A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Lymph node germinal centers form in the absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. (1/1752)

Follicular dendritic cell networks are said to be pivotal to both the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and their functions in generating antigen-specific antibody affinity maturation and B cell memory. We report that lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice form GC cell clusters in the gross anatomical location expected of GCs, despite the complete absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. Furthermore, antigen-specific GC generation was at first relatively normal, but these GCs then rapidly regressed and GC-phase antibody affinity maturation was reduced. Lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice also showed substantial B cell memory in their mesenteric lymph nodes. This memory antibody response was of relatively low affinity for antigen at week 4 after challenge, but by week 10 after challenge was comparable to wild-type, indicating that affinity maturation had failed in the GC phase but developed later.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (2/1752)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Eradication of established tumors by a fully human monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor without concomitant chemotherapy. (3/1752)

A fully human IgG2kappa monoclonal antibody (MAb), E7.6.3, specific to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) was generated from human antibody-producing XenoMouse strains engineered to be deficient in mouse antibody production and to contain the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire on megabase-sized fragments from the human heavy and kappa light chain loci. The E7.6.3 MAb exhibits high affinity (KD = 5 x 10(-11) M) to the receptor, blocks completely the binding of both EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a) to various EGFr-expressing human carcinoma cell lines, and abolishes EGF-dependent cell activation, including EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation, increased extracellular acidification rate, and cell proliferation. The antibody (0.2 mg i.p. twice a week for 3 weeks) prevents completely the formation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts in athymic mice. More importantly, the administration of E7.6.3 without concomitant chemotherapy results in complete eradication of established tumors as large as 1.2 cm3. Tumor eradication of A431 xenografts was achieved in nearly all of the mice treated with total E7.6.3 doses as low as 3 mg, administered over the course of 3 weeks, and a total dose of 0.6 mg led to tumor elimination in 65% of the mice. No tumor recurrence was observed for more than 8 months after the last antibody injection, which further indicated complete tumor cell elimination by the antibody. The potency of E7.6.3 in eradicating well-established tumors without concomitant chemotherapy indicates its potential as a monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple EGFr-expressing human solid tumors, including those for which no effective chemotherapy is available. Being a fully human antibody, E7.6.3 is expected to exhibit minimal immunogenicity and a longer half-life as compared with mouse or mouse-derivatized MAbs, thus allowing repeated antibody administration, including in immunocompetent patients. These results suggest E7.6.3 as a good candidate for assessing the full therapeutic potential of anti-EGFr antibody in the therapy of multiple patient populations with EGFr-expressing solid tumors.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (4/1752)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (5/1752)

IFN-gamma can either adversely or beneficially affect certain experimental autoimmune diseases. To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA. IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited significantly lower incidence and severity of muscle weakness, lower anti-AChR IgG Ab levels, and lower Ab affinity to AChR compared with wild-type mice. Passive transfer of serum from IFN-gammaR-/- mice induced less muscular weakness compared with serum from wild-type mice. In contrast, numbers of lymph node cells secreting IFN-gamma and of those expressing IFN-gamma mRNA were strongly augmented in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, reflecting a failure of negative feedback circuits. Cytokine studies by in situ hybridization revealed lower levels of lymphoid cells expressing AChR-reactive IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in AChR + CFA-immunized IFN-gammaR-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences were found for AChR-reactive cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta mRNA. These results indicate that IFN-gamma promotes systemic humoral responses in EAMG by up-regulating the production and the affinity of anti-AChR autoantibodies, thereby contributing to susceptibility to EAMG in C57BL/6-type mice.  (+info)

Reconciling repertoire shift with affinity maturation: the role of deleterious mutations. (6/1752)

The shift in Ab repertoire, from Abs dominating certain primary B cell responses to genetically unrelated Abs dominating subsequent "memory" responses, challenges the accepted paradigm of affinity maturation. We used mathematical modeling and computer simulations of the dynamics of B cell responses, hypermutation, selection, and memory cell formation to test hypotheses attempting to explain repertoire shift. We show that repertoire shift can be explained within the framework of the affinity maturation paradigm, only when we recognize the destructive nature of hypermutation: B cells with a high initial affinity for the Ag are less likely to improve through random mutations.  (+info)

Production of high affinity autoantibodies in autoimmune New Zealand Black/New Zealand white F1 mice targeted with an anti-DNA heavy chain. (7/1752)

Lupus-prone, anti-DNA, heavy (H) chain "knock-in" mice were obtained by backcrossing C57BL/6 mice, targeted with a rearranged H chain from a VH11(S107)-encoded anti-DNA hybridoma (D42), onto the autoimmune genetic background of New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) F1 mice. The targeted female mice developed typical lupus serologic manifestations, with the appearance of transgenic IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies at a young age (2-3 mo) and high affinity, somatically mutated IgM and IgG anti-DNA Abs at a later age (6-7 mo). However, they did not develop clinical, lupus-associated glomerulonephritis and survived to at least 18 mo of age. L chain analysis of transgenic anti-DNA Abs derived from diseased NZB/NZW mouse hybridomas showed a very restricted repertoire of Vkappa utilization, different from that of nonautoimmune (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 transgenic anti-DNA Abs. Strikingly, a single L chain was repetitively selected by most anti-DNA, transgenic NZB/NZW B cells to pair with the targeted H chain. This L chain had the same Vkappa-Jkappa rearrangement as that expressed by the original anti-DNA D42 hybridoma. These findings indicate that the kinetics of the autoimmune serologic manifestations are similar in wild-type and transgenic lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 mice and suggest that the breakdown of immunologic tolerance in these mice is associated with the preferential expansion and activation of B cell clones expressing high affinity anti-DNA H/L receptor combinations.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (8/1752)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Author Summary Antibody affinity maturation is a key aspect of an effective immune response to vaccines, likely to have an impact on clinical outcome following exposure to pathogens. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in B cells is a key enzyme involved in antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation, required for antibody affinity maturation. This human study demonstrated for the first time that induction of AID following H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccination directly correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against the hemagglutinin globular domain (HA1), containing most of the protective targets. Importantly, age differences were found. In younger adults, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with higher initial levels of AID and |2-fold-increase in AID after vaccination. With increased age, a drop in AID activity post-vaccination correlated with lower affinity maturation of the polyclonal antibody responses against the pandemic
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
In hybridoma screening, quantitative kinetic evaluation is difficult since the concentration of each antibody in the hybridoma supernatant is unknown. From modeling calculations, we hypothesized that the ratio of two different antigen-antibody concentrations might allow discrimination of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies irrespective of the antibody concentration. Using anti-alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibodies of known affinity, we set the signal ratio of a time-resolved assay at |0.1, in which the antigen concentrations were 10 and 100 ng/mL. From anti-alpha-fetoprotein hybridoma screening with this assay, it was possible to effectively select high-affinity monoclonal antibodies with KD values below 1x10(-8) M. High-sensitivity sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which detects domain III of alpha-fetoprotein has been established using selected high-affinity monoclonal antibodies. This screening method is useful for selection of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies of potential diagnostic
Apobec3/Rfv3 is an innate immune factor that promotes the neutralizing Ab response against Friend retrovirus (FV) in infected mice. Based on its evolutionary relationship to activation-induced deaminase, Apobec3 might directly influence Ab class switching and affinity maturation independently of viral infection. Alternatively, the antiviral activity of Apobec3 may indirectly influence neutralizing Ab responses by reducing early FV-induced pathology in critical immune compartments. To distinguish between these possibilities, we immunized wild-type and Apobec3-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) hapten and evaluated the binding affinity of the resultant NP-specific Abs. These studies revealed similar affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG1 Abs between wild-type and Apobec3-deficient mice in the absence of FV infection. In contrast, hapten-specific Ab affinity maturation was significantly compromised in Apobec3-deficient mice infected with FV. In highly ...
Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2, and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity.
In titrating serum immunoglobulin G antibody to viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we used two rows of wells for serial twofold dilutions of the serum; in one row, a low concentration of a protein denaturant, 0.5 or 1.0 M guanidine hydrochloride, was added to the diluent so that the binding of low-avidity antibodies to viral antigens on the solid phase was inhibited. We then compared the antibody titration curves obtained in the two rows. We found that the addition of the reagent resulted in a parallel leftward shift of the curves and that the extent of the shift was greater in early than in late sera from all of the three infections studied (Japanese encephalitis virus, rotavirus, and rubella virus infections). This procedure may be useful for estimation of the avidity of antibody in serum and, with further evaluation, may prove to be applicable to single-serum diagnosis of virus infections. ...
The Endowed Professorship of Immunotechnology develops an in vitro hybridoma cell antibody affinity maturation system to modulate antibody affinities with regard to the final application.
People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was
PeproTechs polyclonal antibodies are antigen affinity purified from antiserum using antibody-antigen specificity yielding |95% pure specific polyclonal antibodies
SUMMARY: During antibody affinity maturation, germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between affinity-driven selection in the light zone (LZ) and proliferation and somatic hypermutation in the dark zone (DZ). Although selection of GC B cells is triggered by antigen-dependent signals delivered in the LZ, DZ proliferation occurs in the absence of such signals. We show that positive selection triggered by T cell help activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes the anabolic program that supports DZ proliferation. Blocking mTORC1 prior to growth prevented clonal expansion, whereas blockade after cells reached peak size had little to no effect. Conversely, constitutively active mTORC1 led to DZ enrichment but loss of competitiveness and impaired affinity maturation. Thus, mTORC1 activation is required for fueling B cells prior to DZ proliferation rather than for allowing cell-cycle progression itself and must be regulated dynamically during cyclic
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells[5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (TFH cells).[6] On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication.[7] A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switching and is associated with hyper IgM syndrome.[8] Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an important process in the adaptive immune system. ...
Generate high-affinity, high-specificity antibodies with GenScript using GANP transgenic mice,easily incorporated into any immunization protocol.
Definition of Affinity maturation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Affinity maturation? Meaning of Affinity maturation as a legal term. What does Affinity maturation mean in law?
This is the first study focusing on the kinetics of the avidity and levels in serum of anti-M. tuberculosis IgG antibodies in patients with pulmonary TB and undergoing treatment.. In our study, both the levels in serum and the avidity of these antibodies were significantly higher in untreated pulmonary TB patients than in patients with other pulmonary diseases. However, no relationship was found between the levels of circulating antibodies against M. tuberculosis and the avidity of the antibodies. This result is in agreement with the observations of Pullen and colleagues for patients with rubella infection, suggesting that antibody affinity is controlled by mechanisms independent of those regulating antibody levels (15).. For our Vietnamese study group, avidity determination had more diagnostic potential than measurement of serum levels alone. Especially in the desired specificity range of 90 to 100%, sensitivity could be improved to 45 to 68% by combining antibody levels and antibody avidity ...
Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.. ...
Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. - antibodies
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibodys antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions, and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of anti-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 via placental transfer and the transfer of IgA via the colostrum according to maternal Sa carrier status at delivery. METHODS: We evaluated anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in maternal and cord sera and IgA in colostrum from a case (n=49, Sa+) and a control group (n=98, Sa-). RESULTS: Of the 250 parturients analyzed for this study, 49 were nasally colonized with S. aureus (prevalence of 19.6%). Ninety-eight non-colonized subjects were selected for the control group. The anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels and the IgG avidity indexes in the maternal and cord sera did not differ between the groups, with a low transfer ratio of anti-Sa IgG to the newborns in both groups. The anti-Sa IgG2 titers were significantly higher than the IgG1 titers in the maternal and cord sera. Inversely, the transfer ratios were higher for anti-Sa IgG1 compared with IgG2; however, no differences between the groups were detected. The ...
Ibison F, Olotu A, Muema DM, Mwacharo J, Ohuma E, Kimani D, Marsh K, Bejon P and Ndungu FM. Lack of Avidity Maturation of Merozoite Antigen-Specific Antibodies with Increasing Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Amongst Children and Adults Exposed to Endemic Malaria in Kenya. PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052939. Epub 2012 Dec 26 (MVVC)
Anti- antibody,Rabbit PAb. Applications for , fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Anti- antibody,Rabbit PAb. Applications for , fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
The crystal structure of the Fab complexed to antigen reveals a number of water molecules that are fixed in the binding area. Many of these water molecules form hydrogen bond bridges between antigen and antibody, contributing to the strength of binding. There is no evidence for the exclusion of water from the antibody/antigen complex. The affinity for binding can be expressed by the equation describing free energy in a system: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS, where G = free energy or energy available for work, H = total energy in a system (enthalpy), T = absolute temperature (in Kelvin) and S = entropy. Which of the following statements are correct concerning the generation of a negative ΔG (indicating a spontaneous reaction) for high affinity antibody/antigen binding? ...
T cell responses are initiated by antigen and promoted by a range of costimulatory signals. Understanding how T cells integrate alternative signal combinations and make decisions affecting immune response strength or tolerance poses a considerable theoretical challenge. Here, we report that T cell r …
Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
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Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
The FASER Kits an be used to amplify weak fluorescence intensity resulting from staining of low-expressed antigens, the use of low-affinity antibodies, or immunomagnetic and fluorochrome-conjugated antibody labeling of cells via the same epitope. Furthermore, increasing the fluorescence intensity simplifies the flow cytometric discrimination of labeled and non-labeled cell fractions. The FASER Kits can also be used in combination with Anti-FITC, Anti-PE or Anti-APC MicroBeads for the enhancement of weak magnetic labeling. - Deutschland
People with HIV infections experience a wide range of abnormalities in their immune systems, and one of the most recently discovered abnormalities includes affinity maturation defects within the memory B cells.
50 µg antigen affinity purified mouse monoclonal antibody. Reacts with Human, Mouse, Zebrafish. Tested in Western blotting, ChIP and IP.
10 g/mL; median fold rise 439, range 0.9C9,200), obtained at a median of 31 days (range 26C64). The GMC was 153.1 g/mL (113.5C207.0, n = SAHA 50) for those who had received all primary 3 doses as DTwP-Hib; 179.1 g/mL (139.6C229.6, n = 38) for those who received 2 doses of DTwP-Hib and 1 dose of DTaP-Hib; 147.6 g/mL (87.1C249.5, n = 27) for those who received 1 dose DTwP-Hib and 2 doses DTaP-Hib; and 134.0 g/mL (96.4C186.2, n = 42) for those who received all 3 doses as DTaP-Hib. None of the variables included in the model SAHA was associated with postbooster anti-PRP antibody concentration. Anti-PRP Avidity No significant differences in geometric mean avidity index were found before and after receiving the Hib booster vaccine (data not shown). A significant inverse trend to lower postbooster avidity levels was evident according to the number of doses of DTaP-Hib received ( ...
Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs) through iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection. Selection involves B cells competing for T cell help based on the amount of antigen they capture and present on their MHC class II (MHCII) proteins. How GC B cells are able to rapidly and repeatedly transition between mutating their B cell receptor genes and then being selected shortly after is not known. We report that MHCII surface levels and degradation are dynamically regulated in GC B cells. Through ectopic expression of a photoconvertible MHCII-mKikGR chimeric gene, we found that individual GC B cells differed in the rates of MHCII protein turnover. Fluctuations in surface MHCII levels were dependent on ubiquitination and the E3 ligase March1. Increases in March1 expression in centroblasts correlated with decreases in surface MHCII levels, whereas CD83 expression in centrocytes helped to stabilize MHCII at that stage. Defects in MHCII ubiquitination caused GC B cells to
The maturation of antibody affinity during the immune response, discovered as a serological phenomenon in 1964, is critical to the development of high affinity humoral immunity. This process takes place in germinal centers (GCs), which are microanatomical structures composed of antigen-specific B lymphocytes that form in secondary lymphoid organs upon infection or immunization. High affinity B cells are selectively expanded in the GC by iterative rounds of migration between a zone of hypermutation and proliferation (the dark zone, or DZ) and a zone of selection (the light zone, or LZ). The mechanism whereby somatic antibody mutants are selected on the basis of affinity has been elusive. In the first part of this thesis, I demonstrate that affinity-based selection in the GC operates through regulation of proliferation and hypermutation. B cells with affinity-enhancing mutations capture more antigen through their BCRs for presentation as peptide-MHCII to CD4+ T cells. In turn, enhanced T cell help
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Trevigen \ PAR Monoclonal Antibody Affinity Purified \ 4335-AMC-050 for more molecular products just contact us
Monoclonal antibodies directed toward human PRL (hPRL) have been produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells (Sp2/0-Ag 14) with spleen cells from mice immunized with hPRL. Total immunizing doses of 20 microgram and 64 microgram hPRL resulted in the production of three highly specific hPRL antibodies. The high affinity antibody, with a Ka value of 0.23 X 10(10) M-1, was used to establish a RIA highly suitable for the measurement of hPRL levels in human serum. The correlation of serum hPRL levels measured using the antibody and those in a conventional rabbit anti-hPRL assay was 0.99 (y = 1.16 - 7.2). These results demonstrate that using the mouse hybridoma technique, it is possible to produce high affinity monospecific monoclonal antibody suitable for the measurement of hPRL in human serum.
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Tetrameric MHC/peptide complexes are important tools for enumerating, phenotyping, and rapidly cloning Ag-specific T cells. It remains however unclear whether they can reliably distinguish between high and low avidity T cell clones. In this report, tetramers with mutated CD8 binding site selectively stain higher avidity human and murine CTL capable of recognizing physiological levels of Ag. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8 binding significantly enhances the avidity as well as the stability of interactions between CTL and cognate tetramers. The use of CD8-null tetramers to identify high avidity CTL provides a tool to compare vaccination strategies for their ability to enhance the frequency of high avidity CTL. Using this technique, we show that DNA priming and vaccinia boosting of HHD A2 transgenic mice fail to selectively expand large numbers of high avidity NY-ESO-1(157-165)-specific CTL, possibly due to the large amounts of antigenic peptide delivered by the vaccinia virus. Furthermore,
The chicken is an ideal choice as a non-mammalian host species when using mammalian or human protein antigens. Since chickens are not mammals they generally produce high avidity antibodies to mammalian antigens, especially those that are highly
In article ,7tnpfo$cji$1 at oceanite.cybercable.fr,, Pierre ,URL:mailto:sonigo at cochin.inserm.fr, wrote: , , Interesting point. , Your hypothesis requires that individuals with high affinity antibodies to , blood group molecules had a selective advantage. Some antibodies protect , against the rhesus incompatibility problem during pregnacy. Is it what you , suggest ? , , , No I was not referring to RhD. This is an example of a T-dependent protein antigen. I was referring mainly to anti-carbohydrate responses such as for example the blood groups A and B. Virtually everyone has the capacity to make these same antibodies using similar inherited sets of V-genes. However the auto reactive antibodies which would bind to your own blood group are not selected leaving you with humoral immunity to the other blood groups. The commonly accepted dogma is that these antibodies are cross reactive on bacterial carbohydrates and hence protect us from infection ie they are not actually generated by immunisation ...
The mounting of somatically mutated high affinity antibody responses is important in protection against a range of pathogens and underlies the success of most v...
The association between affinity and disulfide polymerization within Abs from individual antisera (Fig. 3) correlated with the observed increase in PIs during affinity maturation (Fig. 2). This relationship has profound implications. The classical model of affinity maturation (26) envisions an elegantly simple process wherein a sufficiently large initial bolus of Ag can engage a wide range of BCR affinities. As the concentration of Ag diminishes, only the highest affinity B cells can bind sufficient Ag to elicit Abs. Thus, over time the average affinity of serum Abs increases. This process can be accentuated by the later development of somatic mutations, which offer an additional, de novo, repertoire of specificities, including those of even greater affinity (27). Our findings demonstrate that a significant driving force, beyond affinity maturation, results in a higher average Ab affinity in trout-that is, via the provision of an increased half-life to high-affinity Abs (Fig. 5). This increase ...
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. We hypothesize that consistent bnAb elicitation will require germline-targeting priming immunogens, to activate bnAb precursor B cells, and structure-guided, or reductionist, boosting immunogens, to shepherd antibody maturation toward bnAb development. To test this hypothesis, we have focused our initial immunogen design work on VRC01- and PGT121-class bnAbs, but we are addressing other bnAb classes as well, because an effective vaccine will likely need to induce multiple bnAbs of complementary specificities. Our efforts to design, evaluate and optimize the immunogens and immunization regimens are iterative, collaborative and multi-disciplinary. Overall, the work in progress represents an attempt to introduce a new way to design vaccines.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphocyte subpopulations in the neonate. T2 - High percentage of ANAE+ cells with low avidity for sheep erythrocytes. AU - Porta, F. A.. AU - Maccario, R.. AU - Ferrari, F. A.. AU - Alberini, C. M.. AU - Montagna, D.. AU - De Amici, M.. AU - Giannetti, A.. AU - Ugazio, A. G.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022000909&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022000909&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3877355. AN - SCOPUS:0022000909. VL - 7. SP - 263. EP - 269. JO - Thymus. JF - Thymus. SN - 0165-6090. IS - 5. ER - ...
From the host immune perspective, the generation of genomic diversity is used as both a defensive and an offensive weapon. Host mutator enzymes such as Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) seed diversity in the adaptive immune system by introducing targeted mutations into the immunoglobulin locus that result in antibody maturation. Related deaminases of the innate immune system can directly attack retroviral threats by garbling the pathogen genome through mutation, as accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC3G, which restricts infection with HIV. Immune mutator enzymes, however, also pose a risk to the host, as overexpression or dysregulation have been associated with oncogenesis ...
Goat anti-horse IgG recognizes horse IgG whole molecule. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. The antibody is conjugated with Peroxidase. Horse IgG whole molecule (PAB10645) - Products - Abnova
Sandwich ELISA: In a sandwich ELISA (assuming 100μl/well), a concentration of 5.0-6.0 μg/ml of this antibody will detect at least 1000pg/ml of Recombinant Human BAFF when used with PeproTechs Biotinylated Antigen Affinity Purified anti-Human BAFF (500-P163GBT) as the detection antibody at a concentration of approximately 0.25-0.50 μg/ml. ...
Abnova has extensive experience in generating high quality antisera to a wide variety of antigens (peptides, phospho-peptides, proteins, and cDNAs). Using a low dose immunization technique in combination with a proprietary adjuvant, we are able to generate a high-titer, high-affinity antibody response against the immunogen in mice, rats, and rabbits.,Mouse and Rabbit Pab - Ab Production - Services - Abnova
The CD5(+) B cell population is prominent in early life and produce low avidity and, thereby, polyreactive antibodies. CD5(+) B cells are receptive to cytokines and interleukin-10 seems to be influential in the regulation of some of these CD5(+) B ce
The in vitro affinity maturation has successfully been used to optimize antibodies, antibody fragments or other peptide ... A secondary response can elicit antibodies with several fold greater affinity than in a primary response. Affinity maturation ... affinity maturation is the process by which TFH cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen ... The mutations alter the binding specificity and binding affinities of the resultant antibodies. Clonal selection: B cells that ...
Affinity maturation typically leads to highly specific interactions, whereas naive antibodies are promiscuous and bind a larger ... This is the main reason for the frequently found positive correlation of binding affinity and binding specificity. Antibodies ... k d {\displaystyle k_{d}} is used as a measure of affinity, with higher values indicating a lower affinity. For the given ... "Local and Global Rigidification Upon Antibody Affinity Maturation". Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 7: 182. doi:10.3389/ ...
... antibodies that all have affinity for the same antigen; antibodies that are specific to one antigen or one epitope; or ... Monospecific antibodies are antibodies whose specificity to antigens is singular (mono- + specific) in any of several ways: ... Monoclonal antibodies are monospecific, but monospecific antibodies may also be produced by other means than producing them ... They are inserted into an animal, e.g. rabbit, which produces antibodies against the fragment. These antibodies are ...
Affinity Chromatography (PDF). Vol. 1: Antibodies (AF ed.). GE Healthcare. 2016. p. 48. "A Pathogen's Swiss Army Knife". Small ... Protein A can bind with strong affinity to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin of certain species as shown in the below table. In ... Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins". FEBS Letters. 28 (1 ... To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible ...
Low-affinity CA also occurs in many healthy individuals; these nonpathogenic CA are polyclonal, have low thermal amplitude, and ... Cold sensitive antibodies (CSA) are antibodies sensitive to cold temperature. Some cold sensitive antibodies are pathological ... In cryoglobulinemia, antibodies accumulate and block blood vessels. In cold agglutinin disease, antibodies (different from ... Yet, the place where the hemolysis taking place differentiates between D-L antibodies and cold agglutinin. D-L antibodies ...
"Somatic hypermutation maintains antibody thermodynamic stability during affinity maturation". Proceedings of the National ... Somatic hypermutation maintains antibody thermodynamic stability during affinity maturation". Proceedings of the National ... One of his papers in 2013 PNAS about making more stable antibodies was retracted, due to suspect data from co-author Shiladitya ... Although their catalytic activities are only rarely strong enough to be of practical use, catalytic antibodies have provided ...
The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation ... antibody Neutralizing antibody Optimer Ligand Secondary antibodies Single-domain antibody Slope spectroscopy Synthetic antibody ... This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody's antigen-binding affinity. Some point ... Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for ...
It is often used to prepare antibody affinity columns. The appropriate antibody is first incubated with Protein A or Protein G- ...
In the medical field of immunology, nanoCLAMP (CLostridal Antibody Mimetic Proteins) affinity reagents are recombinant 15 kD ... Burgess RR, Watson JD (June 2017). "Gentle antibody-mimetic affinity chromatography with polyol-responsive nanoCLAMPs". Protein ... conferring binding affinity and specificity for the target. nanoCLAMPs are the first antibody mimetics described to be polyol- ... Suderman RJ, Rice DA, Gibson SD, Strick EJ, Chao DM (Apr 17, 2017). "Development of polyol-responsive antibody mimetics for ...
Zhang YF, Phung Y, Gao W, Kawa S, Hassan R, Pastan I, Ho M (May 2015). "New high affinity monoclonal antibodies recognize non- ... including the C terminus recognized by the YP218 antibody. The rabbit antibodies have been humanized by antibody engineering ... Ho M, Feng M, Fisher RJ, Rader C, Pastan I (May 2011). "A novel high-affinity human monoclonal antibody to mesothelin". ... Human monoclonal antibodies HN1 and SD1 targeting mesothelin have been isolated by phage display. Mitchell Ho and Ira Pastan at ...
Cerutti ML, Centeno JM, Goldbaum FA, de Prat-Gay G (2001). "Generation of Sequence-specific, High Affinity Anti-DNA Antibodies ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies can be present in normal individuals, however these antibodies are usually low avidity IgM isotype. In ... Serum is incubated with the beads and in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies, or any other ANA, the antibodies will bind and ...
Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, binding only to the same epitope (the part of an antigen that is recognized ... Ho M, Feng M, Fisher RJ, Rader C, Pastan I (May 2011). "A novel high-affinity human monoclonal antibody to mesothelin". ... A much quicker, single-step method of separation is protein A/G affinity chromatography. The antibody selectively binds to ... A monoclonal antibody (mAb, more rarely called moAb) is an antibody produced from a cell line made by cloning a unique white ...
"Directed evolution of high-affinity antibody mimics using mRNA display". Chem. Biol. 9 (8): 933-42. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(02) ... In contrast, most antibodies and antibody fragments depend on disulfide bonds formation and they must be produced under an ... Monobodies belong to the class of molecules collectively called antibody mimics (or antibody mimetics) and alternative ... fifteen times smaller than an IgG type antibody and comparable to the size of a single variable domain of an antibody. They are ...
To overcome this challenge, Bruce Tidor and coworkers developed a method to improve the affinity of antibodies by focusing on ... Lippow, SM; Wittrup, KD; Tidor, B (October 2007). "Computational design of antibody-affinity improvement beyond in vivo ... RSC3 was later used to discover the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in the serum of a long-term HIV-infected non-progressor ... They found that, for the antibodies designed in the study, reducing the desolvation costs of the residues in the interface ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.: 275-50 Many ligand ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known markers, it becomes much simpler to ... These proteins must have a high binding affinity when their ligand is present in high concentrations, but must also release the ...
Hawkins RE, Russell SJ, Winter G (August 1992). "Selection of phage antibodies by binding affinity. Mimicking affinity ... for biotechnological use at high temperatures or in harsh solvents Improving binding affinity of therapeutic antibodies ( ... Affinity maturation) and the activity of de novo designed enzymes Altering substrate specificity of existing enzymes, (often ...
Anti-digoxigenin antibodies with high affinities and specificity are used in a variety of biological immuno-assays (e.g. ELISA ... Tetin SY, Matayoshi ED (August 2002). "Measuring antibody affinity and performing immunoassay at the single molecule level". ... Kd of the digoxigenin-antibody interaction has been estimated at ~12 nM (compare to Kd~0.1pM for the biotin-streptavidin ... doi:10.1016/S0003-2697(02)00011-8. Duan X. "Quantification of the affinities and kinetics of protein interactions using silicon ...
Holborow, E. J.; Weir, D. M.; Johnson, G. D. (28 September 1957). "A Serum Factor in Lupus Erythematosus with Affinity for ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... antibodies to human antigens are produced. There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, ...
1996). "Human antibodies with sub-nanomolar affinities isolated from a large non-immunized phage display library". Nature ... Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology Partners With Immunex Corporation to Develop Novel Human Monoclonal Antibodies. - PR Newswire , ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology and AMRAD to develop antibody therapeutics. , Europe - Western Europe from". AllBusiness.com. ...
Parmley, Stephen F.; Smith, George P. (1988). "Antibody-selectable filamentous fd phage vectors: affinity purification of ... The reverse of this approach is to insert DNA coding for antibodies into gene 3 and detect their presence by appropriate ... Winter, Greg; Griffiths, Andrew D.; Hawkins, Robert E.; Hoogenboom, Hennie R. (1994). "Making Antibodies by Phage Display ... Phage carrying the foreign peptide can then be detected using appropriate antibodies. ...
In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... the recognition of different but related antigens by a single antibody. Antigen and antibody interact through a high affinity ... The lower the dissociation constant, the higher the avidity or affinity, and the stronger the interaction. Normally antibodies ...
This happens if the virus is bound to a low-affinity antibody. There are several possibilities to explain the phenomenon of ... They also suggested that the presence of neutralizing antibody or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies ... When an antibody to a virus is unable to neutralize the virus, it forms sub-neutralizing virus-antibody complexes. Upon ... ADE is mainly mediated by IgG antibodies, but IgM and IgA antibodies have also been shown to trigger it. Prior to the pandemic ...
"High throughput solution-based measurement of antibody-antigen affinity and epitope binning". mAbs. 5 (2): 270-278. doi:10.4161 ... Antibodies against a similar target are tested against all other antibodies in the library in a pairwise fashion to see if ... After each antibody has a profile created against all of the other antibodies in the library, a competitive blocking profile is ... Epitope binning is a competitive immunoassay used to characterize and then sort a library of monoclonal antibodies against a ...
... is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target. All peptide sequences ... For example, selecting antibody presented by bacteriophage with coated antigen in microtiter plates. The washing step comes ... Only the bound phages with strong affinity are kept. The final step involves the elution step where the bound phages are eluted ... Affinity selection by biopanning. Methods in molecular biology. 2000. 147:195-208 He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan ...
His thesis was titled The significance of antibody affinity in immune complex disease. In 1976, Petty returned to Canada and ... In addition, he studied the relationship between juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis to antinuclear antibodies (ANA), ... the influence of maternal anti-IgA antibodies on the occurrence of IgA deficiency in the offspring. He and colleagues first ... "Clinical correlates of antinuclear antibodies in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis". The Journal of Pediatrics. 83 (3): 386-389. ...
... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. Monoclonal antibodies can also ... is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity screening in drug development. WAC is an affinity-based liquid ... The serum is initially allowed to bind to the GST affinity matrix. This will remove antibodies against the GST part of the ... Another use for the procedure is the affinity purification of antibodies from blood serum. If the serum is known to contain ...
When purifying antibodies, Protein A is used as affinity matrix. However, periodic counter-current processes can be applied to ... In conventional affinity chromatography, a single chromatography column is loaded with feed material up to the point before ... Today, the process is mainly employed for the purification of antibodies in the biopharmaceutical industry as well as in ... Periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) is a method for running affinity chromatography in a quasi-continuous manner. ...
"Affimers as an Alternative to Antibodies in an Affinity LC-MS Assay for Quantification of the Soluble Receptor of Advanced ... These affinity reagents have been optimized to increase their stability, make them tolerant to a range of temperatures and pH, ... "Antibody Alternatives". The Scientist Magazine®. Retrieved 2018-10-18. Sharma R, Deacon SE, Nowak D, George SE, Szymonik MP, ... These synthetic antibodies were engineered to be stable, non-toxic, biologically neutral and contain no post-translational ...
... is based on affinity adherence of red cells in an immunologically active matrix. In ReACT, antibody-sensitized red cells bind ... The main ligand is Protein G (prepared from Group C or G Streptococcus or by recombinant technology), which has high affinity ... It is a method for detecting any clinically important antibodies in patient serum. Whereas gel agglutination is based on size ... exclusion of agglutinated red cells in an inert matrix, red cell affinity column technology (ReACT) ...
It binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity. The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb425) from which ... Drugs that are a monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibodies for tumors, Merck brands). ... Murthy U, Basu A, Rodeck U, Herlyn M, Ross AH, Das M (February 1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an ... Leahy DJ (April 2008). "A molecular view of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibody therapy". Cancer Cell. 13 (4): 291-3. doi:10.1016/j. ...
  • PeproTech's polyclonal antibodies are purified through the isolation of specific polyclonal antibodies from antiserum by antigen affinity chromatography. (peprotech.com)
  • 5%), which cannot be effectively isolated by standard purification procedures (e.g. ion exchange chromatography) or by non-antigen-specific affinity procedures, such as Protein A/G affinity purification. (peprotech.com)
  • Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) is the most common method for preparing affinity chromatography to purify antibody because of its simplicity and mild pH conditions. (abnova.com)
  • The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific). (affbiotech.com)
  • We produced the DsRed-2F5-Epitope (DFE) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and purified it using a combination of heat treatment and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, resulting in a yield of 24 mg kg-1 at 90% purity. (immpact-international.org)
  • The Nter and Cter peptides of goat α s1 -casein had been immunized in rabbits for the era of antisera, which had been purified utilizing protein G affinity chromatography. (chipgrade.com)
  • Whole IgG antibodies are isolated as intact molecules from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The antibody was purified from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography. (biolegend.com)
  • Second, affinity chromatography using immobilized antibodies was employed. (cdc.gov)
  • The monoclonal antibody was purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies and affinity chromatography have been used to purify these glycoproteins and thus provide antigens for type-specific herpes serologic assays. (cdc.gov)
  • One vial containing 420 mg of trastuzumab, a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cell suspension culture and purified by chromatography including specific viral inactivation and removal procedures. (who.int)
  • Lipase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase (E.C. was purified to homogeneity from rapeseed-germinated cotyledons (Brassica napus L.). The purification scheme involved homogenization, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation and affinity chromatography using polyclonal antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic lipase. (academicjournals.org)
  • We report on a new integrated platform for automated harvesting of whole unclarified cell-culture broths, followed by in-line tandem affinity-capture, pH neutralization and size-exclusion chromatography of recombinant antibodies expressed transiently in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293T-cells at the 1-L scale. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Protein A resin is a high-affinity chromatography medium. (excedr.com)
  • The Protein A affinity chromatography technique is extensively used in labs to capture and purify immunoglobulins, such as IgG and monoclonal antibody products. (excedr.com)
  • SPR determination of the synthetic epitope peptides provided high affinities confirming their binding specificity. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • These include high affinity and specificity for the intended target, biological activity, and additional characteristics now known as "developability properties": long-term stability and resistance to aggregation when in solution, thermodynamic stability to prevent unfolding, high expression yields to facilitate manufacturing, low self-interaction, among others. (carterra-bio.com)
  • In all stages of this affinity maturation process we observe a link between specificity and reduced flexibility. (nature.com)
  • Unavailability of antibodies with excessive affinity and specificity in direction of goat α s1 -casein hinders the event of immuno-based analytical strategies equivalent to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and biosensors. (chipgrade.com)
  • In addition, to give you added confidence in your results, we use extensive validation methods, including knock-out validation, to ensure the specificity of our recombinant antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • So far, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and similar antibody-based methods excel in the sensitive detection of low levels of proteins in complex matrices, whereas mass spectrometry enables unbiased approaches and can provide unsurpassed specificity. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • The success of therapeutic antibodies is largely attributed for their exquisite specificity, homogeneity, and functionality. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Atopy, meaning "strange disease," was used by Coca to describe antigen-specific reactions with apparent immunological specificity for which no precipitating antibodies could be identified in plasma. (jci.org)
  • Secondary antibodies produced cover a broad range of immunoglobulins from various species cross absorbed to provide high specificity. (immunoreagents.com)
  • Modification in the structure of the native Protein A, such as single domain multimer and multiple binding sites, results in its high specificity towards the Fc region of antibodies, high binding capacity, and good physicochemical stability. (excedr.com)
  • Due to its specificity, the resin is preferred as a standard technique to capture antibodies in purification processes. (excedr.com)
  • Here, we investigate the antibody repertoire of a chronically HIV-1/HCV co-infected individual using linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq). (bvsalud.org)
  • More broadly, chronic co-infection represents a complex immunological challenge that can provide insights into the fundamental rules that underly antibody-antigen specificity. (bvsalud.org)
  • and describe affinity purification of virions bearing a target determinant from a 10(8)-fold excess of phage not bearing the determinant, using minute amounts of antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abcepta.com)
  • Tissue culture supernatant is purified by either protein A/G or affinity purification methods. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 355-37533 Product NameDHH Antibody Host SpeciesRabbit ClonalityPolyclonal PurificationAntigen affinity purification. (bioscience-explained.org)
  • Purification method: Antigen affinity purified. (novoprolabs.com)
  • Affinity purification of GPI anchored urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor from chrysotile exposed cells indicated that asbestos altered the profile of proteins and phosphoprotein complexes with this receptor. (cdc.gov)
  • It's used for the one-step purification of monoclonal antibody products (mAb) and immunoglobulins from a cell culture media. (excedr.com)
  • The modified features have also resulted in the formation of a highly stable and robust Protein A affinity resin, which is extensively used in biotechnology and immunology research studies for downstream processing and purification processes. (excedr.com)
  • It allows stringent purity levels during the purification of therapeutic antibodies. (excedr.com)
  • 503-1806 Target HBSAg (HBsAg) Reactivity Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Host Rabbit Compatible Secondaries Clonality Polyclonal Conjugate This HBSAg antibody is. (anobase.org)
  • 498-BS-1158R-A594 Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat Host/Isotype: Rabbit / IgG Class: Polyclonal Type: Antibody Immunogen: AGEs. (anobase.org)
  • 26-7009-100 Species Reactivity Human Host/Isotype Goat / IgG Class Polyclonal Type Antibody Immunogen a1-Anti-Trypsin [Human Plasma] Conjugate Unconjugated Form. (anobase.org)
  • 88-11941-05011 To minimize cross-reactivity, these rabbit anti-mouse IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and. (anobase.org)
  • LM10 antibody has no cross-reactivity to highly substituted xylan such as wheat arabinoxylan where the xylan backbone is substituted with sidechains of arabinofuranosyl residues. (megazyme.com)
  • We generated seventeen novel mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high reactivity against E protein of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). (cdc.gov)
  • We identify five HIV-1/HCV cross-reactive antibodies demonstrating binding and functional cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HCV envelope glycoproteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • We examine the development of these antibodies using next-generation sequencing analysis and lineage tracing and find that somatic hypermutation established and enhanced this reactivity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The large quantities of unrelated IgGs found in these inferior preparations can considerably increase the background when the antibody is used in analytical procedures such as ELISA, neutralization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. (peprotech.com)
  • This video shows the procedure of sandwich ELISA assay for anti-PEG antibody pair. (abnova.com)
  • The Fc receptor binding assay (Competitive ELISA immunoassay, SRP assay or BLI assay) plays a vital role in the development of therapeutic antibodies. (genemedi.net)
  • The binding affinity of the antisera and purified IgGs had been examined and in contrast utilizing oblique ELISA, the place peptide-BSA conjugates and goat α s1 -casein had been used because the coating antigens. (chipgrade.com)
  • Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with the Fc portion of human IgG heavy chain but not with the Fab portion of human IgG. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • This format provides pure antibody that is suitable for a number of downstream applications including: secondary labeling for flow cytometry or microscopy, ELISA, Western blot, etc. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 26-5180R-100 Antibodies that detect IL-18 can be used in several scientific applications, including Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry, ELISA, Immunoprecipitation and. (bioscience-explained.org)
  • The BPL-treated antigen titration was carried out serum samples (0.1 ml) diluted at 1:101 by an antibody sandwich ELISA according to were subjected to ELISA. (who.int)
  • Product lines include a wide range of immunoassay reagents and antibodies used in assays such as, but not limited to, ELISA , immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blotting, flow cytometry (FACS) , immunofluorescence and microscopy. (immunoreagents.com)
  • Rabbit Anti SLC11A2 Polyclonal Affinity Purified (PBS with 0.05% sodium azide and 50% glycerol, pH7.4) (IHC,ELISA) from Innovative Research is a polyclonal antibody in a liquid format, buffered in PBS with 0.05% sodium azide and 50% glycerol, pH7.4 This antibody has been affinity purified. (innov-research.com)
  • Purity Immunogen affinity purified rabbit IgG. (agrisera.com)
  • In this study, we developed both antibody quantification and functional assays. (researchsquare.com)
  • This Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody is generally intended for use in applications such as immuno-precipitation, immuno-electrophoresis, immuno-depletion and activity neutralization assays. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • Background Rabbit anti-rat IgG (H&L) is a secondary antibody which binds to rat IgG (H&L) in immunological assays. (agrisera.com)
  • These engineered homophilic antibodies demonstrated higher potency than their noncross-linked antibodies in targeting assays and induction of apoptosis. (medscape.com)
  • High-affinity antibodies allow greater sensitivity in assays as they bind strongly to the antigen and maintain this bond better under difficult conditions compared to low-affinity antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • The possibility of building up a proteome-wide resource for immuno-SILAC assays based on publicly available antibody resources is discussed. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • Solid-phase enzymatic immunodot assays are used to detect antibodies reactive to these antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein A resin has a myriad of applications, ranging from its use in affinity chromatographic assays, and immunoprecipitation, to biomanufacturing and bioprocessing assays. (excedr.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dominate the market for biopharmaceutical proteins because they provide active and passive immunotherapies for many different diseases. (immpact-international.org)
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 k Da ) proteins of about 10 nm in size, [7] arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an electrophoresis test of blood proteins , antibodies mostly migrate to the last, gamma globulin fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies against difficult targets, ie toxins, nucleotides, and membrane-bound proteins, can't always be made with this in vivo model either. (abcam.com)
  • Immunoproteomics using polyclonal antibodies and stable isotope-labeled affinity-purified recombinant proteins. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • Here, we describe a new method (immuno-SILAC) for the absolute quantification of proteins in complex samples based on polyclonal antibodies and stable isotope-labeled recombinant protein fragments to allow affinity enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis and accurate quantification. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • Here, we show that we were able to use small amounts of antibodies (50 ng per target) in this manner for efficient multiplex analysis of quantitative levels of proteins in a human HeLa cell lysate. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • It would therefore be of great interest to explore whether antibodies generated toward native proteins or protein fragments could be used for the capture of peptides and in this way take advantage of the huge resource of already existing reagents for immunoproteomics. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • No antibody was detected against human IgM or IgA, or against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Both methods yield antibody in solution that is free of most other soluble proteins, lipids, etc. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • NC also exhibits a strong affinity for both nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and proteins (antigens and antibodies) and is, therefore, used extensively in research and clinical settings for the immobilization of nucleic acids and/or proteins for analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the core products, ImmunoReagents has become one of the industry's leading OEM reagent antibody manufacturer and sources of primary antibodies to hormones, cancer makers, cardiac markers and serum proteins. (immunoreagents.com)
  • Its high selectivity towards antibodies facilitates the effective clearance of host cell proteins, DNA, and viruses. (excedr.com)
  • 513-CPBT-66799GH Rabbit anti-Rat AGER (aa 362-380) polyclonal antibody for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB, FC, IHC-P Specifications Host Species Rabbit Antibody Isotype. (bioscience-explained.org)
  • Isotype control antibody (black line) was mouse IgG used under the same conditions. (com.hr)
  • Antibodies without IgE antibody, could be regarded as a modified Th2 to Fel d 1 of the IgG4 isotype were strongly correlated with IgG response. (cdc.gov)
  • The results for isotype specific antibodies of children in our study were related to evidence of sensitisation, exposure, and the risk of asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Advanced Biomart provides high quality mouse monoclonal antibody production services. (advbiomart.net)
  • We have optimized the entire mouse monoclonal antibody development process to increase efficiency and probability of success. (advbiomart.net)
  • The antibody is a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against PF4. (cloud-clone.com)
  • All Prestige Antibodies Powered by Atlas Antibodies are developed and validated by the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) project and as a result, are supported by the most extensive characterization in the industry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. (affbiotech.com)
  • Here we describe a novel affinity ligand based on the fluorescent protein DsRed as a carrier for the linear epitope ELDKWA, which can capture the HIV-neutralizing antibody 2F5. (immpact-international.org)
  • The mice produced a higher titer of antibody to DsRed, suggesting that the bites from TG mosquitoes act as a booster and that primary immunization with a vaccine protein and exposure to TG mosquitoes excreting the vaccine protein in the saliva produces a synergistic effect. (immpact-international.org)
  • Structural basis of affinity maturation has been established for an in vitro designed protein-protein interaction system which provides with the help of strong structural experimental data molecular snapshots of the affinity maturation process and the involved remodeling of the protein interface 17 , 18 . (nature.com)
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • With strong expertise in Gene&Biogitics discovery, artificial design, and State-of-the-Art Manufacturing, GeneMedi helps accelerate multiple modalities of Macro-Molecule Discovery & Development (M-M D&D), and scalable manufacturing including antibodies, recombinant protein, and multiple types of gene therapeutic vectors and delivery vehicles (AAV, VLP, etc. (genemedi.net)
  • We took advantage of the antibody resources publicly available from the Human Protein Atlas project covering more than 80% of all human protein-coding genes. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • Epitope mapping revealed that a majority of the polyclonal antibodies recognized multiple linear epitopes, and based on these results, a semi-automated method was developed for peptide enrichment using polyclonal antibodies immobilized on protein A-coated magnetic beads. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • A protocol based on the simultaneous multiplex capture of more than 40 protein targets showed that approximately half of the antibodies enriched at least one functional peptide detected in the subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • The results suggest that polyclonal antibodies generated via immunization of recombinant protein fragments could be used for the enrichment of target peptides to allow for rapid mass spectrometry analysis taking advantage of a substantial reduction in sample complexity. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • This has prompted several investigators to introduce a protein or peptide capture step using specific antibodies to allow for immunoaffinity enrichment prior to the MS analysis. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • A disadvantage with the immunoaffinity proteomics strategy is the limited availability of suitable antibodies that recognize peptides from the corresponding protein targets. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • The accurate and efficient calculation of protein-protein binding affinities is an essential component in antibody and antigen design and optimization, and in computer modeling of antibody affinity maturation. (3dz2.com)
  • We anticipate that our study will be a useful resource for practitioners working to incorporate binding affinity calculations within their protein design and optimization process. (3dz2.com)
  • Human neutralizing antibodies that target the host ACE2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein show promise therapeutically and are being evaluated clinically. (caltech.edu)
  • Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. (nature.com)
  • Calcium-regulated membrane-binding protein whose affinity for calcium is greatly enhanced by anionic phospholipids. (ewmccall.com)
  • This antibody was obtained by immunization of TEX264 recombinant protein (Accession Number: NM_001129884). (novoprolabs.com)
  • The process works on the principle of the binding of specific antibodies to immobilized Protein A ligands. (excedr.com)
  • A therapeutic antibody against the viral envelope (E) protein represents a promising immunotherapy for disease control. (cdc.gov)
  • Chicken antibody conjugated to HRP in a protein matrix with preservative. (cygnustechnologies.com)
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells , which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells , which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: A polyclonal antibody raised in Rabbit that recognizes and binds to Human KCNMB4 (aa86-140). (chipgrade.com)
  • Here we describe comprehensive mutagenesis of the light chain complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of HIV-1 antibody D5 (which binds its target, 5-Helix, with a reported K D of 50 pM). (elsevier.com)
  • The Virotag ® reagent family utilizes a fluorescently labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique viral epitope. (sartorius.com)
  • It binds two calcium ions with high affinity. (ewmccall.com)
  • Tralokinumab, a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that specifically binds with high affinity to interleukin-13, effectively reduces moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) when given every 2 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • [ 15-18 ] Tralokinumab, a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody, specifically binds to IL-13 with high affinity, preventing interaction with IL-13Rα1 and subsequent downstream IL-13 signalling, thus inhibiting its proinflammatory activity. (medscape.com)
  • Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds with and inhibits sclerostin, a regulatory factor in bone metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Evinacumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3). (medscape.com)
  • These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. (affbiotech.com)
  • Identification of the antibody epitope(s) could lead to a molecular understanding of the inhibiting mechanism and development of improved inhibitors. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • Here, we report the epitope identification and the affinity characterization of IL8 to a monoclonal anti-human IL8 antibody inhibiting the receptor binding by a combination of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor analysis and MALDI-mass spectrometry. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • Epitope identification of IL-8 was obtained by proteolytic epitope-extraction mass spectrometry of the peptide fragments upon high pressure trypsin digestion, using an affinity microcolumn with immobilized anti-IL-8 antibody. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • MALDI-MS of the affinity-bound peptide elution fraction revealed an assembled (discontinuous) epitope comprising two specific peptides, IL8 [12-20] and IL8 [55-60]. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • Identical epitope peptides were identified by direct MALDI-MS of the eluted epitope fraction from the immobilized anti-IL8 antibody on the SPR chip. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • The previously reported finding that the anti-Il8 antibody is inhibiting the IL8-CXCR1 interaction is well consistent with the overlapping region of epitope interactions identified in the present study. (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spacing problem was solved by using antibodies that have two different specificities (i.e., polyreactive), which allow binding to the gp140 spike with one arm and to another epitope on the virus surface in a heteroligation model. (medscape.com)
  • [ 45 ] For low epitope density on target cells, existing methods of antibody improvement are failing. (medscape.com)
  • Epitope and paratope mapping revealed few interactions with host-derived N-glycans and minor contributions of antibody somatic hypermutations to epitope contacts. (caltech.edu)
  • The affinity of a molecule can be stated as the force of attraction between the antibody having its paratope to the antigen having an epitope that is specific to the binding site. (askanydifference.com)
  • In simple words, the avidity can be explained as the individual sum of the affinity of the multiple paratopes with its specific binding antigen or epitope. (askanydifference.com)
  • Understanding the epitope-based antibody-mediated neutralization is crucial to controlling dengue infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Therapeutic antibodies must have "drug-like" properties. (carterra-bio.com)
  • Lipinski's rule of five), it has been proposed that therapeutic antibodies should similarly adhere to strict criteria regarding pharmacodynamics, kinetics and formulation. (carterra-bio.com)
  • Once antibodies are produced against a given target, ensuring they have "druglike" characteristics appears to greatly improve chances of therapeutic success (Suppl. (carterra-bio.com)
  • In addition to high affinity, therapeutic success also depends on "developability", a term coined to describe a favorable set of in vitro biophysical characteristics such as reduced aggregation propensity and polyreactivity, which tend to be associated with improved in vivo properties. (carterra-bio.com)
  • Beginning in the year 2000, our laboratory used chemical cross-linking methods to attach the 24-mer peptide to antibodies and to demonstrate the potency increase on therapeutic targets. (medscape.com)
  • however, IgM class antibodies are considered undesirable and problematic as therapeutic drugs. (medscape.com)
  • To make them suitable for therapeutic application, murine anti-bodies have to be humanized which often leads to loss in affinity. (boku.ac.at)
  • Absolute Biotech offers customers worldwide the full breadth of antibody-related products, services and expertise for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (bio-itworld.com)
  • Our company unites multiple antibody-centric brands to offer customers worldwide the full breadth of antibody-related products, services and expertise for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (bio-itworld.com)
  • These antibodies have a high affinity for CD276-positive tumor cells and have great potential for diagnostic and therapeutic technologies against solid tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Abstract Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. (cyberleninka.org)
  • This study introduced potential therapeutic antibodies that might be capable of providing broad protection against diverse DENV-2 infections without enhancing activity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The monoclonal antibody mAb DB32-6 showed the strongest neutralizing activity against diverse DENV-2 and protected DENV-2-infected mice against mortality in therapeutic models. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • These antibodies provide a potential future direction for therapeutic and vaccine development against current and emerging infectious diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • 95% pure specific antibodies. (peprotech.com)
  • The usefulness of a point-of-care immunochromatographic dual test for the simultaneous detection of both nontreponemal and Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies (Chembio Diagnostics Systems Inc., Medford, NY, USA) was assessed in various situations related to syphilis, by reference to conventional syphilis serology. (nih.gov)
  • Incubation of test serum with the disk allows specific antibodies, if present, to bind to the immobilized antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen. (alomone.com)
  • The action of this antibody can be blocked using blocking peptide SBP3879 . (sigmaaldrich.cn)
  • Right here, we report the era of polyclonal antibodies (or immunoglobulins, IgGs) raised in direction of goat α s1 -casein N- (Nter) and C-terminal (Cter) peptide sequences. (chipgrade.com)
  • 0.05) increased binding affinity in direction of peptide-BSA and goat α s1 -casein, with decrease Okay d worth at 5.063 × 10 -3 μM in comparison with 9.046 × 10 -3 μM for the Cter IgG. (chipgrade.com)
  • [ 19 ] In 2005, we described a simple affinity cross-linking method using a tryptophan-containing peptide. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies against CD20 [ 37 ] and the B-cell receptor [ 38 ] were chemically cross-linked with the 24-mer homophilic peptide. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of Abcepta antibodies are produced using peptide immunogens. (abcepta.com)
  • This is the principle behind stable isotope standards and capture by anti-peptide antibodies (SISCAPA), 1 developed by Anderson and co-workers ( 12 ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • In immunoaffinity proteomics, it is preferable for the affinity of the anti-peptide capture antibody to be high, but the requirement for high selectivity is lower, because the mass spectrometer can readily distinguish and quantify the analyte peptide of interest despite the binding of other peptides in the digested sample. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • The affinity enrichment of peptides usually requires the generation of custom antibodies for each target peptide, and this very time-consuming process makes high-throughput efforts very difficult to pursue. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • 2. Anti-Presenilin-2 Antibody, preincubated with Presenilin-2 Blocking Peptide (#BLP-IP012). (alomone.com)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts of various cell lines using PSMC3 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:1000. (elabscience.com)
  • Our anti-M45 antibody M45.01 works in IF (on MCMV infected cells), intracellular FACS (on MCMV infected cells) and each LOT is validated for Western blot (of MCMV infected cell lysates). (com.hr)
  • Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. (affbiotech.com)
  • These immuno-specific peptides can be used as blocking agents when using the complementary antibodies in a range of applications. (abcepta.com)
  • Most efforts so far have been aimed toward generating monoclonal antibodies against specific peptides selected as appropriate for mass spectrometric detection, which is a laborious and costly exercise. (nimbletherapeutics.com)
  • 2. According to the recommended primary antibody dilution ratio, use the TBST Buffer containing 5% Skim Milk Powder to dilute the PSMC3 Antibody at , soak the PVDF Membrane in the primary antibody working solution, incubate overnight at 4 ℃, and gently shake. (elabscience.com)
  • The primary antibody was incubated overnight at 4°C, followed by goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody and HRP-linked anti-goat polymer antibody (ab209101) . (abcam.com)
  • Then primary antibody (1% BSA) was incubated at 4°C overnight. (ewmccall.com)
  • These "antibody-selectable" vectors are a promising alternative to conventional expression systems for using antibodies to clone genes, though the ability to isolate rare clones from actual libraries remains to be demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Clone 5D1 was selected to mass produce MAbs which were then coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose CL-4B to prepare an affinity-purified antigen. (who.int)
  • The antibodies are raised in mouse and are from clone 1G7. (chipgrade.com)
  • Because the selection process for the desired clone occurs at both the hybridoma and recombinant cloning stages, we can select antibodies with the most favorable qualities for you. (abcam.com)
  • 15-70043 Mouse anti Monkey IgA antibody, clone IgA5-3B recognizes monkey IgA and does not cross-react with IgG or IgM. (bioscience-explained.org)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 2 μg/ml and an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) followed by QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) titrated to the given concentrations in PBST followed by an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A microtiter plate was coated overnight with Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, a pre-incubated mixture of nivolumab (0.3 µg/ml), spiked with increasing concentrations of Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) was added. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections, which can range from asymptomatic to lethal, is crucially shaped by the concentration of antiviral antibodies and by their affinity to their targets. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The reported antibody titer is simplistic in these tests, since it represents a combination of the concentration of antibodies in the blood sample and the strength of the binding interaction (affinity) of the antibody to the corresponding antigen. (edifydigitalmedia.com)
  • At Fluidic Analytics, we have responded to this need and have developed a novel in-solution immunoassay platform on our Fluidity One-W Serum instrument that simultaneously, but independently, measures both the concentration and affinity of antibodies. (edifydigitalmedia.com)
  • [ 17 ] Self-binding decreases as the concentration of homophilic antibody increases. (medscape.com)
  • Detection was performed using HRP conjugated Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody ( HCA301 ) at a concentration of 2 µg/ml in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Based on immunoelectrophoresis, this antibody reacts with: heavy chains on rat IgG, light chains on all rat immunoglobulins. (agrisera.com)
  • The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new efficient and cost saving platforms for the preparation and analysis of early candidates for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Antibodies labeled with biotin provide the user with a tool for increasing the sensitivity of an assay by its ability to amplify a given reaction. (abnova.com)
  • The antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against HSPA2 conjugated to biotin. (heat-shockprotein.com)
  • Excessive-quality antibodies generated will permit additional improvement of immuno-based analytical strategies and future in vitro research to be carried out on goat α s1 -casein. (chipgrade.com)
  • After extensive washing to remove non-reactive antibodies, the bound antibodies are detected by sequential treatment with peroxidase-conjugated goat-anti-human IgG and the enzyme substrate (H 2 O 2 with chromogen 4-chloro-1-naphthol). (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen mouse brain sections with Anti-Presenilin-2 Antibody (#AIP-012), (1:200), followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-488. (alomone.com)
  • The difference between Affinity and Avidity is that Affinity can be defined as the bond strength between the antigen and antibody, whereas comparatively, on the other hand, avidity is the strength of the multiple affinities together. (askanydifference.com)
  • Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# DF2385, RRID:AB_2839593. (affbiotech.com)
  • Measuring antibody affinity under physiologically relevant conditions in complex mixtures like serum remains challenging but is critically important to furthering our understanding of the immune response and protection window in patients and vaccinated individuals. (edifydigitalmedia.com)
  • We demonstrate how Fluidic Analytics' novel in-solution immunoassay platform on the Fluidity One-W serum, measures antibody affinity directly in serum to obtain crucial insights necessary for efficient diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine development. (edifydigitalmedia.com)
  • The most frequently used tools for the detection and quantification of antibodies in serum remain standard immunoassays. (edifydigitalmedia.com)
  • Here we present a new antibody library format that yields high-affinity binders with drug-like developability properties directly from initial selections, reducing the need for further engineering or affinity maturation. (carterra-bio.com)
  • We investigated T-cell receptor variable β chains binding to the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 (SEC 3) with structure information in different stages of affinity maturation. (nature.com)
  • The observed changes in dynamics of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops, especially the CDR 2, and HV 4 loop on this specific pathway of affinity maturation are reflected in their structural diversity, thermodynamics of conformations and kinetics of structural transitions. (nature.com)
  • In addition, this affinity maturation pathway follows the concept of conformational selection, because even without the presence of the antigen the binding competent state is present in this pre-existing ensemble of conformations. (nature.com)
  • We analyzed an affinity maturation pathway of murine TCR Vß variants with structural information for every stage to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the affinity maturation process and to identify differences in their conformational diversity. (nature.com)
  • We focused on the CDR 2 and the HV 4 loop to investigate changes in dynamics as a consequence of point-mutations, because they directly interact with the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 (SEC 3) and are the mutation hotspots in this affinity maturation pathway. (nature.com)
  • This VH-endowed response required minimal affinity maturation, was elicited alongside pre-existing influenza immunity , and when IGHV1-69 B cells were diluted to match the frequency measured in humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are becoming progressively more important as therapeutics, comprising six of the top 10 bestselling drugs in the United States. (carterra-bio.com)
  • The receptor has been classified based on its affinity for IgG1, IgG3, IgG4. (genemedi.net)
  • [ 44 ] The molecular interpretation of this situation is that the spacing (density) of the Her2-neu antigen on the tumor cell is too wide for the bivalent antibody (IgG1) to attach with both arms at the same time. (medscape.com)
  • MSH3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total MSH3. (affbiotech.com)
  • PKD1/PKC mu Antibody detects endogenous levels of total PKD1/PKC mu. (affbiotech.com)
  • The antibodies that have been generated in support of the Tissue and Cancer Atlas projects have been tested by immunohistochemistry against hundreds of normal and disease tissues and through the recent efforts of the Human Cell Atlas project, many have been characterized by immunofluorescence to map the human proteome not only at the tissue level but now at the subcellular level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Microfluidic characterisation reveals broad range of SARS-CoV-2 antibody affinity in human plasma. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The innovative semi-synthetic design involves grafting natural complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from human antibodies into scaffolds based on well-behaved clinical antibodies. (carterra-bio.com)
  • This antibody can be used at 2 μg/mL jointly with biotinylated Human APOE3 antibody to detect Human APOE3. (reprokine.com)
  • Description: A Monoclonal antibody against Human KCNMB4 (monoclonal) (M01). (chipgrade.com)
  • Batch-to-batch reproducibility in the localization of PD-L1 in FFPE human placenta across five batches of our anti-PD-L1 [28-8] recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody (ab205921) . (abcam.com)
  • The dynamic binding capacity for human polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) was used as metric for comparison of the affinity columns. (biaseparations.com)
  • Affinity-purified with HSA on agarose followed by affinity adsorption with human IgG. (atsbio.com)
  • This antibody is recommended for detection of RhoA in human, mouse, rat or other extracts. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis in human epididymis and skeletal muscle tissues using HPA042302 antibody. (atlasantibodies.com)
  • This antibody has been used for staining of 44 normal human tissue samples as well as human cancer samples covering the 20 most common cancer types and up to 12 patients for each cancer type. (atlasantibodies.com)
  • The results are part of an ongoing effort to map the human proteome using antibodies. (atlasantibodies.com)
  • Here, to identify the structural correlates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we solved eight new structures of distinct COVID-19 human neutralizing antibodies in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer or RBD. (caltech.edu)
  • These classifications and structural analyses provide rules for assigning current and future human RBD-targeting antibodies into classes, evaluating avidity effects and suggesting combinations for clinical use, and provide insight into immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. (caltech.edu)
  • Germline-Encoded Affinity for Cognate Antigen Enables Vaccine Amplification of a Human Broadly Neutralizing Response against Influenza Virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • The latter show biased usage in human broadly neutralizing antibodies ( bnAbs ) against both HIV and influenza virus , suggesting the existence of gene -endowed targeting solutions that may be amenable to pathway amplification. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite prolific efforts to characterize the antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, the response to chronic co-infection with these two ever-evolving viruses is poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • [10] In between them is a hinge region of the heavy chains, whose flexibility allows antibodies to bind to pairs of epitopes at various distances, to form complexes ( dimers , trimers, etc.), and to bind effector molecules more easily. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not possible with bivalent IgG antibodies due to the size of the IgG Fab arms being unable to span distant target epitopes. (medscape.com)
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abcepta.com)
  • Class 2 contained four neutralizing antibodies with epitopes that bridged RBDs, including a VH3-53 antibody that used a long CDRH3 with a hydrophobic tip to bridge between adjacent down RBDs, thereby locking the spike into a closed conformation. (caltech.edu)
  • We supply quality antibodies and related products drug discovery and academic laboratories worldwide. (abcepta.com)
  • As integration continues, products and services from the full family of brands will become available to order via the Absolute Biotech website, providing customers with one centralized place to compare and purchase reagents for the entire antibody workflow. (bio-itworld.com)
  • It further suggests a potential need to maintain high RBD antibody levels to control the more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. (researchsquare.com)
  • SPR determination of IL8 with the immobilized antibody revealed high affinity ( K D , 82.2 nM). (pressurebiosciences.com)
  • Recombinant manufacture involves cloning antibody-coding genes into high-yield expression vectors, which are subsequently introduced into expression hosts. (abcam.com)
  • This leads to antibodies with high batch-to-batch consistency, meaning you can achieve the highly reproducible results your research or drug development research requires. (abcam.com)
  • Analysis of K D values of our recombinant anti-PDL1 antibody shows that its affinity remains high across five different batches (Table 1). (abcam.com)
  • On average, our recombinant antibodies have K D values in the picomolar (10 -10 -10 -12 ) range, which is considered to be a very high affinity. (abcam.com)
  • The identification of clonally-derived hybridoma cell lines which are producing high amounts of monoclonal antibodies. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Antibodies recovered from mice have a high risk of evoking an anti-mouse immune response in humans. (boku.ac.at)
  • We chose ligands of OppA with a high structural similarity yet remarkably different binding affinity and use them as a test case to perform binding free energy calculations using several methods such as Thermodynamic Integration and Enveloping Distribution Sampling. (boku.ac.at)
  • Detailed analysis of factors governing high affinity antibody-antigen interactions yields important insight into molecular recognition and facilitates the design of functional antibody libraries. (elsevier.com)
  • Da Silva, GF, Harrison, JS & Lai, JR 2010, ' Contribution of light chain residues to high affinity binding in an hiv-1 antibody explored by combinatorial scanning mutagenesis ', Biochemistry , vol. 49, no. 26, pp. 5464-5472. (elsevier.com)
  • It has a high affinity for distribution to connective tissues. (medscape.com)
  • 4G2)(5), were used as the detection was low, while that to 4G2 IgG was high antibodies. (who.int)
  • Serodiagnosis has been widely utilized tween Dara and Suwayda in the south of because anti-leishmanial antibody titres are the country were selected for the following high, especially during the acute phase. (who.int)
  • qualitative determination of antibodies to · presence of a very high density of Phle- rK39, an antigen specific for VL caused by botomus spp. (who.int)
  • The LM10, rat, monoclonal antibody was generated using a neoglycoprotein (xylopentaose-BSA) and is a high affinity antibody to the non-reducing end of (1,4)-β-D-xylosyl residues that constitute the backbone of xylans. (megazyme.com)
  • These beads have a high capacity and affinity for antibodies. (excedr.com)
  • Thus, among children with high exposure, the can induce an increase in IgG and IgG4 antibodies with a odds of sensitisation to mite rather than cat was 4·0 decrease in IgE antibodies,16,17 and that expression of the (99% CI 1·49-10·00). (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, the high neutralization resistance of BA.4, even to antibodies from BA.1 infection, provides an immunological mechanism for the rapid spread of BA.4 immediately after a BA.1-dominated wave. (bvsalud.org)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant of Concern (VOC) and its sub-lineages (including BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.12.1) contain spike mutations that confer high level resistance to neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination with ancestral spike or infection with previously circulating variants. (bvsalud.org)
  • MCR agonists with high affinity for the type-4 receptor have potential to modulate brain pathways involved in sexual response. (medscape.com)
  • Please refer to the datasheet provided with the antibody for precise details. (ibl-america.com)
  • Antibody paratopes are formed by hypervariable complementarity-determining regions (CDRH3s) and variable gene -encoded CDRs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Achieve the reproducible results your project demands with recombinant antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • The system was validated with a random panel of 45 whole-cell culture broths containing recombinant antibodies in the early profiling phase. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Generation of multivalent antibodies is one option capable of surpassing this affinity threshold through increased avidity. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Affinity and Avidity are the terms that are connected with the study of the immune system that is immunology. (askanydifference.com)
  • Even the strength of the affinity is low while comparatively, on the other hand, the strength of the avidity is much more powerful or, say, strong. (askanydifference.com)
  • The antibody IgM is a very good example of Avidity. (askanydifference.com)
  • Thus avidity is the sum of the strength of the multiple affinities given for the multiple antibodies with multiple binding sites. (askanydifference.com)
  • The capacity of the IgM antibody is five times more than that of IgE, and it is the best example of avidity. (askanydifference.com)
  • The affinity of a molecule can be expressed through thermodynamical terms, whereas comparatively, on the other hand, the avidity of a molecule can be expressed only through kinetic terms. (askanydifference.com)
  • The terms of calculation of affinity are based on a single molecule of antibody to its specific binding antigen, whereas comparatively, on the other hand, the terms of calculation of avidity are based on antibody with multiple sites to antigen with multiple sites. (askanydifference.com)
  • It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes. (bvsalud.org)
  • This product is antibody from the nonphosphorylated fraction of the immune response. (onpart.dk)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize it directly (for example, by blocking a part of a virus that is essential for its invasion). (wikipedia.org)
  • To allow the immune system to recognize millions of different antigens, the antigen-binding sites at both tips of the antibody come in an equally wide variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constant region at the trunk of the antibody includes sites involved in interactions with other components of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies from different classes also differ in where they are released in the body and at what stage of an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with B and T cells , antibodies comprise the most important part of the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. (nature.com)
  • The term is linked with the antibodies that are produced by the immune system of the body against the foreign bodies that enter into the body. (askanydifference.com)
  • Crippling antibody-mediated immune response in individuals. (excedr.com)
  • This study estimated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among workers living in a closed setting using qualitative analysis of the total SARS CoV-2 antibody immune response. (who.int)
  • Increasing hypothesis that increasing cleanliness has led to increased exposure to mite was associated with increased prevalence of allergic disease because of a shift in the immune system sensitisation and IgG antibody to Der f 1. (cdc.gov)
  • However, to date there has been no evidence that antibody in both allergic and non-allergic children (r=0·84 and documents tolerance or any other form of immune r=0·66, respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • Sample including: Antigens and antibodies for in-vitro diagnostics, Food & Feed & Environmental Safety, animal health test and new drug discovery. (genemedi.net)
  • Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Trichinella spiralis were produced. (who.int)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of DENV would be powerful research tools for antiviral development, diagnosis and pathological investigations. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary antibody was GAM-AP (1/2000) and the nitrocellulose membrane was developed with BCIP/NBT. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • MAB detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in infected MEF-K cells by indirect fluorescence method using FITC-conjugated anti-mouse secondary antibody. (com.hr)
  • By combining two in vitro display techniques, phage and yeast display, we were able to routinely recover a large number of unique, highly developable antibodies against clinically relevant targets with affinities in the subnanomolar to low nanomolar range. (carterra-bio.com)
  • We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abcepta.com)
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abcepta.com)
  • Recombinantly manufactured antibodies are primary antibodies that overcome the limitations of other methods of antibody manufacture, such as genetic drift, which can lead to slight variations in the final antibody produced. (abcam.com)