Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tuftsin: N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Tetanus ToxoidImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Mice, Inbred BALB CBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Mice, Inbred C57BLRadioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Lymph node germinal centers form in the absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. (1/1752)

Follicular dendritic cell networks are said to be pivotal to both the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and their functions in generating antigen-specific antibody affinity maturation and B cell memory. We report that lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice form GC cell clusters in the gross anatomical location expected of GCs, despite the complete absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. Furthermore, antigen-specific GC generation was at first relatively normal, but these GCs then rapidly regressed and GC-phase antibody affinity maturation was reduced. Lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice also showed substantial B cell memory in their mesenteric lymph nodes. This memory antibody response was of relatively low affinity for antigen at week 4 after challenge, but by week 10 after challenge was comparable to wild-type, indicating that affinity maturation had failed in the GC phase but developed later.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (2/1752)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Eradication of established tumors by a fully human monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor without concomitant chemotherapy. (3/1752)

A fully human IgG2kappa monoclonal antibody (MAb), E7.6.3, specific to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) was generated from human antibody-producing XenoMouse strains engineered to be deficient in mouse antibody production and to contain the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire on megabase-sized fragments from the human heavy and kappa light chain loci. The E7.6.3 MAb exhibits high affinity (KD = 5 x 10(-11) M) to the receptor, blocks completely the binding of both EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a) to various EGFr-expressing human carcinoma cell lines, and abolishes EGF-dependent cell activation, including EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation, increased extracellular acidification rate, and cell proliferation. The antibody (0.2 mg i.p. twice a week for 3 weeks) prevents completely the formation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts in athymic mice. More importantly, the administration of E7.6.3 without concomitant chemotherapy results in complete eradication of established tumors as large as 1.2 cm3. Tumor eradication of A431 xenografts was achieved in nearly all of the mice treated with total E7.6.3 doses as low as 3 mg, administered over the course of 3 weeks, and a total dose of 0.6 mg led to tumor elimination in 65% of the mice. No tumor recurrence was observed for more than 8 months after the last antibody injection, which further indicated complete tumor cell elimination by the antibody. The potency of E7.6.3 in eradicating well-established tumors without concomitant chemotherapy indicates its potential as a monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple EGFr-expressing human solid tumors, including those for which no effective chemotherapy is available. Being a fully human antibody, E7.6.3 is expected to exhibit minimal immunogenicity and a longer half-life as compared with mouse or mouse-derivatized MAbs, thus allowing repeated antibody administration, including in immunocompetent patients. These results suggest E7.6.3 as a good candidate for assessing the full therapeutic potential of anti-EGFr antibody in the therapy of multiple patient populations with EGFr-expressing solid tumors.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (4/1752)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (5/1752)

IFN-gamma can either adversely or beneficially affect certain experimental autoimmune diseases. To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA. IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited significantly lower incidence and severity of muscle weakness, lower anti-AChR IgG Ab levels, and lower Ab affinity to AChR compared with wild-type mice. Passive transfer of serum from IFN-gammaR-/- mice induced less muscular weakness compared with serum from wild-type mice. In contrast, numbers of lymph node cells secreting IFN-gamma and of those expressing IFN-gamma mRNA were strongly augmented in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, reflecting a failure of negative feedback circuits. Cytokine studies by in situ hybridization revealed lower levels of lymphoid cells expressing AChR-reactive IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in AChR + CFA-immunized IFN-gammaR-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences were found for AChR-reactive cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta mRNA. These results indicate that IFN-gamma promotes systemic humoral responses in EAMG by up-regulating the production and the affinity of anti-AChR autoantibodies, thereby contributing to susceptibility to EAMG in C57BL/6-type mice.  (+info)

Reconciling repertoire shift with affinity maturation: the role of deleterious mutations. (6/1752)

The shift in Ab repertoire, from Abs dominating certain primary B cell responses to genetically unrelated Abs dominating subsequent "memory" responses, challenges the accepted paradigm of affinity maturation. We used mathematical modeling and computer simulations of the dynamics of B cell responses, hypermutation, selection, and memory cell formation to test hypotheses attempting to explain repertoire shift. We show that repertoire shift can be explained within the framework of the affinity maturation paradigm, only when we recognize the destructive nature of hypermutation: B cells with a high initial affinity for the Ag are less likely to improve through random mutations.  (+info)

Production of high affinity autoantibodies in autoimmune New Zealand Black/New Zealand white F1 mice targeted with an anti-DNA heavy chain. (7/1752)

Lupus-prone, anti-DNA, heavy (H) chain "knock-in" mice were obtained by backcrossing C57BL/6 mice, targeted with a rearranged H chain from a VH11(S107)-encoded anti-DNA hybridoma (D42), onto the autoimmune genetic background of New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) F1 mice. The targeted female mice developed typical lupus serologic manifestations, with the appearance of transgenic IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies at a young age (2-3 mo) and high affinity, somatically mutated IgM and IgG anti-DNA Abs at a later age (6-7 mo). However, they did not develop clinical, lupus-associated glomerulonephritis and survived to at least 18 mo of age. L chain analysis of transgenic anti-DNA Abs derived from diseased NZB/NZW mouse hybridomas showed a very restricted repertoire of Vkappa utilization, different from that of nonautoimmune (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 transgenic anti-DNA Abs. Strikingly, a single L chain was repetitively selected by most anti-DNA, transgenic NZB/NZW B cells to pair with the targeted H chain. This L chain had the same Vkappa-Jkappa rearrangement as that expressed by the original anti-DNA D42 hybridoma. These findings indicate that the kinetics of the autoimmune serologic manifestations are similar in wild-type and transgenic lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 mice and suggest that the breakdown of immunologic tolerance in these mice is associated with the preferential expansion and activation of B cell clones expressing high affinity anti-DNA H/L receptor combinations.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (8/1752)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

*CD154

Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody isotype switching and affinity ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

... with reported decreases in affinity of up to several hundredfold. Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...

*Dimethyl pimelimidate

It is often used to prepare antibody affinity columns. The appropriate antibody is first incubated with Protein A or Protein G- ...

*Protein design

To overcome this challenge, Bruce Tidor and coworkers developed a method to improve the affinity of antibodies by focusing on ... Lippow, SM; Wittrup, KD; Tidor, B (October 2007). "Computational design of antibody-affinity improvement beyond in vivo ... RSC3 was later used to discover the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in the serum of a long-term HIV-infected non-progressor ... They found that, for the antibodies designed in the study, reducing the desolvation costs of the residues in the interface ...

*Antibody

The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation ... This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody's antigen-binding affinity. Some point ... Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...

*César Milstein

He demonstrated the importance of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin V genes in antibody affinity maturation. In this ... Milstein's early work on antibodies focused on the nature of their diversity at the amino acid level as well as on the ... Quite apart from his own achievements, Milstein acted as a guide and inspiration to many in the antibody field as well as ... The emphasis of his research then shifted towards the mRNA encoding antibodies where he was able to provide the first evidence ...

*Monobody

"Directed evolution of high-affinity antibody mimics using mRNA display". Chem. Biol. 9: 933-42. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(02)00187 ... Monobodies belong to the class of molecules collectively called antibody mimics (or antibody mimetics) and alternative ... most antibodies and antibody fragments depend on disulfide bonds formation and they must be produced under an oxidizing ... fifteen times smaller than an IgG type antibody and comparable to the size of a single variable domain of an antibody. They are ...

*Ira Pastan

30: 1822-1828, 2012 Chowdhury, P.S. and Pastan, I. Improving antibody affinity by mimicking somatic hypermutation in vitro. ... Gene splicing techniques are used to make chimeric proteins in which the Fv of an antibody, preferentially binding to a cancer ... One of the major obstacles to the success of RIT therapy is that antibodies often form and neutralize the RIT preventing ... Altogether these studies provided much of the framework that ultimately led to the use of antibodies targeted to the EGF ...

*Chromogranin A

... purification by monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence". Regulatory Peptides. ... Some specific parts of the molecule have a higher degree of amino acid homology and methods where the antibodies are directed ... chromogranin A antibody stains via Google Image [1]. ...

*T helper cell

The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can ... Type 2 and Type 3 hypersensitivity both involve complications from auto-immune or low affinity antibodies. In both of these ... Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... CD4+ T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC, and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in ...

*NanoCLAMP

... (CLostridal Antibody Mimetic Proteins) affinity reagents are recombinant 15 kD antibody mimetic proteins selected for ... Burgess RR, Watson JD (June 2017). "Gentle antibody-mimetic affinity chromatography with polyol-responsive nanoCLAMPs". Protein ... conferring binding affinity and specificity for the target. nanoCLAMPs are the first antibody mimetics described to be polyol- ... Suderman RJ, Rice DA, Gibson SD, Strick EJ, Chao DM (Apr 17, 2017). "Development of polyol-responsive antibody mimetics for ...

*B cell

... have antibodies with a higher affinity towards their target antigen due to affinity maturation in the germinal center (GC) and ... B cell response to these antigens is rapid, though antibodies generated tend to have lower affinity and are less functionally ... B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more ... Plasmablasts are generated early in an infection and their antibodies tend to have a weaker affinity towards their target ...

*Protein

... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. Many ligand ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known markers, it becomes much simpler to ...

*Oncomatryx

"Generation of human high-affinity antibodies specific for the fibroblast activation protein by guided selection". European ... Völkel, T.; Müller, Rolf; Kontermann, Roland E (2004). "Isolation of endothelial cell-specific human antibodies from a novel ... "Human antibody derivatives against the fibroblast activation protein for tumor stroma targeting of carcinomas". International ... combining cytotoxic molecules and monoclonal antibodies specifically directed towards tumor associated stroma. Franco Dosio, Ph ...

*Directed evolution

Improving binding affinity of therapeutic antibodies (Affinity maturation) and the activity of de novo designed enzymes. ... Hawkins, RE; Russell, SJ; Winter, G (5 August 1992). "Selection of phage antibodies by binding affinity. Mimicking affinity ...

*Genmab

... 's technology is licensed from Medarex to create fully human high affinity antibodies using transgenic mice. These ... Genmab changes the shape of the IgG4 antibody by eliminating the hinge, the part of the antibody that creates the "Y" shape. ... which is used to make smaller antibodies in contrast to the traditional full sized monoclonal antibody. Its smaller size allows ... This halves the antibody, creating a smaller version now known as their UniBody. This smaller version can only bind to one site ...

*Epitope binning

"High throughput solution-based measurement of antibody-antigen affinity and epitope binning". MAbs. 5 (2). ... Antibodies against a similar target are tested against all other antibodies in the library in a pairwise fashion to see if ... After each antibody has a profile created against all of the other antibodies in the library, a competitive blocking profile is ... Epitope binning is a competitive immunoassay used to characterize and then sort a library of monoclonal antibodies against a ...

*Herman Eisen

He is particularly well known for his studies of affinity maturation of antibodies beginning in the late 1950s while he was at ... In the 1980s Eisen changed research interests from a focus on antibodies to a focus on T cells and cell-mediated immunity. ... scientist for many years following his official retirement and was working on a manuscript related to antibody affinity the day ... which supported further work at NYU with Fred Karush studying antibodies. Eisen next moved to Sloan-Kettering to work with ...

*Strep-tag

Another option is the immobilization of Strep-tag proteins with a specific high affinity antibody on microplates or biochips. ... The binding affinity of Strep-tag to Strep-Tactin is nearly 100 times higher than to Streptavidin. The so called Strep-tag ... Because of its high affinity for the vitamin h-biotin, Streptavidin is commonly used in the fields of molecular biology and ... Just like other short-affinity tags (His-tag, FLAG-tag), the Strep-tag can be easily fused to recombinant proteins during ...

*Rituximab

... antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls the antibody's affinity for ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ... The efficacy and success of Rituximab has led to some other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies being developed: ocrelizumab, ...

*Cambridge Antibody Technology

1996). "Human antibodies with sub-nanomolar affinities isolated from a large non-immunized phage display library". Nature ... Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology Partners With Immunex Corporation to Develop Novel Human Monoclonal Antibodies. - PR Newswire , ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology and AMRAD to develop antibody therapeutics. , Europe - Western Europe from". AllBusiness.com. ...

*Follicular B helper T cells

The switched antibodies acquire better effector functions, and hypermutated antibody shows greater affinity for antigen. TFH ... low affinity plasma cell production is formed but this does not lead to germinal center induction nor permit antibody affinity ... causes B cell antibodies to class switch from IgM/IgD to other antibody isotypes and drives somatic hypermutation during clonal ... survival of B cells that go on to differentiate either into special plasma cells capable of producing high affinity antibodies ...

*CRISPR-Display

... antibody affinity tagging, and recruitment of tagged fusion proteins. One example of artificial ncRNA functionalization is ... CRISPR-Display can target the sgRNA with a particular epitope sequence to various loci, and fluorescently tagged antibodies can ... and locus affinity tagging for cell imaging. CRISPR-Display allows targeted localization of natural lncRNAs to ectopic sites ... incorporating RNA domains recognized by specific antibodies to the sgRNA. ...

*Multicolumn countercurrent solvent gradient purification

In the case of antibodies, the state-of-the-art technique is based on batch affinity chromatography (with Protein A or Protein ... Continuous capturing of antibodies without affinity chromatography can be realized with the MCSGP-process. Subramanian, ... In general, affinity techniques have the advantage of purifying biomolecules with high yields and purities but the ... hydrophobic interaction chromatography for fatty acids or for example ion exchange chromatography of proteins or antibodies. ...

*Germinal center

This phenomenon underscores the process of affinity maturation, whereby greater affinity antibodies are produced and selected ... This rescue process, known as germinal center selection, is believed to be dependent on the affinity of their surface antibody ... Such that, a B cell that has successfully gained mutations that confer a higher affinity surface antibody towards antigen gains ... and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of ...

*Phage display

Barbas CF, Languino LR, Smith JW (November 1993). "High-affinity self-reactive human antibodies by design and selection: ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...

*Immunoglobulin class switching

Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can interact with different effector molecules. Class ... they undergo antibody class switching to produce IgG, IgA or IgE antibodies. During class switching, the constant region of the ... to generate the different classes of antibody, all with the same variable domains as the original antibody generated in the ... and the gene segments surrounding the deleted portion are rejoined to retain a functional antibody gene that produces antibody ...
Author Summary Antibody affinity maturation is a key aspect of an effective immune response to vaccines, likely to have an impact on clinical outcome following exposure to pathogens. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in B cells is a key enzyme involved in antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation, required for antibody affinity maturation. This human study demonstrated for the first time that induction of AID following H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccination directly correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against the hemagglutinin globular domain (HA1), containing most of the protective targets. Importantly, age differences were found. In younger adults, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with higher initial levels of AID and |2-fold-increase in AID after vaccination. With increased age, a drop in AID activity post-vaccination correlated with lower affinity maturation of the polyclonal antibody responses against the pandemic
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
In hybridoma screening, quantitative kinetic evaluation is difficult since the concentration of each antibody in the hybridoma supernatant is unknown. From modeling calculations, we hypothesized that the ratio of two different antigen-antibody concentrations might allow discrimination of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies irrespective of the antibody concentration. Using anti-alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibodies of known affinity, we set the signal ratio of a time-resolved assay at |0.1, in which the antigen concentrations were 10 and 100 ng/mL. From anti-alpha-fetoprotein hybridoma screening with this assay, it was possible to effectively select high-affinity monoclonal antibodies with KD values below 1x10(-8) M. High-sensitivity sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which detects domain III of alpha-fetoprotein has been established using selected high-affinity monoclonal antibodies. This screening method is useful for selection of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies of potential diagnostic
Apobec3/Rfv3 is an innate immune factor that promotes the neutralizing Ab response against Friend retrovirus (FV) in infected mice. Based on its evolutionary relationship to activation-induced deaminase, Apobec3 might directly influence Ab class switching and affinity maturation independently of viral infection. Alternatively, the antiviral activity of Apobec3 may indirectly influence neutralizing Ab responses by reducing early FV-induced pathology in critical immune compartments. To distinguish between these possibilities, we immunized wild-type and Apobec3-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) hapten and evaluated the binding affinity of the resultant NP-specific Abs. These studies revealed similar affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG1 Abs between wild-type and Apobec3-deficient mice in the absence of FV infection. In contrast, hapten-specific Ab affinity maturation was significantly compromised in Apobec3-deficient mice infected with FV. In highly ...
Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2, and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity.
In titrating serum immunoglobulin G antibody to viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we used two rows of wells for serial twofold dilutions of the serum; in one row, a low concentration of a protein denaturant, 0.5 or 1.0 M guanidine hydrochloride, was added to the diluent so that the binding of low-avidity antibodies to viral antigens on the solid phase was inhibited. We then compared the antibody titration curves obtained in the two rows. We found that the addition of the reagent resulted in a parallel leftward shift of the curves and that the extent of the shift was greater in early than in late sera from all of the three infections studied (Japanese encephalitis virus, rotavirus, and rubella virus infections). This procedure may be useful for estimation of the avidity of antibody in serum and, with further evaluation, may prove to be applicable to single-serum diagnosis of virus infections. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Craig Skinner, Stephanie Patfield, Larry H Stanker, Pina Fratamico, Xiaohua He].
People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was
SUMMARY: During antibody affinity maturation, germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between affinity-driven selection in the light zone (LZ) and proliferation and somatic hypermutation in the dark zone (DZ). Although selection of GC B cells is triggered by antigen-dependent signals delivered in the LZ, DZ proliferation occurs in the absence of such signals. We show that positive selection triggered by T cell help activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes the anabolic program that supports DZ proliferation. Blocking mTORC1 prior to growth prevented clonal expansion, whereas blockade after cells reached peak size had little to no effect. Conversely, constitutively active mTORC1 led to DZ enrichment but loss of competitiveness and impaired affinity maturation. Thus, mTORC1 activation is required for fueling B cells prior to DZ proliferation rather than for allowing cell-cycle progression itself and must be regulated dynamically during cyclic
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells[5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (TFH cells).[6] On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication.[7] A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switching and is associated with hyper IgM syndrome.[8] Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an important process in the adaptive immune system. ...
Generate high-affinity, high-specificity antibodies with GenScript using GANP transgenic mice,easily incorporated into any immunization protocol.
Definition of Affinity maturation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Affinity maturation? Meaning of Affinity maturation as a legal term. What does Affinity maturation mean in law?
This is the first study focusing on the kinetics of the avidity and levels in serum of anti-M. tuberculosis IgG antibodies in patients with pulmonary TB and undergoing treatment.. In our study, both the levels in serum and the avidity of these antibodies were significantly higher in untreated pulmonary TB patients than in patients with other pulmonary diseases. However, no relationship was found between the levels of circulating antibodies against M. tuberculosis and the avidity of the antibodies. This result is in agreement with the observations of Pullen and colleagues for patients with rubella infection, suggesting that antibody affinity is controlled by mechanisms independent of those regulating antibody levels (15).. For our Vietnamese study group, avidity determination had more diagnostic potential than measurement of serum levels alone. Especially in the desired specificity range of 90 to 100%, sensitivity could be improved to 45 to 68% by combining antibody levels and antibody avidity ...
Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. - antibodies
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibodys antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions, and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop
Ibison F, Olotu A, Muema DM, Mwacharo J, Ohuma E, Kimani D, Marsh K, Bejon P and Ndungu FM. Lack of Avidity Maturation of Merozoite Antigen-Specific Antibodies with Increasing Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Amongst Children and Adults Exposed to Endemic Malaria in Kenya. PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052939. Epub 2012 Dec 26 (MVVC)
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The crystal structure of the Fab complexed to antigen reveals a number of water molecules that are fixed in the binding area. Many of these water molecules form hydrogen bond bridges between antigen and antibody, contributing to the strength of binding. There is no evidence for the exclusion of water from the antibody/antigen complex. The affinity for binding can be expressed by the equation describing free energy in a system: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS, where G = free energy or energy available for work, H = total energy in a system (enthalpy), T = absolute temperature (in Kelvin) and S = entropy. Which of the following statements are correct concerning the generation of a negative ΔG (indicating a spontaneous reaction) for high affinity antibody/antigen binding? ...
Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
The FASER Kits an be used to amplify weak fluorescence intensity resulting from staining of low-expressed antigens, the use of low-affinity antibodies, or immunomagnetic and fluorochrome-conjugated antibody labeling of cells via the same epitope. Furthermore, increasing the fluorescence intensity simplifies the flow cytometric discrimination of labeled and non-labeled cell fractions. The FASER Kits can also be used in combination with Anti-FITC, Anti-PE or Anti-APC MicroBeads for the enhancement of weak magnetic labeling. - Deutschland
People with HIV infections experience a wide range of abnormalities in their immune systems, and one of the most recently discovered abnormalities includes affinity maturation defects within the memory B cells.
10 g/mL; median fold rise 439, range 0.9C9,200), obtained at a median of 31 days (range 26C64). The GMC was 153.1 g/mL (113.5C207.0, n = SAHA 50) for those who had received all primary 3 doses as DTwP-Hib; 179.1 g/mL (139.6C229.6, n = 38) for those who received 2 doses of DTwP-Hib and 1 dose of DTaP-Hib; 147.6 g/mL (87.1C249.5, n = 27) for those who received 1 dose DTwP-Hib and 2 doses DTaP-Hib; and 134.0 g/mL (96.4C186.2, n = 42) for those who received all 3 doses as DTaP-Hib. None of the variables included in the model SAHA was associated with postbooster anti-PRP antibody concentration. Anti-PRP Avidity No significant differences in geometric mean avidity index were found before and after receiving the Hib booster vaccine (data not shown). A significant inverse trend to lower postbooster avidity levels was evident according to the number of doses of DTaP-Hib received ( ...
Top scale) The 3D (solution) affinities measured using SPR methods9 are shown on a logarithmic scale. Actual Kd values (in μM) are indicated after the name of each molecule. A typical antibody-protein antigen affinity is included for comparison. (Bottom scale) The 2D affinities for the human (h) CD2-CD5810, rat (r) CD2−rat CD4811and human CD28−mouse (m) B7-112 interactions, measured as molecules (mols) per μm2, are shown directly below the values for their respective 3D affinities. The scale is colored according to whether T cells bound strongly10 (red) or very weakly11 (red/blue) via the human and rat CD2 ligands, respectively, to the model bilayer system10. The 3D affinities of coreceptors for MHC ligands are much lower than that of the rat CD2−rat CD48 interaction, suggesting that the 2D affinities of coreceptor ectodomains alone will be insufficient to sustain spontaneous recognition of their MHC ligands at the cell surface.. ...
The maturation of antibody affinity during the immune response, discovered as a serological phenomenon in 1964, is critical to the development of high affinity humoral immunity. This process takes place in germinal centers (GCs), which are microanatomical structures composed of antigen-specific B lymphocytes that form in secondary lymphoid organs upon infection or immunization. High affinity B cells are selectively expanded in the GC by iterative rounds of migration between a zone of hypermutation and proliferation (the dark zone, or DZ) and a zone of selection (the light zone, or LZ). The mechanism whereby somatic antibody mutants are selected on the basis of affinity has been elusive. In the first part of this thesis, I demonstrate that affinity-based selection in the GC operates through regulation of proliferation and hypermutation. B cells with affinity-enhancing mutations capture more antigen through their BCRs for presentation as peptide-MHCII to CD4+ T cells. In turn, enhanced T cell help
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Chickens are not mammals and therefore are more apt to make high-avidity antibodies to mammalian proteins. It is the most humane way to produce polyclonal antibodies. There is no need to bleed the chicken. Simply collect the eggs.
Monoclonal antibodies directed toward human PRL (hPRL) have been produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells (Sp2/0-Ag 14) with spleen cells from mice immunized with hPRL. Total immunizing doses of 20 microgram and 64 microgram hPRL resulted in the production of three highly specific hPRL antibodies. The high affinity antibody, with a Ka value of 0.23 X 10(10) M-1, was used to establish a RIA highly suitable for the measurement of hPRL levels in human serum. The correlation of serum hPRL levels measured using the antibody and those in a conventional rabbit anti-hPRL assay was 0.99 (y = 1.16 - 7.2). These results demonstrate that using the mouse hybridoma technique, it is possible to produce high affinity monospecific monoclonal antibody suitable for the measurement of hPRL in human serum.
Tetrameric MHC/peptide complexes are important tools for enumerating, phenotyping, and rapidly cloning Ag-specific T cells. It remains however unclear whether they can reliably distinguish between high and low avidity T cell clones. In this report, tetramers with mutated CD8 binding site selectively stain higher avidity human and murine CTL capable of recognizing physiological levels of Ag. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8 binding significantly enhances the avidity as well as the stability of interactions between CTL and cognate tetramers. The use of CD8-null tetramers to identify high avidity CTL provides a tool to compare vaccination strategies for their ability to enhance the frequency of high avidity CTL. Using this technique, we show that DNA priming and vaccinia boosting of HHD A2 transgenic mice fail to selectively expand large numbers of high avidity NY-ESO-1(157-165)-specific CTL, possibly due to the large amounts of antigenic peptide delivered by the vaccinia virus. Furthermore,
The chicken is an ideal choice as a non-mammalian host species when using mammalian or human protein antigens. Since chickens are not mammals they generally produce high avidity antibodies to mammalian antigens, especially those that are highly
In article ,7tnpfo$cji$1 at oceanite.cybercable.fr,, Pierre ,URL:mailto:sonigo at cochin.inserm.fr, wrote: , , Interesting point. , Your hypothesis requires that individuals with high affinity antibodies to , blood group molecules had a selective advantage. Some antibodies protect , against the rhesus incompatibility problem during pregnacy. Is it what you , suggest ? , , , No I was not referring to RhD. This is an example of a T-dependent protein antigen. I was referring mainly to anti-carbohydrate responses such as for example the blood groups A and B. Virtually everyone has the capacity to make these same antibodies using similar inherited sets of V-genes. However the auto reactive antibodies which would bind to your own blood group are not selected leaving you with humoral immunity to the other blood groups. The commonly accepted dogma is that these antibodies are cross reactive on bacterial carbohydrates and hence protect us from infection ie they are not actually generated by immunisation ...
The mounting of somatically mutated high affinity antibody responses is important in protection against a range of pathogens and underlies the success of most v...
The association between affinity and disulfide polymerization within Abs from individual antisera (Fig. 3) correlated with the observed increase in PIs during affinity maturation (Fig. 2). This relationship has profound implications. The classical model of affinity maturation (26) envisions an elegantly simple process wherein a sufficiently large initial bolus of Ag can engage a wide range of BCR affinities. As the concentration of Ag diminishes, only the highest affinity B cells can bind sufficient Ag to elicit Abs. Thus, over time the average affinity of serum Abs increases. This process can be accentuated by the later development of somatic mutations, which offer an additional, de novo, repertoire of specificities, including those of even greater affinity (27). Our findings demonstrate that a significant driving force, beyond affinity maturation, results in a higher average Ab affinity in trout-that is, via the provision of an increased half-life to high-affinity Abs (Fig. 5). This increase ...
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. We hypothesize that consistent bnAb elicitation will require germline-targeting priming immunogens, to activate bnAb precursor B cells, and structure-guided, or reductionist, boosting immunogens, to shepherd antibody maturation toward bnAb development. To test this hypothesis, we have focused our initial immunogen design work on VRC01- and PGT121-class bnAbs, but we are addressing other bnAb classes as well, because an effective vaccine will likely need to induce multiple bnAbs of complementary specificities. Our efforts to design, evaluate and optimize the immunogens and immunization regimens are iterative, collaborative and multi-disciplinary. Overall, the work in progress represents an attempt to introduce a new way to design vaccines.. ...
From the host immune perspective, the generation of genomic diversity is used as both a defensive and an offensive weapon. Host mutator enzymes such as Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) seed diversity in the adaptive immune system by introducing targeted mutations into the immunoglobulin locus that result in antibody maturation. Related deaminases of the innate immune system can directly attack retroviral threats by garbling the pathogen genome through mutation, as accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC3G, which restricts infection with HIV. Immune mutator enzymes, however, also pose a risk to the host, as overexpression or dysregulation have been associated with oncogenesis ...
From the host immune perspective, the generation of genomic diversity is used as both a defensive and an offensive weapon. Host mutator enzymes such as Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) seed diversity in the adaptive immune system by introducing targeted mutations into the immunoglobulin locus that result in antibody maturation. Related deaminases of the innate immune system can directly attack retroviral threats by garbling the pathogen genome through mutation, as accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC3G, which restricts infection with HIV. Immune mutator enzymes, however, also pose a risk to the host, as overexpression or dysregulation have been associated with oncogenesis ...
Goat anti-cat IgG recognizes cat IgG whole molecule. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. The antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein. Cat IgG whole molecule (PAB10465) - Products - Abnova
Goat anti-horse IgG recognizes horse IgG whole molecule. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. The antibody is conjugated with Peroxidase. Horse IgG whole molecule (PAB10645) - Products - Abnova
Sandwich: To detect msRANKL by sandwich ELISA (using 100 μl/well antibody solution) a concentration of 0.5 - 2.0 μg/mL of this antibody is required. This antigen affinity purified antibody, in conjunction with Biotinylated Anti-Murine sRANKL (61-113BT) as a detection antibody, allows the detection of at least 0.2 - 0.4 ng/well of recombinant msRANKL ...
Sandwich: To detect mIGF-I by sandwich ELISA (using 100 μl/well antibody solution) a concentration of 0.5 - 2.0 μg/mL of this antibody is required. This antigen affinity purified antibody, in conjunction with Biotinylated Anti-Murine IGF-I (61-080BT) as a detection antibody, allows the detection of at least 0.2 - 0.4 ng/well of recombinant mIGF-I ...
Sandwich ELISA: In a sandwich ELISA (assuming 100μl/well), a concentration of 5.0-6.0 μg/ml of this antibody will detect at least 1000pg/ml of Recombinant Human BAFF when used with PeproTechs Biotinylated Antigen Affinity Purified anti-Human BAFF (500-P163GBT) as the detection antibody at a concentration of approximately 0.25-0.50 μg/ml. ...
In this study, we developed a MAb that recognizes both FRα and FRβ (anti-FRαβ). The anti-FRαβ specifically stained trophoblasts and macrophages from human placenta, synovial macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patient, liver macrophages from cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset, and cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages from ovary and lung carcinomas. Su...
Asp Phe Ala Thr Tyr Tyr Cys Gln Gln Leu Asn Ser 100 105 110 Tyr Pro Arg Ala Phe Gly Pro Gly Thr Lys Val Asp Ile Lys Arg Thr 115 120 125 Val Ala Ala Pro Ser Val Phe Ile Phe Pro Pro Ser Asp Glu Gln Leu 130 135 140 Lys Ser Gly Thr Ala Ser Val Val Cys Leu Leu Asn Asn Phe Tyr Pro 145 150 155 160 Arg Glu Ala Lys Val Gln Trp Lys Val Asp Asn Ala Leu Gln Ser Gly 165 170 175 Asn Ser Gln Glu Ser Val Thr Glu Gln Asp Ser Lys Asp Ser Thr Tyr 180 185 190 Ser Leu Ser Ser Thr Leu Thr Leu Ser Lys Ala Asp Tyr Glu Lys His 195 200 205 Lys Val Tyr Ala Cys Glu Val Thr His Gln Gly Leu Ser Ser Pro Val 210 215 220 Thr Lys Ser Phe Asn Arg Gly Glu 225 230 371413DNAHomo Sapiens 37atgggatgga gctgtatcat cctcttcttg gtagcaacag ctacaggtgt acacagcgag 60gtgcagctgt tgcagtctgg cgcaggactg ttgaagcctt cggagaccct gtccctcacc 120tgcgctgtct atggtgggtc cttcagtgga tactactgga gttggatccg ccaggcccca 180gggaagggac tggagtggat tggggaaatc gatcatagtg gaaccaccaa ctacaacccg 240tccctcaaga gtcgggtcac catatcagta gagacatcca agaaccagtt ctccctgagg ...
Increased narcolepsy incidence was observed in Sweden following the 2009 influenza vaccination with Pandemrix . A substitution of the 2009 nucleoprotein for the 1934 variant has been implicated in narcolepsy development. The aims were to determine (a) antibody levels toward wild-type A/H1N1-2009[A/California/04/2009(H1N1)] (NP-CA2009) and Pandemrix-[A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1)] (NP-PR1934) nucleoproteins in 43 patients and 64 age-matched controls; (b) antibody affinity in reciprocal competitive assays in 11 childhood narcolepsy patients compared with 21 age-matched controls; and (c) antibody levels toward wild-type A/H1N1-2009[A/California/04/2009(H1N1)] (H1N1 NS1), not a component of the Pandemrix vaccine. In vitro transcribed and translated S-methionine-labeled H1N1 influenza A virus proteins were used in radiobinding reciprocal competition assays to estimate antibody levels and affinity (Kd). Childhood patients had higher NP-CA2009 (p = 0.0339) and NP-PR1934 (p = 0.0246) antibody levels ...
Autoimmune disease affects ~5% of individuals globally, and the prevalence is increasing. The cause of diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erthematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) remains largely unknown and commonly used therapeutic agents present with considerable side effects.Detection of autoantibodies is a common feature of many autoimmune diseases, including SLE and RA. Due to inherent signaling defects B cells produce autoantibodies and directly contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. The Germinal Centre (GC) reaction is therefore a pivotal step in this process, allowing B cells to undergo affinity maturation and differentiation into long-lived plasma cells. While CD4+ Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) migrate into B cell follicles and engage GC B cells to generate antibody responses. This critical collaboration dictates the production of high affinity antibodies, or autoantibodies when the signaling circuitry is altered in B cells or Tfh cells.Understanding the molecular pathways that
Therapeutically effective anti-microbial compositions, useful especially against respiratory diseases caused or mediated by viruses, bacteria, and other respiratory parasites are disclosed, wherein said compositions comprise at least one neutralizing antibody, including high affinity antibodies, and an additional anti-infectious agent, such as an antiviral agent, for example, ribavirin, amantadine, rimantadine, or a neuraminidase-inhibitor. or anti-bacterial agents, including other antibodies. Also disclosed are methods of using such compositions to treat and/or prevent respiratory and related diseases.
Collectively, our data indicate that targeting Ags to CD180 induces rapid activation of Ag-specific B cells, leading to significant IgG production within 7 d. Remarkably, a single injection of Ag-αCD180 without any additional adjuvant also led to the development of both Ab affinity maturation and immunological memory (Fig. 3). Furthermore, although severely impaired, Ag-specific IgG production and responses to secondary immunizations were retained in CD40 KO mice (Fig. 3 H), even though CD40 KO mice did not make Ag-specific IgG or develop memory Ab-producing cells in response to Ag in alum, as reported previously (Kawabe et al., 1994). The Ab responses induced required the Ags to be attached to anti-CD180 and could be induced to both haptens and protein Ags.. Why is this mode of immunization so effective in rapidly raising IgG Ab responses? Previous studies showed that i.p. inoculation of high doses of αCD180 could induce increases in plasma cells (500 µg) and polyclonal Ig production (250 ...
Förderung: 2011 bis 2016 We are constantly protected by our adaptive immune system. Its functioning requires precise control of gene expression in lymphocytes, since deregulation can cause autoimmune diseases (affecting ~5% of our population) as well as allergic reactions (~9-16%, with increasing incidence). Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is crucial in many immune decisions, however the determinants of specificity in this type of regulation are less well defined. The recently described Rc3h1 or Roquin protein prevents the development of autoimmune disease in mice. Rc3h1 destabilizes the mRNA of the inducible costimulator (ICOS), a co-receptor on T cells. ICOS is critical in the germinal center reaction in which T cell help selects B cells making high affinity antibodies. However, the molecular interactions of this posttranscriptional regulation and the pathways that specify such repressor/target relations are unsolved, and they are the focus of my work in this proposal. Rc3h1 ...
Low avidity of HPV16 antibodies was found in 15% of Finnish and 26% of Ugandan women. Ugandan women with low-avidity HPV16 antibodies had an increased risk estimate for HPV6/11 (odds ratio, OR 2.9; 95%CI 1.01-8.4) seropositivity but not to high-risk HPV types 18/31/33/45 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short Communication. T2 - Low False Recent Rate of Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay among Long-Term Infected Subjects from Guangxi, China. AU - Yu, Li. AU - Laeyendecker, Oliver. AU - Wendel, Sarah K.. AU - Liang, Fuxiong. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Wang, Xueyan. AU - Wang, Lu. AU - Pang, Xianwu. AU - Fang, Zhongliao. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Assays used for HIV cross-sectional incidence testing can misclassify some individuals with nonrecent HIV infection as recently infected, overestimating HIV incidence. We analyzed the frequency and factors associated with false-recent misclassification on subjects from Quangxi, China known to have long-term infection using the limited antigen-avidity assay (LAg-Avidity). Stored samples from treatment-naive individuals from Guangxi, China were tested using the LAg-Avidity. A total of 362 samples from individuals known to be infected 2 to 13.5 years were tested and the false-recent rate (FRR), the frequency of samples with a positive ...
Homodimer. Forms higher oligomers under stress conditions. Interacts with BCL2L11. Interaction with BCL2L11 promotes BAX oligomerization and association with mitochondrial membranes, with subsequent release of cytochrome c. Forms heterodimers with BCL2, BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-X(L), BCL2L2, MCL1 and A1. Interacts with SH3GLB1 and HN. Interacts with SFN and YWHAZ; the interaction occurs in the cytoplasm. Under stress conditions, JNK-mediated phosphorylation of SFN and YWHAZ, releases BAX to mitochondria. Isoform Sigma interacts with BCL2A1 and BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-X(L). Interacts with RNF144B, which regulates the ubiquitin-dependent stability of BAX. Interacts with CLU under stress conditions that cause a conformation change leading to BAX oligomerization and association with mitochondria. Does not interact with CLU in unstressed cells. Interacts with FAIM2/LFG2. Interacts with RTL10/BOP. Interacts (via a C-terminal 33 residues) with NOL3 (via CARD domain); inhibits BAX activation and translocation and ...
Anti-Fluorescein antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC. Referenced in 5 publications. Immunogen corresponding to -
First and foremost, the primary antibody may have low affinity for target protein. Antibody affinity may also change after denaturation of a cell/tissue sample with SDS. 1. Low antibody concentration. Increase the primary dilution. 2. Incubation times too brief. 3. Insufficient protein loaded onto gel. Load more protein. 5. Exposure of film too brief. Try multiple exposures extending from 1 minute all the way to overnight. 6. Bald Spots: bubbles between gel and membrane: bubbles create points of high resistance that lead to low transfer efficiency, be sure to remove bubbles completely when putting together the transfer sandwich. 7. Incomplete Transfer. One of several technical errors can be the source of incomplete transfer I) Proteins not completely eluted out of gel: this often occurs with high molecular weight proteins, especially when using a transfer buffer containing methanol. One way to overcome this phenomenon is by using nitrocellulose, which does not require methanol in the transfer ...
Product Search Company Search Kit Search Gene Link specializes in complex modified and long oligos up to 250mer Advansta offers tools for protein purification analysis and characterization Free samples upon request Use these categories to find what you are looking for Custom Services Immunology related Services Antibody Affinity Isolation Antibody Characterization Testing Antibody Fab and F ab 2 Preparation Antibody Fragmentation Antibody Labeling Antibody Purification Antibody Quantitation Antigen Production ...
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We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B cells function in flat, stable membrane contacts, with antigen-containing surfaces displaying the well-described features of immune synapses and cSMACs. The role of these pod-like structures in establishing high-affinity thresholds for GC ...
The differential internalization of TfR by binding to antibodies with differing affinities does not necessarily imply that bound TfR undergoes different intracellular trafficking. Thus, we compared the steady-state distribution of bound TfR after incubation with anti-TfRA or anti-TfRD bispecific in live cells (Fig. 4 C). After 1-h coincubation with the anti-TfR bispecifics, we followed the movement of TfRFab:QD-labeled TfR relative to lysosomes (labeled by LysoTracker) by manipulating the depth of field. We observed more colocalization of TfRFab:QD in LysoTracker-positive compartments with TfRA bispecific and found TfR more homogenously widespread within cells incubated with TfRD bispecific. Additionally, the steady-state surface fraction of TfR with TfRD bispecific was 44% greater than with TfRA bispecific (Fig. 4 D). We verified that TfRFab:QD labeling of TfR under these experimental conditions did not down-regulate TfR levels (Fig. 4 E). Thus, these results clearly show that high-affinity ...
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in ...
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in ...
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in ...
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in ...
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in ...
The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) 4E10 and 10E8. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated a novel multi-immunogen vaccine strategy referred to as Incremental, Phased Antigenic Stimulation for Rapid Antibody Maturation (IPAS-RAM) to induce 4E10/10E8-like bnAbs. Rabbits were immunized sequentially, but in a phased manner, with three immunogens that are progressively more native (gp41-28×3, gp41-54CT, and rVV-gp160DH12). Although nAbs were not induced, epitope-mapping analyses indicated that IPAS-RAM vaccination was better able to target antibodies towards the 4E10/10E8 epitopes than homologous prime-boost immunization using gp41-28×3 alone ...
FIG. 6. V-gene reverted chimeras and dissection of functional relevance. Resolution-enhancing methods are particularly useful when analyzing diffuse effects such as somatic hypermutation, which alters ∼50 residues between PG9 and PG16. (A) Schematic V-gene reverted chimeras of PG16 and PG9 Fabs are shown: both heavy and light chain V genes reverted to germ line precursor, only heavy V gene reverted, or only light chain V gene reverted (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material). PG16 light chain is in light blue, PG16 heavy chain is in tan, and PG16 CDR H3 is in red; PG9 light chain is in light green, PG9 heavy chain is in green, and PG9 CDR H3 is bordered in dark green. V-gene reversion to germ line is shown by hatching. (B) IC50 are reported for each category of antibodies: V-gene heavy and light chain reverted to germ line (VhVl), Vl reverted, Vh reverted, and affinity-matured antibodies, i.e., wild-type PG9 and PG16. There were significant differences in IC50 among the four groups according ...
GenScript provides custom solutions for antibody lead optimization, providing antibody humanization, affinity maturation services to reduce the immunogenicity and improve affinity, thermostability and expression level.
EphA3 is expressed in solid tumors and leukemias and is an attractive target for the therapy. We have generated a panel of Humaneered® antibodies to the ligand-binding domain using a Fab epitope-focused library that has the same specificity as monoclonal antibody mIIIA4. A high-affinity antibody was selected that competes with the mIIIA4 antibody for binding to EphA3 and has an improved affinity of ∼1 nM. In order to generate an antibody with potent cell-killing activity the variable regions were assembled with human IgG1k constant regions and expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line deficient in fucosyl transferase ...
In this work the affinity maturation of the murine anti c-myc-peptide antibody 9E10 was analysed. Therefore Fab fragments with reversed mutations directed towards germline genes were genetically produced and characterised for their binding to the human c-myc peptide. The epitope recognized by 9E10 consists of the amino acid sequence EQKLISEEDLLRKR of which the key positions LISEXXL are very selectively recognized. The maturation of 9E10 leads to a 3300-fold higher affinity, which is achieved by a faster association as well as by a slower dissociation of the complex. For the gain in affinity formation of additional contacts to the peptide is less important than conformational and/or flexibility changes of the CDRs which are involved in binding. The exceptionally long CDR-H3 contributes essentially to the affinity maturation. The variable light domain serves thereby with its long CDR-L1 and -L3 as a binding platform for the flexible CDR-H3. Changes in specificity of 9E10 are primarily due to ...
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Foundation For Humanisation in -Contact details and more information from Foundation For Humanisation in . Search through over 7564, NGOs database by State, City or Pincode.
Lysozyme小鼠单克隆抗体[BGN/06/961](ab36362)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被8篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Anti-fluorescein antibodies are excellent model systems for studying the biochemical basis of molecular recognition because a prodigious amount of both physico-chemical and structural information is available for these antibodies. Furthermore, recombinant single-chain antibodies have been produced for several anti-fluorescein antibodies, and site-specific mutagenesis studies have defined the energetic contributions of a number of key active-site residues. In previous studies, we determined the three-dimensional structure of an antigen-binding fragment of a high-affinity anti-fluorescein antibody (4-4-20) in complex with fluorescein. These studies showed that fluorescein binds tightly in an aromatic slot and participates in a network of electrostatic interactions. In this report, we examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the 4-4-20 antigen-combining site by observing the effects of pH on the fluorescence of fluorescein and antigen-binding affinity. These studies showed that the salt ...
We are leaders in the field of human antibody engineering and have been involved in many of the seminal discoveries in the field. We are experts in phage, yeast and lentivirus display platforms and panning procedures, human antibody library constructions, Fc engineering, humanization procedures and targeted siRNA delivery to name a few. We have constructed human antibody libraries with tens of billion members and have successfully isolated therapeutic human antibodies against over two dozen targets. We have also developed and utilize antibody expression systems in bacteria, mammalian, yeast and insect cells. Students and post-doctoral fellows join the Marasco lab to become skilled artisans in the field under Dr. Marascos mentorship. An overview of some of our antibody engineering tools can be found here. ...
Get this from a library! Therapeutic antibody engineering : current and future advances driving the strongest growth area in the pharmaceutical industry. [W R Strohl; Lila M Strohl] -- The field of antibody engineering has become a vital and integral part of making new, improved next generation therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, of which there are currently more than 300 in ...
Looking for online definition of Chimeric Antibody in the Medical Dictionary? Chimeric Antibody explanation free. What is Chimeric Antibody? Meaning of Chimeric Antibody medical term. What does Chimeric Antibody mean?
Antibody (Ab) affinity maturation enables an individual to maintain immunity to an increasing number of pathogens within the limits of a total Ig production threshold. A better understanding of this process is critical for designing vaccines that generate optimal Ab responses to pathogens. Our study describes a simple flow-cytometric method that enumerates virus-specific germinal center (GC) B cells as well as their AC50, a measure of Ab avidity, defined as the antigen concentration required to detect 50% of specific B cells. Using a model of mouse Ab responses to the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (IAV HA), we obtained data indicating that AC50 decreases with time postinfection in an affinity maturation-dependent process. As proof of principle of the utility of the method, our data clearly show that relative to intranasal IAV infection, intramuscular immunization against inactivated IAV in adjuvant results in a diminished GC HA B cell response, with increased AC50 correlating with an increased ...
1F3R: The third-dimensional structure of the complex between an Fv antibody fragment and an analogue of the main immunogenic region of the acetylcholine receptor: a combined two-dimensional NMR, homology, and molecular modeling approach.
1F3R: The third-dimensional structure of the complex between an Fv antibody fragment and an analogue of the main immunogenic region of the acetylcholine receptor: a combined two-dimensional NMR, homology, and molecular modeling approach.
Health,... VIENNA Austria December 12 /- f-star an antibodye...Professor Sir Ravinder Maini Imperial College London UK ...Sir Ravinder Maini is Emeritus Professor of Rheumatology at ImperialC...Professor Anthony Rees MIP Technologies AB Lund Sweden ...,Antibody,Engineering,Company,f-star,Appoints,Three,Pioneers,in,Antibody,Engineering,and,Development,to,its,Newly,Established,Scientific,Advisory,Board,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Exact prices will vary according to the actual services and activities required.. Click here to submit a request for more information. Or submit a project to get a quote or get started working with VAPR. Click here to return to the Services Offered Page. ...
Abstract T lymphocyte recognition of infected cells is mediated by T cell receptors (TCRs) interacting with their ligands, self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules com..
ViroTag® BCVB (for manual sampling) utilizes a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope specifically expressed on the baculovirus particle. With the Virus Counter 3100, use this rapid, no-wash labeling procedure and take baculovirus quantification to new levels of accuracy, speed and simplicity!. Product specifications: The ViroTag BCVB kit (catalog number 92108) contains all reagents and consumables necessary to analyze 200 samples using the Virus Counter 3100 instrument for manual sampling, including:. ...
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Custom polyclonal antibody production, antibodies for cell signaling and signal transduction pathways, cellular organelle markers, 1-month antibody protocol,1-month antibody protocol sicgen,1-month short polyclonal antibody protocol,12-week antibody protocol, 12-week antibody protocol sicgen,12-week classic polyclonal antibody protocol,28-day antibody protocol, 28-day antibody protocol sicgen, 28-day short polyclonal antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol sicgen, 3-month classic polyclonal antibody protocol, 4-week short polyclonal antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol sicgen, 84-day classic polyclonal antibody protocol, actin, actin affinity antibodies,actin affinity antibodies sicgen, actin antibodies, actin antibodies sicgen, actin antibody, actin antibody sicgen, actin polyclonal antibodies,actin polyclonal antibodies sicgen,actin sicgen, affinity chromatography, affinity purified secondary antibodies, affinity purified secondary
Custom polyclonal antibody production, antibodies for cell signaling and signal transduction pathways, cellular organelle markers, 1-month antibody protocol,1-month antibody protocol sicgen,1-month short polyclonal antibody protocol,12-week antibody protocol, 12-week antibody protocol sicgen,12-week classic polyclonal antibody protocol,28-day antibody protocol, 28-day antibody protocol sicgen, 28-day short polyclonal antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol, 3-month antibody protocol sicgen, 3-month classic polyclonal antibody protocol, 4-week short polyclonal antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol, 84-day antibody protocol sicgen, 84-day classic polyclonal antibody protocol, actin, actin affinity antibodies,actin affinity antibodies sicgen, actin antibodies, actin antibodies sicgen, actin antibody, actin antibody sicgen, actin polyclonal antibodies,actin polyclonal antibodies sicgen,actin sicgen, affinity chromatography, affinity purified secondary antibodies, affinity purified secondary
Read "Comparative and analytical study on active toxoplasmosis to assess the IgG avidity in correlation to serological profile in a cohort of Egyptian patients, Comparative Clinical Pathology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Since your email address was listed on a related web site page or database, I thought you might help. I am seeking an individual within the following conditions: Individual sought to join leading biotech firm researching and developing drugs and diagnostic products using the human gene. Seeking a Research Scientist for the Antibody Engineering group. A Ph.D. in Molecular Biology with 2 years postdoctoral experience is required. Candidate must also have experience with generating and screening phage display libraries and humanization of antibodies. Additional experience with Immunology and/or discovering therapeutic antibodies is highly preferred. This is an opportunity to join an outstanding scientific team on the cutting edge of drug discovery. We offer and outstanding compensation package including relocation. Geographic Location of Position: Mid Atlantic States If you know anyone that might be interested, please forward this to them or contact: Larry Chiaravallo Diedre Moire Corp., Inc. ...
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Hi All, I am wondering if anyone has experience showing therapeutic monoclonal antibody binding in mouse xenografts (human tumor cells injected subcutaneously in SCID mice and then dose treated with therapeutic antibody injected intraperitoneally). For instance, can trastuzamab (Herceptin) binding be seen in a breast tumor xenograft treated with Herceptin? I have tried using Dakos goat-anti mouse dextran HRP conjugated secondary antibody developed with DAB. I also tried using an Abcam goat-anti mouse antibody conjugated with biotin, then adding Vectors elite ABC, then developing with DAB. Both times I used FFPE tissue. In both techniques, results showed minimal to staining and showed no difference between mice treated with antibody and control mice treated. I would appreciate if anyone knew of published papers or have experience using IHC to show therapeutic antibody bound to tumor cell in mouse xenografts. Thanks -Sam Research Technician Dana Farber ...
ViroTag® ADVX (for manual sampling) utilizes a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope specifically expressed on adenovirus. The product has been shown to quantify multiple serotypes (2-6) and is considered pan-reactive. With the Virus Counter 3100, use this rapid, no-wash labeling procedure and take adenovirus quantification to new levels of accuracy, speed and simplicity!. Product specifications: The ViroTag ADVX kit (catalog number 92097) contains all reagents and consumables necessary to analyze 200 samples using the Virus Counter 3100 instrument for manual sampling, including:. ...
The germinal center of the immune system plays a complicated dual role in the body: vitally selecting B cells secreting high-affinity antibodies to serve t | Immunology
The production of long-lived, high-affinity antibodies is critical for resistance to infection. This process requires the formation of germinal centers. Dysregu...
Quanterixs Simoa single-molecule detection method combined with high-affinity antibodies detected minute levels of problematic interferon alpha proteins, a study said.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate of the study of different siltuximab [CNTO 328; Centocor] doses and schedules and to see if it has any effect on
A test to help determine whether a pregnant woman or a person with swollen lymph nodes has a recent Toxoplasma gondii infection has been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.. The VIDAS TOXO IgG Avidity assay, manufactured by bioMérieux Inc. of Hazelwood, Mo, can be used to rule out an infection within the last four months, the FDA said in a news release.. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is considered a leading cause of death attributed to foodborne illness, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 60 million people in the United States may be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite may be transmitted to people when they eat raw, undercooked or contaminated meat or come in contact with infected cat feces or litter.. The infection can cause serious health problems in people with compromised immune systems. Women who become infected just before or during pregnancy may pass the parasite on to their unborn child, resulting in ...
The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a
An increase in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in British children has been linked to the widespread use of a diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-Hib). We measured anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody concentration and avidity before and after a Hib booster in 176 children 2-4 years of age who had received 3 doses of DTP-Hib (either DT whole cell pertussis-Hib or DTaP-Hib) combination vaccine in infancy. We also measured pharyngeal carriage of Hib. Antibody concentrations before and avidity indices after vaccination were low (geometric mean concentration 0.46 mug/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.58; geometric mean avidity index 0.16, 95% CI 0.14-0.18) and inversely related to the number of previous doses of DTaP-Hib (p = 0.02 and p|0.001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%-6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and
Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of single domain antibody. Based on its well-known phage display technology, its scientists are specialized in the production and discovery of specific single domain antibodies.. As single domain antibodies were first engineered from the VHH domain of heavy-chain antibody identified in camelids, they are sometimes referred to as camelid antibodies. Single-domain camelids antibodies have been shown to be just as specific as a regular antibody, and in some cases they are more robust. Moreover, they can be easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations.. Single domain antibodies can recognize novel epitopes that regular size antibodies cannot. They have outstanding penetrability which is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. They also have great potential in downstream engineering and can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ...

PLOS Pathogens: AID Activity in B Cells Strongly Correlates with Polyclonal Antibody Affinity Maturation in-vivo Following...PLOS Pathogens: AID Activity in B Cells Strongly Correlates with Polyclonal Antibody Affinity Maturation in-vivo Following...

However, in a subset of elderly (,65 yr), high affinity antibodies against the HA1 were present prior to vaccination but, in ... required for antibody affinity maturation. This human study demonstrated for the first time that induction of AID following ... a drop in AID activity post-vaccination correlated with lower affinity maturation of the polyclonal antibody responses against ... Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in B cells is a key enzyme involved in antibody class switching and somatic ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/metrics?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002920

Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Original View Point		Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Original View Point

... such as antibody affinity measurement and peptide affinity maturation. Besides, single domain antibodies affinity maturation ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ... Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity ... Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of sub- ...
more infohttp://www.originalviewpoint.com/story/139023/creative-biolabs-made-breakthroughs-in-improving-antibody-affinity-maturation.html

Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | North Dakota Magazine		Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | North Dakota Magazine

... such as antibody affinity measurement and peptide affinity maturation. Besides, single domain antibodies affinity maturation ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ... Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity ... Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of sub- ...
more infohttp://www.northdakota-magazine.com/story/151139/creative-biolabs-made-breakthroughs-in-improving-antibody-affinity-maturation.html

Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Delaware News Reporter		Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Delaware News Reporter

... such as antibody affinity measurement and peptide affinity maturation. Besides, single domain antibodies affinity maturation ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ... Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity ... Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of sub- ...
more infohttp://www.delawarenewsreporter.com/story/133609/creative-biolabs-made-breakthroughs-in-improving-antibody-affinity-maturation.html

Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Oregon News Headlines		Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation | Oregon News Headlines

... such as antibody affinity measurement and peptide affinity maturation. Besides, single domain antibodies affinity maturation ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ... Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity ... Creative Biolabs Made Breakthroughs in Improving Antibody Affinity Maturation. Print This Article Share it With Friends ...
more infohttp://www.oregonnewsheadlines.com/story/144693/creative-biolabs-made-breakthroughs-in-improving-antibody-affinity-maturation.html

A simple hybridoma screening method for high-affinity monoclonal antibodies using the signal ratio obtained from time-resolved...A simple hybridoma screening method for high-affinity monoclonal antibodies using the signal ratio obtained from time-resolved...

... antigen-antibody concentrations might allow discrimination of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies irrespective of the antibody ... Using anti-alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibodies of known affinity, we set the signal ratio of a time-resolved assay at ,0.1 ... This screening method is useful for selection of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies of potential diagnostic value. ... it was possible to effectively select high-affinity monoclonal antibodies with KD values below 1x10(-8) M. High-sensitivity ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-simple-hybridoma-screening-method-for-high-affin-Daigo-Sugita/316a00aa1798decd944ae3f581411a24a431fe89

Strategies for Bispecific Single Chain Antibody in Cancer ImmunotherapyStrategies for Bispecific Single Chain Antibody in Cancer Immunotherapy

TCR-like human antibodies expressed on human CTLs mediate antibody affinity-dependent cytolytic activity. The Journal of ... Rational development of high-affinity T-cell receptor-like antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5784-8 ... When applied in bispecific antibody, cancer-testis antigens are not accessible to monoclonal antibodies because they are ... A novel bispecific single-chain antibody for ADAM17 and CD3 induces T-cell-mediated lysis of prostate cancer cells. Biochem J. ...
more infohttp://www.jcancer.org/v08p3689.htm

Engineering antibody affinity by yeast surface display.  - PubMed - NCBIEngineering antibody affinity by yeast surface display. - PubMed - NCBI

Engineering antibody affinity by yeast surface display.. Colby DW1, Kellogg BA, Graff CP, Yeung YA, Swers JS, Wittrup KD. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15289082?dopt=Abstract

antibody affinity - это... Что такое antibody affinity?antibody affinity - это... Что такое antibody affinity?

antibody affinity. См. аффинность антител. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., ... antibody affinity. antibody affinity.. См. аффинность антител.. (Источник: «Англо-русский толковый словарь генетических ... Смотреть что такое "antibody affinity" в других словарях:. *. Antibody - Immunoglobulin redirects here. For the immunoglobulin ... heteroclitic antibody - antibody produced in response to immunization with one antigen but having a higher affinity for a ...
more infohttps://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/genetics/827/antibody

Experimental Immunization Based on Plasmodium Antigens Isolated by Antibody AffinityExperimental Immunization Based on Plasmodium Antigens Isolated by Antibody Affinity

... Ali N. Kamali,1,2 Patricia Marín-García,1 ... Here, we isolated antigens from total parasite proteins by antibody affinity chromatography to test an immunization against ... yoelii blood-stage antigens isolated with immobilized affinity-purified antibodies from malaria-resistant mice. During blood- ... T. L. M. ten Hagen, A. J. Sulzer, M. R. Kidd, A. A. Lal, and R. L. Hunter, "Role of adjuvants in the modulation of antibody ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/723946/

Antibody affinity | definition of antibody affinity by Medical dictionaryAntibody affinity | definition of antibody affinity by Medical dictionary

... antibody affinity explanation free. What is antibody affinity? Meaning of antibody affinity medical term. What does antibody ... Looking for online definition of antibody affinity in the Medical Dictionary? ... affinity. (redirected from antibody affinity). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. affinity. [ah-fin´ĭ- ... affinity maturation. the increased affinity of antibody for an antigen which occurs during the course of an immune response. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/antibody+affinity

Biology | Free Full-Text | Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes-Our  Current UnderstandingBiology | Free Full-Text | Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes-Our Current Understanding

We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the ... research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. ... of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity ... It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/4/3/512

Innate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo | The Journal of ImmunologyInnate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo | The Journal of Immunology

Innate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo. Mario L. Santiago, Robert L. Benitez, ... Innate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo. Mario L. Santiago, Robert L. Benitez, ... Innate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo. Mario L. Santiago, Robert L. Benitez, ... Innate Retroviral Restriction by Apobec3 Promotes Antibody Affinity Maturation In Vivo Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2010/06/21/jimmunol.1001143

Antibody affinity in infants after immunization with conjugated capsular polysaccharide from Haemophilus influenzae type b.  -...Antibody affinity in infants after immunization with conjugated capsular polysaccharide from Haemophilus influenzae type b. -...

Antibody affinity in infants after immunization with conjugated capsular polysaccharide from Haemophilus influenzae type b.. ... The affinities of IgG antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate [PRP]) ... Children vaccinated with PRP conjugate vaccines may produce antibodies of very low affinity, a finding that may have ... but 13 samples had undetectable affinities (less than 10(4) l/mol). Median affinities of sera from children 2-6 (1.5 x 10(5) l/ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2230242?dopt=Abstract

Amine Reactive Resin for Generation of Protein or Antibody Affinity ColumnsAmine Reactive Resin for Generation of Protein or Antibody Affinity Columns

For the generation of peptide and protein affinity columns, for the purification of antibodies and for the discovery of ...
more infohttps://www.gbiosciences.com/Labeling-Conjugation/HOOK-Activated-Agarose-Amine-Reactive

GANP®  Mice for High Affinity AntibodiesGANP® Mice for High Affinity Antibodies

... high-specificity antibodies with GenScript using GANP transgenic mice,easily incorporated into any immunization protocol. ... High affinity: GANP® mouse produces mAbs with extraordinarily high affinity. *High specificity: GANP® mouse antibodies can be ... GANP® mice produce monoclonal antibodies with higher affinities than BALB/c mouse-produced antibodies ... Affinity ranking and affinity measurements taken by BIAcore for the monoclonal antibodies generated from GANP® mice or BALB/c ...
more infohttps://www.genscript.com/GANP-Transgenic-Mice.html

Custom Antibody, Affinity-Purified Antibodies | SeraCareCustom Antibody, Affinity-Purified Antibodies | SeraCare

Our custom antibody, reagents, and immunoassay solutions are built with industry-leading immunodiagnostic manufactuaing skills ... Affinity-purified antibodies, stable substrates, and liquid substrates developed specifically for your human and animal in ... Custom Antibodies & Reagents. SeraCare provides long-standing expertise in the production of affinity purified antibodies, ... Affinity purified secondary antibodies and conjugates. *Affinity purified primary antibodies to bacteria ...
more infohttps://www.seracare.com/custom-services/antibodies-reagents/

Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and noncognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation | Garvan...Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and noncognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation | Garvan...

Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal ... and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as ... center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages ... Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal ...
more infohttps://www.garvan.org.au/research/publications/10276

Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - A100-205A - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories,...Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - A100-205A - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories,...

Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. - ... The antibody to pig IgG was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose beads. Antibody concentration ... home , products , bethyl laboratories, inc. , goat anti-pig igg-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed antibody affinity purified ... Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - A100-205A - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, ...
more infohttps://www.bioscience.co.uk/product~68887

SAMURAI (Solid-phase Assisted Mutagenesis by Uracil Restriction for Accurate Integration) for antibody affinity maturation and...SAMURAI (Solid-phase Assisted Mutagenesis by Uracil Restriction for Accurate Integration) for antibody affinity maturation and...

Here, we describe the generation of mutagenesis libraries for antibody affinity maturation using a cell-free solid-phase ... Here, we describe the generation of mutagenesis libraries for antibody affinity maturation using a cell-free solid-phase ... Here, we describe the generation of mutagenesis libraries for antibody affinity maturation using a cell-free solid-phase ... Here, we describe the generation of mutagenesis libraries for antibody affinity maturation using a cell-free solid-phase ...
more infohttps://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/samurai-solid-phase-assisted-mutagenesis-by-uracil-restriction-fo

Aquaporin 1 Antibody - Affinity purified polyclonal antibody WB - Buy Now! |AbgentAquaporin 1 Antibody - Affinity purified polyclonal antibody WB - Buy Now! |Abgent

Affinity purified polyclonal antibody validated in WB (AG1048-025), Abgent ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Signal Transduction , Aquaporin 1 Antibody Aquaporin 1 Antibody. Affinity purified ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AG1048-Aquaporin-1-Antibody

Antibody affinity reagents and reproducibilityAntibody affinity reagents and reproducibility

Antibody validation: Standards, policies, and practices * A new mindset for affinity application, evaluation, and authorization ... Learn about protein chemistry and conjugation of antibody and drug. * Immobilize antibody onto different polymers, ... The advantages of recombinant antibody production methods over monoclonal and polyclonal antibody production methods. ... Phage display antibody production be adapted to produce the characteristic desired in applications such as multiple epitope ...
more infohttp://chemistry.as.virginia.edu/print/4506

Antibody (Affinity purified) | Arotec DiagnosticsAntibody (Affinity purified) | Arotec Diagnostics

Affinity purified). We meet every demand for Human IGG, SM/RNP antibodies and recombinant antigens. ... Browse our range of quality antigens and antibodies for Antibody ( ...
more infohttps://www.arodia.com/shop/Products/Antibodies/Affinity.html

Somatostatin Receptor Type 5 (extracellular) Antibody - Affinity purified polyclonal antibody WB - Buy Now! |AbgentSomatostatin Receptor Type 5 (extracellular) Antibody - Affinity purified polyclonal antibody WB - Buy Now! |Abgent

Affinity purified polyclonal antibody validated in WB (AG1017-050), Abgent ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Antibody Collections , GPCR Antibodies , Somatostatin Receptor Type 5 (extracellular) ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
more infohttps://www.abgent.com/products/AG1017-Somatostatin-Receptor-Type-5-extracellular-Antibody

Antigen-antibody Affinity Measurement Service - Syd LabsAntigen-antibody Affinity Measurement Service - Syd Labs

Kinetic analysis is used to determine the affinity of an antibody to its soluble antigen using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) ... Antibodies A-Z Primary Antibodies. Antibody Labeling. Secondary Antibodies. Antibody Modification. Conjugated Antibodies. ... His-tag Monoclonal Antibody. DYKDDDDK-tag Monoclonal Antibody. HA-tag Monoclonal Antibody. Myc-tag Monoclonal Antibody. GFP ... RFP Monoclonal Antibody. GAPDH Monoclonal Antibody. beta-Actin Monoclonal Antibody. Insulin Monoclonal Antibody. Protein A. ...
more infohttp://www.sydlabs.com/antigen-antibody-affinity-measurement-service-p12314.htm
  • In hybridoma screening, quantitative kinetic evaluation is difficult since the concentration of each antibody in the hybridoma supernatant is unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes. (mdpi.com)
  • Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
  • The antibodies that have been generated in support of the Tissue and Cancer Atlas projects have been tested by immunohistochemistry against hundreds of normal and disease tissues and through the recent efforts of the Human Cell Atlas project, many have been characterized by immunofluorescence to map the human proteome not only at the tissue level but now at the subcellular level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Prestige Antibodies® developed for immunohistochemistry based expression profiling are recommended to be used according to the standard IHC staining protocol described below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To view these protocols and other useful information about Prestige Antibodies and the HPA, visit sigma.com/prestige . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Ag- specific B cells that had not yet undergone isotype switching showed a relatively higher expression of TLR4 than memory B cells, which was reflected in a heightened response to its agonist, but in both cases of TLR4 and 9 yielded mostly low affinity IgM secreting plasma cells. (umd.edu)
  • When immunized together with the antigen, TLR agonists not only boosted the antigen-specific titers, but also increased affinity and isotype switching of the immunoglobulin. (umd.edu)
  • Prestige Antibodies® recommended for Western Blot are recommended to be used according to the standard WB protocol described below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We previously found that mouse low-affinity anti-human IgE mAbs with K D in the 10 −6 -10 −8 M range were capable of blocking allergic reactivity without triggering immediate allergic mediator release. (jimmunol.org)
  • A β2GPI affinity column was prepared by CNBr-activated agarose without spacer arms and human purified unnicked β2GPI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proper validation with controls and optimization ensure the quality of the antibody, and establish confidence in your results. (abgent.com)
  • Prestige Antibodies® have been used for subcellular localization studies by immunocytochemistry (ICC) - immunofluorescence (IF) using the protocol described below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To distinguish between these possibilities, we immunized wild-type and Apobec3 -deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) hapten and evaluated the binding affinity of the resultant NP-specific Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • These studies revealed similar affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG1 Abs between wild-type and Apobec3 -deficient mice in the absence of FV infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, hapten-specific Ab affinity maturation was significantly compromised in Apobec3 -deficient mice infected with FV. (jimmunol.org)
  • GANP ® mouse produces mAbs with extraordinarily high affinity. (genscript.com)
  • In this study, we humanized three parent low affinity allergic response inhibitor (LARI) mouse anti-human IgE mAbs and characterized their biological and immunological features, refined the lead candidate for further clinical development, examined their safety profiles, determined their therapeutic efficiency, and explored the mechanism of action potentially responsible for their therapeutic effects. (jimmunol.org)
  • Median affinities of sera from children 2-6 (1.5 x 10(5) l/mol) and 7-11 months of age (1.6 x 10(5) l/mol) were significantly greater than the median affinities of sera from infants 12-18 (1.8 x 10(4) l/mol) or greater than 18 months of age (4.2 x 10(4) l/mol). (nih.gov)
  • We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abgent.com)
  • GANP can augment the induction of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the V regions, resulting in the affinity maturation of V regions during the proliferation and differentiation of Ag-driven B cells in GCs. (genscript.com)