Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Optic Disk Drusen: Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Geographic Atrophy: A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serum Sickness: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
This area is filled with pro-inflammatory factors such as antibodies, complement proteins, cytokines, and chemokines. The ... and anti-inflammatory factors. The development of the long astrocyte cellular processes that are integral to the glia limitans ... immunosuppressive cell surface proteins such as CD200 and CD95L and it allows for the release of anti-inflammatory factors. The ...
Opsonins include Mfge8, Gas6, Protein S, antibodies and complement factors C1q and C3b. Phagoptosis has multiple functions ... Pathogenic cells such as bacteria can be opsonised by antibodies or complement factors, enabling their phagocytosis and ... It has been known for some time that animals defend themselves against cancer by antibody-mediated or antibody-independent ... and exposure of novel antigens that bind endogenous antibodies. Neutrophils have a daily rhythm of entry and exit from the ...
Complement C4-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4A gene. This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor ... The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... "A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III region linking complement genes C4, C2 and factor B". ... Hessing M, van 't Veer C, Hackeng TM, Bouma BN, Iwanaga S (Oct 1990). "Importance of the alpha 3-fragment of complement C4 for ...
The process is aided by neutrophils, the complement system, tumor necrosis factor alpha, etc. Aetiologically, these are most ... Here, the anti-bacterial antibodies cross react with the heart antigens causing inflammation. Inflammatory damage leads to the ...
... where they are protected from extracellular immune system factors such as the complement system and antibodies. LLO also causes ... The toxin may be considered a virulence factor, since it is crucial for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Listeriolysin O is a ... Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria. "Pathogenicity islands in Listeria: LIPI-1." State Key Laboratory for Molecular ... as well as other virulence factors of L. monocytogenes within LIPI-1, is activated by the protein encoded by prfA gene. prfA is ...
It binds to complement factor D (CFD). Enrollment in Phase 3 clinical trials was initiated in 2014. Phase 3 trials are usually ... Lampalizumab (INN) is an antigen-binding fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of geographic ... These two failures have called into question whether complement inhibition is a sound strategy for geographic atrophy. World ...
... complement factor h MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.338 - hemopexin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.580 - plasminogen MeSH D12.776.377.715. ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ...
Donor-specific antibodies bind with high affinity to the vascular endothelium of graft and activate complement. This process ... B-cell activating factor (BAFF) also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B is a protein that in humans ... Wasowska BA (July 2010). "Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection". Immunologic Research. ... "Elevated B cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family in coeliac disease". Scandinavian Journal of ...
... an Fab fragment of a humanized antibody against Factor D of the human immune complement system to be tested for treating ... Complement Factor D is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases and is a component of the alternative complement pathway. ... TNX-224, an anti-Factor D Fab, the antigen-binding fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting Factor D of the human ... Other than the therapeutic antibodies, which target the IgE allergic pathway, immune factors, and CD4, Tanox also possessed ...
... factor H, factor HR1 or HR3, membrane cofactor protein, factor I, factor B, complement C3, and thrombomodulin). This results in ... for example anti-factor H antibodies. Despite the use of supportive care, historically an estimated 33-40% of patients died or ... The complement system activation may be due to mutations in the complement regulatory proteins (factor H, factor I, or membrane ... of complement can result from production of anti-factor H autoantibodies or from genetic mutations in any of several complement ...
... in orthotopic xenotransplantation of pig hearts into baboons using immunoadsorption of antibodies and complement factors. ... The influence of antibody and complement removal with a Ig-Therasorb column in a xenogeneic working heart model. Eur J ... for his work The influence of antibody and complement removal with a Ig-Therasorb column in a xenogeneic working heart model ( ... elimination of antibodies from the recipient) and a special combination of immunosuppressive drugs hyperacute and delayed ...
... markers of complement-mediated inflammatory reactions. Also Fibroblast growth factor-2 appear higher at CSF. Varicella-zoster ... These antibodies patterns can be used to monitor disease progression. Finally, a promising biomarker under study is an antibody ... By transcription factor The autoimmune disease-associated transcription factors EOMES and TBX21 are dysregulated in multiple ... focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and emerging pathways". Clin Pharmacol. 6: 35-42. doi:10.2147/CPAA.S35033 ...
Several virulence factors have been identified, but predominantly by screening S.dysgalactiae isolates for homologues of well- ... The M-protein aids in immune evasion by inhibiting phagocytosis and inactivating the complement system. Furthermore, ... and thus interfering with the host antibody response. DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides ... The emm-gene encodes the M-protein, a major virulence factor in both S.pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. It is ...
This gene encodes the basic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as ... The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... Aoki H, Takizawa F, Tsuji S, Nagasawa S (Jul 2000). "Elongation factor-1alpha as a homologous complement activator of Jurkat ... "Frequencies of certain complement protein alleles and serum levels of anti-heat-shock protein antibodies in cerebrovascular ...
Factor H (fH) Other soluble complement regulators that do not belong to the RCA/CCP family are Complement Factor I and C1 ... and unwanted material such as cell debris and antibody-antigen complexes. Most of the complement control proteins act on the ... Transgenic pigs that express complement regulation factors may one day be useful for xenotransplantation. Complement control ... Complement proteins protect against malignant cells- both by direct complement attack and through initiation of Complement- ...
The test is based on the capacity of a serum to lyse sheep erythrocytes coated with anti-sheep antibodies (preferably rabbit ... Factor I, B, H, D, properdin; absence of lysis in AH50). Increased CH50 values may be seen in cancer or Ulcerative Colitis. ... Total complement activity is a test performed to assess the level of functioning of the complement system. The terms "CH50" or ... "Complement: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 11 February 2017. ...
Porins are also recognized by TLR2, they bind complement factors (C3b, C4b, factor H, and C4bp (complement factor 4b-binding ... an enzyme that cleaves IgA class antibodies and thus allows the bacteria to evade a subclass of the humoral immune system. ... Complement inhibition[edit]. Factor H binding protein (fHbp) that is exhibited in N. meningitidis and some commensal species is ... Close contact with a carrier is the predominant risk factor. Other risk factors include a weakened general or local immune ...
... is used to detect if antibodies or complement system factors have bound to RBCs surface antigens in vivo. The DAT is not ... IgG antibodies are most reactive at 37 °C. IgM antibodies are easily detected in saline at room temperature as IgM antibodies ... which produce polyclonal antibodies specific for human immunoglobulins and human complement system factors. More specific ... will bind to human antibodies, commonly IgG or IgM. Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be ...
... and various lines of research have implied a role for T cells and soluble factors such as cytokines and the complement system. ... Various antibodies are generated; some bind closely to the viral proteins and target them for phagocytosis (ingestion by ... Other risk factors for severe disease include female sex, high body mass index, and viral load. While each serotype can cause ... Now that there is a fifth serotype this will need to be factored in. One of the concerns is that a vaccine could increase the ...
The recipient's complement cascade can be inhibited through the use of cobra venom factor (which depletes C3), soluble ... These antibodies are known as xenoreactive natural antibodies (XNAs).[1] Hyperacute rejection[edit]. This rapid and violent ... The binding of XNAs initiate complement activation through the classical complement pathway. Complement activation causes a ... The graft is given a break from humoral rejection[28] when the complement cascade is interrupted, circulating antibodies are ...
The C3 Nephritic Factor autoantibody stabilizes C3-convertase, which may lead to an excessive activation of complement. Rapidly ... Complement levels, Antinuclear antibodies Biopsy of the kidney Renal ultrasonography is useful for prognostic purposes in ... Diagnosis may be made on clinical findings or through antistreptolysin O antibodies found in the blood. A biopsy is seldom done ... No immune deposits can be seen on staining, however blood tests may be positive for the ANCA antibody. Histopathologically, the ...
The complement system is a system of serum proteins that react with antigen-antibody complexes. If this reaction occurs on a ... This dilution factor corresponds to the titer. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter31/ ... However, if no antibodies against the antigen of interest are present, the complement will not be depleted and it will react ... The complement proteins will react with these complexes and be depleted. Thus when the sRBC-antibody complexes are added in ...
... and seems to be a key factor in the development of pathology of many inflammatory diseases involving the complement system such ... C5a has been identified as a key mediator of neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis, with antibody blockade of C5a improving outcomes ... Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 65 (1): 500-43. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID 23383423. ... Complement Peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a Receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 65 (1): 500-543. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID ...
Furthermore, it is a crucial factor in connecting the recognition pathways of the overall system instigated by antibody-antigen ... an effect produced by the effector proteins of the complement system in which the C4 partakes). Complement system Complement ... Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human ... "A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III region linking complement genes C4, C2 and factor B". ...
The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. Following ... In the absence of these activation factors, C1q is part of the inactive C1 complex which consists of six molecules of C1q, two ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. The globular ...
They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ...
Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P (ALS17749), Abgent ... Complement component factor i, Factor I, FI, KAF, I factor, I factor (complement), C3b-INA, Complement factor I, Light chain of ... GPCR Antibodies , Anti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal) Anti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal). Rabbit ... Anti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic ...
Jetzt diesen anti-Complement Factor I Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4264851 ... Maus Monoklonal Complement Factor I Antikörper für ELISA, WB. ... Complement Factor I (CFI Antibody Abstract) Hintergrund Gene ... Target Details Complement Factor I Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen zurück nach oben Target Details Complement Factor I ... anti-Complement Factor I Antikörper (CFI) (DyLight 755) Complement Factor I Antikörper (CFI) (DyLight 755). Details for Product ...
We detected the unusually high rate ofCFHR1/CFHR3 deletions associated with anti-complement factor H antibodies in Czech ... Severe anemia caused by dominant mutations in Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) ... polygenic nature of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome as a disease that results from a combination of various risk factors. ...
Complement factor H-related protein 1 deficiency and factor H antibodies in pediatric patients with atypical hemolytic uremic ... Complement factor H (CFH) is a negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement, and properdin is the sole positive ... by evaluating both the frequency of deletions in CFHR1 and the presence of complement factor H (CFH) antibodies. ... Factor H (fH) and properdin both modulate complement; however, fH inhibits activation, and properdin promotes activation of the ...
CLINICAL RESEARCH STUDY The Clinical Utility of a Positive Antinuclear Antibody Test Result Aryeh M. Abeles, MD, Micha Abeles, ... M05.9 Rheumatoid arthritis with rheumatoid factor, unspecified M06.00 Rheumatoid arthritis without rheumatoid factor, ... and double-stranded DNA antibodies, urinalysis, C3 and C4 complement levels, complete blood count, and erythrocyte ... Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing By Doctors For Doctors Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing By Doctors For Doctors Updated ...
MalaCards based summary : Complement Component 3 Deficiency, also known as c3 deficiency, is related to complement factor i ... Complement and Antibody-mediated Enhancement of Red Blood Cell Invasion and Growth of Malaria Parasites. 61 ... complement deficiency 26.7. MBL2 CFP CFI CFHR2 CD59 CD55 17. complement component 5 deficiency 26.7. CR1 CFP CFHR2 CD55 CD46 ... complement activation. GO:0006956 9.86. MBL2 MASP1 CFP C4B C4A C3 5. complement activation, classical pathway. GO:0006958 9.85 ...
Browse our Complement Factor H Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Complement Factor H Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... anti-H factor 1 (complement) antibody, anti-H factor 1 antibody, anti-H factor 2 (complement) antibody, anti-HF antibody, anti- ... Alternate Names for Complement Factor H Antibodies. anti-Complement Factor H antibody, anti-CFH antibody, anti-adrenomedullin ...
Complement factor B (human),biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product ... Mouse Anti-Human Complement factor B Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 9B6 from AntibodyShop A/S, ... Mouse Anti-Human Complement factor B Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 9B6 from AntibodyShop A/S. ... Complement factor B (human). Info. AntibodyShop A/S. Grusbakken 8 DK-2820 Gentofte Denmark. Customer Service: (+45) 4529 0000. ...
The complement Factor H protein is secreted into the bloodstream and acts in the regulation of complement activation. Mutations ... Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Complement factor H (complement factor H). Rabbit. IgG. Aff - Purified. Hu. P, WB. 0.1 ml / € ... Background of Complement factor H (CFH) antibody. The complement Factor H protein is secreted into the bloodstream and acts in ... Primary Antibodies. Catalog No.. Host. Iso.. Clone. Pres.. React.. Applications. TA303046. Complement factor H (CFH) antibody. ...
CFD, also known as adipsin, is involved in the alternative complement pathway of the complement system where it cleaves factor ... Properties for Complement factor D. Product Category. Proteins & Growth Factors. Target Category. *Complement factor D antibody ... AR50701PU-N Complement factor D (26-253, His-tag) Search for all "Complement factor D" ... CFD, also known as adipsin, is involved in the alternative complement pathway of the complement system where it cleaves factor ...
Complement Factor B antibody LS-C128908 is an unconjugated goat polyclonal antibody to human Complement Factor B (CFB). ... Complement protein Factor B Antibody, Glycine-rich beta-glycoprotein Antibody, GBG Antibody, Factor B Antibody, FB Antibody, ... C3/C5 convertase Antibody, CFAB Antibody, C3 proaccelerator Antibody, C3 proactivator Antibody, Complement factor B Antibody, ... Complement Factor B. CFB / Complement Factor B is complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement ...
Complement Factor H antibody LS-C208426 is a PE-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Complement Factor H (CFH). ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C208426 is a PE-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Complement Factor H (CFH). ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C208426 is a PE-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Complement Factor H (CFH). ... CFH / Complement Factor H Antibody (clone OX‑24) IHC‑plus™ LS‑B2889 ...
This antibody reacts with human samples. Cat.No. 12748-1-AP. ... Complement factor H antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech ... ARMD4, ARMS1, CFH, CFHL3, Complement factor H, Factor H, FH, FHL1, H factor 1, HF, HF1, HF2, HUS ... Complement factor H Antibody 0 Publications. Rabbit Polyclonal, Catalog number: 12748-1-AP ... human blood were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 12748-1-AP (Complement factor H antibody) at dilution of 1 ...
A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A ... A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A ... A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A ... A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A ...
Six monoclonal antibodies directed against the 38 kDa tryptic fragment of Factor H [which contains the binding site for C3b (a ... The 38 kDa tryptic fragment of Factor H is the N-terminal end of the Factor H molecule, as determined by N-terminal sequence ... Elastase, chymotrypsin A4 or trypsin first cleaved Factor H to 36-38 kDa fragments carrying all six monoclonal anti-(Factor H)- ... Ficin cleaved Factor H into disulphide-linked fragments smaller than 25 kDa, but did not affect the functions of the Factor H ...
Complement Factor I Monoclonal Antibody (Clone OX-21)-NP_000195.2 (MBS245037) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary ... Antibodies. Application: Immunohistochemistry (IHC - Paraffin), Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Flow Cytometry (FC ... Buy anti-CFI antibody, Mouse anti-Human CFI / ... I factor; I factor (complement); C3b-INA; Complement factor I; ... light chain of factor I; Konglutinogen-activating factor; complement factor I heavy chain; complement control protein factor I ...
... ... A study of some factors influencing the complement-fixation reaction for the detection of anaplasma antibodies. Masters thesis ...
T1 - Novel anti-factor D monoclonal antibody inhibits complement and leukocyte activation in a baboon model of cardiopulmonary ... Novel anti-factor D monoclonal antibody inhibits complement and leukocyte activation in a baboon model of cardiopulmonary ... title = "Novel anti-factor D monoclonal antibody inhibits complement and leukocyte activation in a baboon model of ... Novel anti-factor D monoclonal antibody inhibits complement and leukocyte activation in a baboon model of cardiopulmonary ...
Development of neutralizing antibodies against therapeutic Factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of the ... Complement human proteins Factor B, Factor D, C3, C3b and C3-depleted serum were purchased from Complement Technology (Comptech ... Complement C3 enhances Factor VIII (FVIII) endocytosis by dendritic cells and presentation to CD4+ T cells. (A and B) FVIII (50 ... Complement modulates the primary immune response to therapeutic Factor VIII (FVIII) in vivo. (A and B) FVIII (1 μg/mouse) was ...
... ability to acquire complement regulator factor H (FH) to overcome the host´s innate immune response. Here we assessed binding ... Association with and adaption to various hosts most likely correlates with the spirochetes ability to acquire complement ... regulator factor H (FH) to overcome the host´s innate immune response. Here we assessed binding of serum FH from human and ... and goat suggesting cross-reactivity of this antibody to factor H-related proteins (FHRs). An additional signal of ~110 kDa ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Complement Factor B Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone: 9B8, ... Complement Factor B Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Complement Factor B in Human samples. It is validated for Western ... BF AHUS4, B-factor, properdin, BFD, C3 proaccelerator, C3 proactivator, C3/C5 convertase, complement factor B, EC 3.4.21, EC ... Clone 9B8 is specific for the Bb fragment of human factor B. Antibody binding abolishes the formation of C3bBb complexes.. ...
MAb, monoclonal antibody. The nomenclature of complement components is as defined by the World Health Organisation (1981)[11] ... Binding sites involved in the formation of the C3(H2O)-factor B complex of the alternative pathway of complement SAMANTHA C. ... SAMANTHA C. WILLIAMS, ROBERT B. SIM; Binding sites involved in the formation of the C3(H2O)-factor B complex of the alternative ... pathway of complement. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 1994; 22 (1): 2S. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst022002s ...
A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A ... Staphylococcus aureusClumping Factor A Binds to Complement Regulator Factor I and Increases Factor I Cleavage of C3b ... Myeloperoxidase influences the complement regulatory activity of complement factor H. Su-Fang Chen, Feng-Mei Wang, Zhi-Ying Li ... Factor H and Factor H-Related Protein 1 Bind to Human Neutrophils via Complement Receptor 3, Mediate Attachment to Candida ...
Monoclonal antibodies against the complement control protein factor H (β1H). Biosci. Rep. 3: 1119. ... Mapping of the complement regulatory domains in the human factor H-like protein 1 and in factor H. J. Immunol. 155: 5663. ... Effect of complement-protein-C3b density on the binding of complement factor H to surface-bound C3b. Biochem. J. 280: 255. ... Analysis of the recognition mechanism of the alternative pathway of complement by monoclonal anti-factor H antibodies: evidence ...
... antibody, clone 014III-33.2.4.3,/strong, recognises the 30 kDa Ba fragment of 90 kDa human complement factor B, present in ... strong,Mouse anti Human Complement Factor B (Ba Fragment) ... References for Complement Factor B antibody. * Zipplies, J.K. ... Mouse anti Human complement factor B antibody, clone 014III-33.2.4.3 (MCA2647) used to detect Complement factor B expressing ... Mouse anti Human complement factor B antibody, clone 014III-33.2.4.3 (MCA2647) used to detect Complement factor B expressing ...
  • Mouse anti Human Complement Factor B (Ba Fragment) antibody, clone 014III-33.2.4.3 recognises the 30 kDa Ba fragment of 90 kDa human complement factor B, present in blood serum. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi has developed efficient mechanisms for evading the innate immune response during mammalian infection and has been shown to be resistant to the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of human serum. (asm.org)
  • The combined data lead us to conclude that the CspA-mediated binding of human FH confers serum resistance by directly inhibiting complement deposition on the surface of B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • In fact, with regard to the major borrelial genospecies that cause Lyme disease, B. burgdorferi and Borrelia afzelii are resistant to the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of serum, while most strains of Borrelia garinii are killed by human serum ( 4 , 7 , 10 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Many human pathogens, including serum-resistant B. burgdorferi , evade complement destruction by binding complement factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1) ( 4 , 29 , 32 , 40 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this notion, the terminal complement components (C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9) are deposited more efficiently and abundantly on the surface of serum-sensitive strains of Borrelia spp. (asm.org)
  • The complement system was investigated by measuring 50% complement (CH50) hemolytic activity in serum and the circulating levels of the activation products C5a and terminal complement complex (C5b-9) in plasma samples collected in EDTA as previously described in detail. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Peerschke EI, Yin W, Alpert DR, Roubey RA, Salmon JE, Ghebrehiwet B. Serum complement activation on heterologous platelets is associated with arterial thrombosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with AMD also have signs of systemic complement activation, exhibiting significantly higher serum levels of factor B, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, C3d. (arvojournals.org)
  • The complement system is a complex cascade involving proteolytic cleavage of serum glycoproteins often activated by cell receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We identified distinct pre-treatment serum antibody profiles associated with severe irAEs for each therapy group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment with a higher amount of anti-C1q antibody gives rise to increased serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody, immune complex and C3 levels, facilitates kidney C3 and IgG deposits and thus reduces the treatment efficacy. (springer.com)
  • Eventually, after a thorough study of how tumors grew and how they shrunk, Dr Burton was able to take these factors (some from healthy people and some from people with cancer) and create a serum that shrunk tumors. (encognitive.com)
  • One did not need to measure TNF levels to determine the condition of a patients immune system, though TNF is a factor in the serum Burton created to shrink tumors. (encognitive.com)
  • Once knowing how the system was imbalanced, Burton could design a serum using the four factors, plus TNF that would shrink the patient's tumor. (encognitive.com)
  • To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis, we measured concentration of serum IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide and functional antibody activity against both Hia and Hib in healthy adults and patients of Aboriginal background with confirmed CRF. (cdc.gov)
  • Western Blot analysis of CFH expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00003075-T02 ) by CFH MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: CFH transfected lysate(51.00 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
  • We compared intraindividual mRNA expression profiles of cardiac and skeletal muscle in dysferlin-deficient SJL/J mice and found down-regulation of the complement inhibitor, decay-accelerating factor/CD55, in skeletal muscle only. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evidence is provided that decay-accelerating factor/CD55 is regulated via the myostatin-SMAD pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Development of neutralizing antibodies against therapeutic Factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of the treatment of hemophilia A. There is growing evidence to show the multifactorial origin of the anti-FVIII immune response, combining both genetic and environmental factors. (haematologica.org)
  • While a role for the complement system on innate as well as adaptive immunity has been documented, the implication of complement activation on the onset of the anti-FVIII immune response is unknown. (haematologica.org)
  • Here, using in vitro assays for FVIII endocytosis by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and presentation to T cells, as well as in vivo complement depletion in FVIII-deficient mice, we show a novel role for complement C3 in enhancing the immune response against therapeutic FVIII. (haematologica.org)
  • Association with and adaption to various hosts most likely correlates with the spirochetes' ability to acquire complement regulator factor H (FH) to overcome the host's innate immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement is one of the most powerful innate immune defense mechanisms in vertebrate animals' blood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement is an innate immune sensor that rapidly responds to bacterial infection eliciting C3-mediated opsonophagocytic and immunomodulatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • Complement, complement receptors and natural antibody (IgM) are important factors in the immune response against pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have indicated a role for C3, the complement receptors CD35/CD21 (CR1/CR2), and IgM in the immune response to influenza virus. (nih.gov)
  • PDF] Complement deposition in renal histopathology of patients with ANCA-associated pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The current study investigated the clinical and pathological significance of complement deposition in renal histopathology of patients with ANCA-associated pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dysfunction of the complement system (a central part of the innate immune system) is key to the etiology of AMD. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2002) Immune response to an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody 1A7 as a tumor vaccine in children with high risk neuroblastoma. (springer.com)
  • Targeted delivery of therapeutics to the organ of interest has the potential to minimize systemic toxicity, anti-antibody immune responses, and reduce the amount of drug required to achieve therapeutic levels. (nature.com)
  • Functional complement C1q abnormality leads to impaired immune complexes and apoptotic cell clearance. (medscape.com)
  • The complement system is part of the innate immune system. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to playing an important role in host defense against infection, the complement system is a mediator in both the pathogenesis and prevention of immune complex diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (medscape.com)
  • New studies point to the complex interplay between the complement cascade and adaptive immune response, and complement is also being studied in association with ischemic injury as a target of therapy. (medscape.com)
  • The innate immune system was markedly activated, with substantial complement deposition in the outer retina after light exposure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Complement C3b may be an opsonin for antigen-antibody complexes which helps prevent damage from the formation of large, insoluble immune aggregates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Complement inhibitors are being studied as potential therapeutics for immune diseases and Alzheimer's. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We hypothesized that pre-treatment antibody profiles identify a subset of patients who possess a sub-clinical autoimmune phenotype that predisposes them to develop severe irAEs following immune system disinhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CFD is a rate-limiting enzyme in the activation and amplification of the alternative complement pathway (ACP), a component of the immune system. (roche.com)
  • An attempt to make an inroad against these formidable obstacles has been the exploitation of a little-known aspect of the immune system known as 'complement factor H,' making it possible for the first time to describe a mechanism whereby Lyme disease and other specific infectious agents possibly may be controlled. (townsendletter.com)
  • Another protein in the shape of a Y, the antibody, is custom-fabricated by the immune system to match exactly the chemical characteristics and structure of the antigen. (townsendletter.com)
  • In contrast, foreign cells, bacteria, mycoplasma, and viruses do not typically have on their surfaces a binding site for factor H. The surfaces of foreign organisms are antigenic and will elicit a response from the immune system, because they are recognized as non-self. (townsendletter.com)
  • Certain bacteria and viruses, including the Lyme disease causative agent, have exploited the protection afforded from the deleterious effects of the complement system by carrying a binding site on their surfaces for factor H. 9 This site is typically antigenic and recognized by the immune system as non-self. (townsendletter.com)
  • C4 KO and anti-C1q antibody treated mice display normal immune system functions and intact antibody production capacity. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies (shown here) help the immune system to destroy pathogens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Specifically, rituximab is an antibody against a protein called CD20, which occurs most commonly on the surface of immune B cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • By producing this antibody, they were able to shut off CFH, effectively removing the cancer cell's security system and leaving it open to the immune system or drugs such as rituximab. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some strains express a polysaccharide capsule, a principal virulence factor that protects bacteria from immune defenses, e.g., complement-dependent bacteriolysis. (cdc.gov)
  • See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ABC Detection Kits and polymers, biotinylated secondary antibodies, substrates and more. (lsbio.com)
  • These include interactions with the host complement system that may facilitate pathogen entry into cells and tissues, expression of molecules that defuse the effector complement components and complexes, and acquisition of host complement inhibitors to downregulate complement activity on the surface of the pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecules acting as complement inhibitors are shown in red. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of the complement system by antibody-β 2 GPI complexes has been shown to play a critical role in thrombus formation as demonstrated by the ability of C5 inhibitors to prevent blood clots in animals receiving intravascular infusion of antibodies to β 2 GPI. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This model may be useful in the evaluation of complement inhibitors and other neuroprotectants intended for ocular use. (arvojournals.org)
  • It is an exceptionally specific protease and the only known protein substrate is factor B in complex with C3.3 Factor D protease activity is regulated by reversible conformational changes, which differs from the majority of serine proteases whose regulation involves either activation by processing of the zymogens or inactivation by binding of the inhibitors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Our high-quality chemiluminescent, fluorescent, and colorimetric assays deliver more high-quality hits, and are backed by a broad panel of characterized inhibitors and PTM-specific antibodies for ubiquitinylation, sumoylation, methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that introduction of the hexamerization-enhancing mutation E430G in CD37-specific antibodies facilitates highly potent complement-dependent cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells ex vivo . (haematologica.org)
  • Very shortly after Nina introduced her stream of potentially dangerous microorganisms into Bessie's teat then into Bessie's cistern her mammary biochemical factory stimulated specialized cells that became active and began to create disease-specific antibodies and activated complement that mingled with Nina's first fluids, the colostrum, which Nina sucked back into her leaky gut from Bessie's teats. (tldp.com)
  • The immunoglobulins, growth factors and these disease-specific antibodies and their helpers, the complement, passed directly into Nina's stomach, and there they attached themselves to whatever corresponding organisms were present inside the gut, killing many. (tldp.com)
  • Although the complement system is part of the body's innate, relatively nonspecific defense against pathogens, its role is hardly primitive or easily understood. (medscape.com)
  • Hib conjugate vaccines induce production of antibodies against capsular polysaccharide capable of bactericidal activity providing protection against invasive disease ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Factor H binds to C3b, accelerates the decay of the alternative pathway C3-convertase (C3bBb) and acts as a cofactor for the factor I-mediated proteolytic inactivation of C3b (PMID: 15163532). (ptglab.com)
  • Spitzer RE, Stitzel AE, Tsokos G. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): evidence for the Adam and Eve concept of autoantibody production. (harvard.edu)
  • Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. (cdc.gov)
  • If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesn't perform as described on our website or datasheet, we'll replace the product at no cost to you, or provide you with a credit for a future purchase. (thermofisher.com)