A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Lymph node germinal centers form in the absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. (1/1752)

Follicular dendritic cell networks are said to be pivotal to both the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and their functions in generating antigen-specific antibody affinity maturation and B cell memory. We report that lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice form GC cell clusters in the gross anatomical location expected of GCs, despite the complete absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. Furthermore, antigen-specific GC generation was at first relatively normal, but these GCs then rapidly regressed and GC-phase antibody affinity maturation was reduced. Lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice also showed substantial B cell memory in their mesenteric lymph nodes. This memory antibody response was of relatively low affinity for antigen at week 4 after challenge, but by week 10 after challenge was comparable to wild-type, indicating that affinity maturation had failed in the GC phase but developed later.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (2/1752)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Eradication of established tumors by a fully human monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor without concomitant chemotherapy. (3/1752)

A fully human IgG2kappa monoclonal antibody (MAb), E7.6.3, specific to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) was generated from human antibody-producing XenoMouse strains engineered to be deficient in mouse antibody production and to contain the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire on megabase-sized fragments from the human heavy and kappa light chain loci. The E7.6.3 MAb exhibits high affinity (KD = 5 x 10(-11) M) to the receptor, blocks completely the binding of both EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a) to various EGFr-expressing human carcinoma cell lines, and abolishes EGF-dependent cell activation, including EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation, increased extracellular acidification rate, and cell proliferation. The antibody (0.2 mg i.p. twice a week for 3 weeks) prevents completely the formation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts in athymic mice. More importantly, the administration of E7.6.3 without concomitant chemotherapy results in complete eradication of established tumors as large as 1.2 cm3. Tumor eradication of A431 xenografts was achieved in nearly all of the mice treated with total E7.6.3 doses as low as 3 mg, administered over the course of 3 weeks, and a total dose of 0.6 mg led to tumor elimination in 65% of the mice. No tumor recurrence was observed for more than 8 months after the last antibody injection, which further indicated complete tumor cell elimination by the antibody. The potency of E7.6.3 in eradicating well-established tumors without concomitant chemotherapy indicates its potential as a monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple EGFr-expressing human solid tumors, including those for which no effective chemotherapy is available. Being a fully human antibody, E7.6.3 is expected to exhibit minimal immunogenicity and a longer half-life as compared with mouse or mouse-derivatized MAbs, thus allowing repeated antibody administration, including in immunocompetent patients. These results suggest E7.6.3 as a good candidate for assessing the full therapeutic potential of anti-EGFr antibody in the therapy of multiple patient populations with EGFr-expressing solid tumors.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (4/1752)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (5/1752)

IFN-gamma can either adversely or beneficially affect certain experimental autoimmune diseases. To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA. IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited significantly lower incidence and severity of muscle weakness, lower anti-AChR IgG Ab levels, and lower Ab affinity to AChR compared with wild-type mice. Passive transfer of serum from IFN-gammaR-/- mice induced less muscular weakness compared with serum from wild-type mice. In contrast, numbers of lymph node cells secreting IFN-gamma and of those expressing IFN-gamma mRNA were strongly augmented in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, reflecting a failure of negative feedback circuits. Cytokine studies by in situ hybridization revealed lower levels of lymphoid cells expressing AChR-reactive IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in AChR + CFA-immunized IFN-gammaR-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences were found for AChR-reactive cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta mRNA. These results indicate that IFN-gamma promotes systemic humoral responses in EAMG by up-regulating the production and the affinity of anti-AChR autoantibodies, thereby contributing to susceptibility to EAMG in C57BL/6-type mice.  (+info)

Reconciling repertoire shift with affinity maturation: the role of deleterious mutations. (6/1752)

The shift in Ab repertoire, from Abs dominating certain primary B cell responses to genetically unrelated Abs dominating subsequent "memory" responses, challenges the accepted paradigm of affinity maturation. We used mathematical modeling and computer simulations of the dynamics of B cell responses, hypermutation, selection, and memory cell formation to test hypotheses attempting to explain repertoire shift. We show that repertoire shift can be explained within the framework of the affinity maturation paradigm, only when we recognize the destructive nature of hypermutation: B cells with a high initial affinity for the Ag are less likely to improve through random mutations.  (+info)

Production of high affinity autoantibodies in autoimmune New Zealand Black/New Zealand white F1 mice targeted with an anti-DNA heavy chain. (7/1752)

Lupus-prone, anti-DNA, heavy (H) chain "knock-in" mice were obtained by backcrossing C57BL/6 mice, targeted with a rearranged H chain from a VH11(S107)-encoded anti-DNA hybridoma (D42), onto the autoimmune genetic background of New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) F1 mice. The targeted female mice developed typical lupus serologic manifestations, with the appearance of transgenic IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies at a young age (2-3 mo) and high affinity, somatically mutated IgM and IgG anti-DNA Abs at a later age (6-7 mo). However, they did not develop clinical, lupus-associated glomerulonephritis and survived to at least 18 mo of age. L chain analysis of transgenic anti-DNA Abs derived from diseased NZB/NZW mouse hybridomas showed a very restricted repertoire of Vkappa utilization, different from that of nonautoimmune (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 transgenic anti-DNA Abs. Strikingly, a single L chain was repetitively selected by most anti-DNA, transgenic NZB/NZW B cells to pair with the targeted H chain. This L chain had the same Vkappa-Jkappa rearrangement as that expressed by the original anti-DNA D42 hybridoma. These findings indicate that the kinetics of the autoimmune serologic manifestations are similar in wild-type and transgenic lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 mice and suggest that the breakdown of immunologic tolerance in these mice is associated with the preferential expansion and activation of B cell clones expressing high affinity anti-DNA H/L receptor combinations.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (8/1752)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Author Summary Antibody affinity maturation is a key aspect of an effective immune response to vaccines, likely to have an impact on clinical outcome following exposure to pathogens. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in B cells is a key enzyme involved in antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation, required for antibody affinity maturation. This human study demonstrated for the first time that induction of AID following H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccination directly correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against the hemagglutinin globular domain (HA1), containing most of the protective targets. Importantly, age differences were found. In younger adults, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with higher initial levels of AID and |2-fold-increase in AID after vaccination. With increased age, a drop in AID activity post-vaccination correlated with lower affinity maturation of the polyclonal antibody responses against the pandemic
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
In hybridoma screening, quantitative kinetic evaluation is difficult since the concentration of each antibody in the hybridoma supernatant is unknown. From modeling calculations, we hypothesized that the ratio of two different antigen-antibody concentrations might allow discrimination of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies irrespective of the antibody concentration. Using anti-alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibodies of known affinity, we set the signal ratio of a time-resolved assay at |0.1, in which the antigen concentrations were 10 and 100 ng/mL. From anti-alpha-fetoprotein hybridoma screening with this assay, it was possible to effectively select high-affinity monoclonal antibodies with KD values below 1x10(-8) M. High-sensitivity sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which detects domain III of alpha-fetoprotein has been established using selected high-affinity monoclonal antibodies. This screening method is useful for selection of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies of potential diagnostic
Apobec3/Rfv3 is an innate immune factor that promotes the neutralizing Ab response against Friend retrovirus (FV) in infected mice. Based on its evolutionary relationship to activation-induced deaminase, Apobec3 might directly influence Ab class switching and affinity maturation independently of viral infection. Alternatively, the antiviral activity of Apobec3 may indirectly influence neutralizing Ab responses by reducing early FV-induced pathology in critical immune compartments. To distinguish between these possibilities, we immunized wild-type and Apobec3-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) hapten and evaluated the binding affinity of the resultant NP-specific Abs. These studies revealed similar affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG1 Abs between wild-type and Apobec3-deficient mice in the absence of FV infection. In contrast, hapten-specific Ab affinity maturation was significantly compromised in Apobec3-deficient mice infected with FV. In highly ...
Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2, and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity.
In titrating serum immunoglobulin G antibody to viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we used two rows of wells for serial twofold dilutions of the serum; in one row, a low concentration of a protein denaturant, 0.5 or 1.0 M guanidine hydrochloride, was added to the diluent so that the binding of low-avidity antibodies to viral antigens on the solid phase was inhibited. We then compared the antibody titration curves obtained in the two rows. We found that the addition of the reagent resulted in a parallel leftward shift of the curves and that the extent of the shift was greater in early than in late sera from all of the three infections studied (Japanese encephalitis virus, rotavirus, and rubella virus infections). This procedure may be useful for estimation of the avidity of antibody in serum and, with further evaluation, may prove to be applicable to single-serum diagnosis of virus infections. ...
The Endowed Professorship of Immunotechnology develops an in vitro hybridoma cell antibody affinity maturation system to modulate antibody affinities with regard to the final application.
People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was
PeproTechs polyclonal antibodies are antigen affinity purified from antiserum using antibody-antigen specificity yielding |95% pure specific polyclonal antibodies
SUMMARY: During antibody affinity maturation, germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between affinity-driven selection in the light zone (LZ) and proliferation and somatic hypermutation in the dark zone (DZ). Although selection of GC B cells is triggered by antigen-dependent signals delivered in the LZ, DZ proliferation occurs in the absence of such signals. We show that positive selection triggered by T cell help activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes the anabolic program that supports DZ proliferation. Blocking mTORC1 prior to growth prevented clonal expansion, whereas blockade after cells reached peak size had little to no effect. Conversely, constitutively active mTORC1 led to DZ enrichment but loss of competitiveness and impaired affinity maturation. Thus, mTORC1 activation is required for fueling B cells prior to DZ proliferation rather than for allowing cell-cycle progression itself and must be regulated dynamically during cyclic
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells[5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (TFH cells).[6] On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication.[7] A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switching and is associated with hyper IgM syndrome.[8] Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an important process in the adaptive immune system. ...
Generate high-affinity, high-specificity antibodies with GenScript using GANP transgenic mice,easily incorporated into any immunization protocol.
Definition of Affinity maturation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Affinity maturation? Meaning of Affinity maturation as a legal term. What does Affinity maturation mean in law?
This is the first study focusing on the kinetics of the avidity and levels in serum of anti-M. tuberculosis IgG antibodies in patients with pulmonary TB and undergoing treatment.. In our study, both the levels in serum and the avidity of these antibodies were significantly higher in untreated pulmonary TB patients than in patients with other pulmonary diseases. However, no relationship was found between the levels of circulating antibodies against M. tuberculosis and the avidity of the antibodies. This result is in agreement with the observations of Pullen and colleagues for patients with rubella infection, suggesting that antibody affinity is controlled by mechanisms independent of those regulating antibody levels (15).. For our Vietnamese study group, avidity determination had more diagnostic potential than measurement of serum levels alone. Especially in the desired specificity range of 90 to 100%, sensitivity could be improved to 45 to 68% by combining antibody levels and antibody avidity ...
Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.. ...
Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. - antibodies
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibodys antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions, and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of anti-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 via placental transfer and the transfer of IgA via the colostrum according to maternal Sa carrier status at delivery. METHODS: We evaluated anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in maternal and cord sera and IgA in colostrum from a case (n=49, Sa+) and a control group (n=98, Sa-). RESULTS: Of the 250 parturients analyzed for this study, 49 were nasally colonized with S. aureus (prevalence of 19.6%). Ninety-eight non-colonized subjects were selected for the control group. The anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels and the IgG avidity indexes in the maternal and cord sera did not differ between the groups, with a low transfer ratio of anti-Sa IgG to the newborns in both groups. The anti-Sa IgG2 titers were significantly higher than the IgG1 titers in the maternal and cord sera. Inversely, the transfer ratios were higher for anti-Sa IgG1 compared with IgG2; however, no differences between the groups were detected. The ...
Ibison F, Olotu A, Muema DM, Mwacharo J, Ohuma E, Kimani D, Marsh K, Bejon P and Ndungu FM. Lack of Avidity Maturation of Merozoite Antigen-Specific Antibodies with Increasing Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Amongst Children and Adults Exposed to Endemic Malaria in Kenya. PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052939. Epub 2012 Dec 26 (MVVC)
Anti- antibody,Rabbit PAb. Applications for , fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
Anti- antibody,Rabbit PAb. Applications for , fully validated. Quality guaranteed. Buy elite antibodies at up to 60% cost saving.
The crystal structure of the Fab complexed to antigen reveals a number of water molecules that are fixed in the binding area. Many of these water molecules form hydrogen bond bridges between antigen and antibody, contributing to the strength of binding. There is no evidence for the exclusion of water from the antibody/antigen complex. The affinity for binding can be expressed by the equation describing free energy in a system: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS, where G = free energy or energy available for work, H = total energy in a system (enthalpy), T = absolute temperature (in Kelvin) and S = entropy. Which of the following statements are correct concerning the generation of a negative ΔG (indicating a spontaneous reaction) for high affinity antibody/antigen binding? ...
T cell responses are initiated by antigen and promoted by a range of costimulatory signals. Understanding how T cells integrate alternative signal combinations and make decisions affecting immune response strength or tolerance poses a considerable theoretical challenge. Here, we report that T cell r …
Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
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Vector Laboratories affinity-purified antibodies are of unmatched quality. These antibodies are prepared using proprietary immunization schedules that produce high affinity antibodies.
The FASER Kits an be used to amplify weak fluorescence intensity resulting from staining of low-expressed antigens, the use of low-affinity antibodies, or immunomagnetic and fluorochrome-conjugated antibody labeling of cells via the same epitope. Furthermore, increasing the fluorescence intensity simplifies the flow cytometric discrimination of labeled and non-labeled cell fractions. The FASER Kits can also be used in combination with Anti-FITC, Anti-PE or Anti-APC MicroBeads for the enhancement of weak magnetic labeling. - Deutschland
People with HIV infections experience a wide range of abnormalities in their immune systems, and one of the most recently discovered abnormalities includes affinity maturation defects within the memory B cells.
50 µg antigen affinity purified mouse monoclonal antibody. Reacts with Human, Mouse, Zebrafish. Tested in Western blotting, ChIP and IP.
10 g/mL; median fold rise 439, range 0.9C9,200), obtained at a median of 31 days (range 26C64). The GMC was 153.1 g/mL (113.5C207.0, n = SAHA 50) for those who had received all primary 3 doses as DTwP-Hib; 179.1 g/mL (139.6C229.6, n = 38) for those who received 2 doses of DTwP-Hib and 1 dose of DTaP-Hib; 147.6 g/mL (87.1C249.5, n = 27) for those who received 1 dose DTwP-Hib and 2 doses DTaP-Hib; and 134.0 g/mL (96.4C186.2, n = 42) for those who received all 3 doses as DTaP-Hib. None of the variables included in the model SAHA was associated with postbooster anti-PRP antibody concentration. Anti-PRP Avidity No significant differences in geometric mean avidity index were found before and after receiving the Hib booster vaccine (data not shown). A significant inverse trend to lower postbooster avidity levels was evident according to the number of doses of DTaP-Hib received ( ...
Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs) through iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection. Selection involves B cells competing for T cell help based on the amount of antigen they capture and present on their MHC class II (MHCII) proteins. How GC B cells are able to rapidly and repeatedly transition between mutating their B cell receptor genes and then being selected shortly after is not known. We report that MHCII surface levels and degradation are dynamically regulated in GC B cells. Through ectopic expression of a photoconvertible MHCII-mKikGR chimeric gene, we found that individual GC B cells differed in the rates of MHCII protein turnover. Fluctuations in surface MHCII levels were dependent on ubiquitination and the E3 ligase March1. Increases in March1 expression in centroblasts correlated with decreases in surface MHCII levels, whereas CD83 expression in centrocytes helped to stabilize MHCII at that stage. Defects in MHCII ubiquitination caused GC B cells to
The maturation of antibody affinity during the immune response, discovered as a serological phenomenon in 1964, is critical to the development of high affinity humoral immunity. This process takes place in germinal centers (GCs), which are microanatomical structures composed of antigen-specific B lymphocytes that form in secondary lymphoid organs upon infection or immunization. High affinity B cells are selectively expanded in the GC by iterative rounds of migration between a zone of hypermutation and proliferation (the dark zone, or DZ) and a zone of selection (the light zone, or LZ). The mechanism whereby somatic antibody mutants are selected on the basis of affinity has been elusive. In the first part of this thesis, I demonstrate that affinity-based selection in the GC operates through regulation of proliferation and hypermutation. B cells with affinity-enhancing mutations capture more antigen through their BCRs for presentation as peptide-MHCII to CD4+ T cells. In turn, enhanced T cell help
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Trevigen \ PAR Monoclonal Antibody Affinity Purified \ 4335-AMC-050 for more molecular products just contact us
Monoclonal antibodies directed toward human PRL (hPRL) have been produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells (Sp2/0-Ag 14) with spleen cells from mice immunized with hPRL. Total immunizing doses of 20 microgram and 64 microgram hPRL resulted in the production of three highly specific hPRL antibodies. The high affinity antibody, with a Ka value of 0.23 X 10(10) M-1, was used to establish a RIA highly suitable for the measurement of hPRL levels in human serum. The correlation of serum hPRL levels measured using the antibody and those in a conventional rabbit anti-hPRL assay was 0.99 (y = 1.16 - 7.2). These results demonstrate that using the mouse hybridoma technique, it is possible to produce high affinity monospecific monoclonal antibody suitable for the measurement of hPRL in human serum.
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Tetrameric MHC/peptide complexes are important tools for enumerating, phenotyping, and rapidly cloning Ag-specific T cells. It remains however unclear whether they can reliably distinguish between high and low avidity T cell clones. In this report, tetramers with mutated CD8 binding site selectively stain higher avidity human and murine CTL capable of recognizing physiological levels of Ag. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8 binding significantly enhances the avidity as well as the stability of interactions between CTL and cognate tetramers. The use of CD8-null tetramers to identify high avidity CTL provides a tool to compare vaccination strategies for their ability to enhance the frequency of high avidity CTL. Using this technique, we show that DNA priming and vaccinia boosting of HHD A2 transgenic mice fail to selectively expand large numbers of high avidity NY-ESO-1(157-165)-specific CTL, possibly due to the large amounts of antigenic peptide delivered by the vaccinia virus. Furthermore,
The chicken is an ideal choice as a non-mammalian host species when using mammalian or human protein antigens. Since chickens are not mammals they generally produce high avidity antibodies to mammalian antigens, especially those that are highly
In article ,7tnpfo$cji$1 at oceanite.cybercable.fr,, Pierre ,URL:mailto:sonigo at cochin.inserm.fr, wrote: , , Interesting point. , Your hypothesis requires that individuals with high affinity antibodies to , blood group molecules had a selective advantage. Some antibodies protect , against the rhesus incompatibility problem during pregnacy. Is it what you , suggest ? , , , No I was not referring to RhD. This is an example of a T-dependent protein antigen. I was referring mainly to anti-carbohydrate responses such as for example the blood groups A and B. Virtually everyone has the capacity to make these same antibodies using similar inherited sets of V-genes. However the auto reactive antibodies which would bind to your own blood group are not selected leaving you with humoral immunity to the other blood groups. The commonly accepted dogma is that these antibodies are cross reactive on bacterial carbohydrates and hence protect us from infection ie they are not actually generated by immunisation ...
The mounting of somatically mutated high affinity antibody responses is important in protection against a range of pathogens and underlies the success of most v...
The association between affinity and disulfide polymerization within Abs from individual antisera (Fig. 3) correlated with the observed increase in PIs during affinity maturation (Fig. 2). This relationship has profound implications. The classical model of affinity maturation (26) envisions an elegantly simple process wherein a sufficiently large initial bolus of Ag can engage a wide range of BCR affinities. As the concentration of Ag diminishes, only the highest affinity B cells can bind sufficient Ag to elicit Abs. Thus, over time the average affinity of serum Abs increases. This process can be accentuated by the later development of somatic mutations, which offer an additional, de novo, repertoire of specificities, including those of even greater affinity (27). Our findings demonstrate that a significant driving force, beyond affinity maturation, results in a higher average Ab affinity in trout-that is, via the provision of an increased half-life to high-affinity Abs (Fig. 5). This increase ...
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. We hypothesize that consistent bnAb elicitation will require germline-targeting priming immunogens, to activate bnAb precursor B cells, and structure-guided, or reductionist, boosting immunogens, to shepherd antibody maturation toward bnAb development. To test this hypothesis, we have focused our initial immunogen design work on VRC01- and PGT121-class bnAbs, but we are addressing other bnAb classes as well, because an effective vaccine will likely need to induce multiple bnAbs of complementary specificities. Our efforts to design, evaluate and optimize the immunogens and immunization regimens are iterative, collaborative and multi-disciplinary. Overall, the work in progress represents an attempt to introduce a new way to design vaccines.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphocyte subpopulations in the neonate. T2 - High percentage of ANAE+ cells with low avidity for sheep erythrocytes. AU - Porta, F. A.. AU - Maccario, R.. AU - Ferrari, F. A.. AU - Alberini, C. M.. AU - Montagna, D.. AU - De Amici, M.. AU - Giannetti, A.. AU - Ugazio, A. G.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022000909&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022000909&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3877355. AN - SCOPUS:0022000909. VL - 7. SP - 263. EP - 269. JO - Thymus. JF - Thymus. SN - 0165-6090. IS - 5. ER - ...
From the host immune perspective, the generation of genomic diversity is used as both a defensive and an offensive weapon. Host mutator enzymes such as Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) seed diversity in the adaptive immune system by introducing targeted mutations into the immunoglobulin locus that result in antibody maturation. Related deaminases of the innate immune system can directly attack retroviral threats by garbling the pathogen genome through mutation, as accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC3G, which restricts infection with HIV. Immune mutator enzymes, however, also pose a risk to the host, as overexpression or dysregulation have been associated with oncogenesis ...
Goat anti-horse IgG recognizes horse IgG whole molecule. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. The antibody is conjugated with Peroxidase. Horse IgG whole molecule (PAB10645) - Products - Abnova
Sandwich ELISA: In a sandwich ELISA (assuming 100μl/well), a concentration of 5.0-6.0 μg/ml of this antibody will detect at least 1000pg/ml of Recombinant Human BAFF when used with PeproTechs Biotinylated Antigen Affinity Purified anti-Human BAFF (500-P163GBT) as the detection antibody at a concentration of approximately 0.25-0.50 μg/ml. ...
Abnova has extensive experience in generating high quality antisera to a wide variety of antigens (peptides, phospho-peptides, proteins, and cDNAs). Using a low dose immunization technique in combination with a proprietary adjuvant, we are able to generate a high-titer, high-affinity antibody response against the immunogen in mice, rats, and rabbits.,Mouse and Rabbit Pab - Ab Production - Services - Abnova
The CD5(+) B cell population is prominent in early life and produce low avidity and, thereby, polyreactive antibodies. CD5(+) B cells are receptive to cytokines and interleukin-10 seems to be influential in the regulation of some of these CD5(+) B ce
It is often used to prepare antibody affinity columns. The appropriate antibody is first incubated with Protein A or Protein G- ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[33] ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ...
Principal antibody ligand. Affinity for ligand. Cell distribution. Effect following binding to antibody ... Many low affinity interactions are formed between receptor and antibody that work together to tightly bind the antibody-coated ... The low individual affinity prevents Fc receptors from binding antibodies in the absence of antigen, and therefore reduces the ... Fc receptors recognize microbes that have been bound by antibodies. The interaction between the bound antibodies and the cell ...
It binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity.[1] The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb425) from ... Murthy, U.; Basu, A; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M.; Ross, A.H.; Das, M. (1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an ... Schmiedel, J.; Blaukat, A.; Li, S.; Knochel, T.; Ferguson, K.M. (2008). "A molecular view of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibody ... Development of matuzumab and other antibodies to the EGFR (for example cetuximab) as cancer therapeutics was motivated by ...
Brandt, S (1988). "Membrane-based affinity technology for commercial-scale purifications". Bio/Technology. 6 (7): 779-782. doi: ... Boi, C. (2007). Membrane adsorbers as purification tools for monoclonal antibody purification. Journal of Chromatography B, 848 ... is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. It works on ... Membrane ion-exchange chromatography for process-scale antibody purification. Journal of Chromatography A, 907(1), 145-154. ...
... and low affinity for the Fc portion of the antibody. This affinity is determined by the amino acid in position 158 of the ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity[edit]. Infected cells are routinely opsonized with antibodies for detection by ... respond better to antibody therapy. This has been shown for lymphoma patients who received the antibody Rituxan. Patients who ... Antibodies that bind to antigens can be recognised by FcϒRIII (CD16) receptors expressed on NK cells, resulting in NK ...
"Somatic hypermutation maintains antibody thermodynamic stability during affinity maturation". Proceedings of the National ... Somatic hypermutation maintains antibody thermodynamic stability during affinity maturation". Proceedings of the National ... One of his papers in 2013 PNAS about making more stable antibodies was retracted, due to suspect data from co-author Shiladitya ... Although their catalytic activities are only rarely strong enough to be of practical use, catalytic antibodies have provided ...
In the medical field of immunology, nanoCLAMP (CLostridal Antibody Mimetic Proteins) affinity reagents are recombinant 15 kD ... Burgess RR, Watson JD (June 2017). "Gentle antibody-mimetic affinity chromatography with polyol-responsive nanoCLAMPs". Protein ... conferring binding affinity and specificity for the target. nanoCLAMPs are the first antibody mimetics described to be polyol- ... Suderman RJ, Rice DA, Gibson SD, Strick EJ, Chao DM (Apr 17, 2017). "Development of polyol-responsive antibody mimetics for ...
Zhang YF, Phung Y, Gao W, Kawa S, Hassan R, Pastan I, Ho M (May 2015). "New high affinity monoclonal antibodies recognize non- ... Ho M, Feng M, Fisher RJ, Rader C, Pastan I (May 2011). "A novel high-affinity human monoclonal antibody to mesothelin". ... The rabbit antibodies have been humanized by antibody engineering using CDR grafting. The CAR T cells ("meso3 CAR") derived ... Human monoclonal antibodies (e.g. HN1, SD1) targeting mesothelin have been isolated by phage display. Mitchell Ho and Ira ...
Continuous capturing of antibodies without affinity chromatography can be realized with the MCSGP-process.[3] ... In the case of antibodies, the state-of-the-art technique is based on batch affinity chromatography (with Protein A or Protein ... In general, affinity techniques have the advantage of purifying biomolecules with high yields and purities but the ... hydrophobic interaction chromatography for fatty acids or for example ion exchange chromatography of proteins or antibodies. ...
... so the two Fab regions of the antibody remain joined together, yielding a divalent molecule (containing two antibody binding ... The fragments can be purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, or affinity chromatography.[38] ... For these applications, antibodies may be enzymatically digested to produce either an Fab or an F(ab')2 fragment of the ... Lane DS, Harlow E (1988). Antibodies: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. pp. A2926. ...
"Directed evolution of high-affinity antibody mimics using mRNA display". Chem. Biol. 9 (8): 933-42. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(02) ... Monobodies belong to the class of molecules collectively called antibody mimics (or antibody mimetics) and alternative ... most antibodies and antibody fragments depend on disulfide bonds formation and they must be produced under an oxidizing ... fifteen times smaller than an IgG type antibody and comparable to the size of a single variable domain of an antibody. They are ...
To overcome this challenge, Bruce Tidor and coworkers developed a method to improve the affinity of antibodies by focusing on ... Lippow, SM; Wittrup, KD; Tidor, B (October 2007). "Computational design of antibody-affinity improvement beyond in vivo ... RSC3 was later used to discover the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in the serum of a long-term HIV-infected non-progressor ... They found that, for the antibodies designed in the study, reducing the desolvation costs of the residues in the interface ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. Many ligand ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known markers, it becomes much simpler to ...
Hawkins RE, Russell SJ, Winter G (August 1992). "Selection of phage antibodies by binding affinity. Mimicking affinity ... for biotechnological use at high temperatures or in harsh solvents Improving binding affinity of therapeutic antibodies ( ... Affinity maturation) and the activity of de novo designed enzymes Altering substrate specificity of existing enzymes, (often ...
They are monoclonal antibodies and have identical structures and affinities to the target. Because they are a combination of ... Other monoclonal antibodies targeting TNF-α are golimumab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol. Etanercept also binds and ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ... Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNF-α by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the ...
Parmley, Stephen F.; Smith, George P. (1988). "Antibody-selectable filamentous fd phage vectors: affinity purification of ... The reverse of this approach is to insert DNA coding for antibodies into gene 3 and detect their presence by appropriate ... Winter, Greg; Griffiths, Andrew D.; Hawkins, Robert E.; Hoogenboom, Hennie R. (1994). "Making Antibodies by Phage Display ... Phage carrying the foreign peptide can then be detected using appropriate antibodies. ...
The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can ... Type 2 and Type 3 hypersensitivity both involve complications from auto-immune or low affinity antibodies. In both of these ... CD4+ T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC, and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in ... Stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody ...
Specific uses of affinity chromatography include antibody affinity, Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and ... for affinity chromatography, affinity labeling, affinity therapy, and the avidin-biotin system. The Avidin-biotin complex is ... Affinity labeling[edit]. Affinity label is a molecule that is similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific ... Affinity chromatography[edit]. Affinity chromatography[6] is a method of separating biochemical mixtures, based on a highly ...
"High throughput solution-based measurement of antibody-antigen affinity and epitope binning". mAbs. 5 (2): 270-278. doi:10.4161 ... Antibodies against a similar target are tested against all other antibodies in the library in a pairwise fashion to see if ... After each antibody has a profile created against all of the other antibodies in the library, a competitive blocking profile is ... Epitope binning is a competitive immunoassay used to characterize and then sort a library of monoclonal antibodies against a ...
The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.[1] ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ...
... antibody affinity tagging, and recruitment of tagged fusion proteins. Affinity tagging for live cell imaging[edit]. One example ... 3.2.1 Affinity tagging for live cell imaging. *3.2.2 Recruitment of endogenous or engineered RNA binding proteins for gene ... CRISPR-Display can target the sgRNA with a particular epitope sequence to various loci, and fluorescently tagged antibodies can ... or affinity tagging for live cell imaging. The functions can be performed simultaneous in the same cell. ...
His thesis was titled The significance of antibody affinity in immune complex disease. In 1976, Petty returned to Canada and ... In addition, he studied the relationship between juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis to antinuclear antibodies (ANA), ... the influence of maternal anti-IgA antibodies on the occurrence of IgA deficiency in the offspring. He and colleagues first ... "Clinical correlates of antinuclear antibodies in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis". The Journal of Pediatrics. 83 (3): 386-389. ...
... is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target. All peptide sequences ... For example, selecting antibody presented by bacteriophage with coated antigen in microtiter plates. The washing step comes ... Only the bound phages with strong affinity are kept. The final step involves the elution step where the bound phages are eluted ... Affinity selection by biopanning. Methods in molecular biology. 2000. 147:195-208 He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan ...
When purifying antibodies, Protein A is used as affinity matrix. However, periodic counter-current processes can be applied to ... In conventional affinity chromatography, a single chromatography column is loaded with feed material up to the point before ... Today, the process is mainly employed for the purification of antibodies in the biopharmaceutical industry as well as in ... Periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) is a method for running affinity chromatography in a quasi-continuous manner. ...
The amount of the analyte captured is detected via a biotinylated antibody against a secondary epitope of the protein, followed ... Annexin A5 affinity assay, a test for cells undergoing apoptosis, often uses flow cytometry ... In addition to the ability to label and identify individual cells via fluorescent antibodies, cellular products such as ... Mass cytometry overcomes the fluorescent labeling limit by utilizing lanthanide isotopes attached to antibodies. This method ...
... molecules are small proteins that bind to target molecules with similar specificity and affinity to that of antibodies ... "Affimers as an Alternative to Antibodies in an Affinity LC-MS Assay for Quantification of the Soluble Receptor of Advanced ... In addition, these affinity reagents have been optimized to increase their stability, make them tolerant to a range of ... "Antibody Alternatives". The Scientist Magazine®. Retrieved 2018-10-18. Sharma R, Deacon SE, Nowak D, George SE, Szymonik MP, ...
A high-affinity binding site would result in the antibody not being able to release from the BBB membrane after transcytosis. ... They utilized a mouse bispecific antibody with two active sites performing different functions. One arm had a low-affinity anti ... 2001). "Boosting Brain Uptake of a Therapeutic Antibody by Reducing Its Affinity for a Transcytosis Target". Science ... This way, the amount of transported antibody is based on the concentration of antibody on either side of the barrier. The other ...
Nelson D. S. (1970). "Studies on cytophilic antibodies. A mouse serum "antibody" having an affinity for macrophages and fast ... This monoclonal antibody binds to all of six well characterized broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. A vaccine concept ... The theory involves roles for B cells that make antibodies, T cells that regulate the production of antibodies by B cells, and ... A suitable anti-anti-HIV antibody envisaged for use in this vaccine is the monoclonal antibody 1F7, which was discovered by ...
... and low affinity for the Fc portion of the antibody. This affinity is determined by the amino acid in position 158 of the ... Infected cells are routinely opsonized with antibodies for detection by immune cells. Antibodies that bind to antigens can be ... respond better to antibody therapy. This has been shown for lymphoma patients who received the antibody Rituxan. Patients who ... The contribution of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to tumor cell killing can be measured with a specific test ...
... and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation.[2] This ... these antibodies frequently have a very high affinity for their antigen.. Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their ...
... antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls the antibody's affinity for ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ... The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ...
Kalled SL (2007). "Impact of the BAFF/BR3 axis on B cell survival, germinal center maintenance and antibody production.". Semin ... receptor superfamily member TACI is a high affinity receptor for TNF family members APRIL and BLyS". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (45): ...
... of the affinity of DHT for the AR and around 20% of the affinity of CPA for the AR.[82] Despite their low affinity for the AR ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... Nonsteroidal antiandrogens have relatively low affinity for the AR compared to steroidal AR ligands.[62][90][82] For example, ... affinity steroidal AR antagonists like cyproterone acetate and spironolactone have been employed.[158] Moreover, in the ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... This is because the virus has an affinity for the placenta and other highly vascular tissues. The fetus has only a one in ten ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
... however it still retains appreciable affinity for CB1 with a Ki of 15 nM.[2] ... agonists/antibodies). *AM-251. *AM-281. *AM-630. *AM-1387. *AM-4113 ...
... by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. As ... "Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... Although plasminogen cannot cleave fibrin, it still has an affinity for it, and is incorporated into the clot when it is formed ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ... Affinity maturation *Somatic hypermutation. *Clonal selection. *V(D)J recombination. *Junctional diversity ...
... for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, also known as p75).[26] It may also modulate the activity of various ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ...
Foods in Elizabethan times were all believed to have an affinity with one of these four humors. A person showing signs of ... modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and antibodies ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... via its affinity for the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. Gankyrin is anti-apoptotic and has been shown to be overexpressed in some tumor ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ...
In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... The majority of human neoantigens identified in unbiased screens display a high predicted MHC binding affinity. Minor ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the PDGFR-beta; PDGFR-beta is a key marker of hepatic stellate cell activation in ... Such antagonists include (but are not limited to) specific antibodies that target the molecule of interest, which act only in a ... whereas the beta type PDGFR binds with high affinity to PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB.[9] PDGF binds to the PDGFR ligand binding pocket ... The different ligand isoforms have variable affinities for the receptor isoforms, and the receptor isoforms may variably form ...
This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... which binds to TNFα with greater affinity than the TNFR.[42] ... "Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies.[20][21] More recently, research in the Laboratory of ...
vaccines, immunoglobulins, immunosuppressants, interferons, monoclonal antibodies For allergic disordersEdit. anti-allergics, ... medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ... monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of ...
... the family is named after antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a ... The binding between TCR and antigen peptides is of relatively low affinity and is degenerate: that is, many TCRs recognize the ... Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. ... The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ...
"Mutation of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... "Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells ...
"Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... The low-affinity receptor (FcεRII) is always expressed on B cells; but IL-4 can induce its expression on the surfaces of ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...
During the embryonic stage Hemoglobin E is present.[73] This subtype increases oxygen affinity in order to transport oxygen ... This is in contrast to domesticated ostriches, who in captivity develop high concentration of immunoglobulin antibodies in ... Relationship between the major phosphorylated metabolic intermediates and oxygen affinity of whole blood in chick embryos and ... The blood oxygen affinity, known as P50, is higher than that of both humans and similar avian species.[72] The reason for this ...
"A Serum Factor in Lupus Erythematosus with Affinity for Tissue Nuclei". BMJ. 2 (5047): 732-734. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5047.732 ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... antibodies are antibodies to components of the nuclear membrane and are found in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Each antibody ...
... has a molecular weight of around 80 kDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. The affinity ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[37] ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ...
Figure 4. IL-15 bind to IL-15Rα receptor alone with affinity (Ka = 1.1011/M). It can also bind to IL-15Rβγc signaling complex ... In one study with mice blocking IL-15 with an antibody led to the reversal of autoimmune intestinal damage.[24] In another ... IL-15 is also able to bind to the 15Rβγc signaling complex with intermediate affinity without requirement for IL-15Rα receptor ... IL-15 bind to IL-15Rα receptor alone with affinity (Ka = 1.1011/M). It can also bind to IL-15Rβγc signaling complex with lower ...
... to low-affinity transition". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1015 (2): 279-87. doi:10.1016/0005-2728(90)90032-Y. PMID 2153405.. ... detailed immunoelectron microscopic studies with rat tissues sections employing cytochrome c-specific antibodies provide ... localization of cytochrome c was shown to be specific as it was completely abolished upon adsorption of the primary antibody ...
Allergies involve mainly IgE, antibodies, and histamine. Mast cells release the histamine. Sometimes an allergen may cause a ... and those with intermediate affinity survive. The stock of T-lymphocytes is built up in early life, so the function of the ... Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors. Myasthenia gravis is often ... whereby T cells with high affinity interaction are eliminated through apoptosis (to avoid autoimmunity), ...
... secretions from the primary granules of neutrophils stimulate the phagocytosis of IgG antibody-coated bacteria.[14] The ... they are ferocious eaters and rapidly engulf invaders coated with antibodies and complement, as well as damaged cells or ... Affinity maturation *Somatic hypermutation. *Clonal selection. *V(D)J recombination. *Junctional diversity ...
Part of this rejection was due to the belief that atoms of one element would have no chemical affinity towards atoms of the ... December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ...
Engineering antibody affinity by yeast surface display.. Colby DW1, Kellogg BA, Graff CP, Yeung YA, Swers JS, Wittrup KD. ...
antibody affinity. См. аффинность антител. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., ... antibody affinity. antibody affinity.. См. аффинность антител.. (Источник: «Англо-русский толковый словарь генетических ... Смотреть что такое "antibody affinity" в других словарях:. *. Antibody - Immunoglobulin redirects here. For the immunoglobulin ... heteroclitic antibody - antibody produced in response to immunization with one antigen but having a higher affinity for a ...
... M. Pelsers Maurice.Pelsers at FYS.rulimburg.nl Tue Dec 1 08:56:31 EST 1998 *Next ... Biochem J. 1999) I was wondering if anyone ever tried to make an affinity colum with phages. Is it possible to take a Cn-Br ... Hello dear immunology friends, As I recently prepared phage antibodies to the membrane protein FAT (fatty acid translocase, ...
... Ali N. Kamali,1,2 Patricia Marín-García,1 ... Here, we isolated antigens from total parasite proteins by antibody affinity chromatography to test an immunization against ... yoelii blood-stage antigens isolated with immobilized affinity-purified antibodies from malaria-resistant mice. During blood- ... T. L. M. ten Hagen, A. J. Sulzer, M. R. Kidd, A. A. Lal, and R. L. Hunter, "Role of adjuvants in the modulation of antibody ...
... including affinity maturation, are dependent on the B cells presentation of antigen to helper T cells at critical checkpoints ... Key events in T cell-dependent antibody responses, ... Toll-like receptor 9 antagonizes antibody affinity maturation ... Key events in T cell-dependent antibody responses, including affinity maturation, are dependent on the B cells presentation of ... the TLR9 agonist CpG enhanced the magnitude of the antibody response to a protein vaccine but failed to promote affinity ...
Affinity of monoclonal antibodies for Globo-series glycans.. Eller CH1, Yang G2, Ouerfelli O2, Raines RT3. ... Affinity of monoclonal antibodies for glycans on a surface as determined with SPR. Response units at saturation (RUeq) were ... we evaluated the affinity of the monoclonal antibodies α-SSEA-4 and α-GH for the glycans SSEA-4 and Globo H. Using fluorescence ... we find that the two monoclonal antibodies have affinity for their cognate glycan in the low nanomolar range, and have ...
However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl ( ... Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B ... NP). The difference in the responses of high- and low-affinity B cells to NP-Ficoll was only twofold. ...
... ; Synonyms: Anti-MGC9753,Anti-Per1-like domain containing 1, ... Anti-PERLD1 antibody produced in rabbit is suitable for western blotting at a concentration of 1.0μg/ml. ... Purified antibody supplied in 1x PBS buffer with 0.09% (w/v) sodium azide and 2% sucrose. ...
... ; Synonyms: Anti-HPF1,Anti-Zinc finger protein 83,Anti-ZNF816B ... Purified antibody supplied in 1x PBS buffer with 0.09% (w/v) sodium azide and 2% sucrose. ...
We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the ... research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. ... of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity ... It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal ...
By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~86 kDa protein representing Min,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology ... Unconjugated from ABR-Affinity BioReagents,PA1-072 detects munc-18 interacting protein 3 (Mint3) from mouse cells.,,,,,,PA1-072 ... ABR-Affinity BioReagents. ABR-Affinity BioReagents Inc. 4620 Technology Drive, Suite 600 Golden, CO 80403 USA Customer Service: ... Rabbit Anti-Esa1 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Abcam. 5. Rabbit Anti-Human Rad51 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated ...
Unconjugated from ABR-Affinity BioReagents,-20 C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology ... ABR-Affinity BioReagents. ABR-Affinity BioReagents Inc. 4620 Technology Drive, Suite 600 Golden, CO 80403 USA Customer Service: ... Rabbit Anti-Esa1 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Abcam. 5. Rabbit Anti-Human Rad51 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated ... Rabbit Anti-GST Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Novus Biologicals. 9. Rabbit Anti-Shigella Polyclonal Antibody, ...
... Author(s). Gai, Annie; Wittrup, Karl Dane; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, ... "High-affinity lamprey VLRA and VLRB monoclonal antibodies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.31 (2009): ... equivalent to those of high-affinity IgG antibodies. We also isolated from a single lamprey 13 anti-lysozyme VLRA clones with ... DownloadTasumi-2009-High-affinity lampre.pdf (501.0Kb). PUBLISHER_POLICY Publisher Policy. Article is made available in ...
... antibody affinity explanation free. What is antibody affinity? Meaning of antibody affinity medical term. What does antibody ... Looking for online definition of antibody affinity in the Medical Dictionary? ... affinity. (redirected from antibody affinity). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. affinity. [ah-fin´ĭ- ... affinity maturation. the increased affinity of antibody for an antigen which occurs during the course of an immune response. ...
All FcγRs can crosslink anti-41BB antibodies to strengthen co-stimulation, but activating FcγR-induced antibody-dependent cell- ... While intrinsically strong agonistic anti-4-1BB can activate 4-1BB in the absence of FcγRs, weak agonistic antibodies rely on ... Agonistic 4-1BB antibodies developed for cancer immunotherapy have suffered from either hepatotoxicity or insufficient anti- ... and engineer a 4-1BB antibody with potent anti-tumor effect and no liver toxicity in mice. ...
Glycan-specific antibodies of very high affinity. To further characterize the antibody response to glycans, we produced TS3- ... The Fab of mAb 14.22 retained the high affinity of the parent antibody with a KD of 13 nM and a very slow dissociation rate ( ... T cells control the generation of nanomolar-affinity anti-glycan antibodies. Zinaida Polonskaya,1 Shenglou Deng,2 Anita Sarkar, ... Anti-glycan antibodies accumulate somatic mutations and have high affinity against tetrasaccharides. (A) Mutation distribution ...
In both cases, these vaccines elicited serotype-specific, protective, and long-lasting IgG antibodies of nanomolar affinity ... We further identified a requirement for CD4 T cells in the anti-glycan antibody response. Our findings establish the design ... Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and ...
Affinity purification is used to separate biomolecules using the specific interaction between the biomolecule and immobilized ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Antibodies. Several antibody-binding proteins are coupled to beads for use in antibody purification, IP and ChIP. These include ... Antibody binding affinities of Protein A, Protein G, Protein L and jacalin ...
The femtomolar affinity matured anti-fluorescein antibody, 4M5.3, was compared to its wildtype high affinity precursor, 4-4-20 ... In this Thesis, we investigate affinity maturation of antibodies for very high affinity binding. Two single chain antigen- ... High affinity antibody binding interactions are important for both pharmaceutical and biotechnological uses. However, designing ... Biophysical characterization of high affinity engineered single chain Fv antibody fragments. Research and Teaching Output of ...
Clone 2F10 from ABR-Affinity BioReagents,PPOX *Available for distribution in the US only,biological,biology supply,biology ... ABR-Affinity BioReagents. ABR-Affinity BioReagents Inc. 4620 Technology Drive, Suite 600 Golden, CO 80403 USA Customer Service: ... Mouse Anti-Human PPOX Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 2F10 from ABR-Affinity BioReagents. ... Mouse Anti-Human S-100 alpha/beta chain Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 8B10 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.. 5. ...
... affinity maturation of antibodies mimicking a TCR is possible and provide a strategy for engineering high-affinity antibodies ... Rational development of high-affinity T-cell receptor-like antibodies. Stewart-Jones, G., Wadle, A., Hombach, A., Shenderov, E. ... Rational development of high-affinity T-cell receptor-like antibodies. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3GJF/pdb ... high-affinity antibody library. The final Fab candidate achieved better peptide binding by 2 light-chain mutations, giving a 20 ...
Arzerra Drug Overview 2019: A Fully Human Immunoglobulin G1 and High-Affinity Antibody that Targets a Novel Epitope on Cluster ... Arzerra (ofatumumab; Genmab/Novartis) is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 and high-affinity antibody that targets a novel ... Arzerras modest market share will likely begin to erode as newer monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors gain ...
Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies in rabbit are delivered with no protein antigen required. ELISA titer of at least 1: ... Complete Affinity-Purified Peptide Polyclonal Antibody Package. Our affinity-purified polyclonal antibody package in rabbit ... Advanced affinity purification technology: Affinity-purified antibodies yield high specificity to the target sequence with ... Home » Antibody Production Services » Polyclonal Antibody Services » Standard Polyclonal Antibody Services » Polyclonal ...
Mita, H., Yasueda, H. and Akiyama, K. (2000), Affinity of IgE antibody to antigen influences allergen-induced histamine release ...
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  • Costimulation of T cell responses with monoclonal antibody agonists (mAb-AG) targeting 4-1BB showed robust anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, but their clinical development was hampered by low efficacy (Utomilumab) or severe liver toxicity (Urelumab). (nature.com)
  • GANP mice are available for all our hybridoma services including our Fast Monoclonal Antibody Services , Phospho-Specific mAb Service , Customized Monoclonal Antibody Packages , and Antibody Drug Development Services . (genscript.com)
  • Production of a High-affinity Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with Folate Receptors Alpha and Beta. (medworm.com)
  • Therapeutic activity of humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and polymorphism in IgG Fc receptor FcγRIIIa gene," Blood 99:754-758, American Society of Hematology (Feb. 2002). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, the authors performed analysis to better understand the structural and mechanistic basis for the neutralization activity of E106, a monoclonal antibody which protected against the lethal Dengue virus type 1 infection in mice by bivalent engagement of the adjacent domain III subunits on a single virion. (moleculardevices.com)
  • IgG1, BALB/c) were produced to obtain insights into the microheterogeneity of the monoclonal antibody. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody was separated into about six spots which had an identical affinity to dextran B512, but differed in their isoelectric points (pI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • During parallel therapy studies with radioiodinated anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3F8 ( 131 I-3F8), a tumor-to-blood ratio of 2.7:1 was achieved, demonstrating the dosimetric advantage of PRIT over conventional radioimmunotherapy (i.e., with directly labeled antibodies or antibody fragments). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fine specificity of epitope recognition of the anti-MUC1 mucin monoclonal antibody, C595 has been studied using solid-phase replacement net (RNET) analysis. (ovid.com)
  • One recently described monoclonal antibody (E106) protects mice against infection of DENV-1 when administered before or several days after virus infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Characterization of mAb6-9-1 monoclonal antibody against hemagglutinin of avian influenza virus H5N1 and its engineered derivative, single-chain variable fragment antibody. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Affinity chromatography - is a method of separating biochemical mixtures and based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand. (academic.ru)
  • Here, we isolated antigens from total parasite proteins by antibody affinity chromatography to test an immunization against lethal malaria infection in a murine model. (hindawi.com)
  • Affinity chromatography is one of the most employed methods for IgG purification, based on the development of specific interactions between the antibody and a ligand. (nsti.org)
  • PeproTech's polyclonal antibodies are purified through the isolation of specific polyclonal antibodies from antiserum by antigen affinity chromatography. (peprotech.com)
  • 5%), which cannot be effectively isolated by standard purification procedures (e.g. ion exchange chromatography) or by non-antigen-specific affinity procedures, such as Protein A/G affinity purification. (peprotech.com)
  • Download this publication from Biotechnology Journal today to learn more about custom affinity chromatography development using camelid V H H antibody fragments, and their potential to purify highly pure and active biological therapeutics. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) is the most common method for preparing affinity chromatography to purify antibody because of its simplicity and mild pH conditions. (abnova.com)
  • Peptide epitope affinity chromatography is a powerful technique for the purification of antibodies. (open.ac.uk)
  • It is concluded that epitope affinity chromatography, coupled with biophysical analyses have an important role to play in the production and characterization of antibody based reagents for targeted diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. (open.ac.uk)
  • Efficient Screening and Design of Variable Domain of Heavy Chain Antibody Ligands Through High Throughput Sequencing for Affinity Chromatography to Purify Fab Fragments. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sequencing for Affinity Chromatography to Purify Fab Fragments. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They were also tested as ligands for the purification of C595 antibody using epitope affinity chromatography. (ovid.com)
  • This order of affinity for C595 was confirmed in chromatography experiments in which antibody was eluted from the former two peptide matrices at approximately the same point on the NaSCN elution gradient, whereas antibody was desorbed from APDTRPPPG at a higher NaSCN concentration. (ovid.com)
  • The aim of our study was to determine the affinity of IgG anti-β2GPI, isolated by affinity chromatography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Produced in rabbits immunized with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the center region of the Human STARD4, and purified by antigen affinity chromatography. (bioon.com.cn)
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific has collaborated with MedImmune to develop two custom affinity resins based on V H H antibody fragments, targeting recombinant proteins with the most desired specificity. (thermofisher.com)
  • The performance of a number of peptide ligands for the purification of a range of different antibodies and recombinant fragments was investigated by automated FPLC. (open.ac.uk)
  • F(ab')2 fragments of antibodies are generated by pepsin digestion of whole IgG antibodies to remove most of the Fc region while leaving intact some of the hinge region. (selectscience.net)
  • High-throughput reformatting of phage-displayed antibody fragments to IgGs by one-step emulsion PCR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, we describe an optimization of the YSD methodology, applied to the generation of potentially therapeutic high affinity single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) targeting PD-L1, an immune checkpoint component which is often upregulated on cancer cell surface. (unina.it)
  • The binding specificity, affinity and biophysical characteristics of these fragments determine their potential applications and resulting efficacies. (utexas.edu)
  • Thus engineering desired properties into antibody and TCR fragments is a major concern of the multi-billion dollar biopharmaceutical industry. (utexas.edu)
  • Binding affinity and kinetics for representative variants depended on the display format used during selection, and all TCR fragments retained binding to native pMHC antigen. (utexas.edu)
  • Using a combination of computational design and phage-based screening, we have identified antibodies and TCR fragments with improved binding properties or biophysical characteristics. (utexas.edu)
  • The selection and characterization of human anti-CEA single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer monoclonal antibodies designed for optimal blood clearance and tumor penetration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important technological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The in vitro affinity maturation has successfully been used to optimize antibodies, antibody fragments or other peptide molecules like antibody mimetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two or three rounds of mutation and selection using display methods like phage display usually results in antibody fragments with affinities in the low nanomolar range. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used the immunoglobulin variable regions isolated from sorted single ASCs to produce over 50 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bound to the three influenza vaccine strains with high affinity. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with cellular antigens," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Identification of human monoclonal antibodies specific for human SOD1 recognizing distinct epitopes and forms of SOD1. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120 W6.1D ). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we isolated Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the clonal persistence of antibodies in the setting of HIV-1 Env vaccination. (asm.org)
  • We review the most common groups of proteins that are isolated using affinity purification beads (also termed affinity purification resins) below. (abcam.com)
  • Several antibody-binding proteins are coupled to beads for use in antibody purification, IP and ChIP. (abcam.com)
  • Two single chain antigen-binding fragment (scFv) antibody systems that were engineered to obtain higher affinity interactions through directed evolution were probed using biophysical techniques to illuminate affinity modulation in proteins. (mit.edu)
  • Antibody is isolated from goat anti-rabbit IgG antiserum by immunospecific purification which removes essentially all goat serum proteins, including immunoglobulins, which do not specifically bind to rabbit IgG. (mpbio.com)
  • Surface plasmon resonance showed that the anti-FRαβ bound to soluble forms of the FRα and FRβ proteins with high affinity (KD=6.26×10(-9) M and 4.33×10(-9) M, respectively). (medworm.com)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Delta pmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. (nih.gov)
  • For the generation of peptide and protein affinity columns, for the purification of antibodies and for the discovery of important interacting proteins and cofactors, G-Biosciences offers activated agarose for the coupling of peptides and proteins to agarose through their primary amines. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The binding affinity of the scFv E8 is in a range for efficient, in vivo , antigen capture in tumor cells expressing a shared epitope of the CEACAM1, 3 and 5 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IRVINE, California, May 28, 2020 (Newswire.com) - GeneTex, a research antibody manufacturer for more than two decades, has augmented its extensive catalog of SARS-CoV-2-related antibodies and reagents with the production of recombinant antibodies targeting the viral spike and nucleocapsid proteins . (newswire.com)
  • All four of GeneTex's spike S1 recombinant antibodies demonstrate specificity for SARS-CoV-2 S1 with no cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV spike proteins. (newswire.com)
  • Although there is high homology among coronavirus nucleocapsid proteins, GeneTex's SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody [HL344] is specific for SARS-CoV-2 with no cross-reactivity to MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV nucleocapsid. (newswire.com)
  • These antibodies have proven to be extremely useful in the preparation of immune-adsorbent resins for use in immuno-depletion of specific proteins from plasma as well as immuno-affinity purification of proteins. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • Phage display technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Frank Breitling and Stefan Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no correlation between antibody specificity and affinity for CEA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our OptimumAntige™ design tool and intelligent Antigen Strategy inscrease antibody specificity and affinity. (genscript.com)
  • Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. (frontiersin.org)
  • TCR avidity for a given pMHC is determined by number of MHC molecules, availability of coreceptors, and TCR affinity for MHC or peptide, respectively, with peptide recognition being the most important factor to confer target specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we present high-resolution crystal structures of 2 Fab antibodies in complex with the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) peptide analogue (SLLMWITQV) presented by HLA-A*0201 and compare them with a TCR recognizing the same pMHC. (rcsb.org)
  • As the MW "peg" dominates the contacts between Fab and peptide, we estimated the contributions of individual amino acids between the Fab and peptide to provide the rational basis for a peptide-focused second-generation, high-affinity antibody library. (rcsb.org)
  • The final Fab candidate achieved better peptide binding by 2 light-chain mutations, giving a 20-fold affinity improvement to 2-4 nM, exceeding the affinity of the TCR by 1,000-fold. (rcsb.org)
  • For polyclonal antibody projects that employ peptide antigens designed, synthesized, and conjugated by GenScript, the final antibody product will have an ELISA titer of 1:64,000 or better, guaranteed. (genscript.com)
  • FQ studies showed that the modified peptide had higher affinity for antibody. (open.ac.uk)
  • The versatility of epitope affinity was demonstrated by purification of a recombinant diabody (dbFv) and by the use of a separate peptide matrix for the purification of an unrelated antibody. (open.ac.uk)
  • A typical PRIT protocol begins with a cold dose of bispecific antibody (BsAb) to prelocalize at the tumor, followed with a clearing agent (CA) to remove circulating off-target antibody and then last, a rapidly clearing radiolabeled small-molecule hapten or peptide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In FQ tests the native epitope peptide (APDTRPAPG) and the alanine substituted peptide had similar association constants when reacting with C595 antibody, whereas the proline substituted peptide (APDTRPPPG) had a higher association constant. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, RNET analysis is useful in the rational design of peptide ligands so that the performance of affinity matrices may be regulated. (ovid.com)
  • In the first study, de novo modeling was used to generate libraries of FLAG peptide-binding single-chain antibodies. (utexas.edu)
  • This can be performed by immobilising the antigen of interest (e.g., the peptide used to raise the antibody) on a solid phase so that the antibodies that bind specifically to the antigen are retained upon loading of the serum, while other impurities and unspecific IgG are discarded in the flow-through. (covalab.com)
  • Thanks to our expertise in purification and peptide chemistry, we are able to determine the best conditions to allow the most effective antigen-antibody interaction. (covalab.com)
  • Anti-post-translational modification antibodies are purified using a specific 3-step antigen affinity purification procedure, for those antibodies require an extremely specific separation between antibodies which are specific for the control peptide and those which are specific to the modified peptide. (covalab.com)
  • This ultrasound-based method enables single-step selection of a high-affinity peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hello dear immunology friends, As I recently prepared phage antibodies to the membrane protein FAT (fatty acid translocase, also known as CD36)(Pelsers et al. (bio.net)
  • In a mouse model in vivo and in a human clinical trial, the TLR9 agonist CpG enhanced the magnitude of the antibody response to a protein vaccine but failed to promote affinity maturation. (nih.gov)
  • We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. (mdpi.com)
  • By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~86 kDa protein representing Mint3 from AtT20 cell extract. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If you wish to purify a recombinant protein for applications such as immunoprecipitation, you can simply use an antibody raised to the tag, e.g . (abcam.com)
  • When designing an experiment to isolate antibodies from a mixture, you should match the binding specificity of the immobilized protein to the species and antibody subtype of the antibody you wish to capture. (abcam.com)
  • To help you decide which protein resins to use, we have compiled detailed information about the species and antibody subtype binding properties for Protein A, Protein G, Protein A/G, Protein L and jacalin here . (abcam.com)
  • This study demonstrates that a single energetic component is not generally responsible for the increased affinity within a given protein-protein affinity maturation pathway. (mit.edu)
  • Affinity, thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural characterization of the binding identified 4M5.3 as one of the highest engineered affinity protein binding interactions known and(cont. (mit.edu)
  • Protein A and protein G are among the most common affinity ligands used at present, thanks to their high binding capacity, but they present elevated costs for their isolation, leakage and contamination problems and low stability to sterilization. (nsti.org)
  • To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of anti-factor H binding protein monoclonal antibodies against the meningococcus relies upon blocking factor H binding. (umassmed.edu)
  • Vaine M, Wang S, Hackett A, Arthos J, Lu S. Antibody responses elicited through homologous or heterologous prime-boost DNA and protein vaccinations differ in functional activity and avidity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Creative Biolabs has established custom membrane protein and membrane protein antibody production platforms for antibody discovery. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • HIAF-ProNano™ can improve the target binding affinity of single domain antibodies and scFvs substantially by engaging of protein nanocages without changing any of the physico-chemical characteristics of single domain antibodies and scFvs. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Great success has been made in improving the binding affinity of single domain antibody and scFv using our HIAF-ProNano™ platform, which infuses the features of protein nanocage with single domain antibodies and scFvs. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Several affinity purification techniques followed by mass spectrometry analysis have been designed and validated to identify protein-protein interaction networks. (springer.com)
  • This technique takes advantage of the high affinity between biotin and streptavidin, allowing for high affinity purification of protein complexes without the use of antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe an improved large-scale purification of multi-protein complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells by in vivo biotinylation, complemented with standard antibody and/or FLAG based affinity captures. (springer.com)
  • Wang J, Cantor AB, Orkin SH (2009) Tandem affinity purification of protein complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells using in vivo biotinylation. (springer.com)
  • alla protein som finns i en viss celltyp vid en viss tidpunkt. (lu.se)
  • Eftersom de flesta läkemedel är riktade mot proteiner samt det faktum att många av nuvarande diagnostiska tester för en människas olika sjukdomstillstånd är baserade på protein-analyser gör sammantaget att behovet av nya metoder för heltäckande proteomanalyser är mycket stort. (lu.se)
  • Used for specific applications, such as to avoid binding of antibodies to live cells with Fc receptors or to Protein A or Protein G. (selectscience.net)
  • Previously, we developed an anti-GD2 single-chain antibody-streptavidin fusion protein [5F11-scFv-SA (streptavidin)] for delivery of radiolabeled biotin, observing tumor-to-blood radiation dose ratios as high as 160:1 in mouse models of human GD2(+)-NB ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used PAD4 tagged with the monomeric fluorescent protein mWasabi to isolate PAD4-specific memory B cells from anti-PAD4 positive patients with RA and applied single cell cloning technologies to obtain monoclonal antibodies. (ovid.com)
  • Antibody-mediated protection against homologous DENV infection correlates with a neutralizing antibody response directed predominantly against the viral E protein [7] . (prolekare.cz)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • The novel multispecies Fc-specific Pseudomonas exotoxin A fusion protein α-Fc-ETA' enables screening of antibodies for immunotoxin development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The human MA39 scFv, selected for its ability to recognize a CEA epitope expressed on human colon carcinomas, was first isolated from a large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library, panned on human purified CEA protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This antibody recognizes human CEA protein in ELISA, Western blot and flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clones [HL1] and [HL6] exhibit high affinity for mammalian-expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with EC50 values of 0.117 nM and 0.251 nM, respectively. (newswire.com)
  • All three recombinant nucleocapsid clones display high affinity for mammalian-expressed full-length SARS-Cov-2 nucleocapsid protein (EC50 values ranging from 0.016-0.074 nM). (newswire.com)
  • In summary, we prove that affinity maturation of antibodies mimicking a TCR is possible and provide a strategy for engineering high-affinity antibodies that can be used in targeting specific pMHC complexes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. (rcsb.org)
  • In this Thesis, we investigate affinity maturation of antibodies for very high affinity binding. (mit.edu)
  • The presence of specific antibodies in vaccinated mice serum was studied by immunoblot analysis at different days after vaccination and showed an intensive immune response to a wide range of antigens with molecular weight ranging between 22 and 250 kDa. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the broad range of nominal antigens that VLRs can specifically bind, and the affinities achieved, indicate a functional parallelism between LRR-based and Ig-based antibodies. (mit.edu)
  • For all antibody projects using antigens designed, synthesized, and conjugated by GenScript, we guarantee a final ELISA titer of 1:64,000 or better- in any host . (genscript.com)
  • Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wang X, Campoli M, Ko E, Luo W, Ferrone S. Enhancement of scFv fragment reactivity with target antigens in binding assays following mixing with anti-tag monoclonal antibodies. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immuno-PCR (IPCR) provides sensitive and versatile detection of a variety of antigens by conjugating a PCR-amplifiable DNA reporter to a specific antibody or an aptamer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, naïve or semi-synthetic human antibody libraries can be used in the search for specific antibodies without immunization with respective antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Directed evolution of human T-cell receptors with picomolar affinities by phage display. (umassmed.edu)
  • Human Antibody Bispecifics through Phage Display Selection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using phage display selection of antibody heavy chains in the presence of a competitor light chain and providing a cognate li. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is the most common format for phage display antibody library. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For more information, visit http://www.bio-rad.com/HuCAL-Affinity Learn how recombinant monoclonal antibodies are created using the HuCAL® antibody library and proprietary phage display technology. (labtube.tv)
  • Typical interactions that are exploited in affinity purification include antibody-antigen, enzyme-substrate/inhibitor/cofactor and ligand-receptor. (abcam.com)
  • The strength of binding between a receptor, such as an ANTIGEN binding site on an antibody, and a LIGAND , such as an EPITOPE on an antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To design an affinity ligand for purification of antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antibody, variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) phage libraries were constructed from Fab-immunized Alpaca and subjected to biopanning against Fabs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • VHHs from three major groups were first selected to analyze their properties as an affinity ligand. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, those VHHs were not suitable as an affinity ligand because of lack of resistance against alkaline pH and/or difficulty in acidic elution from the affinity column. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A serial dilution of preS1 fused onto GST was screed against the captured antibody ligand. (moleculardevices.com)
  • High affinity IgG was eliminated preferentially, as shown by calibrated variable ligand-density ELISA. (elsevier.com)
  • On-chip affinity selection of antibodies using ultrasonic standing waves. (lu.se)
  • We describe how off-rate measurement can be introduced as part of the high-throughput antibody generation process, enabling affinity ranking of antibody candidates and selection of antibodies for optimal assay sensitivity. (labtube.tv)
  • The binding specificities of 52 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from 12 different research groups were studied by immunohistochemistry and immuno flow cytometry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific Mabs with high as well as low affinity were found. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This strategy demonstrates that we can generate multiple high-affinity mAbs from humans within a month after vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • The panel of influenza-virus-specific human mAbs allowed us to address the issue of original antigenic sin (OAS): the phenomenon where the induced antibody shows higher affinity to a previously encountered influenza virus strain compared with the virus strain present in the vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • However, we found that most of the influenza-virus-specific mAbs showed the highest affinity for the current vaccine strain. (nih.gov)
  • GANP ® mouse produces mAbs with extraordinarily high affinity. (genscript.com)
  • Inhibitory anti-C1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been identified that bind to putative phospholipid and von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding epitopes and block endocytosis of fVIII by antigen presenting cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These mAbs, designated group A, display high binding affinities for fVIII, weakly inhibit fVIII procoagulant activity, poorly inhibit fVIII binding to phospholipid, and exhibit heterogeneity with respect to blocking fVIII binding to VWF. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Group A and B epitopes are distinct from the epitope recognized by the canonical, human-derived inhibitory anti-C1 mAb, KM33, whose epitope overlaps both groups A and B. Antibodies recognizing group A and B epitopes are present in inhibitor plasmas from patients with hemophilia A. Additionally, group A and B mAbs increase fVIII clearance and are pathogenic in a hemophilia A mouse tail snip bleeding model. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Group A anti-C1 mAbs represent the first identification of pathogenic, weakly inhibitory antibodies that increase fVIII clearance. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The affinity engineering is a key step to increase the therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (unina.it)
  • Here, we analyzed CD4bs-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) elicited by YU2 gp140-foldon trimers in a non-human primate by selective sorting using CD4bs ""knock out"" trimers. (garvan.org.au)
  • Following two inoculations, the CD4bs-directed mAbs efficiently recognized the eliciting immunogen in their affinity-maturing state but did not recognize CD4bs-defective probes. (garvan.org.au)
  • We reverted these mAbs to their most likely inferred germline (igL) state, leaving the HCDR3 unaltered, to establish correlates of in vitro affinity to in vivo activation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Most igL-reverted mAbs bound the eliciting gp140 immunogen, indicating that CD4bs-directed B cells possessing reasonable affinity existed in the naïve repertoire. (garvan.org.au)
  • We detected relatively high affinities for the majority of the igL mAbs to gp120 and of Fabs to gp140, which, as expected, increased when the antibodies 'matured' following vaccination. (garvan.org.au)
  • the measure of the binding strength of the antigen-antibody reaction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Key events in T cell-dependent antibody responses, including affinity maturation, are dependent on the B cell's presentation of antigen to helper T cells at critical checkpoints in germinal-center formation in secondary lymphoid organs. (nih.gov)
  • Our affinity-purified polyclonal antibody package in rabbit delivers 10-50 mg purified polyclonal antibodies with guaranteed ELISA titer. (genscript.com)
  • GANP ® mouse antibodies can be used to establish a highly-specific ELISA system that distinguishes similar substances. (genscript.com)
  • The large quantities of unrelated IgGs found in these inferior preparations can considerably increase the background when the antibody is used in analytical procedures such as ELISA, neutralization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. (peprotech.com)
  • To ensure that the product titer falls within the required range, antibody titer is standardized by microtiter plate ELISA with rabbit IgG. (mpbio.com)
  • This mutant improved BR96 Fab affinity to sLe(y) an estimated 15- to 20-fold by ELISA, and 14-fold as measured by surface plasmon resonance. (jimmunol.org)
  • This video shows the procedure of sandwich ELISA assay for anti-PEG antibody pair. (abnova.com)
  • Eluted fractions containing anti-β2GPI antibodies were neutralised and analysed by ELISA using various binding buffers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antibodies are validated for western blot, ELISA, ICC/IF, and as antibody pairs for sandwich ELISA. (newswire.com)
  • Importantly, both antibodies perform exceptionally well when paired with GeneTex's mouse monoclonal SARS-CoV antibody [1A9] for sandwich ELISA assays. (newswire.com)
  • 3 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA. (jci.org)
  • 3. in immunology, the thermodynamic bond strength of an antigen-antibody complex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which TFH cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our approach enabled rapid (8 hours) mutagenesis and automated cloning of 50 position-specific alanine mutants for mapping of a scFv antibody paratope. (dtu.dk)
  • All FcγRs can crosslink anti-41BB antibodies to strengthen co-stimulation, but activating FcγR-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compromises anti-tumor immunity by deleting 4-1BB + cells. (nature.com)
  • In vitro functional analysis of the anti-FRαβ showed that this MAb mediates complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis of FRα-expressing and FRβ-expressing cell lines. (medworm.com)
  • Antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a key immune effector mechanism, relies on the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells. (rcsb.org)
  • While the profile of antibodies required for the induction of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been elucidated, less is known about the humoral parameters associated with robust antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). (asm.org)
  • Here, we report the biophysical characteristics and nonclinical antagonistic activities of sasanlimab (PF-06801591), a humanized anti-PD-1 antibody of IgG4 isotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Ag- specific B cells that had not yet undergone isotype switching showed a relatively higher expression of TLR4 than memory B cells, which was reflected in a heightened response to its agonist, but in both cases of TLR4 and 9 yielded mostly low affinity IgM secreting plasma cells. (umd.edu)
  • When immunized together with the antigen, TLR agonists not only boosted the antigen-specific titers, but also increased affinity and isotype switching of the immunoglobulin. (umd.edu)
  • These states include the choice of antibody isotype and IgG subclass ( 2 - 5 ), as well as the precise glycan structure at a conserved glycosylation site at position Asn297 on the antibody heavy, or Fc, chain ( 6 , 7 ), giving rise to remarkable combinatorial diversity. (asm.org)
  • However, designing higher affinity interactions has remained difficult. (mit.edu)
  • Thermodynamic studies were carried out on the originally identified human scFv and three higher affinity mutants. (mit.edu)
  • Context dependent and independent mutational effects on binding affinity indicated the extent of complexity in higher affinity mechanisms attained through directed evolution affinity maturation processes. (mit.edu)
  • Hen Egg Yolk Antibodies Purified by Antigen Affinity under Highly Alkaline Conditions Provide New Tools for Diagnostics. (hu-berlin.de)
  • molecular recognition in these cells occurs through antibodies and T cell receptors (TCRs), respectively. (utexas.edu)
  • Estimates suggest that greater than 90% of severe cases occur during secondary infection with a heterologous DENV serotype, possibly because sub-neutralizing amounts of cross-reactive antibody facilitate viral entry into myeloid cells expressing Fc-γ receptors, a phenomenon termed antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Our study found that mouse mB expressed TLR9 and 4, and responded to their agonists in vitro by differentiating into high affinity IgG secreting plasma cells. (umd.edu)
  • CSIC have developed a method for the in vitro generation of antigen-specific antibodies or cells producing thereof by means of the development of an in vitro germinal center useful to produce vaccines, immunomodulators or immunotherapies. (innoget.com)
  • Neutralization of HIV-1 virus by different dilutions of a supernatant of GC B cells generated in vitro Protective effects of vaccines most frequently rely on the generation of high-affinity antibodies that can neutralize or promote the killing and elimination of pathogens. (innoget.com)
  • Possibility of recreating the GC reaction in vitro in an iterative processof stimulation and selection in order to generate antibodies withatypical infrequent features, such as long protruding CDR3 loops. (innoget.com)
  • Subsequently, by in vitro mutagenesis of a gene encoding for the scFv MA39, a new library was established, and new scFv antibodies with improved affinity towards the CEA cognate epitope were selected and characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The scFv MA39 antibody was affinity-maturated by in vitro mutagenesis and the new scFv clone, E8, was isolated, typed for CEA family member recognition and its CEACAM1, 3 and 5 shared epitope characterized for expression in a large panel of human normal and tumor tissues and cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The single-chain antibody was affinity-maturated by mutagenesis in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like the natural prototype, the in vitro affinity maturation is based on the principles of mutation and selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. (asm.org)
  • This article describes a biochemical investigation that lead up to an enhancement of the humanized nature and binding affinity of a broadly neutralizing hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific humanized antibody called HzKR127. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The elicitation of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies following envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccination is exceedingly difficult. (garvan.org.au)
  • Possibility of producing broadly neutralizing antibodies by introducingvariants of the selecting antigen at specific steps. (innoget.com)
  • I. Characterization of antibody families in the primary and hyperimmune response. (nature.com)
  • This study aims to demonstrate the versatility of the technique and to show how biophysical techniques such as Circular Dichroism (CD) and Fluorescence Quenching (FQ) can aid the rational design of affinity ligands and characterization of antibody based reagents. (open.ac.uk)
  • The mAb 2D12.5 has nmol/L affinity for low molecular weight (MW) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexes with yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu), and is well suited for PRIT in vivo ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 95% pure specific antibodies. (peprotech.com)
  • Nevertheless it is often required to dispose of the unspecific antibodies population and retain only the antigen-specific antibodies, which then tend to show lower background or non-specific binding levels. (covalab.com)
  • Thus, TLR9 signaling might enhance antibody titers at the expense of the ability of B cells to engage in germinal-center events that are highly dependent on B cells' capture and presentation of antigen. (nih.gov)
  • It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. (garvan.org.au)
  • The Germinal Center (GC) reaction is key in this process because B cells undergo antigen-driven immunoglobulin class switch and somatic hypermutation that allows the selection and expansion of B cells producing antibodies of the highest affinity and adequate effector properties. (innoget.com)
  • Affinity maturation primarily occurs on surface immunoglobulin of germinal center B cells and as a direct result of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and selection by TFH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) of the germinal centers present antigen to the B cells, and the B cell progeny with the highest affinities for antigen, having gained a competitive advantage, are favored for positive selection leading to their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liu, Y. J., Oldfield, S. & MacLennan, I. C. Memory B cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses colonize the splenic marginal zones. (nature.com)
  • Generation of high-affinity antibody against T cell-dependent antigen in the Ganp gene-transgenic mouse. (genscript.com)
  • The features of these antibodies in terms of their T cell-dependent origin, genetic characteristics and effect of individual antibody specificities on PAD4 function remain to be defined. (ovid.com)
  • Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
  • I have used thes antibody to develop a western blot. (selectscience.net)
  • Western Blot analysis of Jurkat cells using ATF5 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:1000. (elabscience.com)
  • The antibody may also be used in FACS-based assays. (mpbio.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on an immunoaffinity-purified antigen for detecting specific IgG and IgM antibodies to this organism as a rapid serodiagnostic method for melioidosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (abgent.com)
  • Our A2AP - Alpha 2 Antiplasmin Antibodies are excellent for use in immunoassays where high sensitivity is required and are frequently the preferred reagent for immunopreciptaion techniques and activity neutralization assays. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • This study suggested that the lower titers and affinities of one set of antibodies are most probably due to conformational effects of the spacer arm in the immunizing bioconjugate . (rsc.org)
  • C1 domain antibodies with low inhibitor titers by the Bethesda assay are pathogenic in mice due to increased fVIII clearance. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Second, a family of anti-fluorescein antibodies and their binding to the small molecule fluorescein-biotin were explored. (mit.edu)
  • Antibodies labeled with biotin provide the user with a tool for increasing the sensitivity of an assay by its ability to amplify a given reaction. (abnova.com)
  • As an alternative to streptavidin/biotin, other high-affinity antibody-hapten pairs have been developed for PRIT ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP). (nature.com)
  • In contrast, there is no agonistic antibody against co-stimulation receptor approved in clinic. (nature.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules, including fusion constructs, having catalytic activity and the use of same in glycosylation engineering of host cells to generate polypeptides with improved therapeutic properties, including antibodies with increased Fc receptor binding and increased effector function. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Antibodies lacking core fucosylation show a large increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an improved receptor-mediated effector function. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, in the complex structure with fucosylated Fc, these contacts are weakened or nonexistent, explaining the decreased affinity for the receptor. (rcsb.org)
  • Brain uptake of a therapeutic bispecific antibody by receptor-mediated transcytosis is enhanced by reducing the antibody's affinity for the transferrin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antibodies are potent determinants of the humoral immune response and can act not only by direct neutralization of the pathogen but also via engagement of the cytotoxic Fc receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells of the innate immune system-providing a functional link between the innate and adaptive immune systems ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
  • Eisen, H. N. & Siskind, G. W. Variations in affinities of antibodies during the immune response. (nature.com)
  • Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients. (jci.org)
  • Immune checkpoint blockade antibodies have gained great success in clinic, which aim to release the brake of anti-tumor T cell response. (nature.com)
  • These findings allow us to understand the higher efficacy of therapeutic antibodies lacking the core fucose and also suggest a unique mechanism by which the immune system can regulate antibody-mediated effector functions. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, we investigated antibody-dependent phagocytosis of HIV immune complexes, and we observed significant differences in the ability of antibodies from infected subjects to mediate this critical effector function. (asm.org)
  • The innate immune effector function of an antibody is determined by its constant, or Fc, domain, which has evolved to possess a large number of states with regard to potency. (asm.org)
  • Critically, as a potent mechanism of antibody-mediated effector function, phagocytosis of immune complexes, opsonized virus, and infected host cells represents an important connection between the adaptive and innate immune systems, with potential roles both in priming of the adaptive immune response and in clearance of virus. (asm.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are a key component of a protective natural and vaccine-induced immune response against human DENV infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • Human antibodies obtained by this method do not induce harmful immune response in patients, in comparison with murine monoclonal antibodies produced by the classic hybridoma techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heavy chain variable region contribution to the NPβ family of antibodies: somatic mutation evident in a γ2a variable region. (nature.com)
  • GANP can augment the induction of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the V regions, resulting in the affinity maturation of V regions during the proliferation and differentiation of Ag-driven B cells in GCs. (genscript.com)
  • Somatic mutations increase the agonistic activity of these antibodies at low calcium concentrations by facilitating their interaction with structural epitopes that modulate calcium-binding site 5 in PAD4. (ovid.com)
  • Antibody titer of the affinity purified antibody is standardized by equivalence-point precipitation. (mpbio.com)
  • Single-domain antibody - Ribbon diagram of a llama VHH domain. (academic.ru)
  • Creative Biolabs has built a novel single domain antibody and scFv affinity improvement platform using our exclusive HIAF-ProNano™ affinity improvement technology. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Use of HCA in subproteome-immunization and screening of hybridoma supernatants to define distinct antibody binding patterns. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immunization strategies with intact virions that skew the selection of neutralizing antibodies to those with bivalently binding properties could augment the potency of antiviral humoral responses against DENV and other flaviviruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • We cloned VLRB binders of lysozyme, β-gal, cholera toxin subunit B, R-phycoerythrin, and B-trisaccharide antigen, with dissociation constants up to the single-digit picomolar range, equivalent to those of high-affinity IgG antibodies. (mit.edu)
  • We also isolated from a single lamprey 13 anti-lysozyme VLRA clones with affinities ranging from low nanomolar to mid-picomolar. (mit.edu)
  • Yeast surface display (YSD) is the most widely used and powerful affinity maturation approach, allowing for the achievement of low picomolar antibody binding affinities. (unina.it)
  • In both cases, these vaccines elicited serotype-specific, protective, and long-lasting IgG antibodies of nanomolar affinity against the target glycans in mice. (jci.org)
  • In this respect, the derivatization site at which the spacer arm is introduced in immunizing conjugates constitutes a highly critical parameter for the generation of high-affinity and selective antibodies. (rsc.org)
  • GenScript has licensed a unique GANP ® technology from Transgenic Inc for the production of high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies. (genscript.com)
  • These mice can be chosen when high affinity and high specificity antibodies are needed for certain applications. (genscript.com)
  • Affinity-purified antibodies yield high specificity to the target sequence with lower background. (genscript.com)
  • Analysis of the interaction between an alpha (1----6)dextran-specific mouse hybridoma antibody and dextran B512 by affinity electrophoresis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anti-PERLD1 antibody produced in rabbit is suitable for western blotting at a concentration of 1.0μg/ml. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Peroxidase-conjugated goat affinity purified antibody to rabbit IgG (whole molecule) is suitable for use as a reagent in enzyme immunoassays (EIA), cell and tissue staining (for light microscopy), cell and tissue labeling (for electron microscopy), and blot immunostaining. (mpbio.com)
  • Antibody: Affinity purified rabbit anti-Rictor antibody A300-459A (lot A300-459A-4) used for WB at 0.1 µg/ml. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Antibodies: Affinity purified rabbit anti-Rictor antibody A300-459A (lot A300-459A-4) used for IP at 3 µg per reaction. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Rictor was also immunoprecipitated by a previous lot of this antibody (lot A300-459A-3) and rabbit anti-Rictor antibody A300-458A. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Antibody: Affinity purified rabbit anti-Rictor (Cat. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Antibodies: Affinity purified rabbit anti-SNF2h/ISWI antibody A301-018A used for IP at 3 µg/mg lysate. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • SNF2h/ISWI was also immunoprecipitated by rabbit anti-SNF2h/ISWI antibodies A301-017A and BL4495, which recognize upstream epitopes. (bioscience.co.uk)
  • Analysis of association reactions in both rabbit polyclonal and murine monoclonal populations of anti-fluorescyl-IgG antibodies revealed the presence of two-step association kinetics. (illinois.edu)
  • Polyclonal anti-fluorescyl antibody preparations, obtained from 14 different hyperimmune NZW rabbits, were used to characterize the expression of anti-fluorescyl antibodies within the rabbit population. (illinois.edu)
  • Generated in GeneTex's new, state-of-the-art recombinant antibody facility, all four novel recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies directed against the S1 region of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and three targeting nucleocapsid (N) exhibit high affinity and specificity. (newswire.com)
  • Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies have many well-described advantages that are consistent with the shift in the commercial antibody market toward recombinant antibody development, which include superior performance, reproducibility, production scalability, and antibody engineering flexibility. (newswire.com)
  • While significant research has focused on the cytolytic properties of antibodies in acquisition and control, less is known about the role of additional effector functions. (asm.org)
  • Several recent reports have highlighted the possible importance of antibody Fc effector functions in HIV acquisition and progression ( 3 , 5 , 8 - 12 ), offering what may be a tractable handle for protection mediated by vaccination. (asm.org)