanced binding to Fc receptor (FcR). Improvements in the half-lives of two different immunocytokines were made by changing the isotype of the human heavy chain C region from IgG1 or IgG3 to those with reduced binding to FcR, e.g., IgG4. The same effect could also be achieved through site-directed mutagenesis of the FcR binding site in the IgG1 H chain. In vitro studies using mouse J774 FcR-expressing cells showed increased binding of interleukin 2-based immunocytokines, relative to their corresponding Abs, and that this was reversed in those fusion proteins made with IgG4 or mutated IgG1 H chains. All of the fusion proteins showing reduced FcR binding also had reduced Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, as measured in 4-h chromium release assays. A complete loss of complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity was seen with an IgG4-based immunocytokine derived from an IgG1 Ab with potent activity. Despite these reduced effector functions, the IgG4-based immunocytokines with extended circulating half-lives showed equivalent (in the case of severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft models) or better (in the case of syngeneic models) efficacy in mouse tumor models than the original IgG1-based molecules. These novel immunocytokines may show improved efficacy in therapeutic situations where T cell- rather than natural killer- or complement-mediated antitumor mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent cytolysis by neutrophils exposed to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: intervention of FcgammaRII (CD32), CD11b-CD18 integrins, and CD66b glycoproteins. (4/1442)

Murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Lym-1 is an IgG2a able to bind HLA-DR variants on malignant B cells and suitable for serotherapeutic approaches in B-lymphoma patients. We have previously shown that Lym-1 can synergize with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to trigger neutrophil cytolysis towards Raji cells used as a model of B-lymphoma targets. Here we provide evidence for the intervention of certain neutrophil receptors or surface molecules in this model of cell-mediated lysis. The lysis was completely inhibited by the anti-FcgammaRII MoAb IV.3 and unaffected by the anti-FcgammaRIII MoAb 3G8. This suggests that neutrophil cytolysis involves FcgammaRII without cooperation of this receptor with FcgammaRIII. Moreover, the lysis was inhibited by an anti-CD18 MoAb (MEM48) and by a MoAb specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like and glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-linked glycoproteins (CD66b). Using an immunofluorescence staining procedure, cross-linking of CD66b induced the redistribution of CD11b on neutrophils with distinct areas of CD11b clustering via a process susceptible of inhibition by D-mannose. This is consistent with the ability of CD11b-CD18 and CD66b to undergo lectin-like physical interactions on the neutrophil surface. Such a type of interaction is presumably instrumental for neutrophil cytolytic activity in that the lysis was inhibited by D-mannose and enhanced by the MoAb VIM-12, which mimics the cooperation between CD11b and GPI-anchored molecules by specifically interacting with CD11b lectin-like sites. Therefore, the present results prove the absolute requirement for FcgammaRII in neutrophil GM-CSF/Lym-1-mediated cytolysis and, on the other hand, define the crucial role of CD66b and CD11b/CD18 in the expression of the cell lytic potential.  (+info)

Natural cytotoxic and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic activity of cells in the decidua basales and metrial glands of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata. (5/1442)

Cytotoxic cells are present in the uterine wall of pregnant rats. To determine if the cytotoxic activity arises in response to semen or the products of conception, the profile of cytotoxic activity in deciduomata of pseudopregnant rats was examined. To examine NK activity, Yac-1 cells were used as targets in chromium release cytotoxicity assays and an antibody to Yac-1 cells was included in some assays to determine antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) activity. Cells from the metrial glands and deciduae of deciduomata of rats at days 10 and 13 of pseudopregnancy did not show NK activity but ADCC activity was present. To examine natural cytotoxic (NC) activity, Wehi 164 cells were used as targets in chromium release cytotoxicity assays. Cells isolated from the metrial glands and deciduae of rats at day 10 of pseudopregnancy were able to kill Wehi 164 cells after 21 h assays, thus demonstrating NC activity. The profile of cytotoxic activity in the uterine wall of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata is similar to that found in pregnancy and is thus independent of semen or the products of conception.  (+info)

Human CD16 as a lysis receptor mediating direct natural killer cell cytotoxicity. (6/1442)

In addition to their role in peptide antigen presentation, class I MHC proteins also play a critical role in inhibiting natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity through interaction with NK inhibitory receptors. Thus, NK cells are cytotoxic to virus-infected and tumor cells that have lost class I MHC protein expression. However, the nature of the receptors involved in the triggering of lysis of target cells is poorly understood. CD16 (Fcgamma receptor III) has been described as a receptor expressed on NK cells that facilitates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by binding to the Fc portion of various antibodies. However, we show here that CD16 has a broader function and is directly involved in the lysis of some virus-infected cells and tumor cells, independent of antibody binding. The presence of a putative CD16 ligand on appropriate target cells has also been demonstrated by the use of a CD16-Ig fusion protein.  (+info)

C-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides can induce apoptosis and down-regulate Fas expression in rheumatoid synoviocytes. (7/1442)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of c-myc in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the mechanism of synovial apoptosis. METHODS: Using cultured human synoviocytes from patients with RA and c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS ODN), we examined the inhibition of cell proliferation by the MTT assay and the induction of apoptosis with TUNEL staining and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of c-myc on down-regulation of Fas expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Treatment with c-myc AS ODN induced inhibition of cell proliferation, along with down-regulation of c-Myc protein and c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The morphologic changes of synovial cell death were typical of apoptosis. In addition, c-myc AS ODN treatment down-regulated expression of Fas mRNA but not Fas antigen. Analysis of the involvement of the caspase cascade revealed that the cytotoxic activity of c-myc AS ODN was completely blocked by inhibitors of both caspase 1 (YVAD-FMK) and caspase 3 (DEVD-FMK). CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that c-myc AS ODN might be a useful therapeutic tool in RA and clarify that cell death by c-myc AS ODN is induced through the caspase cascade, similar to Fas-induced apoptosis. In addition, combination therapy with anti-Fas antibody and c-myc AS ODN reduced Fas-dependent cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Differential involvement of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) receptor/ligand system on apoptosis induced by the wild-type p53 gene transfer in human cancer cells. (8/1442)

The CD95 (Fas/APO-1) system regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes of cell death. The ligand for CD95 induces apoptosis in sensitive target cells by interacting with a transmembrane cell surface CD95 receptor. We previously reported that the recombinant adenovirus-mediated transfer of the wild-type p53 gene caused apoptotic cell death in a variety of human cancer cells. To better understand the mechanism responsible for this cell death signaling, we have investigated the potential involvement of the CD95 receptor/ligand system in p53-mediated apoptosis. The transient expression of the wild-type p53 gene upregulated the CD95 ligand mRNA as well as protein expression in H1299 human lung cancer cells deficient for p53 and in DLD-1 and SW620 human colon cancer cells with mutated p53, all of which constitutively expressed CD95 receptor as shown by a flow cytometric analysis, and induced rapid apoptotic cell death as early as 24 h after gene transfer. However, the sensitivity to the cytolytic effect of agonistic anti-CD95 antibody (CH11) varied among these cell lines: CH11 induced apoptosis in H1299 cells, but not in DLD-1 and SW620 cells despite their abundant CD95 receptor expression, suggesting that the CD95 receptors on DLD-1 and SW620 cells might be inactivated. In addition, an antagonistic anti-CD95 ligand antibody (4H9) that interfered with the CD95-receptor-ligand interaction partially reduced the apoptosis induced by the wild-type p53 gene transfer in H1299 cells, whereas apoptosis of DLD-1 and SW620 cells occurred in the presence of 4H9. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that the CD95 receptor/ligand system is differentially involved in p53-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that the restoration of the wild-type p53 function may mediate apoptosis through CD95 receptor/ligand interactions as well as an alternative pathway.  (+info)

  • Results: In vitro, alpha-Gal labelling of tumor cells via AGI-134 incorporation into the cell membrane leads to anti-Gal binding and complement activation. (umassmed.edu)
  • In vitro angiogenes is measured using tube formation by primary endothelial cells (typically primary HUVEC) cells. (aragenbio.com)
  • Even though the humanized mAb was an IgG1 isotype it still retained the functional blocking characteristics of the rat mAb while failing to mediate cell killing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Background: Treatments that generate T cell-mediated immunity to a patient's unique neoantigens are the current holy grail of cancer immunotherapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we report that AGI-134, a glycolipid-like small molecule, can be used for coating tumor cells with the xenoantigen Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (alpha-Gal) in situ leading to opsonization with pre-existing natural anti-alpha-Gal antibodies (in short anti-Gal), which triggers immune cascades resulting in T cell mediated anti-tumor immunity. (umassmed.edu)
  • The capacity of B-cell reconstitution and preexisting humoral immunity are preserved. (galenreasoner.com)
  • These assays are applicable for both large and small molecule test agents and can be applied to variety of suspension and adherent cell lines including but not limited to tumor cell lines and primary PBMC's. (aragenbio.com)
  • In addition, polatuzumab vedotin (pola) is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) designed to deliver the potent microtubule inhibitor MMAE to cells expressing CD79b. (confex.com)
  • CBT Pharmaceuticals is a life sciences company developing innovative oncology therapeutics targeting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. (cbtpharma.com)
  • By implementing strict QC standards, Aragen Bioscience can provide efficacy and potency profiles of your therapeutic antibodies. (aragenbio.com)
  • This is because, generally, all nucleated cells (which excludes RBCs) of the body contain MHC I. Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anti-tumoral activity of AGI-134 alone or in combination with an anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody was tested in melanoma models in anti-Gal expressing galactosyltransferase knockout (alpha1,3GT(-/-)) mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • These antibodies targeted A32-blockable conformational epitopes (n = 19), a non-A32-blockable conformational epitope (n = 1), and the gp120 Env variable loops (n = 3). (fredhutch.org)
Trastuzumab signaling in ErbB2-overexpressing inflammatory breast cancer correlates with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis...
Trastuzumab signaling in ErbB2-overexpressing inflammatory breast cancer correlates with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis... (mct.aacrjournals.org)
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity - Wikipedia
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Attenuation of p53 mutant as an approach for treatment Her2-positive cancer | Cell Death Discovery
Attenuation of p53 mutant as an approach for treatment Her2-positive cancer | Cell Death Discovery (nature.com)
William Dall'Acqua - Ambassadors - AstraZeneca
William Dall'Acqua - Ambassadors - AstraZeneca (astrazeneca.com)
Distinct Apoptotic Signaling Characteristics of the Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody Dacetuzumab and Rituximab Produce Enhanced...
Distinct Apoptotic Signaling Characteristics of the Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody Dacetuzumab and Rituximab Produce Enhanced... (clincancerres.aacrjournals.org)
Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination...
Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination... (haematologica.org)
The Controversial Role of Microglia in Malignant Gliomas
The Controversial Role of Microglia in Malignant Gliomas (hindawi.com)
Recombinant IgE antibodies for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours: from concept towards clinical application | SpringerLink
Recombinant IgE antibodies for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours: from concept towards clinical application | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys | Journal of Virology
Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys | Journal of Virology (jvi.asm.org)
Frontiers | Methotrexate Enhances Apoptosis of Transmembrane TNF-Expressing Cells Treated With Anti-TNF Agents | Immunology
Frontiers | Methotrexate Enhances Apoptosis of Transmembrane TNF-Expressing Cells Treated With Anti-TNF Agents | Immunology (frontiersin.org)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | SpringerLink
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Frontiers | Recent Progress in Chemo-Enzymatic Methods for the Synthesis of N-Glycans | Chemistry
Frontiers | Recent Progress in Chemo-Enzymatic Methods for the Synthesis of N-Glycans | Chemistry (frontiersin.org)
Frontiers | Immunomodulation for the Treatment of Fungal Infections: Opportunities and Challenges | Cellular and Infection...
Frontiers | Immunomodulation for the Treatment of Fungal Infections: Opportunities and Challenges | Cellular and Infection... (frontiersin.org)
Infection S5 (Done) Flashcards by Callum Mackay | Brainscape
Infection S5 (Done) Flashcards by Callum Mackay | Brainscape (brainscape.com)
Measure Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) | tebu-bio's blog
Measure Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) | tebu-bio's blog (tebu-bio.com)
JCI -
Volume 58, Issue 1
JCI - Volume 58, Issue 1 (jci.org)
Frontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | Microbiology
Frontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | Microbiology (frontiersin.org)
Immune Checkpoint Antibodies: Specialized Services for Unique Molecules | Charles River
Immune Checkpoint Antibodies: Specialized Services for Unique Molecules | Charles River (criver.com)
Protection from cytomegalovirus viremia following glycoprotein B vaccination is not dependent on neutralizing antibodies | PNAS
Protection from cytomegalovirus viremia following glycoprotein B vaccination is not dependent on neutralizing antibodies | PNAS (pnas.org)
Frontiers | Therapeutic Antibodies against Intracellular Tumor Antigens | Immunology
Frontiers | Therapeutic Antibodies against Intracellular Tumor Antigens | Immunology (frontiersin.org)
Targeting the Intracellular WT1 Oncogene Product with a Therapeutic Human Antibody | Science Translational Medicine
Targeting the Intracellular WT1 Oncogene Product with a Therapeutic Human Antibody | Science Translational Medicine (stm.sciencemag.org)
Erbitux moves to front-line in attack against both metastatic head and neck and colorectal cancers - PharmiWeb.com
Erbitux moves to front-line in attack against both metastatic head and neck and colorectal cancers - PharmiWeb.com (pharmiweb.com)
Search | eLife
Search | eLife (elifesciences.org)
Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) | January 31, 2012
Semi-Automation of a Non-Radioactive Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Assay (Part I) | January 31, 2012 (biotek.com)
The Reticuloendothelial System in Health and Disease | SpringerLink
The Reticuloendothelial System in Health and Disease | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)