Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Mice, Inbred C57BLCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.IgA Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Dysgammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immunoglobulin Km Allotypes: Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Paraproteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.Tetanus ToxoidLymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.IgG Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
by immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin therapy *by monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibody therapy. *by urine: urine therapy ( ... by humoral immune factors: antibody therapy *by whole serum: serotherapy, including antiserum therapy ...
There is significant decrease in all immunoglobulins. Most antibodies are gamma globulins. Antibodies are made mainly by plasma ... The most common treatment for XLA is an intravenous infusion of immunoglobulin (IVIg, human IgG antibodies) every 3-4 weeks, ... B cells are part of the immune system and normally manufacture antibodies (also called immunoglobulins), which defend the body ... Serology (detection on antibodies to a specific pathogen or antigen) is often used to diagnose viral diseases. Because XLA ...
Plasma cells produce immunoglobulins, which are commonly called antibodies. There are thousands of different antibodies, each ... Unlike normal immunoglobulin antibodies, paraproteins cannot fight infection. Serum free light-chain measurement can detect ... Paraproteins allowed the detailed study of immunoglobulins, which eventually led to the production of monoclonal antibodies in ... A myeloma protein is an abnormal immunoglobulin fragment, such as an immunoglobulin light chain, that is produced in excess by ...
Immunoglobulins are glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily that function as antibodies. The terms antibody and ... Each immunoglobulin class differs in its biological properties and has evolved to deal with different antigens. Antibodies are ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Its aspects involving antibodies are often called antibody-mediated immunity. The study of the molecular and cellular ...
... the family is named after antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a ... In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR ... Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. ... Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express Activation-Induced ...
His studies of the amino acid sequences of immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) helped to fuel the 1970s' debate ... "Two mRNAs can be produced from a single immunoglobulin ? gene by alternative RNA processing pathways". Cell. 20 (2): 313-319. ... Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ... He showed that RNA splicing is the mechanism for generating the membrane bound and the secreted forms of antibodies. In ...
... that are typically observed with antibodies, may be avoided. These synthetic antibodies were engineered to be stable, non-toxic ... "Anti-Immunoglobulin Research Area of Affimers". Johnson A, Song Q, Ko Ferrigno P, Bueno PR, Davis JJ (Aug 7, 2012). "Sensitive ... Affimer binders have been produced to a large number of targets including ubiquitin chains, immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein ... "Antibody Alternatives". Sharma R.; Deacon S.E.; Nowak D.; George S.E.; Szymonik M.P.; Tang A.A.S.; Tomlinson D.C.; Davis A.G.; ...
Allotype Idiotype Isotype "THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS - ANTIBODIES". Retrieved 2009-05-19. Immunoglobulin ... In immunology, an immunoglobulin allotype is the allele of the antibody chains found in the individual. The word allotype comes ... Thus allotype refers to the idea that each immunoglobulin has unique sequences particular to the individual's genome that ...
Most monoclonal antibodies have been purified using affinity chromatography based on immunoglobulin-specific Protein A or ... Protein A/G method is used to purify immunoglobulins. Speciality media are designed for a specific class or type of protein/co ... This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. ...
Also, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) can be used to bind the circulating antibodies. Both of these treatments have ... Plasmapheresis and high dose intravenous immunoglobulin may be used during sudden flares of the condition. If the breathing ... The disorder occurs when the immune system malfunctions and generates antibodies that attack the body's tissues. The antibodies ... A proportion of the patients without antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor have antibodies against the MuSK protein. In ...
A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... Many of the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system (e.g., immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors) exist only in jawed ... Those MHC antigens are recognized by killer cell immunoglobulin receptors (KIR) which essentially put the brakes on NK cells. ... This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Immune ...
Antibodies[edit]. Main article: Antibody. Immunoglobulins are glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily that function as ... The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. They are found in the blood and tissue fluids, as well as ... Each immunoglobulin class differs in its biological properties and has evolved to deal with different antigens.[12] Antibodies ... Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ...
Another group of virulence factors possessed by bacteria are immunoglobulin (Ig) proteases. Immunoglobulins are antibodies ... These immunoglobulins play a major role in destruction of the pathogen through mechanisms such as opsonization. Some bacteria, ... Exotoxins are extremely immunogenic meaning that they trigger the humoral response (antibodies target the toxin). Exotoxins are ... such as Streptococcus pyogenes, are able to break down the host's immunoglobulins using proteases. Viruses also have notable ...
Wahren, B., Linde, G. A. (1983). "Virus-specific antibody activity of different subclasses of immunoglobulins G and A in ... In immunology, the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (class) is encoded by the constant region segments of the immunoglobulin gene ... IgE antibodies are present at lowest concentrations in peripheral blood but constitute the main antibody class in allergic ... IgA antibodies are divided into two subclasses that differ in the size of their hinge region. IgA1 has a longer hinge region ...
抗體(antibody),又稱免疫球蛋白(immunoglobulin,簡稱Ig)[1],是一種主要由漿細胞分泌,被免疫系統用來鑑別與中和外來物質如細菌、病毒等病原體的大型Y形蛋白質,僅被發現存在於脊椎動物的血液等體液中,及其B細胞的細胞膜表面[2][3 ... Al-Lazikani B, Lesk AM, Chothia C. Standard conformations for the
... or Digoxin-specific antibody is an antidote for overdose of digoxin. It is made from immunoglobulin ... A patent to use digoxin immunoglobulins C07k16/44 as a regulator of the preeclamptic/eclamptic patient's sodium/potassium ... These antibody fragments have a molecular weight of approximately 46,000 Da. Each vial of DigiFab , which will bind ... It is prepared by isolating the immunoglobulin fraction of the ovine serum, digesting it with papain and isolating the digoxin- ...
"Immunoglobulin aggregation leading to Russell body formation is prevented by the antibody light chain". Blood. 115 (2): 282-8. ... The defect in the immunoglobulins presumably arises during somatic hypermutation. Deletion of the N-terminal part of the heavy ... is a form of paraproteinemia and plasma cell dyscrasia that involves the proliferation of cells producing immunoglobulin heavy ...
Association of the Km(1) immunoglobulin allotype with anti-PRP antibody response in Caucasians. Interscience Conference on ... Hyperimmune Human Immunoglobulins: Preparation and Characterization of H. influenzae b, Pneumococcal and Meningococcal globulin ... immunoglobulin allotype and human antibody response and susceptibility to polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria". The Journal of ... immunoglobulin allotype with anti-polysaccharide antibodies in Caucasian adults". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 78 (2): ...
Which means that the immune system needs to synthesize a wide range of antibodies. Each immunoglobulin is a tetramer consisting ... But vertebrate genome does not code entire genes of heavy and light immunoglobulins, only gene segments. Segments of heavy ... At the early stage of lymphocyte B development, loci of immunoglobulins are rearranged. During rearrangement, segment VH on ... Complementary mRNA of heavy chain can be translated into immunoglobulin specific only for one lymphocyte. Migliaccio, Anna Rita ...
Immunoglobulin-like domains : are found in proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). They contain about 70-110 amino ... 1973). "Antibody structure and molecular immunology". Science. 180 (4088): 830-40. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..830E. doi:10.1126/ ... 1973). "Structural studies of immunoglobulins". Science. 180 (4087): 713-6. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..713P. doi:10.1126/science. ... Teale JM, Benjamin DC.; Benjamin (1977). "Antibody as immunological probe for studying refolding of bovine serum albumin. ...
Studies of monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse, rat, or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that ... The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. The complementarity determining regions of 5.11A1 were ... The more active of the two, TGN1112 (originally called 5.11A1), belonged to the IgG1 class of immunoglobulins. The other, ... The TCR-independent agonism of these antibodies involved binding to a specific part of the CD28 molecule called the C"D loop. ...
Many low affinity interactions are formed between receptor and antibody that work together to tightly bind the antibody-coated ... Two types of FcεR are known: the high-affinity receptor FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like ... Raghavan M, Bjorkman PJ (1996). "Fc receptors and their interactions with immunoglobulins". Annual Review of Cell and ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the only antibody isotype that can pass through the human placenta, and is the most common antibody ... The following immunoglobulins are the immunoglubulins currently approved for use for infectious disease prophylaxis and ... are transferred to non-immune persons through blood products that contain antibodies, such as in immunoglobulin therapy or ... blood would be obtained for the antibodies. Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum ...
Thyroid growth immunoglobulins: these antibodies bind directly to the TSH receptor and have been implicated in the growth of ... The disorder results from an antibody, called thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), that has a similar effect to thyroid ... Thyrotrophin binding-inhibiting immunoglobulins: these antibodies inhibit the normal union of TSH with its receptor. Some ... Antibodies to thyroglobulin and to the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 may also be produced.) These antibodies cause hyperthyroidism ...
The immunoglobulins or antibodies are generally the only proteins present in the normal gamma region. Of note, any protein ... A broad "swell-like" manner (wide) indicates polyclonal immunoglobulin production. If it is elevated in an asymmetric manner or ... Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies monoclonal antibodies (mAb), also migrate in this region and may be misinterpreted as a ... Note that immunoglobulins may be also be found in other zones; IgA typically migrates in the beta-gamma zone, and in particular ...
... s can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... Educational Resource on the Biology of Immunoglobulins. *Histology image: 21001loa - Histology Learning System at Boston ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ...
Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins that help neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. They ... The Immunoglobulin Products market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of Immunoglobulin ... Immunoglobulin Products Market report 2016-2020 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. Immunoglobulin ... Immunoglobulin Products market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Immunoglobulin Products manufacturers ...
Immunoglobulins Health aspects Nervous system diseases Care and treatment Pharmacological research Pharmacology, Experimental ... Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in chronic neurological diseases: do we have maintenance dose right?(Clinical Study, ... "Oligodendroglia are protected from antibody-mediated complement injury by normal immunoglobulins ("IVIg")," Journal of ... 1] N. Kondo, K. Kasahara, T. Kameyama et al., "Intravenous immunoglobulins suppress immunoglobulin productions by suppressing [ ...
CVID is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a low level of antibodies, making it difficult for the childs body to ... immunoglobulin therapy - intravenous (IV) infusions of immunoglobulin (antibodies) may be given to help increase the childs ... There is a decrease in the number of immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the affected person. Immunoglobulins are produced by the ... CVID is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a low level of antibodies, making it difficult for the childs body to ...
IgA antibodies blood test *T-cells blood test - should be normal rather than low. *Response to immunization - such as a tetanus ... Doctors diagnose IgA deficiency by doing tests to measure the amount of total immunoglobulin in the blood as well as the type ... In contrast, their levels of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins usually are normal. IgA-deficient people also have normal levels of ... of immunoglobulin known as IgG2. Other tests determine how well a person is producing antibodies against specific germs ...
These include immunoglobulin, which are antibodies that can neutralize toxins and microbes in the lymph and circulatory systems ... Bovine colostrum from pasture-fed cows contain immunoglobulins specific to many human pathogens. Before the development of ... Albert Sabin made the first oral vaccine against polio, from the immunoglobulin taken from bovine colostrum. ...
Due to diversity in microbes, the antibody needs to adopt variations to allow their interactions with many different antigens. ... coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of antibodies. ... Antibody Immunoglobulin Diversity. News-Medical. 22 May 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibody-Immunoglobulin- ... Antibody Immunoglobulin Diversity. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibody-Immunoglobulin-Diversity.aspx. ( ...
They produce the immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR), a homodimeric heavy chain-only antibody, as a major part of their ... The structural analysis of shark IgNAR antibodies reveals evolutionary principles of immunoglobulins. Matthias J. Feige, ... The structural analysis of shark IgNAR antibodies reveals evolutionary principles of immunoglobulins ... including antibodies. In this article, we present structural insights into one of the most ancient antibodies, shedding light ...
Contains the pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoglobulins from the plasma of approximately a thousand or more blood donors. ... Monoclonal antibodies. Class Summary. Found to be effective for OCP in uncontrolled small studies. ... The role of antibody to human beta4 integrin in conjunctival basement membrane separation: possible in vitro model for ocular ... Chimeric IgG1k monoclonal antibody that neutralizes cytokine TNF-alpha and inhibits its binding to TNF-alpha receptor. Reduces ...
Anti-PHF21B antibody produced in mouse purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution; Synonym: BHC80L, FLJ34161, PHF4; ... Antibody Basics Immunoglobulins (Igs) are produced by B lymphocytes and secreted into plasma. The Ig molecule in monomeric form ... Antibody Explorer , Buy Primary Antibodies & Secondary Antibodies Primary, Secondary and Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies ... Anti-PHF21B antibody produced in mouse purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution Synonym: BHC80L, FLJ34161, PHF4 ...
THE EFFECTIVE GUIDE TO :Antibody Structure and Classes of Immunoglobulins ... Antibody Structure and Classes of Immunoglobulins - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt ... Antibody Structure and Classes of. Immunoglobulins. Structure of Immunoglobulins. Antibody (or immunoglobulin) molecules are ... Antibody Structure and Classes of Immunoglobulins. Uploaded by. sajjad. THE EFFECTIVE GUIDE TO :Antibody Structure and Classes ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations are being investigated as a potential agent for treatment or prevention of ... Concentrations of antibodies against β-amyloid 40/42 monomer and oligomers in Chinese intravenous immunoglobulins.. [Shengliang ... the anti-Aβ42 oligomer antibody levels in almost all IVIg preparations were higher than the anti-Aβ42 monomer antibody, and the ... The median values of the four antibody concentrations in Chinese IVIg preparations were 16.53, 8.47, 24.36 and 33.25μg/mL, ...
Immunoglobulin Fc heterodimers have been engineered through modifications to the CH3 domain interface, with different mutations ... Immunoglobulin Fc heterodimers have been engineered through modifications to the CH3 domain interface, with different mutations ... These have many of the favorable properties of natural IgG antibodies, such as high stability, long serum half-life, low ... These have many of the favorable properties of natural IgG antibodies, such as high stability, long serum half-life, low ...
Monoclonal antibodies to salmonid immunoglobulin:characterization and applicability in immunoassays. THUVANDER A. ... Physical properties of immunoglobulins of lower species:A comparison with immunoglobulins of mammals LITMAN G. W. ... Development and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against seabass immunoglobulins Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus. ... Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to leukocytes and serum immunoglobulin in Japanese flounder ...
The effect of therapy with immunoglobulins at replacement dosage for non-infectious co-morbidities (autoimmunity, lymphocytic ... Effectiveness of immunoglobulin replacement therapy on clinical outcome in patients with primary antibody deficiencies: results ... A unique general protective trough IgG level in antibody deficiency patients will remain undefined because of the major role ... the effects of long-term immunoglobulin treatment and the IgG trough level to be maintained over time required to minimise ...
Recognizes a protein of 75 kDa, identified as mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It does not cross-react with alpha (IgA ... Primary & Secondary Antibody Conjugates. Primary Antibodies , Secondary Antibodies Search with Antibody Finder ... Catalog number key for antibody number 0260, Anti-Human IgM Immunoglobulin (IM260) Antibody # prefix. Conjugation. Ex/Em. ... Secondary Antibodies, Anti-Tag Antibodies, & Streptavidin Conjugates. Antibody & Protein Labeling Kits. Apoptosis & Viability ...
Patterns of cross-reactivity between the immunoglobulins of 11 species of Xenopus and three subspecies of Xenopus laevis were ... Monoclonal antibodies raised against Xenopus Ig recognize antigenic determinants on IgM and low mol. wt Ig (LMW Ig or IgY ). On ... Oral immunization of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) upregulates the mucosal immunoglobulin IgX.. *Christina C. Du, ... Studies on Xenopus immunoglobulins using monoclonal antibodies.. @article{Hsu1984StudiesOX, title={Studies on Xenopus ...
2 globulins as compared to a human myeloma IgG1 protein and other IgG markers had a typical behavior of 7S IgG immunoglobulins ... Oliveira B.; Marangoni S.; Araujo A.L.; Soares M.A., 1985: Evidence of immunoglobulin g 1 and immunoglobulin g 2 antibodies in ... Evidence of immunoglobulin g 1 and immunoglobulin g 2 antibodies in capivara hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. ... Apparently, there is a fast 7S IgG1 and a slow 7S IgG2 immunoglobulin system in capivara immune serum. (PDF 0-2 workdays ...
This immunoglobulin is usually a chemically homogeneous product secreted by a clone of neoplastic lymphocytes or plasma cells. ... Analysis of Biclonal Immunoglobulins and Their Contributions to Understanding the Developmental Aspects of the Antibody ... Analysis of Biclonal Immunoglobulins and Their Contributions to Understanding the Developmental Aspects of the Antibody ... Multiple Myeloma Plasma Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Antibody Response Protein Pair These keywords were added by machine ...
IgG istopying.Antibody subclasses IgG1, -2, -3, and -4 were quantified using the Milliplex map immunoglobulin isoptying kit ( ... Red fluorescent antibody-coated beads from each subject were mixed with green fluorescent antibody-coated beads from each of ... Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS 23:897- ... Enhanced Phagocytic Activity of HIV-Specific Antibodies Correlates with Natural Production of Immunoglobulins with Skewed ...
Anti-metatype antibodies are immunoglobulins specific for liganded antibody active sites that, upon binding, delay dissociation ... Properties of immunoglobulin Fv domains: Influence of valence and protein dynamics on antibody/antigen interactions. Welcome to ... Properties of immunoglobulin Fv domains: Influence of valence and protein dynamics on antibody/antigen interactions. Mallender ... Properties of immunoglobulin Fv domains: Influence of valence and protein dynamics on antibody/antigen interactions. ...
Method of obtaining immunoglobulins from colostrum and their use in pharmaceutical composition. Jul. 14, 1998. ... Description: Subject matter involving an immunoglobulin or antibody fragment.. Patents under this class:. 1 2 ... Method for generating F(ab)2 antibody fragments. Sep. 14, 2010. 7582735. Feline immunoglobulin E molecules and related methods ... Antibodies and methods for making and using them. Jun. 18, 2013. 8323653. Humanized anti-CD19 antibodies and their use in ...
1981) The role of immunoglobulins in alternative pathway activation by zymosan. II. The effect of IgG on the kinetics of the ... Mannan-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Accelerate Binding of C3 to Candida albicans via the ... Mannan-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Accelerate Binding of C3 to Candida albicans via the ... Mannan-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Accelerate Binding of C3 to Candida albicans via the ...
Many of these N-less immunoglobulins belong to a set of immunoglobulins termed natural antibodies or NAbs. These NAbs are found ... Serum immunoglobulin levels and naturally occurring antibodies against carbohydrate antigens in germ-free BALB/c mice fed ... Within the antibody repertoire there exists a subset of immunoglobulins with absent or reduced N addition at the V-D and D-J ... Forced usage of positively charged amino acids in immunoglobulin CDR-H3 impairs B cell development and antibody production. J ...
Elevated immunoglobulin levels mean that the bodys immune system has produced antibodies in response to a threat, such as ... What are antibodies and antigens?. A: Produced by the bodys immune system, antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y- ... Elevated immunoglobulin levels mean that the bodys immune system has produced antibodies in response to a threat, such as ... The body produces antibodies specific to each type of foreign substance. The five major types of antibodies are IgA, IgG, IgM, ...
From the Structure of Antibodies to the Diversification of the Immune Response *Cesar Milstein ... Immunoglobulins: Non-allelic Nature of the Basic Sequences of Normal Immunoglobulin κ Chains. *C. MILSTEIN1. , ... MILSTEIN, C., MILSTEIN, C. & FEINSTEIN, A. Immunoglobulins: Non-allelic Nature of the Basic Sequences of Normal Immunoglobulin ... From the Structure of Antibodies to the Diversification of the Immune Response *CEESAR MILSTEIN ...
  • Several recent reports have highlighted the possible importance of antibody Fc effector functions in HIV acquisition and progression ( 3 , 5 , 8 - 12 ), offering what may be a tractable handle for protection mediated by vaccination. (asm.org)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations are being investigated as a potential agent for treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies towards soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) contained in IVIg were considered to be the major component contributing to the beneficial effect of the preparations in pilot studies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The median values of the four antibody concentrations in Chinese IVIg preparations were 16.53, 8.47, 24.36 and 33.25μg/mL, which were remarkably higher than that in Octagam(®) IVIg (1.66, 2.07, 4.61 and 4.64μg/mL). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, the anti-Aβ42 oligomer antibody levels in almost all IVIg preparations were higher than the anti-Aβ42 monomer antibody, and the concentrations of anti-Aβ42 antibodies in most of the IVIg preparations were significantly higher than that of anti-Aβ40 antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One possible new treatment for the flu involves the use of IVIG, a blood product containing antibodies from people who have recovered from the flu or who have had a flu shot. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition to informing the Flu-IVIG dosing required for the clinical outcomes trial, the pilot study will compare influenza antibody levels and safety for study participants randomly assigned Flu-IVIG and those assigned placebo, assess the feasibility of enrollment, evaluate randomization and blinding procedures, and possibly obtain some preliminary data on efficacy that may be used to inform sample size and study procedures for the clinical outcomes study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Even if the blood of infants with SCID contains B cells, the B cells cannot make antibodies without T cells. (allergy.org.au)
  • Sometimes, the body may even mistakenly make antibodies against itself, treating healthy organs and tissues like foreign invaders. (kidshealth.org)
  • Differences in heavy chain polypeptides allow these immunoglobulins to function in different types of immune responses and at particular stages of the immune response. (scribd.com)
  • Antibodies are potent determinants of the humoral immune response and can act not only by direct neutralization of the pathogen but also via engagement of the cytotoxic Fc receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells of the innate immune system-providing a functional link between the innate and adaptive immune systems ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Critically, as a potent mechanism of antibody-mediated effector function, phagocytosis of immune complexes, opsonized virus, and infected host cells represents an important connection between the adaptive and innate immune systems, with potential roles both in priming of the adaptive immune response and in clearance of virus. (asm.org)
  • It is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells (RBC) of the fetus are destroyed by maternal antibodies in an immune response targeted against the fetus. (medindia.net)
  • This antigen-specific property of the antibody is the basis of the antigen-antibody reaction that is essential to an immune response . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fortunately, the immune response of antibody and complement can be transferred passively from one individual to another, as for example the transfer of maternal antibody across the placental barrier to the fetus, who has not yet developed a mature immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IgG antibodies are generated following class switching and maturation of the antibody response and thus participate predominantly in the secondary immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on their ability to enforce heterodimerization between the two different HCs, the established Fc heterodimers have been extensively exploited as a scaffold to generate bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) in full-length IgG and IgG-like formats. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this article, we present structural insights into one of the most ancient antibodies, shedding light on the molecular evolution of the immune system and the structural features of heavy chain-only antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • IgM is the first immunoglobulin class to be synthesized by the neonate and plays a role in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. (scribd.com)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used for a number of other conditions, including in many autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis in an attempt to decrease the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used in some treatment protocols for secondary immunodeficiencies such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease ), some neurological diseases ( multifocal motor neuropathy , stiff person syndrome , multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis ) some acute infections and some complications of organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is especially useful in some acute infection cases such as pediatric HIV infection and is also considered the standard of treatment for some autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • 164855 - This lab test is a direct measure in the serum of the blood for the presence of Antinuclear Antibodies - sometimes called ANA, and it is often used as test for autoimmune conditions. (mcssl.com)
  • Immunoglobulin levels are also used as part of an evaluation for autoimmune conditions such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis , lupus , and celiac disease . (kidshealth.org)
  • These have many of the favorable properties of natural IgG antibodies, such as high stability, long serum half-life, low immunogenicity, and immune effector functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • While significant research has focused on the cytolytic properties of antibodies in acquisition and control, less is known about the role of additional effector functions. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we investigated antibody-dependent phagocytosis of HIV immune complexes, and we observed significant differences in the ability of antibodies from infected subjects to mediate this critical effector function. (asm.org)
  • The innate immune effector function of an antibody is determined by its constant, or Fc, domain, which has evolved to possess a large number of states with regard to potency. (asm.org)
  • Stem cells are obtained from donated bone marrow or blood and are able to develop into all types of blood cells, including T cells and B cells, which produce antibodies. (allergy.org.au)
  • This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. (mdpi.com)
  • The United Kingdom's National Health Service recommends the routine use of immunoglobulin for a variety of conditions including primary immunodeficiencies and a number of other conditions, but recommends against the use of immunoglobulin in sepsis (unless a specific toxin has been identified), multiple sclerosis, neonatal sepsis, and pediatric HIV . (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed their own separate set of guidelines for the appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy, which strongly support the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies and some complications of HIV, while remaining silent on the issues of sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. (mdpi.com)
  • Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. (jove.com)
  • A 5-years multicenter prospective study on 201 patients with common variable immunodeficiencies and 101 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia over a cumulative follow-up period of 1,365 patient-years was conducted to identify prognostic markers and risk factors for associated clinical co-morbidities, the effects of long-term immunoglobulin treatment and the IgG trough level to be maintained over time required to minimise infection risk. (nih.gov)
  • Three to six months after completion of chemotherapy, patients who have achieved complete clinical remission or minimal disease status receive a series of 5 injections (given 1-2 months apart) of a vaccine consisting of 0.5 mg autologous tumor-derived immunoglobulin (Id) conjugated to KLH. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our previous studies found that antimannan immunoglobulin G (IgG) in normal human serum (NHS) allows C. albicans to initiate the classical pathway. (asm.org)
  • A naturally occurring antimannan immunoglobulin G (IgG) is required for activation of the classical pathway by C. albicans yeast cells incubated in normal human serum (NHS) ( 21 , 40 ). (asm.org)