Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (1/15345)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (2/15345)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

W(3/15345)

aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa?  (+info)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (4/15345)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study. (5/15345)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (6/15345)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (7/15345)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (8/15345)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

*Autoantibody

Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... such as a viral illness or a prolonged exposure to certain toxic chemicals. There is generally not a direct genetic link ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ...

*Colorado tick fever

Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... Viral replication in infected cells is associated with characteristic cytoplasmic granular matrices. Evidence suggests viral ... The double-stranded RNA viral genome is about 20,000 bp long and is divided into 12 segments, which are termed Seg-1 to Seg-12 ... Colorado tick fever (CTF) (also called mountain tick fever, American tick fever, and American mountain tick fever) is a viral ...

*Joshua Lederberg

He collaborated with Frank Macfarlane Burnet to study viral antibodies. With the launching of Sputnik in 1957, Lederberg became ... 1951 that genetic material could be transferred from one strain of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium to another using viral ...

*Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

Like the ELISA procedure, the western blot is an antibody detection test. However, unlike the ELISA method, the viral proteins ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to human antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ... If no viral bands are detected, the result is negative. If at least one viral band for each of the GAG, POL, and ENV gene- ... Antibodies that do not attach are washed away, and enzyme-linked antibodies with the capability to attach to the person's ...

*Ebola virus disease

Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. Control of outbreaks ... IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected 6 to 18 days after symptom onset ... The presence of viral particles and the cell damage resulting from viruses budding out of the cell causes the release of ... Additionally, survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear if they are immune to ...

*Polioencephalitis

Blood tests can be done to detect antibodies against viral antigens and foreign proteins. Virus isolation is the most sensitive ... Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. The virus ... Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves ... "Polioencephalitis and the brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes". J. Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 (2- ...

*Scott K. Dessain

Dessain SK, editor (2008). Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology ... Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology and immunology; vol. 317). pp ... from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. His technique for cloning native human antibodies has ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ...

*Michel C. Nussenzweig

28 July 2016). "HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption". Nature. 535 (7613): ... "Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice". Cell. 158 ... Work on adaptive immunity focuses on B lymphocytes and antibodies to HIV-1, while work on innate immunity focuses on dendritic ... In clinical trials, a broadly neutralizing antibody isolated from an HIV-infected patient was shown to be safe and effective ...

*Hemagglutination assay

During the incubation, antibodies bind to the viral particles, and if the concentration and binding affinity of the antibodies ... HI is closely related to the HA assay, but includes anti-viral antibodies as "inhibitors" to interfere with the virus-RBC ... The goal is to characterize the concentration of antibodies in the antiserum or other samples containing antibodies. The HI ... Relative to the initial viral stock concentration, the virus concentration in this well will be some dilution of the stock, for ...

*Hopkins syndrome

In several cases, anti-viral antibody titers for echovirus, enterovirus, coxsackievirus and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were ... has led to suspicion that the initial viral insult that causes the respiratory infection is also implicated in the subsequent ...

*Acute retinal necrosis

... viral PCR, direct/indirect immunofluorescence, viral antibody measurement. The American Uveitis Society has established the ... Together, the viral particles and mononuclear cells in the vitreous cause the retina to become opaque. In response to all this ... The acute herpetic phase is characterized by when viral particles infiltrate the retina and vitreous causing an inflammatory ... Common lab tests that are run on the sample include a viral culture, ...

*Creative Diagnostics

The initial business is antibody-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, ... Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in research and manufacture of antibodies, viral ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus ...

*Subacute thyroiditis

This evidence is limited to preceding upper respiratory tract infection, elevated viral antibody levels, and both seasonal and ... Indirect evidence has implicated viral infection in the aetiology of subacute thyroiditis. ...

*Cell fusion

... viral adsorption takes place and the adsorbed virus can be inhibited by viral antibodies. The second stage, which is 20 minutes ... In the third, antibody-refractory stage, viral envelope constituents remain detectable on the surface of cells. During the ... To obtain viral replication. For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. ... is pH dependent and an addition of viral antiserum can still inhibit ultimate fusion. ...

*Universal flu vaccine

Krammer F (May 2017). "Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins". Expert Review of ... 2016 BBC: 'Super antibody' fights off flu Independent: Scientists hail the prospect of a universal vaccine for flu "Universal ... In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called ... F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A ...

*2015-16 Zika virus epidemic

The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... A test for IgM antibodies has seen to be effective over longer periods of time, as these antibodies can be present starting 4 ... The methods currently available to test for Zika antibodies cross-react with dengue antibodies. An IgM-positive result in a ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...

*Lipid raft

Implications for anti-viral-neutralizing antibodies (Review)". Molecular Membrane Biology. 23 (6): 453-65. doi:10.1080/ ... Campbell, S.M; Crowe, S.M; Mak, J (2001). "Lipid rafts and HIV-1: From viral entry to assembly of progeny virions". Journal of ... Alving, Carl R.; Beck, Zoltan; Karasavva, Nicos; Matyas, Gary R.; Rao, Mangala (2006). "HIV-1, lipid rafts, and antibodies to ... The best studied models of lipid rafts-related nonenveloped viral entry are simian virus 40 (SV40, Papovaviridae) and echovirus ...

*HLA A1-B8 haplotype

The association with viral hepatitis was subsequently demonstrated and patients with antinuclear antibodies were more likely to ... Though, the association of A1 with autoimmune hepatitis with no anti-viral antibody was stronger than with chronic active ... Hug G (May 1976). "Genetic factors and autoimmunity in viral hepatitis". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 65 (5 Suppl): 870-5. PMID 218441 ... Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB (January 1995). "Immunologic features and HLA associations in chronic viral ...

*Splenic disease

Assessment of IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (a rising titer) is indicated to confirm Epstein-Barr virus or ... The most common cause of acute splenomegaly in children is viral infection, which is transient and usually moderate. Basic work ...

*Swine influenza

Vicente J, León-Vizcaíno L, Gortázar C, José Cubero M, González M, Martín-Atance P (July 2002). "Antibodies to selected viral ... Antibodies to the virus are also common in pigs in other countries. The main route of transmission is through direct contact ... Of the 25 swine exhibitors aged 9 to 19 at the fair, 19 tested positive for antibodies to SIV, but no serious illnesses were ... Genetic components of these 1998 triple-hybrid stains would later form six out of the eight viral gene segments in the 2009 flu ...

*Herpes simplex

Rates of infection are determined by the presence of antibodies against either viral species. In the US, 58% of the population ... Akhtar, Jihan; Shukla, Deepak (December 2009). "Viral entry mechanisms: cellular and viral mediators of herpes simplex virus ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body ...

*Human respiratory syncytial virus

RSV infection can be confirmed using tests for antigens or antibodies, or viral RNA by reverse transcription PCR. ... Quantification of viral load can be determined by various assay tests. As the virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world, ... Four of the viral genes code for intracellular proteins that are involved in genome transcription, replication, and particle ... HRSV is divided into two antigenic subgroups, A and B, on the basis of the reactivity of the virus with monoclonal antibodies ...

*Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus

TSPyV infects the skin, but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to ... Estimates of seroprevalence - that is, prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins - in immunocompetent adults ... Wu, J.H.; Nguyen, H.P.; Rady, P.L.; Tyring, S.K. (March 2016). "Molecular insight into the viral biology and clinical features ... It was suspected to be associated with viral infection on the basis of the patient population in which it appeared, and ...

*Trichodysplasia spinulosa

Antibodies against major capsid protein VP1, the major component of the viral capsid, can be used to confirm the presence of ... TSPyV infects the skin, but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to ... Quantification of viral load can be performed using quantitative PCR, as affected skin demonstrates much higher viral loads ... Trichodysplasia spinulosa (also known by many other names, including viral-associated trichodysplasia spinulosa, viral- ...

*Bovine malignant catarrhal fever

... histopathology and detection in the blood or tissues of viral antibodies by ELISA or of viral DNA by PCR. The characteristic ... Antibody from sheep and from cattle with BMCF is cross reactive with AlHV-1. AHV-1/OHV-2 can also cause problems in zoological ... OHV-2 viral DNA has been detected in the alimentary, respiratory and urino-genital tracts of sheep all of which could be ... The viral life cycle is outlined in three stages: entry, maintenance, and shedding. Entry occurs through the sheep's nasal ...

*Phage display

Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...

*Plasmapheresis

... is also maintained by the PPTA for use in keeping donors with prior positive viral antibody test results from donating at any ... Antibodies Donors are sometimes immunized against agents such as tetanus or hepatitis B so that their plasma contains the ... Donors are screened at each donation for viral diseases that can be transmitted by blood, sometimes by multiple methods. For ... In other donors, an intentionally incompatible unit of blood is transfused to produce antibodies to the antigens on the red ...
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20&ndash;80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20&ndash;80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
ABSTRACT. Background:. To evaluate the presence of unrecognized MERS-CoV infections among health care workers (HCWs) after the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation. Methods:. During the outbreak, all HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients were quarantined for 14 days and tested screening sputum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays thereafter. HCWs with positive PCR results were excluded from the study. We prospectively collected the sera of HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients at 6 to 26 weeks post exposure. We primarily used anti-MERS-CoV IgG ELISA, and sera with an optical density (OD) ratio ¡Ã 0.2 were substantiated by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).. Results:. Fifty-nine of the 189 HCWs exposed to four highly-infective MERS patients (31.2%) and 130 of 254 HCWs assigned to MERS patient care (51.2%) consented to the study. The median of ELISA OD ratio of exposed HCWs and assigned HCWs were both 0.08 ...
Specific antibodies against p185. (A) Anti p185-antibody titre in vaccinated and control animals. Mean antibody titres are indicated by full line (**P=0.0024).
Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.. See eligibility criteria ...
The objective of this work was to study the dynamics of M. Hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) infection along the life-time of three groups of naturally infected pigs form the same farm and correlated with sow parity and antibody titers at farrowing, seroconversion, appearance of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. ...
The objective of this work was to study the dynamics of M. Hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) infection along the life-time of three groups of naturally infected pigs form the same farm and correlated with sow parity and antibody titers at farrowing, seroconversion, appearance of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. ...
Heat map representation of patient antibody profiles in second cohort to the four CMV antigens. The titer values for each serum were log10 transformed and then
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Geneticist Stephen Elledge describes what his team s new technology is revealing about human immunology and disease. (Video: Stephanie Dutchen). VirScan Uses Peptides to Scan for Viruses. VirScan provides a tool for studying interactions between the collection of viruses known to infect humans, some of which dont cause symptoms, and the immune system, which can be altered permanently by viral exposure.. Elledge and his colleagues tested VirScan on 569 people from around the world and found that, on average, the participants had been exposed to about 10 viral species throughout their lifetimes.. Until now, blood tests that measured the amount of viruses based on antibodies released by the immune system have been limited by the number of virus-antibody interactions they could screen for.. To identify a greater number of antibodies, researchers used peptides (naturally occurring biological molecules) from 206 viral species, representing more than 1,000 different viral strains, to create a ...
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Definition of Haemagglutination inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002-2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalalven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks. A total of 963 birds from 52 species (mainly passerines) were tested for the presence of SINV antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization test. The highest SINV antibody prevalence was found in Turdidae species, specifically Fieldfare, Redwing and Song thrush in which more than 70% of sampled individuals had antibodies to SINV in 2009. The SINV antibody prevalence ...
The FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation) test is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum.
A formaldehyde-fixed cell vaccine in adjuvant (syngeneic cells infected with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gp160:vacc-gp160) stimulated only nonneutralizing antibody when used on its own in four strains of mice, but a similar nonfixed cell vaccine stimulated neutralizing antibodies up to a titer of 1/320 in C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice previously infected with live vacc-gp160. Synthesis of ELISA antibodies to rgp120 or rgp160 did not correspond closely to the synthesis of neutralizing antibodies and should not therefore be used to monitor the production of neutralizing antibody. The ELISA antibody response produced by boosting with the cell vaccine made with the vaccinia virus expressing gp160 under the control of a T7 promoter (vacc-gp160-PT7) was as high as that in mice given an approximately 10-fold higher dose of purified rgp160. The ELISA antibody response to the cell vaccine made with vacc-gp160-PT7 was better than that in which gp160 was expressed under the vaccinia early/late promoter ...
Abstract. We describe the results from a human clinical trial of a dengue virus serotype-1, purified-inactivated vaccine (DENV-1 PIV) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. This first-in-man, Phase 1, open-label clinical trial consisted of two groups of flavivirus-naïve healthy adult volunteers that received two intramuscular vaccine doses of either 2.5 μg or 5 μg of DENV-1 PIV administered on days 0 and 28. Following vaccination, both vaccine doses exhibited an acceptable safety profile with minimal injection site and systemic reactions. By study day 42, 2 weeks following the second vaccine dose, all volunteers in both vaccine groups developed serum-neutralizing antibodies against DENV-1. Additional testing using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated induction of a humoral immune response following both vaccine doses. The DENV-1 PIV was safe and immunogenic in a small number of volunteers supporting development and further testing of a tetravalent DENV PIV formulation.
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Immunogenicity evaluation after each vaccination by vaccine group according to CHMP (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use) criteria. Seroconversion is defined as the percentage of participants with either a prevaccination HI titer ,1:10 and a post vaccination HI titer , 40 or a pre-vaccination HI titer , 10 and a minimum four-fold rise in post-vaccination HI antibody titer. Seroprotection is defined as Hemagglutinin Inhibition (HI) antibody titer ≥1:40 ...
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This study will evaluate HIV-1 RNA and the presence or absence of resistance at baseline and following seroconversion, assess the frequency of HIV-1 screening and screening method(s) used for evaluation of seroconverters, and collect information regarding whether the seroconverter experienced signs and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection prior to or at the time of seroconversion ...
mouse Anti-HA, conjugated to DyLight 550 antibodies, anti-HA conjugated to DyLight 550, directly conjugated anti-HA antibody, AS15 2920, Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) tagged proteins
The IgG blood picks up antibodies to the virus while the virus is active in your system. So what we see for many participants and clients is that a few months in, the tests often show as borderline or unequivocal. What this means is that the trace of the viral antibodies is so minor that the tests can barely pick up any sign of the virus being present. For others it comes back often at the 5-6 month point as negative. What this therefore indicates is that the treatment acts to kill the herpes cells in their entirety rather than providing what would be an immunity to the virus. As we have tested and discovered those that have been cured do not possess any antibodies to the virus, they have no immunity and can be reinfected again if they have direct contact with the virus, the same as any other person who was not infected ...
Did you ever wonder what different virus infections you have had in your lifetime? Now you can find out with just a drop of your blood and about $25.. Immune defense systems of many hosts produce antibodies in response to virus infections. These large proteins, which are generally virus specific, can block or inhibit virus infection, and persist at low levels for many years after the initial infection. Hence it is possible to determine whether an individual has had a virus infection by looking for anti-viral antibodies in the blood. Up to now the process of identifying such antibodies has been slow and limited to one or a few viruses. A new assay called VirScan allows unbiased searches for all the virus antibodies in your blood, providing a picture of all your past infections.. To identify the human antivirome, DNAs were synthesized encoding proteins from all viruses known to infect humans - 206 species and over 1000 strains. These DNAs were inserted into the genome of a bacteriophage, so that ...
Mosquitoes do not eat sushi, but they do have proteins with sushi repeat domains, and these proteins protect their neural cells from lethal virus infections.
Mouse monoclonal HPV16 E2 antibody [TVG 261] validated for WB, ELISA. Referenced in 4 publications and 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to fusion…
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The authors, aware of the lack of national or international recommendations on the issue, , performed repeat challenges at least once a year, with a total of 181
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab53061 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA,ChIP…E2F6抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to Evaluate Neutralizing Antibody against Influenza Virus (H1N1)
PURPOSE: To examine racial-ethnic differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels among U.S. children and adolescents. Elevated titers among seropositive youth can indicate viral reactivation-an indirect measure of impaired cell-mediated immunity.. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using multivariable linear regression accounting for the complex survey design and potential confounders. The sample comprised 4663 black-African American, Mexican American, and white youth aged 6-17 years who were EBV seropositive.. RESULTS: EBV antibody levels were significantly higher for black-African American youth compared with their white peers (b = 0.343, P , .0001). Gender-stratified models were consistent with the total sample except differences in EBV antibody levels were greater between black-African American and white males (b = 0.525, P , .0001) than between black-African American and white females (b = 0.169, P = .0185). Differences ...
Abstract The safety and immunogenicity of four formulations of an investigational tetravalent dengue purified inactivated vaccine (DPIV), formulated at 1 or 4 μg with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or at 1 μg with an adjuvant system (AS01E or AS03B), were evaluated in a first-time-in-human, placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blind, phase 1 trial in the continental United States. Two doses of vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly 4 weeks apart to 100 healthy adults 18-39 years of age, randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to receive one of four DPIV formulations or saline placebo. The response to a third dose was evaluated in a subset of nine participants remote from primary vaccination. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% microneutralization assay. All DPIV formulations were well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were observed through 12 months after the second vaccine dose. In all DPIV groups, geometric mean antibody titers peaked at Day 56, waned through 6 months after
Through the Advisory Committee on Dengue and other Flavivirus Vaccines, the World Health Organization(WHO) has had a long-standing commitment to facilitate and to guide research and development of vaccines for medically important flaviviruses. Recently, the Paediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) was formed to accelerate the development, testing, and introduction of dengue (DEN)vaccines worldwide, partnering with WHO in this important public health effort. There are now a variety of DEN vaccines in various stages of the developmental pipeline. In an attempt to make interlaboratory information more directly comparable, WHO with the support of PDVI initiated a program to coordinate the procedures used for the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). ThePRNT is the most common assay used to measure neutralizing antibody. The presence of antibody is believed to be most relevant means of determining protective anti-DEN virus (DENV) immunity. While other neutralizing antibody assays are being ...
Patients were included if they had a febrile infection of the bronchial tree, the gut, or the urinary tract within the last 6 months and at least one of the following: impaired global or regional left ventricular systolic function, increased serum concentrations of myocardial necrosis markers, pericardial effusion of unclear reason, VT or NS-VT, or VF of unknown origin. Subjects with familial cardiomyopathy were excluded. Samples for virus serology were collected before EMBs and in 30 patients second samples were drawn 7-28 days after the initial sample. Acute viral infection with enterovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus, and Epstein-Barr virus was diagnosed by demonstrating IgM or IgA in the initial samples or IgG seroconversion during the follow-up. Before EMB each individual underwent left heart catheterization with coronary angiography. Cardiac MRI and echocardiography were performed before EMB to choose the optimal biopsy site. Histopathological and ...
Citation. Henry Dunand CJ, Leon PE, Huang M, Choi A, Chromikova V, Ho IY, Tan GS, Cruz J, Hirsh A, Zheng NY, Mullarkey CE, Ennis FA, Terajima M, Treanor JJ, Topham DJ, Subbarao K, Palese P, Krammer F, Wilson PC. Both Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Human H7N9 Influenza Vaccine-Induced Monoclonal Antibodies Confer Protection.. Cell Host & Microbe. 2016 Jun 08; 19. : 800-13.. External Citation. Abstract. Pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza viruses continue to represent a public health concern, and several candidate vaccines are currently being developed. It is vital to assess if protective antibodies are induced following vaccination and to characterize the diversity of epitopes targeted. Here we characterized the binding and functional properties of twelve H7-reactive human antibodies induced by a candidate A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) vaccine. Both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies protected mice in vivo during passive transfer challenge experiments. Mapping the H7 hemagglutinin antigenic ...
Protein-based smallpox vaccines have shown to be effective alternatives to live virus vaccines in animal model challenge studies. It is believed that subunit vaccine protection is mainly mediated through the generation of antibodies. We, and others, have shown that Th1-type antibody responses are important for protection against poxvirus infections. This finding suggests that antibody-mediated protection by a protein-based smallpox vaccine may involve antibody that can fix complement and/or activate Fc receptors. Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the poxvirus family, produces two infectious forms of virus: mature virus (MV) and extracellular virus (EV). EV is relatively resistant to neutralization by antibody, yet antibody against EV has been shown to protective in vivo. Therefore, we examined the importance of complement and Fc receptors in the protection afforded by antibody against EV. In the first part of this thesis, we found that polyclonal antibody against the EV proteins A33 and B5 can fix
A controlled serologic survey of antibody titres to 17 viruses was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. No consistent pattern of elevated antibody titre levels or the presence of antibody was noted in patients compared with two control groups. Because of the isolation of these islands, the mean age at acquisition of common childhood infections, including measles, was considerably older than that of inhabitants of Europe and the United States of America. The age of occurrence of varicella was consistently younger in patients than in controls. Of note is the fact that six patients had measles after the onset of MS. This study failed to incriminate any of the viruses tested in the aetiology of MS.. ...
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Definition of IgM antibody capture ELISA with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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The Antibody Resource Page (http://www.antibodyresource.com/) is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
The epidemiology of cervical cancer indicates the presence of a sexually transmitted risk factor, attributable at least in part to infection with human papillomavirus HPV type 16 or 18. We performed a seroepidemiological study of HPV and cervical cancer in the counties of V sterbotten and Norrbotten in Northern Sweden, a low-risk area for...
OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
The role of bivalence of antibody in its capacity to neutralize virus was studied with rabbit antibodies to the bacteriophage, ϕX174. Univalent Fab or Fab fragments of IgG isolated from antiviral antisera obtained early in the immunization schedule had virtually no activity compared to that of the intact IgG. When the antibodies were isolated from antisera of the same rabbits several months later, the univalent fragments and IgG were essentially equal in activity. The results are interpreted on the basis that an IgG molecule, because of its bivalence, has a higher effective combining affinity (avidity) than a univalent fragment. After prolonged immunization, however, the affinity of univalent antibody becomes sufficiently high that it exceeds a threshold value, above which further increase in affinity, through bivalence, is no longer significant. The results could explain the variability in relative effectiveness of univalent antibodies observed in previous studies. These data, and the fact ...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
antibody test - MedHelps antibody test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for antibody test. Find antibody test information, treatments for antibody test and antibody test symptoms.
Since antibodies are only produced after exposure to foreign material including organisms such as bacteria and viruses, they indicate exposure to that organism.. Because antibodies remain in circulation for quite some time, the presence of an antibody titre to a particular organism does not necessarily mean that that organism is the cause of the illness that your pet is experiencing.. The lack of an antibody titre to an organism can indicate either of two things. The first is that no exposure to that organism has occurred and therefore your pets current clinical condition is due to another cause. The other is that your pet has been so recently exposed to the organism that there has been insufficient time for antibodies to be produced in sufficient quantities to be detectable in the serum.. Therefore if we suspect that a particular disease (for example leptospirosis) is causing illness in your pet, it is important to obtain both acute and convalescent serum titres. This simply means that blood ...
Updated WWWsite: The Antibody Resource Page The Antibody Resource Page has been recently updated. The page will be invaluable to researchers and educators alike. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - some animated gifs have recently been added 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question or have an answer? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added. There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. ...and there is much more. Check it out at: http://www.antibodyresource.com/ Ps. Don t forget to visit our sponsors, ...
Synonyms for antibodies in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antibodies. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for antibodies?
Synonyms for antititin antibody in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antititin antibody. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for antititin antibody?
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
It is possible to produce a humanized antibody without creating a chimeric intermediate. "Direct" creation of a humanized antibody can be accomplished by inserting the appropriate CDR coding segments (responsible for the desired binding properties) into a human antibody "scaffold". As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector[3] and expression in mammalian cells. That is, after an antibody is developed to have the desired properties in a mouse (or other non-human), the DNA coding for that antibody can be isolated, cloned into a vector and sequenced. The DNA sequence corresponding to the antibody CDRs can then be determined. Once the precise sequence of the desired CDRs are known, a strategy can be devised for inserting these sequences appropriately into a construct containing the DNA for a human antibody variant.[10][11] The strategy may also employ synthesis of linear DNA fragments based on the reading of CDR sequences.. Alemtuzumab is an ...
G. Pig Serum Antibody detection ELISA kit, Qualitative Kit EW-80171 G. Pig Serum Antibody detection ELISA kit, Qualitative Kit EW-80171
Our body has a unique method to fight aggressor foreign micro-organisms when they enter our body.. When any virus, fungus, or bacterium enters our body and starts meddling with our system, our body triggers this mechanism. As a result, our body immune system creates antibodies specific to that foreign substance.. They are basically proteins but all antibodies are not the same.. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses contain character specific proteins called antigens. Antigens are also found on non-living micro-particles such as toxins, snake venoms, pollen, bacterial toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. That marks them apart from each other.. After the antibodies are created, the second step is triggered by our defense system. Now there is a fight between the newly generated antibodies and the interfering antigens. This goes on till our body is clear of all antigens or the antigens completely overwhelm the antibodies. But, complete surrender of the antibodies is an ideal condition.. The ...
An antigen is a substance which is used to generate the production of antibodies. In the case of this PolyExpressTM package, this is either a native protein or peptide sequence. The origin of your target antigen is the type of organism that the protein or peptide sequence to be used as an antigen originally came from. An accession number is a unique identification given to a biological polymer sequence and may be found in protein databases such as UniProt. Peptides created through GenScripts OptimumAntigen™ design program have many advantages over full proteins when it comes to antibody production. Our OptimumAntigen™ Design Tool combines the industrys most advanced algorithms with GenScripts time-tested expertise. Each peptide antigen is measured against several protein databases to confirm the desired antibody and epitope specificity. We guarantee a polyclonal antibody with ELISA titer of 1:32,000 or better for any host with the aid of our antigen design tool and unique antibody ...
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Hi. Your negative HCV-antibody test at 27 weeks and negative HIV-antibody test at 30 weeks are both conclusive, definitive and WOO-HOO-able. No additional testing for HIV or HCV is recommended....
We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. We injected three antigens sequentially. The first antigen,
Chalmers Initiative Seminar on Big Data 25th 26th March Welcome! David Sands Director of Chalmers ICT Area of Advance We are surrounded by data. Every day, sensors around us and in our digital lives
Jonjic, Stipan; Pavic, Ivica; Polic, Bojan; Crnkovic, Irena; Lucin, Pero und Koszinowski, Ulrich H. (1994): Antibodies Are Not Essential for the Resolution of Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection but Limit Dissemination of Recurrent Virus. In: The journal of experimental medicine, Vol. 179: S. 7757-7765 [PDF, 1MB] ...
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You are hot in pursuit of an interesting protein but there are no commercial antibodies or they are bad. Its time to think about raising your own antibodies against the protein. It will be a time and money consuming undertaking but once you developed a specific antibody or set of antibodies, you will be in a unique position to generate interesting data. ...
Not that I know that this will work, but heres an idea: how about doing an immunodepletion experiment? You could make a GST tagged version of your protein, incubate the antibody with the tagged protein, then take the leftover antibody (whatever didnt bind to your tagged protein) and do your IHC. If the signal goes away, then you know that the original signal came from specific binding with the antibody. You would have to do a control (perhaps with a GST tagged version of some other protein) to show that the antibody wasnt degraded throughout the procedure. It may take a bit of time, but it wouldnt be too expensive to make - less than 500$. At any rate, you could propose it as an idea during your defense if they asked you for other ideas of how to prove your case.. ...
... ?. As more people begin to abstain from vaccination, the vaccinators must invent new ways to trick people into sticking with the needle. To stay ahead of the pricks, we must now understand the term and application of titer counts.. By Vaccination Liberation. Many people are becoming aware of vaccine dangers and seeking alternatives to questionable and possibly life threatening injections in order to keep their jobs or stay in nursing or medical school. As a result, there is a growing interest in being able to take a test to measure titers in their bloodstream as a means of avoiding the unwanted but required injection(s). Since the demand for such testing is growing, we felt it was important for our readers to have a clear understanding of the rationale behind a titer test possibly replacing the need for a particular vaccine. It is also important to understand that a low titer count does not indicate susceptibility to a disease just as a high ...
Glad to know you think the forum is helpful. Testing for HCV at 18 weeks by PCR is a very sensitive test. Also, viremia PRECEDES antibody formation. Since the vast majority of patients seroconvert...
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monoclonl antibody application specifity - posted in ELISA and Immunoassay: Hi how can antibodies become specific for an application for example western blotting or immunopercipitation? what if I use an antibody that specified for WB by supplier in other application like elisa? regards
SP1 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody (0.29 mg/ml) in PBS with 20% glycerol and 0.025% Proclin 300; pH 7.
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NYVAC-B included HIV-1 clade B Gag-Pol-Nef and gp120, while rAd5 included HIV-1 clade B Gag-Pol and clades A, B, and C gp140. Eighty Ad5-seronegative subjects were randomized to receive 2 × NYVAC-B followed by 1 × 1010 PFU rAd5 (NYVAC/Ad5hi); 1 × 108 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5lo/NYVAC); 1 × 109 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5med/NYVAC); 1 × 1010 PFU rAd5 followed by 2 × NYVAC-B (Ad5hi/NYVAC); or placebo. Immune responses were assessed 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Intracellular cytokine staining measured T cells producing IFN-γ and/or IL-2; cross-clade and epitope-specific binding antibodies were determined; and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were assessed with 6 tier 1 viruses.. ...
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MSP1-19 particular rabbit antisera plus the AMA1 MAb were when compared in one cycle and two cycle development inhibition assays to ascertain whether or not a next cycle of parasite advancement would boost the sensitivity of your assay. Growth from the PcMSP1-19 parasite line in the presence of inhibitory antibodies confirmed that a next cycle elevated antibody mediated development inhibition for both equally the PcMSP1-19 and AMA1 antibodies but not the PfMSP1-19 antibodies (Figure 3A ...
Results show the strong anti-pain effect of HA vaccine (Table 5), which suggests that HA vaccine (anti-HA antibody) induced the neurogenesis of hippocampus; this suggestion is consistent with our observation that the hippocampal volume of the experimental mice is larger than that of the control mice ...
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Pathogenic bacteria are usually destroyed by antibodies, but a lung-damaging bacterium turns the bodys antibody response in its favour, suggests a study published.
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Rabbit Polyclonal PER3 antibody AA 21-70 for ELISA, WB. Published in 2 Pubmed References. Order this anti-PER3 antibody. | Product number ABIN1533793
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An important component of the immune system, antibodies are protein molecules made by B cells. The antibodies circulate in the bloodstream, attaching...
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CytoQuest™ EpCAM PanCK CD45 Antibody Cell?Kit contains antibody and reagents for capture and release of circulating epithelial cells. (KA4863) - Products - Abnova
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G090 Anti-EMR1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total EMR1 protein. Validated for WB and ELISA. Reactive for Human. AssayBiotechnology an original antibody manufacturer.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural studies of virus-antibody complexes by electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography. AU - Chiu, Wah. AU - Smith, Thomas. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The combined use of electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography has recently provided unprecedented and unique structural information of virus-antibody complexes. Different kinds of viral proteins have been located and identified on the capsid surface, certain residues of the viral proteins involved in antibody interactions have been identified; the elbow angle of bound antibody has been measured; and the mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization has been elucidated. Within the next few years, this combined methodology should help investigators resolve the structures of large macromolecular assemblies to even higher resolutions.. AB - The combined use of electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography has recently provided unprecedented and unique structural information of virus-antibody complexes. ...
295009710 - EP 1015886 A1 2000-07-05 - DETECTION OF MEASLES VIRUS-SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES - [origin: WO9912038A1] The present invention relates to a method for the identification of measles virus specific antibody in a sample comprising contacting a sample suspected of containing measles virus specific antibody with a measles virus specific glycoprotein recombinantly produced in mammalian cells using a high expression system; and detecting the presence or absence of said measles virus specific antibody in said sample. Preferably, the expression system is based on a togavirus expression system, more preferred on an alphavirus expression system, and most preferred on a Semliki Forest virus expression system. Additionally, the present invention relates to a kit comprising said recombinantly produced glycoproteins. The method of the present invention allows an easy and reliable assay of the immune status of the human with respect to the present or past infection with measles virus.[origin: WO9912038A1] The
Hantaviruses, which are mainly rodent-borne viruses, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the Old World, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the New World. A neutralization test based on quantitative RT-PCR, the replication reduction neutralization test (RRNT), was developed for efficient detection of hantavirus-neutralizing antibodies. The effectiveness of the RRNT was evaluated by examining several hantaviruses and hantavirus-specific convalescent human serum samples. All convalescent serum samples tested by RRNT caused significant decreases in hantavirus genomes with only one specific hantavirus species, which allowed a straightforward identification of the related hantavirus. The results obtained by RRNT were completely comparable with the results obtained by focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). The RRNT approach is a reliable and rapid alternative for FRNT, hitherto considered as the gold standard for hantavirus serology ...
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae included in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (JEAC). A seroepidemiological study was carried out in 2011 using 160 horse sera collected from different areas of Bolivia to investigate the presence of WNV antibody. A high proportion (59.4%) of the tested sera were positive to a commercially available WNV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Sixty-six randomly selected C-ELISA-positive sera were further tested by WNV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), virus neutralization (VN), and immunoglobulin M (IgM)-WNV ELISA to exclude false-positive results due to possible cross-reactions to other members of the JEAC and to investigate if the horses were recently infected. No WNV IgM was detected in these samples, whereas neutralizing antibodies were found in 21 and 18 samples by PRNT and VN, respectively. In conclusion, a high proportion of the Bolivian horses included in this study reacted
We assessed the value of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosing primary CMV infection in adults. The CMV antigenemia assay was performed for 40 patients admitted to our unit over a 2-year period with unexplained fever and suspected primary CMV infection. Nine of the 10 patients with primary CMV infection had positive CMV antigenemia assays, and the results were available within 5 hours. All 10 patients had a mononucleosis-like syndrome. All but one of the 30 other patients had negative CMV antigenemia assays. A false-positive result was obtained for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Overall, the CMV antigenemia assay was 90% sensitive and 96% specific for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection. Therefore, the CMV antigenemia assay appears to be a simple, rapid, inexpensive test for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection in hospitalized adults.. ...
Another name for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis is Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis. The symptoms of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE ...
The present invention relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses which fail to produce any functional thymidine kinase as a result of an insertion in the thymidine kinase gene, vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis containing the same and methods for production and use of same. The present invention also relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-based viral vectors useful for the coexpression of foreign genes.

TNO Repository search for: subject:Antibodies, ViralTNO Repository search for: subject:'Antibodies, Viral'

Health · Immunogen · RSV fusion protein · Vaccine · Animals · Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antigens, Viral · ... Health · Animals · Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antigens, Viral · Disease Models, Animal · Epitopes, B- ... Chemicals/CAS: Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antibodies, Viral; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Hemagglutinins, Viral; ... Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antibody Formation · CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes · Comparative Study · Female · ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Antibodies%2C%20Viral%22

Antibodies neutralize viral infectivity inside cellsAntibodies neutralize viral infectivity inside cells

Antibodies are thought to neutralize viral infectivity in several ways: by forming noninfectious aggregates that ... These molecules, produced 7-14 days after infection, neutralize viral infectivity, thereby limiting the spread of infection. ... Antibodies are an important component of the host defense against viral infection. ... neutralizing antibodies reduce viral infectivity. When levels of cellular TRIM21 protein were depleted, neutralizing antibodies ...
more infohttp://www.virology.ws/2010/11/11/antibodies-neutralize-viral-infectivity-inside-cells/

EBV Antibody To Viral Capsid Antigen, IgMEBV Antibody To Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Antigen-Antibody Pen For Biotin-tagged antibodies (all species). 11. Antigen-Antibody Pen For Chicken Primary antibodies. ... BioSign® H. pylori - Rapid H. pylori Antibody (IgM/IgG/IgA) Test. 8. Double Antibody Estradiol RIA. 9. Antigen-Antibody Pens, a ... OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. 2. Reveal Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test. 3. Wampole PreVue B. Burgdorferi Antibody ...
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Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia |...Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia |...

Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia - ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia. * G ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/prevalence-of-viral-antibodies-and-helminths-in-field-populations-of-house-mice-mus-domesticus-in-southeastern-australia/D37648B79602EBCC3EF6D2D3A601EB7B

EBV Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM TestEBV Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM Test

Place an order for EBV Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM testing with Request A Test. Our direct to consumer lab testing ... The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body ... The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body ... The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body ...
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Viral antibody dynamics in a chiropteran host  - Surrey Research Insight Open AccessViral antibody dynamics in a chiropteran host - Surrey Research Insight Open Access

Viral antibody dynamics in a chiropteran host JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, 83 (2). pp. 415-428. ... MATERNAL ANTIBODIES, RESERVOIR HOSTS, VAMPYRUS BATS, AFRICAN BATS ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/826522/

Detection of antibody to viral proteins following primary infection with herpes simplex virus.  - PubMed - NCBIDetection of antibody to viral proteins following primary infection with herpes simplex virus. - PubMed - NCBI

... and RIP detected antibody to glycoprotein B, a viral envelope component. Furthermore, RIP detected antibody at an earlier stage ... Detection of antibody to viral proteins following primary infection with herpes simplex virus.. Simmonds P1, Smith IW, ... analysis to determine the protein targets of antibody elicited by infection. The two tests detected antibody to different ... and used to investigate the role that the solubilisation of antigen plays in the sensitivity of each test for antibodies with ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2824685?dopt=Abstract

Browsing  by Subject Antibodies, ViralBrowsing by Subject "Antibodies, Viral"

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2006) ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Antibodies%2C+Viral&type=mesh

A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acidA point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid

... ... 2011)‎. A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid. ... Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: ... Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines : ...
more infohttp://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/270977

Cofactor dependence and isotype distribution of anticardiolipin antibodies in viral infections | Annals of the Rheumatic...Cofactor dependence and isotype distribution of anticardiolipin antibodies in viral infections | Annals of the Rheumatic...

viral diseases. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) and antibodies to cardiolipin (aCLs) are acquired antibodies to phospholipid (aPLs) ... of these antibodies in viral infections.. The prevalence of aCLs in patients with viral infections indicated in table 1 is in ... Furthermore, these results may be extended to other viral infections. We found that IgM and IgA class antibodies are the most ... Presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA cofactor dependent and independent antibodies to cardiolipin in patients with viral infections ...
more infohttps://ard.bmj.com/content/60/5/500?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=guglielmone&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT

Natural antibody protects against viral infectionNatural antibody protects against viral infection

... or after immunization with viral vaccines, are effective at preventing viral disease. However humans and higher primates ... Antibodies produced by infection with a virus, or after immunization with viral vaccines, are effective at preventing viral ... However humans and higher primates contain "natural antibodies" which are present in serum before viral infection. Natural ... Over 2% of serum IgM and IgG antibodies are directed against α-Gal. This antibody binds to the membrane of enveloped viruses ...
more infohttp://www.virology.ws/2009/10/06/natural-antibody-protects-against-viral-infection/

Antibodies as anti-virals | HSTalksAntibodies as anti-virals | HSTalks

Dennis Burton on Antibodies as anti-virals, part of a collection of online lectures. ... Antibodies as anti-virals. *Prof. Dennis Burton - The Scripps Research Institute, USA ... Burton, D. (2007, October 1). Antibodies as anti-virals [Video file]. In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry ... Novel approaches to diagnosis of viral infections Novel approaches to diagnosis of viral infections ...
more infohttps://hstalks.com/t/600/antibodies-as-anti-virals/

Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. IV: Viral antibody titres and viral infections. | Journal of...Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. IV: Viral antibody titres and viral infections. | Journal of...

No consistent pattern of elevated antibody titre levels or the presence of antibody was noted in patients compared with two ... A controlled serologic survey of antibody titres to 17 viruses was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients in the Orkney and ...
more infohttp://jech.bmj.com/content/34/4/258

BIOL 230 Lecture Guide - Antibodies Blocking Viral AdsorptionBIOL 230 Lecture Guide - Antibodies Blocking Viral Adsorption

The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the virus attachment site blocks the virus from adsorbing to the ...
more infohttp://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/intro/t4cell/u3fg23.html

Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgGEpstein-Barr Virus Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgG

EBV Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen IgG. 7885-7. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information ... EBV Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen IgG. Resultable. N. U/mL. XXX.X. 7885-7. ...
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Viral Antibodies Virology | LabscoopViral Antibodies Virology | Labscoop

Labscoop is a global science eCommerce engine. Comparison shop millions of products from hundreds of vendors to ensure competitive pricing and reliability. Viral Antibodies Virology
more infohttps://www.labscoop.com/c/33/Virology/Viral-Antibodies/1332/1

PRO 140 antibody injections maintain viral suppression in phase 2 study | aidsmapPRO 140 antibody injections maintain viral suppression in phase 2 study | aidsmap

In HIV, optimal viral suppression is measured as the reduction of viral load (HIV RNA) to undetectable levels and is the goal ... and no-one developed antibodies against PRO 140. All participants who restarted ART regained full viral suppression. ... Those who experienced viral rebound restarted ART.. Among the 28 patients in the cohort assessing longer-term treatment, 15 ... PRO 140 is a humanised monoclonal antibody that works by blocking CCR5, thereby preventing HIV from getting into cells and ...
more infohttps://www.aidsmap.com/news/jun-2016/pro-140-antibody-injections-maintain-viral-suppression-phase-2-study

HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.  - PubMed - NCBIHIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption. - PubMed - NCBI

HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.. Scheid JF, Horwitz JA, Bar-On Y, ... The left y-axis shows plasma viral loads in RNA copies per ml (black curves), and right y-axis shows antibody levels measured ... a, Kaplan-Meier plot summarizing viral rebound in 52 ACTG trial participants who underwent ATI without antibody treatment ( ... c, Kaplan-Meier plot summarizing viral rebound in 52 ACTG trial participants who underwent ATI without antibody treatment ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338952/

ZMapp antibody delivered by viral vector protects against Ebola infectionZMapp antibody delivered by viral vector protects against Ebola infection

A new study comparing the effectiveness of individual ZMapp antibodies versus a cocktail of antibodies, administered to mice ... ZMapp antibody delivered by viral vector protects against Ebola infection. March 9, 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc ... A new study comparing the effectiveness of individual ZMapp antibodies versus a cocktail of antibodies, administered to mice ... found lower than expected levels of antibodies against the adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors being developed for gene ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-03-zmapp-antibody-viral-vector-ebola.html

Viral recognition by antibodies, artwork - Stock Image C013/4722 - Science Photo LibraryViral recognition by antibodies, artwork - Stock Image C013/4722 - Science Photo Library

Antibodies, or immunoglobulin, molecules have two arms that can bind to specific antigens, for instance viral or bacterial ... Antibodies can also kill some pathogens directly and can neutralise toxins. - Stock Image C013/4722 ... Computer artwork of rabies (family Rhabdoviridae) virus particles (virions, pink) being identified by monoclonal antibodies (Y- ... Antibodies, or immunoglobulin, molecules have two arms that can bind to specific antigens, for instance viral or bacterial ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/464014/view/viral-recognition-by-antibodies-artwork

BIOL 230 Lecture Guide - Flash Animation Showing Antibodies Blocking Viral AdsorptionBIOL 230 Lecture Guide - Flash Animation Showing Antibodies Blocking Viral Adsorption

Neutralization of Viruses by Antibodies The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the virus attachment site ...
more infohttp://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/humoral/activepassive/artificial/nvir.html

Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies | Regulation of human neutrophil-mediated...Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies | Regulation of human neutrophil-mediated...

Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies. By Celina Scott in General Calcium ... Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies continues to be employed for differential ... Ercalcidiol F2 GHR GSK1059615 GSK2118436A Itga11 Ixabepilone Kenpaullone LATS1 antibody LIMK2 antibody LIN28 antibody LY2484595 ... Regular ELISA for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45 antibodies was utilized [10,24-27], with adjustments [17-19] for HPV16 antibody ...
more infohttp://acmbcb.org/background-low-avidity-of-antibodies-against-viral-parasitic-and-bacterial-agencies/

Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections - Tabular View -...Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections - Tabular View -...

Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (ESTUAR). The safety ... Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. ... homeopathic dilutions of oral antibodies to a key-protein of the immune system are effective and safe in the treatment of viral ... In this blinded study, TAO1 was given in drinking water for 5 days before and 10 days after viral challenge. The statistical ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01651715
  • A nondenaturing version of IB was developed and used to investigate the role that the solubilisation of antigen plays in the sensitivity of each test for antibodies with different specificities. (nih.gov)
  • Natural antibodies prevent the spread of viruses to vital organs, and improve immunogenicity by enhancing the trapping of antigen in secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes. (virology.ws)
  • In the work described here, a combinatorial solid-phase peptide library was screened with a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb 19) to identify peptide mimics (mimotopes) of a conserved and conformationally-determined epitope of RSV fusion (F) protein. (tudelft.nl)
  • Subcutaneous injections of PRO 140, a monoclonal antibody that blocks HIV entry into cells, was well tolerated and maintained undetectable viral load for more than a year after stopping antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people with viral suppression, according to a study presented at the ASM Microbe 2016 meeting last week in Boston. (aidsmap.com)
  • PRO 140 is a humanised monoclonal antibody that works by blocking CCR5, thereby preventing HIV from getting into cells and replicating. (aidsmap.com)
  • To investigate the effects of the altered composition of the helper T cell compartment in ageing on the humoral response to influenza vaccine, we investigated correlations between helper T cell subsets and anti-influenza antibody responses in 23 JUNIEUR healthy young and 41 SENIEUR healthy elderly subjects. (tudelft.nl)
  • Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: randomized trials in Mexican schoolchildren. (who.int)
  • The anti-α-Gal antibody-complement reaction is probably the main reason why humans and higher primates are not infected by enveloped viruses of other animals. (virology.ws)
  • We analyzed the nAb response to each of the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface GP and not by the virus backbone. (jci.org)
  • C ) Immunogold staining of viral particles budding from BHK-21 cells infected with the viruses as indicated. (jci.org)
  • Many natural antibodies are directed against the disaccharide galactose α(1,3)-galactose (α-Gal) (illustration), which is found as a terminal sugar on glycosylated cell surface proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Bruno Gaillet, University Laval (Quebec, Canada) and coauthors from National Research Council Canada (Montreal), Public Health Agency of Canada and University of Manitoba (Winnipeg), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and McGill University (Montreal) coauthored the article entitled "Gene Transfer of ZMapp Antibodies Mediated by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Protects Against Ebola Infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Marc-André Robert et al, Gene Transfer of ZMapp Antibodies Mediated by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Protects Against Ebola Infections, Human Gene Therapy (2017). (medicalxpress.com)
  • A growing number of preclinical studies in mice suggests that therapeutic gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) can cause insertional mutagenesis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. (medicalxpress.com)
  • WT and recombinant viral genomes. (jci.org)
  • The CD01 study included 39 HIV-positive adults with exclusively CCR5-tropic HIV (according to the Trofile DNA Co-receptor Tropism Assay), viral load below 40 copies/ml on a stable ART regimen and a CD4 T-cell count above 350 cells/mm 3 . (aidsmap.com)
  • Among people tested with a single-copy HIV RNA assay, the lowest median viral load was 0.4 copies/ml. (aidsmap.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of aCL isotypes and requirement of protein cofactor in viral infections in order to establish the importance, if any, of these antibodies in these infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The presence of aCLs in viral infections is principally cofactor independent, suggesting that cofactor dependence of the aCLs should be assessed to distinguish subjects most likely to suffer from clinical symptoms observed in the presence of these antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • Keywords: antibody, avidity, genital infections, HPV, prevalence Background Consistent attacks with high-risk individual papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16 trigger half of cervical cancers (CxCa) morbidity/mortality [1, (acmbcb.org)
  • It is intended for the treatment of viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) such as common cold, influenza or influenza-like illnesses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Those who experienced viral rebound restarted ART. (aidsmap.com)
  • HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption. (nih.gov)
  • Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. (nih.gov)
  • The double-stranded RNA viral genome is about 20,000 bp long and is divided into 12 segments, which are termed Seg-1 to Seg-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined whether existence of low-avidity of HPV16 antibodies is definitely associated with an increased risk of prevalence for additional HPV types. (acmbcb.org)
  • When strains of mice that cannot produce any antibodies are infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, titers in the kidney and brain are 10-100 times higher than in normal mice. (virology.ws)
  • Perhaps raising lab mice in a (semi-)sterile environment also has an impact on their natural antibody repertoire? (virology.ws)
  • Material and methods: An 8-mer solid- phase (TG resin) library was screened with a neutralising and protective RSV fusion protein specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab-19). (tudelft.nl)
  • Consistent with this observation, antibody-coated adenovirions in the cell cytoplasm contained both TRIM21 and ubiquitin. (virology.ws)
  • Paul Maddon, a scientific advisor at CytoDyn, presented findings from a phase 2b trial of PRO 140 as maintenance therapy for people who had achieved viral suppression on standard combination ART. (aidsmap.com)
  • Among the 28 patients in the cohort assessing longer-term treatment, 15 people who maintained viral suppression for 12 weeks were trained to self-administer their shots and allowed to continue PRO 140 maintenance therapy for an additional 108 weeks in an extension phase. (aidsmap.com)
  • Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117,a broad and potent neutralizing antibody against the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 Env protein, during analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. (nih.gov)
  • This observation means that a virus particle is not needed for the interaction of TRIM21 with antibody. (virology.ws)
  • Participants did not show evidence of drug resistance, those with virological failure did not experience a change in HIV tropism - allowing their virus to enter using CXCR4 instead of CCR5 co-receptors - and no-one developed antibodies against PRO 140. (aidsmap.com)
  • Vectored antibody delivery has the potential to revolutionize how we respond to emerging pathogens like Ebola virus disease," says Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Naive helper T cell numbers (CD4+CD45RA+) were negatively correlated with antibody production to two of the four strains investigated in JUNIEURS only. (tudelft.nl)
  • did not explain the lower IgG antibody response that was observed to two of the four vaccine strains examined. (tudelft.nl)
  • All participants who restarted ART regained full viral suppression. (aidsmap.com)
  • f , Plasma viral loads and CD4 counts in all study participants. (nih.gov)
  • 400 copies/ml) and restarted ART, while one relocated and left the study with an undetectable viral load at 47 weeks. (aidsmap.com)
  • Alternatively, low-avidity antibodies have already been found (beyond your six months period) in chronic attacks, e.g., cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HPV16 [21- (acmbcb.org)
  • Finally, as you mentioned, natural antibodies are generally complement-dependent and also very low titer, at least in the VSV example. (virology.ws)