A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Lymph node germinal centers form in the absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. (1/1752)

Follicular dendritic cell networks are said to be pivotal to both the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and their functions in generating antigen-specific antibody affinity maturation and B cell memory. We report that lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice form GC cell clusters in the gross anatomical location expected of GCs, despite the complete absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. Furthermore, antigen-specific GC generation was at first relatively normal, but these GCs then rapidly regressed and GC-phase antibody affinity maturation was reduced. Lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice also showed substantial B cell memory in their mesenteric lymph nodes. This memory antibody response was of relatively low affinity for antigen at week 4 after challenge, but by week 10 after challenge was comparable to wild-type, indicating that affinity maturation had failed in the GC phase but developed later.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (2/1752)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Eradication of established tumors by a fully human monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor without concomitant chemotherapy. (3/1752)

A fully human IgG2kappa monoclonal antibody (MAb), E7.6.3, specific to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) was generated from human antibody-producing XenoMouse strains engineered to be deficient in mouse antibody production and to contain the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire on megabase-sized fragments from the human heavy and kappa light chain loci. The E7.6.3 MAb exhibits high affinity (KD = 5 x 10(-11) M) to the receptor, blocks completely the binding of both EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a) to various EGFr-expressing human carcinoma cell lines, and abolishes EGF-dependent cell activation, including EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation, increased extracellular acidification rate, and cell proliferation. The antibody (0.2 mg i.p. twice a week for 3 weeks) prevents completely the formation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts in athymic mice. More importantly, the administration of E7.6.3 without concomitant chemotherapy results in complete eradication of established tumors as large as 1.2 cm3. Tumor eradication of A431 xenografts was achieved in nearly all of the mice treated with total E7.6.3 doses as low as 3 mg, administered over the course of 3 weeks, and a total dose of 0.6 mg led to tumor elimination in 65% of the mice. No tumor recurrence was observed for more than 8 months after the last antibody injection, which further indicated complete tumor cell elimination by the antibody. The potency of E7.6.3 in eradicating well-established tumors without concomitant chemotherapy indicates its potential as a monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple EGFr-expressing human solid tumors, including those for which no effective chemotherapy is available. Being a fully human antibody, E7.6.3 is expected to exhibit minimal immunogenicity and a longer half-life as compared with mouse or mouse-derivatized MAbs, thus allowing repeated antibody administration, including in immunocompetent patients. These results suggest E7.6.3 as a good candidate for assessing the full therapeutic potential of anti-EGFr antibody in the therapy of multiple patient populations with EGFr-expressing solid tumors.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (4/1752)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (5/1752)

IFN-gamma can either adversely or beneficially affect certain experimental autoimmune diseases. To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA. IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited significantly lower incidence and severity of muscle weakness, lower anti-AChR IgG Ab levels, and lower Ab affinity to AChR compared with wild-type mice. Passive transfer of serum from IFN-gammaR-/- mice induced less muscular weakness compared with serum from wild-type mice. In contrast, numbers of lymph node cells secreting IFN-gamma and of those expressing IFN-gamma mRNA were strongly augmented in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, reflecting a failure of negative feedback circuits. Cytokine studies by in situ hybridization revealed lower levels of lymphoid cells expressing AChR-reactive IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in AChR + CFA-immunized IFN-gammaR-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences were found for AChR-reactive cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta mRNA. These results indicate that IFN-gamma promotes systemic humoral responses in EAMG by up-regulating the production and the affinity of anti-AChR autoantibodies, thereby contributing to susceptibility to EAMG in C57BL/6-type mice.  (+info)

Reconciling repertoire shift with affinity maturation: the role of deleterious mutations. (6/1752)

The shift in Ab repertoire, from Abs dominating certain primary B cell responses to genetically unrelated Abs dominating subsequent "memory" responses, challenges the accepted paradigm of affinity maturation. We used mathematical modeling and computer simulations of the dynamics of B cell responses, hypermutation, selection, and memory cell formation to test hypotheses attempting to explain repertoire shift. We show that repertoire shift can be explained within the framework of the affinity maturation paradigm, only when we recognize the destructive nature of hypermutation: B cells with a high initial affinity for the Ag are less likely to improve through random mutations.  (+info)

Production of high affinity autoantibodies in autoimmune New Zealand Black/New Zealand white F1 mice targeted with an anti-DNA heavy chain. (7/1752)

Lupus-prone, anti-DNA, heavy (H) chain "knock-in" mice were obtained by backcrossing C57BL/6 mice, targeted with a rearranged H chain from a VH11(S107)-encoded anti-DNA hybridoma (D42), onto the autoimmune genetic background of New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) F1 mice. The targeted female mice developed typical lupus serologic manifestations, with the appearance of transgenic IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies at a young age (2-3 mo) and high affinity, somatically mutated IgM and IgG anti-DNA Abs at a later age (6-7 mo). However, they did not develop clinical, lupus-associated glomerulonephritis and survived to at least 18 mo of age. L chain analysis of transgenic anti-DNA Abs derived from diseased NZB/NZW mouse hybridomas showed a very restricted repertoire of Vkappa utilization, different from that of nonautoimmune (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 transgenic anti-DNA Abs. Strikingly, a single L chain was repetitively selected by most anti-DNA, transgenic NZB/NZW B cells to pair with the targeted H chain. This L chain had the same Vkappa-Jkappa rearrangement as that expressed by the original anti-DNA D42 hybridoma. These findings indicate that the kinetics of the autoimmune serologic manifestations are similar in wild-type and transgenic lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 mice and suggest that the breakdown of immunologic tolerance in these mice is associated with the preferential expansion and activation of B cell clones expressing high affinity anti-DNA H/L receptor combinations.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (8/1752)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Antibody affinity refers to the strength and specificity of the interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen at a molecular level. It is a measure of how strongly and selectively an antibody binds to its target antigen. A higher affinity indicates a more stable and specific binding, while a lower affinity suggests weaker and less specific interactions. Affinity is typically measured in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd), which describes the concentration of antigen needed to achieve half-maximal binding to an antibody. Generally, a smaller Kd value corresponds to a higher affinity, indicating a tighter and more selective bond. This parameter is crucial in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as immunoassays and targeted therapies, where high-affinity antibodies are preferred for improved sensitivity and specificity.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Tuftsin is a tetrapeptide (a chain of four amino acids) that plays an important role in the immune system. It is derived from the Fc fragment of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) antibodies after they have interacted with antigens and been cleaved by proteolytic enzymes.

Tuftsin enhances phagocytosis, which is the process by which certain cells in the immune system engulf and destroy foreign substances, bacteria, or dead cells. Specifically, it activates and increases the mobility of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, two types of white blood cells involved in the immune response.

The sequence of amino acids in tuftsin is Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg (Threonine-Lysine-Proline-Arginine). The presence and activity of tuftsin are essential for optimal immune function, and deficiencies or abnormalities in tuftsin have been linked to various immunological disorders.

Single-chain antibodies (scFvs) are small, artificial protein molecules that contain the antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins. They are formed by linking the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of an antibody via a flexible peptide linker, creating a single polypeptide chain. This design allows scFvs to maintain the specificity of traditional antibodies while being significantly smaller in size, more stable, and easier to produce. They have various applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics, including targeted drug delivery, tumor imaging, and the development of novel therapies for cancer and other diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when it is attached to a larger carrier protein. On its own, a hapten is too small to be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance. However, when it binds to a carrier protein, it creates a new antigenic site that can be detected by the immune system. This process is known as haptenization.

Haptens are important in the study of immunology and allergies because they can cause an allergic response when they bind to proteins in the body. For example, certain chemicals found in cosmetics, drugs, or industrial products can act as haptens and trigger an allergic reaction when they come into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. The resulting immune response can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, or inflammation.

Haptens can also be used in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tests, where they are attached to carrier proteins to stimulate an immune response and produce specific antibodies that can be measured or used for therapy.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) Fab fragments are the antigen-binding portions of an antibody that result from the digestion of the whole antibody molecule by enzymes such as papain. An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a Y-shaped protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, or toxins. The antibody has two identical antigen-binding sites, located at the tips of the two shorter arms, which can bind specifically to a target antigen.

Fab fragments are formed when an antibody is cleaved by papain, resulting in two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment. Each Fab fragment contains one antigen-binding site, composed of a variable region (Fv) and a constant region (C). The Fv region is responsible for the specificity and affinity of the antigen binding, while the C region contributes to the effector functions of the antibody.

Fab fragments are often used in various medical applications, such as immunodiagnostics and targeted therapies, due to their ability to bind specifically to target antigens without triggering an immune response or other effector functions associated with the Fc region.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

The Immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region is the antigen-binding part of an antibody, which is highly variable in its amino acid sequence and therefore specific to a particular epitope (the site on an antigen that is recognized by the antigen-binding site of an antibody). This variability is generated during the process of V(D)J recombination in the maturation of B cells, allowing for a diverse repertoire of antibodies to be produced and recognizing a wide range of potential pathogens.

The variable region is composed of several sub-regions including:

1. The heavy chain variable region (VH)
2. The light chain variable region (VL)
3. The heavy chain joining region (JH)
4. The light chain joining region (JL)

These regions are further divided into framework regions and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs, particularly CDR3, contain the most variability and are primarily responsible for antigen recognition.

Immune complex diseases are medical conditions that occur when the immune system produces an abnormal response to certain antigens, leading to the formation and deposition of immune complexes in various tissues and organs. These immune complexes consist of antibodies bound to antigens, which can trigger an inflammatory reaction and damage the surrounding tissue.

Immune complex diseases can be classified into two categories: acute and chronic. Acute immune complex diseases include serum sickness and hypersensitivity vasculitis, while chronic immune complex diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

The symptoms of immune complex diseases depend on the location and extent of tissue damage. They can range from mild to severe and may include fever, joint pain, skin rashes, kidney dysfunction, and neurological problems. Treatment typically involves medications that suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a physical phenomenon that occurs at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material, when electromagnetic radiation (usually light) is shone on it. It involves the collective oscillation of free electrons in the metal, known as surface plasmons, which are excited by the incident light. The resonance condition is met when the momentum and energy of the photons match those of the surface plasmons, leading to a strong absorption of light and an evanescent wave that extends into the dielectric material.

In the context of medical diagnostics and research, SPR is often used as a sensitive and label-free detection technique for biomolecular interactions. By immobilizing one binding partner (e.g., a receptor or antibody) onto the metal surface and flowing the other partner (e.g., a ligand or antigen) over it, changes in the refractive index at the interface can be measured in real-time as the plasmons are disturbed by the presence of bound molecules. This allows for the quantification of binding affinities, kinetics, and specificity with high sensitivity and selectivity.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

HIV antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the body. These antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific parts of the virus, known as antigens, in order to neutralize or eliminate it.

There are several types of HIV antibodies that can be produced, including:

1. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies: These are antibodies that specifically target the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, respectively.
2. Antibodies to HIV envelope proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the outer envelope of the virus, which is covered in glycoprotein spikes that allow the virus to attach to and enter host cells.
3. Antibodies to HIV core proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the interior of the viral particle, where the genetic material of the virus is housed.

The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood can be detected through a variety of tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. A positive test result for HIV antibodies indicates that an individual has been infected with the virus, although it may take several weeks or months after infection for the antibodies to become detectable.

Protein engineering is a branch of molecular biology that involves the modification of proteins to achieve desired changes in their structure and function. This can be accomplished through various techniques, including site-directed mutagenesis, gene shuffling, directed evolution, and rational design. The goal of protein engineering may be to improve the stability, activity, specificity, or other properties of a protein for therapeutic, diagnostic, industrial, or research purposes. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, and computational modeling.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are Y-shaped immune proteins. These heavy chains, along with light chains, form the antigen-binding sites of an antibody, which recognize and bind to specific foreign substances (antigens) in order to neutralize or remove them from the body.

The heavy chain is composed of a variable region, which contains the antigen-binding site, and constant regions that determine the class and function of the antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their heavy chain constant regions and therefore have different functions in the immune response.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are synthesized by B cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The genetic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes during B cell development results in the production of a vast array of different antibodies with unique antigen-binding sites, allowing for the recognition and elimination of a wide variety of pathogens.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Affinity labels are chemical probes or reagents that can selectively and covalently bind to a specific protein or biomolecule based on its biological function or activity. These labels contain a functional group that interacts with the target molecule, often through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, or ionic bonds. Once bound, the label then forms a covalent bond with the target molecule, allowing for its isolation and further study.

Affinity labels are commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to identify and characterize specific proteins, enzymes, or receptors. They can be designed to bind to specific active sites, binding pockets, or other functional regions of a protein, allowing researchers to study the structure-function relationships of these molecules.

One example of an affinity label is a substrate analogue that contains a chemically reactive group. This type of affinity label can be used to identify and characterize enzymes by binding to their active sites and forming a covalent bond with the enzyme. The labeled enzyme can then be purified and analyzed to determine its structure, function, and mechanism of action.

Overall, affinity labels are valuable tools for studying the properties and functions of biological molecules in vitro and in vivo.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Bispecific antibodies are a type of artificial protein that have been engineered to recognize and bind to two different antigens simultaneously. They are created by combining two separate antibody molecules, each with a unique binding site, into a single entity. This allows the bispecific antibody to link two cells or proteins together, bringing them into close proximity and facilitating various biological processes.

In the context of medicine and immunotherapy, bispecific antibodies are being investigated as a potential treatment for cancer and other diseases. For example, a bispecific antibody can be designed to recognize a specific tumor-associated antigen on the surface of cancer cells, while also binding to a component of the immune system, such as a T cell. This brings the T cell into close contact with the cancer cell, activating the immune system and triggering an immune response against the tumor.

Bispecific antibodies have several potential advantages over traditional monoclonal antibodies, which only recognize a single antigen. By targeting two different epitopes or antigens, bispecific antibodies can increase the specificity and affinity of the interaction, reducing off-target effects and improving therapeutic efficacy. Additionally, bispecific antibodies can bring together multiple components of the immune system, amplifying the immune response and enhancing the destruction of cancer cells.

Overall, bispecific antibodies represent a promising new class of therapeutics that have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and optimize their clinical use.

Blocking antibodies are a type of antibody that binds to a specific antigen but does not cause the immune system to directly attack the antigen. Instead, blocking antibodies prevent the antigen from interacting with other molecules or receptors, effectively "blocking" its activity. This can be useful in therapeutic settings, where blocking antibodies can be used to inhibit the activity of harmful proteins or toxins.

For example, some blocking antibodies have been developed to target and block the activity of specific cytokines, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and immune responses. By blocking the interaction between the cytokine and its receptor, these antibodies can help to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms in certain autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammatory conditions.

It's important to note that while blocking antibodies can be useful for therapeutic purposes, they can also have unintended consequences if they block the activity of essential proteins or molecules. Therefore, careful consideration and testing are required before using blocking antibodies as a treatment.

Catalytic antibodies, also known as abzymes or catalytic immune proteins, are a type of antibody that possesses enzymatic activity. They are capable of accelerating specific chemical reactions in a manner similar to traditional enzymes. This unique property arises from the ability of certain antibodies to bind substrates and promote their conversion into products through a series of chemical transformations.

Catalytic antibodies are generated by immunizing an organism with a transition state analogue, a molecule that mimics the high-energy, transient structure of a substrate during a chemical reaction. The immune system recognizes this analogue as foreign and produces antibodies against it. Some of these antibodies will bind to the transition state analogue in a way that stabilizes its geometry and lowers the energy barrier for the conversion of the substrate into the product. This results in the formation of a catalytic antibody, which can then accelerate this specific chemical reaction when presented with the appropriate substrate.

These specialized antibodies have attracted significant interest in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and immunology due to their potential applications in various areas, including drug design, diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. However, it is important to note that catalytic antibodies are still a subject of ongoing research, and their use as practical tools in these applications is not yet widespread.

Heterophile antibodies are a type of antibody that can react with antigens from more than one source, rather than being specific to a single antigen. They are produced in response to an initial infection or immunization, but can also cross-react with antigens from unrelated organisms or substances. A common example of heterophile antibodies are those that are produced in response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which can cause infectious mononucleosis. These antibodies, known as Paul-Bunnell antibodies, can agglutinate (clump together) sheep or horse red blood cells, which is the basis for a diagnostic test for EBV infection called the Monospot test. However, it's important to note that not all cases of infectious mononucleosis are caused by EBV, and other infections or conditions can also cause the production of heterophile antibodies, leading to false-positive results.

A hybridoma is a type of hybrid cell that is created in a laboratory by fusing a cancer cell (usually a B cell) with a normal immune cell. The resulting hybrid cell combines the ability of the cancer cell to grow and divide indefinitely with the ability of the immune cell to produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight infection.

Hybridomas are commonly used to produce monoclonal antibodies, which are identical copies of a single antibody produced by a single clone of cells. These antibodies can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnostic tests and treatments for diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

To create hybridomas, B cells are first isolated from the spleen or blood of an animal that has been immunized with a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The B cells are then fused with cancer cells using a chemical agent such as polyethylene glycol. The resulting hybrid cells are called hybridomas and are grown in culture medium, where they can be selected for their ability to produce antibodies specific to the antigen of interest. These antibody-producing hybridomas can then be cloned to produce large quantities of monoclonal antibodies.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Epitope mapping is a technique used in immunology to identify the specific portion or regions (called epitopes) on an antigen that are recognized and bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This process helps to understand the molecular basis of immune responses against various pathogens, allergens, or transplanted tissues.

Epitope mapping can be performed using different methods such as:

1. Peptide scanning: In this method, a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the antigen are synthesized and tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. The peptide that shows binding is considered to contain the epitope.
2. Site-directed mutagenesis: In this approach, specific amino acids within the antigen are altered, and the modified antigens are tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This helps in identifying the critical residues within the epitope.
3. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy: These techniques provide detailed information about the three-dimensional structure of antigen-antibody complexes, allowing for accurate identification of epitopes at an atomic level.

The results from epitope mapping can be useful in various applications, including vaccine design, diagnostic test development, and understanding the basis of autoimmune diseases.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Immunoglobulin fragments refer to the smaller protein units that are formed by the digestion or break-down of an intact immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. Immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They consist of two heavy chains and two light chains, held together by disulfide bonds.

The digestion or break-down of an immunoglobulin can occur through enzymatic cleavage, which results in the formation of distinct fragments. The most common immunoglobulin fragments are:

1. Fab (Fragment, antigen binding) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme papain. Each Fab fragment contains a single antigen-binding site, consisting of a portion of one heavy chain and one light chain. The Fab fragments retain their ability to bind to specific antigens.
2. Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme pepsin or through the natural breakdown process in the body. The Fc fragment contains the constant region of both heavy chains and is responsible for effector functions such as complement activation, binding to Fc receptors on immune cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

These immunoglobulin fragments play crucial roles in various immune responses and diagnostic applications. For example, Fab fragments can be used in immunoassays for the detection of specific antigens, while Fc fragments can mediate effector functions that help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells from the body.

Antiphospholipid antibodies are a type of autoantibody that targets and binds to certain proteins found in the blood that attach to phospholipids (a type of fat molecule). These antibodies are associated with an increased risk of developing antiphospholipid syndrome, a disorder characterized by abnormal blood clotting.

There are several types of antiphospholipid antibodies, including:

1. Lupus anticoagulant: This type of antiphospholipid antibody can interfere with blood clotting tests and may increase the risk of thrombosis (blood clots) in both arteries and veins.
2. Anticardiolipin antibodies: These antibodies target a specific phospholipid called cardiolipin, which is found in the inner membrane of mitochondria. High levels of anticardiolipin antibodies are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and pregnancy complications such as recurrent miscarriage.
3. Anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies: These antibodies target a protein called β2 glycoprotein I, which binds to negatively charged phospholipids on the surface of cells. High levels of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and pregnancy complications.

The exact mechanism by which antiphospholipid antibodies cause blood clotting is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the activation of platelets, the inhibition of natural anticoagulants, and the promotion of inflammation. Antiphospholipid syndrome can be treated with medications that thin the blood or prevent clots from forming, such as aspirin, warfarin, or heparin.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

A peptide library is a collection of a large number of peptides, which are short chains of amino acids. Each peptide in the library is typically composed of a defined length and sequence, and may contain a variety of different amino acids. Peptide libraries can be synthesized using automated techniques and are often used in scientific research to identify potential ligands (molecules that bind to specific targets) or to study the interactions between peptides and other molecules.

In a peptide library, each peptide is usually attached to a solid support, such as a resin bead, and the entire library can be created using split-and-pool synthesis techniques. This allows for the rapid and efficient synthesis of a large number of unique peptides, which can then be screened for specific activities or properties.

Peptide libraries are used in various fields such as drug discovery, proteomics, and molecular biology to identify potential therapeutic targets, understand protein-protein interactions, and develop new diagnostic tools.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Immunosorbent techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry to isolate or detect specific proteins, antibodies, or antigens from a complex mixture. These techniques utilize the specific binding properties of antibodies or antigens to capture and concentrate target molecules.

The most common immunosorbent technique is the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), which involves coating a solid surface with a capture antibody, allowing the sample to bind, washing away unbound material, and then detecting bound antigens or antibodies using an enzyme-conjugated detection reagent. The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric reaction that can be measured and quantified, providing a sensitive and specific assay for the target molecule.

Other immunosorbent techniques include Radioimmunoassay (RIA), Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), and Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA). These methods have wide-ranging applications in research, diagnostics, and drug development.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Immunologic techniques are a group of laboratory methods that utilize the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to specific molecules, known as antigens. These techniques are widely used in medicine, biology, and research to detect, measure, or identify various substances, including proteins, hormones, viruses, bacteria, and other antigens.

Some common immunologic techniques include:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A sensitive assay used to detect and quantify antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen, which reacts with a substrate to produce a colored product that can be measured and quantified.
2. Immunofluorescence: A microscopic technique used to visualize the location of antigens or antibodies in tissues or cells. This technique uses fluorescent dyes conjugated to antibodies, which bind to specific antigens and emit light when excited by a specific wavelength of light.
3. Western Blotting: A laboratory technique used to detect and identify specific proteins in a sample. This technique involves separating proteins based on their size using electrophoresis, transferring them to a membrane, and then probing the membrane with antibodies that recognize the protein of interest.
4. Immunoprecipitation: A laboratory technique used to isolate and purify specific antigens or antibodies from a complex mixture. This technique involves incubating the mixture with an antibody that recognizes the antigen or antibody of interest, followed by precipitation of the antigen-antibody complex using a variety of methods.
5. Radioimmunoassay (RIA): A sensitive assay used to detect and quantify antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique uses radioactively labeled antigens or antibodies, which bind to specific antigens or antibodies in the sample, allowing for detection and quantification using a scintillation counter.

These techniques are important tools in medical diagnosis, research, and forensic science.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Immunoglobulin idiotypes refer to the unique antigenic determinants found on the variable regions of an immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule. These determinants are specific to each individual antibody and can be used to distinguish between different antibodies produced by a single individual or between antibodies produced by different individuals.

The variable region of an antibody is responsible for recognizing and binding to a specific antigen. The amino acid sequence in this region varies between different antibodies, and it is these variations that give rise to the unique idiotypes. Idiotypes can be used as markers to study the immune response, including the clonal selection and affinity maturation of B cells during an immune response.

Immunoglobulin idiotypes are also important in the development of monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic use. By identifying and isolating a specific antibody with the desired idiotype, it is possible to produce large quantities of identical antibodies that can be used to treat various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a type of autoantibody that specifically target certain proteins in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell. These antibodies are associated with several types of vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels.

There are two main types of ANCAs: perinuclear ANCAs (p-ANCAs) and cytoplasmic ANCAs (c-ANCAs). p-ANCAs are directed against myeloperoxidase, a protein found in neutrophil granules, while c-ANCAs target proteinase 3, another protein found in neutrophil granules.

The presence of ANCAs in the blood can indicate an increased risk for developing certain types of vasculitis, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). ANCA testing is often used in conjunction with other clinical findings to help diagnose and manage these conditions.

It's important to note that while the presence of ANCAs can indicate an increased risk for vasculitis, not everyone with ANCAs will develop the condition. Additionally, ANCAs can also be found in some individuals without any associated disease, so their presence should be interpreted in the context of other clinical findings.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

A precipitin test is a type of immunodiagnostic test used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum. The test is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction, where the addition of an antigen to a solution containing its corresponding antibody results in the formation of an insoluble immune complex known as a precipitin.

In this test, a small amount of the patient's serum is added to a solution containing a known antigen or antibody. If the patient has antibodies or antigens that correspond to the added reagent, they will bind and form a visible precipitate. The size and density of the precipitate can be used to quantify the amount of antibody or antigen present in the sample.

Precipitin tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. They can also be used in forensic science to identify biological samples. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern immunological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and radioimmunoassays (RIAs).

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

Antibody diversity refers to the variety of different antibodies that an organism can produce in response to exposure to various antigens. This diversity is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, which occurs during the development of B cells in the bone marrow.

The variable regions of heavy and light chains of antibody molecules are generated by the random selection and rearrangement of gene segments (V, D, and J) from different combinations. This results in a unique antigen-binding site for each antibody molecule, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential pathogens.

Further diversity is generated through the processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, which introduce additional changes in the variable regions of antibodies during an immune response. These processes allow for the affinity maturation of antibodies, where the binding strength between the antibody and antigen is increased over time, leading to a more effective immune response.

Overall, antibody diversity is critical for the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens and protect against infection and disease.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances like pathogens or antigens. The term "immunoglobulin isotypes" refers to the different classes of immunoglobulins that share a similar structure but have distinct functions and properties.

There are five main isotypes of immunoglobulins in humans, namely IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each isotype has a unique heavy chain constant region (CH) that determines its effector functions, such as binding to Fc receptors, complement activation, or protection against pathogens.

IgA is primarily found in external secretions like tears, saliva, and breast milk, providing localized immunity at mucosal surfaces. IgD is expressed on the surface of B cells and plays a role in their activation and differentiation. IgE is associated with allergic responses and binds to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation.

IgG is the most abundant isotype in serum and has several subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their effector functions. IgG can cross the placenta, providing passive immunity to the fetus. IgM is the first antibody produced during an immune response and is primarily found in the bloodstream, where it forms large pentameric complexes that are effective at agglutination and complement activation.

Overall, immunoglobulin isotypes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response, providing specific and diverse mechanisms for recognizing and neutralizing foreign substances.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A radioligand assay is a type of in vitro binding assay used in molecular biology and pharmacology to measure the affinity and quantity of a ligand (such as a drug or hormone) to its specific receptor. In this technique, a small amount of a radioactively labeled ligand, also known as a radioligand, is introduced to a sample containing the receptor of interest. The radioligand binds competitively with other unlabeled ligands present in the sample for the same binding site on the receptor. After allowing sufficient time for binding, the reaction is stopped, and the amount of bound radioligand is measured using a technique such as scintillation counting. The data obtained from this assay can be used to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of the receptor-ligand interaction, which are important parameters in understanding the pharmacological properties of drugs and other ligands.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

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Check out specifications and order ARG1 Antibody online. Same day delivery available. ... Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences Logo and all other trademarks are the property of Affinity Biosciences LTD.. ... These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind ... By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific. ...
Sino Biologicals antibody humanization services have high in-vivo tolerability and >95% humanization. ... Affinity validation. *Antibody/antigen affinity validation. Preparation of chimeric antibody. *Transient expression and ... Affinity detection: ELISA, Biacore and Octet. Deliverables. *Top three humanized antibodies, 0.2~0.5 mg per strain (at least 1 ... The figure below demonstrates that the humanized antibody maintains a similar level of affinity when compared to the parental ...
The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation ... Antibody complexes[edit]. Some antibodies form complexes that bind to multiple antigen molecules.. Secreted antibodies can ... This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibodys antigen-binding affinity.[47] Some point ... Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds, like antibodies, that can specifically bind antigens. They ...
Affinity enhancement of antibodies: how low-affinity antibodies produced early in immune responses are followed by high- ... Conservation of mechanisms underlying mutation and selection of high-affinity antibodies over the ≈200 million years of ... Imperfect correlation between BCR affinity for antigen and cognate T-cell engagement may account for the increasing affinity ... with low affinity for the antigen, while the antibodies produced later are lower MW classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) with, on ...
Guided by these determinations, the antibody is accordingly modified (altered) to improve upon, e.g., antibody/antigen binding ... distribution of the CDRs of the antibody which minimizes electrostatic contribution to binding free energy between the antibody ... using data corresponding to the structure of a complex between the antibody and an antigen in a solvent, a representation of a ... by modifying at least one amino acid residue to decrease the binding free energy between the antibody and antigen when bound in ...
Researchers in France report impaired neutralization of two new SARS-CoV-2 variants by antibodies induced by vaccination or ... Tags: ACE2, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Antibodies, Antibody, Antigen, binding affinity, Coronavirus, ... Antibody binding to cells expressing D614G, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Spikes. a. Binding of monoclonal antibodies or soluble ACE2. ... After 24h, cells were stained with anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies mAb10 (a pan-coronavirus antibody), mAb48, mAb102 or soluble ACE2 ...
Our high throughput kinetics mAb screening can analyze antigen antibody binding interactions to determine binding kinetics. ... Determining Antibody Affinity. Both the on-rate (ka) and off-rate (kd) of antibodies are of equal importance in determining ... Common Light Chain Chickens Produce Human Antibodies of High Affinity and Broad Epitope Coverage for the Engineering of ... A Natively Paired Antibody Library Yields Drug Leads with Higher Sensitivity and Specificity Than a Randomly Paired Antibody ...
Tissue Factor Polyclonal Antibody - HRP Conjugated. Antibodies Affinitys Tissue Factor Polyclonal Antibody - HRP Conjugated is ... Applications: This antibody is generally intended for use as a labeled primary antibody in applications such as immunoassays ... Tissue Factor Polyclonal Antibody. SATF-IG - Sheep anti human Tissue Factor, purified IgG (10.0 mg vial) ... Our custom solutions include protein purification, antibody production, assay development, custom manufacturing, and ...
Affinity Purified) is a high quality research product available for a wide array of chemical, biochemical and immunological ... Rabbit NMDA NR2A Subunit Antibody is a high quality affinity purified rabbit polyclonal NMDA NR2A subunity antibody. This ... Rabbit NMDA NR2A Subunit Antibody (Affinity Purified). $1,795.00. $895.00. Catalog Number: B2012899 (100 uL). ... Products Related to Rabbit NMDA NR2A Subunit Antibody can be found at Antibodies ...
Antibodies Affinitys a2-Antiplasmin (α2AP also known as Alpha 2-Plasmin Inhibitor or α2PI) Polyclonal Antibody - HRP ... Alpha-2-Antiplasmin Polyclonal Antibody - Affinity Purified. GA2AP-AP - Goat anti human Alpah-2-Antiplasmin, affinity purified ... Applications: This antibody is generally intended for use as a labeled primary antibody in applications such as immunoassays ... A2AP Polyclonal Antibody. SA2AP-IG - Sheep anti human A2AP, purified IgG (10.0 mg vial) ...
Methods: R1507 is a monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1R. In vitro, the affinity and internalization kinetics of 111 ... Furthermore, R1507 is an internalizing antibody with high affinity for the IGF-1R (IC50, 0.1 nM). The results of the ... 111In-R1507 showed high specific uptake in SUM149 xenografts on day 3 at doses less than 10 μg of antibody per mouse (Fig. 4). ... 89Zr immuno-PET: comprehensive procedures for the production of 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:1271- ...
Affinity Biosciences将不会对在使用我们的产品时可能发生的专利侵权或其他侵权行为负责。Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences标志和所有其他商标所有权归Affinity Biosciences ...
Affinity Biosciences将不会对在使用我们的产品时可能发生的专利侵权或其他侵权行为负责。Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences标志和所有其他商标所有权归Affinity Biosciences ... C-E) Expression of IL-8 (TRITC secondary antibodies), TNF-α (FITC secondary antibodies), and iNOS (TRITC secondary antibodies) ... The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific). ... has a
Our FAK Polyclonal Antibody price is reasonable. Check more details about FAK Polyclonal Antibody now. ... Antibodies. Flow Cytometry Antibodies Polyclonal Antibody Monoclonal Antibody Virus Antibody Secondary Antibody KO Validated ... Acetyl Phospho Methyl Antibody Ready-to-Use Antibodies Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Kits. SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kit ELISA Kits Food ... IHC Validated Antibodies Cancer Research Antibodies TUNEL Assay Kit Immunology Related Reagents ...
Affinity Biosciences将不会对在使用我们的产品时可能发生的专利侵权或其他侵权行为负责。Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences标志和所有其他商标所有权归Affinity Biosciences ... The antibody is from purified rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho-peptide and non- ...
  • Here, we describe a new method (immuno-SILAC) for the absolute quantification of proteins in complex samples based on polyclonal antibodies and stable isotope-labeled recombinant protein fragments to allow affinity enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis and accurate quantification. (nih.gov)
  • Epitope mapping revealed that a majority of the polyclonal antibodies recognized multiple linear epitopes, and based on these results, a semi-automated method was developed for peptide enrichment using polyclonal antibodies immobilized on protein A-coated magnetic beads. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that polyclonal antibodies generated via immunization of recombinant protein fragments could be used for the enrichment of target peptides to allow for rapid mass spectrometry analysis taking advantage of a substantial reduction in sample complexity. (nih.gov)
  • In this chapter, we present a flow cytometry-based assay to measure and calculate the cell surface binding affinity or avidity of any mono- or polyclonal antibody solution. (lu.se)
  • Affinity's Tissue Factor Polyclonal Antibody - HRP Conjugated is a whole IgG purified from antiserum conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • Rabbit NMDA NR2A Subunit Antibody is a high quality affinity purified rabbit polyclonal NMDA NR2A subunity antibody. (moleculardepot.com)
  • Affinity's a2-Antiplasmin (α 2 AP also known as Alpha 2-Plasmin Inhibitor or α 2 PI) Polyclonal Antibody - HRP Conjugated is a whole IgG purified from antiserum conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of Jurkat cells and K562 cells using FAK Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:1000. (elabscience.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human thyroid cancer using STX11 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:30. (elabscience.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of Mouse lung tissue using STX11 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:400. (elabscience.com)
  • This product is an Affinity-Purified SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19, 2019-nCov) Spike S2 Domain polyclonal Antibody. (affinityimmuno.com)
  • Chicken Polyclonal COVID-19 Antibody. (affinityimmuno.com)
  • 26-6401-05 biological source: goat conjugate: peroxidase conjugate antibody form: purified immunoglobulin antibody product type: secondary antibodies clone: polyclonal species reactivity: rabbit concentration: 1. (caslab.com)
  • 15-30120 biological source: rabbit Quality Level: 100 conjugate: peroxidase conjugate antibody form: affinity purified immunoglobulin antibody product type: secondary antibodies clone: polyclonal species. (caslab.com)
  • 271-16873 Description: APC-Cy7 tandem-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Application: FC, IF Catlog: 16873 Clone Type: polyclonal Conjugation: APC/Cy7 Product Type: Antibodies Secondary Shipping. (caslab.com)
  • 89-GT15051-100 Product name Anti-Islet 1 antibody Description Rabbit polyclonal to Islet 1 Host species Rabbit Specificity ab20670 might also detect rat and human Islet 2 protein as the immunogen used to raise this. (caslab.com)
  • 503-1806 Target HBSAg (HBsAg) Reactivity Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Host Rabbit Compatible Secondaries Clonality Polyclonal Conjugate This HBSAg antibody is. (anobase.org)
  • 498-BS-1158R-A594 Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat Host/Isotype: Rabbit / IgG Class: Polyclonal Type: Antibody Immunogen: AGEs. (anobase.org)
  • 26-7009-100 Species Reactivity Human Host/Isotype Goat / IgG Class Polyclonal Type Antibody Immunogen a1-Anti-Trypsin [Human Plasma] Conjugate Unconjugated Form. (anobase.org)
  • UBE1L Antibody detects endogenous levels of total UBE1L. (affbiotech.com)
  • MSK1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total MSK1. (affbiotech.com)
  • ARG1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total ARG1. (affbiotech.com)
  • Non-humanized antibodies, like mouse monoclonal antibodies, can trigger strong immune responses in the body, such as the human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study we have profiled a panel of mouse antihuman CD40 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), regarding their CD40 binding affinity and epitope-specificity relative to the CD40L binding in relation to their cellular activating potential. (lu.se)
  • In particular, next generation therapeutics derived from monoclonal antibodies (e.g. (sbir.gov)
  • Affinity chromatography provides an excellent platform for protein purification, which is a key step in the large scale downstream processing of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). (nih.gov)
  • Monoclonal antibodies and affinity chromatography have been used to purify these glycoproteins and thus provide antigens for type-specific herpes serologic assays. (cdc.gov)
  • In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3 complex as well as the recombinant LC of A1. (cdc.gov)
  • The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific). (affbiotech.com)
  • The antibody is from purified rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho-peptide and non-phospho-peptide affinity columns. (affbiotech.cn)
  • Whole IgG antibodies are isolated as intact molecules from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The antibody was purified from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • 519-BA1039-1 SKU/Catalog Number: BA1039 Product Description: This antibody is purified from antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography which removes essentially all goat serum proteins, except the specific. (caslab.com)
  • Karimi R, Mostafaie A, Tabaraie B, Bahrami Y, Abdolalizadeh J. Reaction of Native and Denatured Brucella abortus (S19) Proteins with Antibody Using Affinity Chromatography and Immunoblotting. (ac.ir)
  • In this study proteins of Brucella abortus (S19) was extracted by a mild method and reaction of the extracted proteins with serum of infected human and goat and immunized rabbit compared by affinity chromatography and immunoblotting. (ac.ir)
  • Second, affinity chromatography using immobilized antibodies was employed. (cdc.gov)
  • One vial containing 420 mg of trastuzumab, a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cell suspension culture and purified by chromatography including specific viral inactivation and removal procedures. (who.int)
  • The affinity matured starting antibody has a higher binding specificity and affinity than the target antigen. (patentpc.com)
  • The mutations alter the binding specificity and binding affinities of the resultant antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40nm GOLD conjugate of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, 2019-nCoV) Spike (S2) antibody. (affinityimmuno.com)
  • Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF0288, RRID:AB_2833456. (affbiotech.com)
  • 引用格式: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF6003, RRID:AB_2834938. (affbiotech.cn)
  • 88-11941-05011 To minimize cross-reactivity, these rabbit anti-mouse IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and. (anobase.org)
  • Denaturation of many proteins in immunoblotting can affect greatly the reactivity of antibodies and outcome of the procedure. (ac.ir)
  • Here, we show that we were able to use small amounts of antibodies (50 ng per target) in this manner for efficient multiplex analysis of quantitative levels of proteins in a human HeLa cell lysate. (nih.gov)
  • All of Sino Biological's products are independently developed and produced, including recombinant proteins, antibodies and cDNA clones. (labx.com)
  • Antibody-antigen affinity is often evaluated with isolated proteins. (lu.se)
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 k Da ) proteins of about 10 nm in size, [7] arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • No antibody was detected against the Fc portion of human IgG or against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The antibody exhibits inherent minimal cross-reaction to mouse serum proteins and has been tested by ELISA and/or solid-phase adsorbed to ensure minimal cross-reaction with bovine, horse and mouse serum proteins. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The extracted proteins were loaded on the affinity column. (ac.ir)
  • 1- The proteins that adsorbed to the affinity column and react with IgG in westernblotting. (ac.ir)
  • However, the required acidic conditions (2.8-3.5) for elution from the affinity matrix limit their applicability, particularly for next generation antibodies and antibody fusion proteins, since denaturation and irreversible aggregation can occur due to the acidic buffer conditions. (nih.gov)
  • NC also exhibits a strong affinity for both nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and proteins (antigens and antibodies) and is, therefore, used extensively in research and clinical settings for the immobilization of nucleic acids and/or proteins for analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • 135 antibodies against 65 mainly immunoregulatory proteins, we of a multitude of different genes (8, 9). (lu.se)
  • Structurally an antibody is also partitioned into two antigen-binding fragments (Fab), containing one V L , V H , C L , and C H 1 domain each, as well as the crystallisable fragment (Fc), forming the trunk of the Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other fragments and chimeric antibodies have also been made. (justia.com)
  • This document describes methods for affinity maturation of antibodies and fragments of them based on structure/activity relation (SAR). (patentpc.com)
  • Applications for an engineered Protein-G variant with a pH controllable affinity to antibody fragments. (uchicago.edu)
  • A potential solution to these problems is to select intracellular antibody fragments to block PPIs, use these antibody fragments for target validation in disease models and finally derive small molecules overlapping the antibody-binding site. (rcsb.org)
  • Our results may aid RAS-dependent cancer drug development and demonstrate a general concept for developing small compounds to replace intracellular antibody fragments, enabling rational drug development to target validated PPIs. (rcsb.org)
  • The in vitro affinity maturation has successfully been used to optimize antibodies, antibody fragments or other peptide molecules like antibody mimetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two or three rounds of mutation and selection using display methods like phage display usually results in antibody fragments with affinities in the low nanomolar range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concatenation of the short recognition sequence enabled the successful engineering of an 18-residue affinity tag with ideal solution binding kinetics, providing a low-cost purification means when combined with nondenaturing elution by water-miscible organic solvents. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Ainnocence, a leading AI innovator in biotechnology launched a groundbreaking AI-enabled platform for antibody affinity maturation and de novo design. (wowktv.com)
  • Our AI-powered Fast Affinity Maturation Service offers a multitude of benefits over conventional methods such as phage display and hybridoma generation. (wowktv.com)
  • Our service encompasses de novo antibody design and fixed template antibody affinity maturation. (wowktv.com)
  • Provided herein are rational methods of affinity maturation to evolve an antibody's activity or a portion thereof based upon the structure/affinity/activity relationship of an antigen. (patentpc.com)
  • This method entails affinity maturation of a portion of a first or secondary antibody for a target protein. (patentpc.com)
  • In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which TFH cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affinity maturation primarily occurs on membrane immunoglobulin of germinal center B cells and as a direct result of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and selection by TFH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the natural prototype, the in vitro affinity maturation is based on the principles of mutation and selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Doherty Institute has confirmed that Affinity's antibodies can completely neutralise the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 at a single digit microgram/ml concentration in a five-day virus neutralisation assay. (prnewswire.com)
  • Top) The results from a single capture kinetics assay where a monovalent target (analyte) was titrated over 384 antibodies, each captured onto individual spots of a 384-array. (carterra-bio.com)
  • Antibody-free and selective detection of okadaic acid using an affinity peptide-based indirect assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we developed an affinity peptide -based direct competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc- ELISA ) for the detection of OA in real samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Low vaccination age avidity assay to analyse sera from labora- is known to adversely affect measles vac- tory-confirmed measles patients, in order to cine efficacy, mainly due to the presence of determine how many were cases of reinfec- maternal antibodies, and this is regarded as tion (i.e. high-avidity antibodies) and how primary vaccine failure [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • A protocol based on the simultaneous multiplex capture of more than 40 protein targets showed that approximately half of the antibodies enriched at least one functional peptide detected in the subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. (nih.gov)
  • These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. (affbiotech.com)
  • Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. (affbiotech.com)
  • We introduce a novel affinity peptide tagging system that uses a low affinity anti-peptide monoclonal antibody. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Three-dimensional information provides a firm structural basis for the antibody-peptide interaction, opening opportunities for further improvements/modifications. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These results suggest that the affinity peptide -based dc- ELISA can be a promising tool for detecting OA in shellfish samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Affinity enhancement of antibodies: how low-affinity antibodies produced early in immune responses are followed by high-affinity antibodies later and in memory B-cell responses. (qxmd.com)
  • Conservation of mechanisms underlying mutation and selection of high-affinity antibodies over the ≈200 million years of evolution separating bird and mammal lineages points to the crucial role of antibody affinity enhancement in adaptive immunity. (qxmd.com)
  • Recipients of two-dose Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, as well as recipients of the single-dose J&J vaccine, develop high-affinity antibodies toward RBD derived from ancestral SARS-CoV-2. (cdc.gov)
  • After discovering a number of candidate antibodies that block the virus spike protein from binding to its human receptor, Affinity engaged The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity (Doherty Institute) in April to conduct testing using the virus in the laboratory. (prnewswire.com)
  • This platform, combined with our wet lab partner's high-throughput recombinant antibody development program, expedites the expression and validation of top candidate antibodies, resulting in cost-effective, rapid generation of high-affinity data with an impressive hit rate of 15%, up to 85% project success rate and 80% cost and time saving. (wowktv.com)
  • High throughput kinetics facilitates robust selection of candidate antibodies with binding profiles better aligned to specific therapeutic objectives. (carterra-bio.com)
  • Pires D, Ascher D, mCSM-AB: a web server for predicting antibody-antigen affinity changes upon mutation with graph-based signatures, Nucleic Acids Res. (lu.se)
  • Kumra Ahnlide, V & Nordenfelt, P 2023, Measurement of Antibody Binding Affinity on Bacterial Surfaces Using Flow Cytometry . (lu.se)
  • Western blotting or immunoblotting commonly use for study of reaction between antigens and antibodies. (ac.ir)
  • Affinity Biosciences, Affinity Biosciences Logo and all other trademarks are the property of Affinity Biosciences LTD. (affbiotech.com)
  • Numerous monoclonal therapeutic and diagnostic monoclonal antibody (MAbs), are used in clinical settings to diagnose and treat human diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. (patentpc.com)
  • Of the large library of BCR-mutated B cells thus rapidly generated, a small minority with affinity-enhancing mutations are selected to survive and differentiate into long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. (qxmd.com)
  • It is noteworthy that all of them share some escape mutations already known to have emerged under the selection pressure of antibody exposure, both from immune serum or therapeutic antibody use in prolonged survival within immunocompromised individuals, and from the antibodies elicited by natural infection. (news-medical.net)
  • The mutations in both the B.1.351 and P.1 strains, including E484K and K417N/T, are thought to enhance viral fitness and may confer antibody resistance in part, at least. (news-medical.net)
  • Li M, Petukh M, Alexov E, Panchenko A, Predicting the Impact of Missense Mutations on Protein-Protein Binding Affinity,J Chem Theory Comput:1770-1780. (lu.se)
  • Huang X, Zheng W, Pearce R, Zhang Y, Huang X, Zheng W, Pearce R, Zhang Y, SSIPe: accurately estimating protein-protein binding affinity change upon mutations using evolutionary profiles in combination with an optimized physical energy function, Bioinformatics;36(8):2429-2437. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, miltuximab, a chimeric anti-GPC1 antibody, was shown to be safe and well tolerated when radiolabeled in a clinical trial 21 . (nature.com)
  • The antibodies produced initially in response to most antigens are high molecular weight (MW) immunoglobulins (IgM) with low affinity for the antigen, while the antibodies produced later are lower MW classes (e.g. (qxmd.com)
  • Antibodies, which are also commonly referred to as immunoglobulins, contain four polypeptides: two longer polypeptides ("heavy chains") that are identical to one another and two shorter polypeptides ("light chains") that are identical to one another. (justia.com)
  • The antibody may cross-react with immunoglobulins from other species. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • A new study by researchers in France reports impaired neutralization of two new SARS-CoV-2 variants by antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Antibodies without IgE antibody, could be regarded as a modified Th2 to Fel d 1 of the IgG4 isotype were strongly correlated with IgG response. (cdc.gov)
  • The results for isotype specific antibodies of children in our study were related to evidence of sensitisation, exposure, and the risk of asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Incubation of test serum with the disk allows specific antibodies, if present, to bind to the immobilized antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • During this time, antibody tests may be negative for HIV, but the serum viral load (the amount of HIV virus in the blood) is detectable and can be quite high (millions of copies per milliliter). (medscape.com)
  • 5000 serum samples of suspected measles students who donated blood just before cases were collected annually in all parts of infection, low antibody levels increased the the Islamic Republic of Iran, of which about risk of measles [ 9 ]. (who.int)
  • A secondary response can elicit antibodies with several fold greater affinity than in a primary response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary cess of measles vaccination [ 16 ] and offers failure indicates that the vaccine has not a way of assessing the type of vaccine taken and does not induce any immuno- failure without knowledge of prior antibody logical response, while secondary failure status [ 15,17,18 ]. (who.int)
  • Secondary vac- many were cases of primary infection (i.e. cine failures, however, are largely attributed low-avidity antibodies). (who.int)
  • In March, Affinity commenced screening its proprietary library of one hundred billion human antibodies to discover those that might neutralise SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (prnewswire.com)
  • We took advantage of the antibody resources publicly available from the Human Protein Atlas project covering more than 80% of all human protein-coding genes. (nih.gov)
  • DOTA antibody reporter 1 (DAbR1) comprises a single-chain fragment of the antilanthanoid-DOTA antibody 2D12.5/G54C fused to the human CD4-transmembrane domain and binds irreversibly to lanthanoid ( S )-2-(4-acrylamidobenzyl)-DOTA (AABD). (snmjournals.org)
  • To overcome this issue, genetic engineering can be used to humanize these antibodies, making them more similar to naturally occurring human antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • They utilize complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting technology and computer-aided molecular modeling to make non-human antibodies more compatible with the human immune system. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers hoped that such antibodies would be no more foreign to the human body than a genuine human antibody, but the utility of such antibodies has been restricted, at least in some cases, by a reduction in the antibody's affinity for the antigen. (justia.com)
  • We believe that this analysis of several mouse anti-CD40 antibodies can be used to develop strategies for producing new human anti-CD40 antibodies that can more effectively induce or block B-cell proliferation. (lu.se)
  • Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with the F(ab') 2 /Fab portion of human IgG. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Background: Apitegromab (SRK-015) is a fully human, high-affinity anti-proMyostatin monoclonal antibody that binds to human proMyostatin and latent myostatin and inhibits the tolloid-mediated proteolysis step for myostatin activation. (mdaconference.org)
  • The antibody repertoire was displayed on yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae screened via FACS toward pH- and magnesium-responsive scFvs which specifically recognize human IgG antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • After extensive washing to remove non-reactive antibodies, the bound antibodies are detected by sequential treatment with peroxidase-conjugated goat-anti-human IgG and the enzyme substrate (H 2 O 2 with chromogen 4-chloro-1-naphthol). (cdc.gov)
  • Customers can provide antigen sequences, active or inactive antibody sequences, and binding affinity data for a customized approach. (wowktv.com)
  • Antibody binding to bacterial surfaces plays a crucial role in immunity, and a key characteristic of this protein-protein interaction is the binding affinity. (lu.se)
  • The invention relates to methods of modulating the antigen-binding affinity of an antibody by determining, using data corresponding to the structure of a complex between the antibody and an antigen in a solvent, a representation of a charge distribution of the CDRs of the antibody which minimizes electrostatic contribution to binding free energy between the antibody and the antigen in a solvent. (justia.com)
  • Zhang C, Zheng W, Zhang Y, BindProfX: Assessing Mutation-Induced Binding Affinity Change by Protein Interface Profiles with Pseudo-Counts, J Mol Biol. (lu.se)
  • Wang M, Cang Z, Wei G, A topology-based network tree for the prediction of protein-protein binding affinity changes following mutation, Nat Mach Intell):116-123. (lu.se)
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, [1] though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, several small-molecule inhibitors and antibodies directed against the IGF-1R are being developed and tested in phase I and II clinical trials. (snmjournals.org)
  • germline segments for the nucleic acids molecule encoding variable light chain of first antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with whole molecule horse IgG. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • 6FA4: Antibody derived (Abd-7) small molecule binding to KRAS. (rcsb.org)
  • Targeting specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is an attractive concept for drug development, but hard to implement since intracellular antibodies do not penetrate cells and most small-molecule drugs are considered unsuitable for PPI inhibition. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we explore this strategy using an anti-mutant RAS antibody fragment as a competitor in a small-molecule library screen for identifying RAS-binding compounds. (rcsb.org)
  • 52-SASMTPA-GF-HT Product is sheep affinity purified antibody to mouse IgG (whole molecule) and buffer salts. (anobase.org)
  • This cutting-edge technology can virtually screening up to 10^10 antibody sequences based on their predicted affinity towards one or more antigens within a remarkably short timeframe in hours to a few days. (wowktv.com)
  • This technological advancement enables comprehensive exploration of antibody sequences, significantly expediting the identification of patentable candidates with improved therapeutic properties including efficacy and immunogenicity's. (wowktv.com)
  • Deliverables include 20-100 ranked antibody sequences, purified antibodies, and a comprehensive project report, all completed within 4-6 weeks. (wowktv.com)
  • 2.Direct Access to Sequences: Researchers gain direct access to AI-generated antibody sequences, fostering deeper understanding and customization. (wowktv.com)
  • The method also compares the amino acids sequences of the variable heavy and variable light chains of the first antibody to those of the corresponding variable heavy or variable light chains of the related antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. (affbiotech.com)
  • The affinity matured antibodies are more or less binding to a target antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • Modified antibodies have a higher activity for the target antibody than the original antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • One example of this method is to produce a plurality modified antibodies by producing nucleic acids molecules that encode modified forms or light chains of the first antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • Characterization of NMDA receptor subunit-specific antibodies: distribution of NR2A and NR2B receptor subunits in rat brain and ontogenic profile in the cerebellum J Neurochem. (moleculardepot.com)
  • The iterative screening methodology established here is generally amenable to the straightforward isolation of stimulus-responsive antibodies that may become valuable tools for a variety of applications. (nih.gov)
  • A more accurate depiction of an antibody (3D structure at RCSB PDB ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Sino Biological offer pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms pre-clinical production technology services for hundreds of monoclonal antibody drug candidates. (labx.com)
  • This powerful animal free platform, driven by Ainnocence's proprietary SentinusAI ® protein generative AI engine, is set to revolutionize the field of antibody discovery and optimization by replacing tradition antibody screening methods such as phage display, hybridoma technology and B-cell selection etc. (wowktv.com)
  • The antibodies have high affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at around 20 picomolar, driven by an exceptionally slow off-rate, a measure of how long the antibody remains bound to its target. (prnewswire.com)
  • Guided by these determinations, the antibody is accordingly modified (altered) to improve upon, e.g., antibody/antigen binding by modifying at least one amino acid residue to decrease the binding free energy between the antibody and antigen when bound in a solvent. (justia.com)
  • Bottom) Enlarged view of the data from 3 spots showing antibodies that bound their target with diverse kinetics (low, medium, and high affinities, from left to right). (carterra-bio.com)
  • In vitro, the affinity and internalization kinetics of 111 In-R1507 were determined using the IGF-1R-expressing triple-negative breast cancer cell line SUM149. (snmjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that IGF-1R expression is necessary for antitumor activity of anti-IGF-1R antibodies ( 23 , 24 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Antibodies are exquisite, naturally occurring biological agents that play a critical role in defending the body from pathogens. (justia.com)
  • The well-known N301Y mutation by itself does not appear to be responsible for resistance to neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • Earlier studies showed that the UK variant spike-bearing pseudovirus was neutralized by the antibodies elicited by the Pfizer vaccine, but with somewhat lower titers relative to the reference Wuhan strain. (news-medical.net)
  • Likewise, the Moderna vaccine antibodies suffered a 5-10-fold loss of efficacy against the South African spike compared to the D614G pseudovirus. (news-medical.net)
  • By Product, the market is classified into Reagent and Antibodies. (globenewswire.com)
  • The CD40-CD40L interaction plays a critical role in both humoral and cellular immune responses and interfering antibodies have been suggested as an effective approach for the treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. (lu.se)
  • Acute HIV infection (also known as seroconversion) is defined as the period between exposure to the virus and completion of the initial immune responses (when an antibody test becomes positive for HIV). (medscape.com)
  • IgG and IgA) with, on average, orders of magnitude higher affinity for that antigen. (qxmd.com)
  • IL-8(6-77) has a 5-10-fold higher activity on neutrophil activation, IL-8(5-77) has increased activity on neutrophil activation and IL-8(7-77) has a higher affinity to receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as compared to IL-8(1-77), respectively. (affbiotech.cn)
  • This is where the target region refers to a portion of the first antibody that has at least one amino acids difference from the same area in the related antibody. (patentpc.com)
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells , which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells , which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody detects endogenous levels of MAP3K8 only when phosphorylated at serine 400. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • GGT7 Antibody detects endogenous levels of GGT7. (affbiotech.com)
  • Phospho-IGFBP3 (Ser183) Antibody detects endogenous levels of IGFBP3 only when phosphorylated at Serine 183. (affbiotech.cn)
  • antibody levels were etiology. (cdc.gov)
  • Elevated anti-double-stranded-DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody titers and low complement (C3 and C4) levels often indicate active lupus nephritis and support the diagnosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Following humanization, the humanized nanobody maintains a similar level of affinity when compared to the parental nanobody. (news-medical.net)
  • In this work, we isolate a dromedary camel V H H single-domain antibody (also known as nanobody) named D4 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) named HM2 recognizing membrane-distal and membrane-proximal epitopes of GPC1, respectively. (nature.com)