Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (1/15345)BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse. (+info)
Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (2/15345)Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7. (+info)
W(3/15345)aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa? (+info)
Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (4/15345)OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum. (+info)
Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study. (5/15345)OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men. (+info)
Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (6/15345)This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. (+info)
Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (7/15345)The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected. (+info)
Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (8/15345)The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification. (+info)
Table 3 - Human Antibody Responses to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013 - Volume 20, Number 2-February 2014 - Emerging...
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20–80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
Table 2 - Human Antibody Responses to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013 - Volume 20, Number 2-February 2014 - Emerging...
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20–80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
Abstract: Serologic Investigation among Health Care Workers Contacting MERS Patients during the 2015 Korean MERS Outbreak ...
ABSTRACT. Background:. To evaluate the presence of unrecognized MERS-CoV infections among health care workers (HCWs) after the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation. Methods:. During the outbreak, all HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients were quarantined for 14 days and tested screening sputum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays thereafter. HCWs with positive PCR results were excluded from the study. We prospectively collected the sera of HCWs exposed or assigned to MERS patients at 6 to 26 weeks post exposure. We primarily used anti-MERS-CoV IgG ELISA, and sera with an optical density (OD) ratio ¡Ã 0.2 were substantiated by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).. Results:. Fifty-nine of the 189 HCWs exposed to four highly-infective MERS patients (31.2%) and 130 of 254 HCWs assigned to MERS patient care (51.2%) consented to the study. The median of ELISA OD ratio of exposed HCWs and assigned HCWs were both 0.08 ...
Recently recovered COVID-19 patients produce varying virus-specific antibodies
Most newly discharged patients who recently recovered from COVID-19 produce virus-specific antibodies and T cells, suggests a study published on May 3rd in the journal Immunity, but the responses of different patients are not all the same. While the 14 patients examined in the study showed wide-ranging immune responses, results from the 6 of them that were assessed at two weeks after discharge suggest that antibodies were maintained for at least that long. Additional results from the study indicate which parts of the virus are most effective at triggering these immune responses and should therefore be targeted by potential vaccines.
Specific antibodies against p185. (A) Anti p185-antibod | Open-i
Test for Past Infection (Antibody Test) | Inkster, MI
The objective of this work was to study the dynamics of M. Hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) infection along the life-time of three groups of naturally infected pigs form the same farm and correlated with sow parity and antibody titers at farrowing, seroconversion, appearance of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. ...
The objective of this work was to study the dynamics of M. Hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) infection along the life-time of three groups of naturally infected pigs form the same farm and correlated with sow parity and antibody titers at farrowing, seroconversion, appearance of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. ...
Heat map representation of patient antibody profiles in | Open-i
ME/CFS Australia (SA) Inc: New Blood Test Can Identify Every Virus You've Ever Had
Geneticist Stephen Elledge describes what his team s new technology is revealing about human immunology and disease. (Video: Stephanie Dutchen). VirScan Uses Peptides to Scan for Viruses. VirScan provides a tool for studying interactions between the collection of viruses known to infect humans, some of which dont cause symptoms, and the immune system, which can be altered permanently by viral exposure.. Elledge and his colleagues tested VirScan on 569 people from around the world and found that, on average, the participants had been exposed to about 10 viral species throughout their lifetimes.. Until now, blood tests that measured the amount of viruses based on antibodies released by the immune system have been limited by the number of virus-antibody interactions they could screen for.. To identify a greater number of antibodies, researchers used peptides (naturally occurring biological molecules) from 206 viral species, representing more than 1,000 different viral strains, to create a ...
titers - Posts
Haemagglutination inhibition test: Definition with Haemagglutination inhibition test Pictures and Photos
Biobest, FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation) test
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Safety and Immunogenicity of a Dengue Virus Serotype-1 Purified...
Abstract. We describe the results from a human clinical trial of a dengue virus serotype-1, purified-inactivated vaccine (DENV-1 PIV) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. This first-in-man, Phase 1, open-label clinical trial consisted of two groups of flavivirus-naïve healthy adult volunteers that received two intramuscular vaccine doses of either 2.5 μg or 5 μg of DENV-1 PIV administered on days 0 and 28. Following vaccination, both vaccine doses exhibited an acceptable safety profile with minimal injection site and systemic reactions. By study day 42, 2 weeks following the second vaccine dose, all volunteers in both vaccine groups developed serum-neutralizing antibodies against DENV-1. Additional testing using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated induction of a humoral immune response following both vaccine doses. The DENV-1 PIV was safe and immunogenic in a small number of volunteers supporting development and further testing of a tetravalent DENV PIV formulation.
Coronavirus antibody tests are available around the country. Here's why they may provide a false sense of security. - News -...
Medical experts have some advice for Americans thinking about getting coronavirus antibody tests: Dont - at least not until the questionable ones have been weeded out and scientists know whether people who have survived COVID-19 are immune from the virus.Until then, some scientists say manufacturers should stop advertising the antibody tests, for as little as $25,that many Americans are using to decide if they can safely stop social distancing or return to
Researchers develop new tools to rapidly test Coronavirus antibodies » YesPunjab - No.1 News-Portal. Latest News from Punjab,...
People infected with Covid-19 produce neutralising antibodies that prevent the virus from infecting cells by binding to the spike protein on the viruss surface.. Early studies have suggested that the strength of this antibody response varies greatly between patients, and it remains unknown how long any such neutralising antibodies persist in the blood to provide protection against reinfection.. "Whether elicited by natural infection or vaccination or administered as a convalescent plasma or in recombinant form, neutralising antibodies will likely be crucial for curtailing the global burden of Covid-19 disease," said study researcher Paul D Bieniasz from the Rockefeller University in the US.. "For this reason, the availability of rapid, convenient, and accurate assays that measure neutralising antibody activity is crucial for evaluating naturally acquired or artificially induced immunity against Covid-19," Bieniasz added.. According to the study, the research team developed a number of safer, ...
Human EBV EBNA1 IgM antibody ELISA Kit (ARG80546) | Antibodyplus ELISA kits review 2017
Antibodyplus provides the most validated Human EBV EBNA1 IgM antibody ELISA Kit from supplier Arigo Biolaboratories. Arigo Biolaboratories is the world best HMGB1 ELISA kits, Zike virus antibody, Dengue antibody and PD-L1 antibody supplier. Find better ELISA kits comparing with Shino, LSBIO and antibodies-online
Coronavirus Antibodies: What to Know About Antibody Tests | The Healthy
A Prospective, Observational Study of Individuals Who Seroconvert While Taking Truvada® for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) -...
This study will evaluate HIV-1 RNA and the presence or absence of resistance at baseline and following seroconversion, assess the frequency of HIV-1 screening and screening method(s) used for evaluation of seroconverters, and collect information regarding whether the seroconverter experienced signs and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection prior to or at the time of seroconversion ...
Anti-HA, conjugated to DyLight 550 antibodies
Virus immunity may disappear within months: study
Research suggests coronavirus antibodies may fade after a few months | DePointer
Coronavirus antibody testing happening at NMSU DNA lab
FINDING A CURE - Herpes Saint
The IgG blood picks up antibodies to the virus while the virus is active in your system. So what we see for many participants and clients is that a few months in, the tests often show as borderline or unequivocal. What this means is that the trace of the viral antibodies is so minor that the tests can barely pick up any sign of the virus being present. For others it comes back often at the 5-6 month point as negative. What this therefore indicates is that the treatment acts to kill the herpes cells in their entirety rather than providing what would be an immunity to the virus. As we have tested and discovered those that have been cured do not possess any antibodies to the virus, they have no immunity and can be reinfected again if they have direct contact with the virus, the same as any other person who was not infected ...
bacteriophage - Page 2
Did you ever wonder what different virus infections you have had in your lifetime? Now you can find out with just a drop of your blood and about $25.. Immune defense systems of many hosts produce antibodies in response to virus infections. These large proteins, which are generally virus specific, can block or inhibit virus infection, and persist at low levels for many years after the initial infection. Hence it is possible to determine whether an individual has had a virus infection by looking for anti-viral antibodies in the blood. Up to now the process of identifying such antibodies has been slow and limited to one or a few viruses. A new assay called VirScan allows unbiased searches for all the virus antibodies in your blood, providing a picture of all your past infections.. To identify the human antivirome, DNAs were synthesized encoding proteins from all viruses known to infect humans - 206 species and over 1000 strains. These DNAs were inserted into the genome of a bacteriophage, so that ...
University antibody test detects past infection, quality of immune response for COVID-19 | Mirage News
I have a 1983 Allis Chalmers 5015. I'm getting no fuel from the top of injection pump. Fuel lines & filter have been
Virus antibodies fade fast but not necessarily protection | NEWS10 ABC
Anti-HA tag antibody - ChIP Grade Review (10471) | Abcam
U of T antibody test detects past infection, quality of immune response for COVID-19
anti-Park7 / DJ-1 antibody [AT1E12] | GeneTex
anti-PCBP1 antibody [AT2A10] | GeneTex
Anti-HSV2 antibody (ab21112) | Abcam
Singles now displaying COVID antibody test results in dating apps!
Antibody tests are useful in COVID-19 | Aidian
Anti-E2F5 Antibody Products from Novus Biologicals | Biocompare
Best of AofA: The Naked CDC: the Hit and Run Truth about MMR in their Own Words - AGE OF AUTISM
Seroconversion | Semantic Scholar
May 2011 | Eaaci.org
Anti-E2F6 抗体 - ChIP Grade (ab53061) | アブカム
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to...
HKU Scholars Hub: Multivariate analysis of factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in...
We examined factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination (TIV) in children using the antibody titres of children participating in a Hong Kong community-based study. Antibody titres of strains included in the 2009-2010 northern hemisphere TIV [seasonal A(H1N1), seasonal A(H3N2) and B (Victoria lineage)] and those not included in the TIV [2009 pandemic A(H1N1) and B (Yamagata lineage)] were measured by haemagglutination inhibition immediately before and 1 month after vaccination. Multivariate regression models were fitted in a Bayesian framework to characterize the distribution of changes in antibody titres following vaccination. Statistically significant rises in geometric mean antibody titres were observed against all strains, with a wide variety of standard deviations and correlations in rises observed, with the influenza type B antibodies showing more variability than the type A antibodies. The dynamics of antibody titres after vaccination can be used in ...
Racial/ethnic differences in Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers among U.S. children and adolescents | Nurse Faculty Scholars
PURPOSE: To examine racial-ethnic differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels among U.S. children and adolescents. Elevated titers among seropositive youth can indicate viral reactivation-an indirect measure of impaired cell-mediated immunity.. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using multivariable linear regression accounting for the complex survey design and potential confounders. The sample comprised 4663 black-African American, Mexican American, and white youth aged 6-17 years who were EBV seropositive.. RESULTS: EBV antibody levels were significantly higher for black-African American youth compared with their white peers (b = 0.343, P , .0001). Gender-stratified models were consistent with the total sample except differences in EBV antibody levels were greater between black-African American and white males (b = 0.525, P , .0001) than between black-African American and white females (b = 0.169, P = .0185). Differences ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Phase 1 Randomized Study of a Tetravalent Dengue Purified Inactivated...
Abstract The safety and immunogenicity of four formulations of an investigational tetravalent dengue purified inactivated vaccine (DPIV), formulated at 1 or 4 μg with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or at 1 μg with an adjuvant system (AS01E or AS03B), were evaluated in a first-time-in-human, placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blind, phase 1 trial in the continental United States. Two doses of vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly 4 weeks apart to 100 healthy adults 18-39 years of age, randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to receive one of four DPIV formulations or saline placebo. The response to a third dose was evaluated in a subset of nine participants remote from primary vaccination. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% microneutralization assay. All DPIV formulations were well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were observed through 12 months after the second vaccine dose. In all DPIV groups, geometric mean antibody titers peaked at Day 56, waned through 6 months after
Development of an HSV-1 neutralization test with a glycoprotein D specific antibody for measurement of neutralizing antibody...
Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples. This optimized assay employed a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing glycoprotein D to detect the HSV-1 infected cells. With this test, the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 could be determined within one day by automated interpretation of the counts of cell spots. We observed good correlation in the results obtained from ELISPOT-NT and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) by testing 22 human serum samples representing different titers. Moreover, 269 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age
Welcome to CDC stacks
Through the Advisory Committee on Dengue and other Flavivirus Vaccines, the World Health Organization(WHO) has had a long-standing commitment to facilitate and to guide research and development of vaccines for medically important flaviviruses. Recently, the Paediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) was formed to accelerate the development, testing, and introduction of dengue (DEN)vaccines worldwide, partnering with WHO in this important public health effort. There are now a variety of DEN vaccines in various stages of the developmental pipeline. In an attempt to make interlaboratory information more directly comparable, WHO with the support of PDVI initiated a program to coordinate the procedures used for the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). ThePRNT is the most common assay used to measure neutralizing antibody. The presence of antibody is believed to be most relevant means of determining protective anti-DEN virus (DENV) immunity. While other neutralizing antibody assays are being ...
Vaccine To Prevent Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cervical Cancer in Younger Healthy Participants - Study Results -...
Titers were assessed for the 600 subjects enrolled into the immunogenicity subcohort by Inhibition Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and expressed as geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs).. Seronegative (Sero-) subjects=antibody concentration below 110 EL.U/mL prior to vaccination.. Seropositive (Sero+) subjects=antibody concentration equal to or above 110 EL.U/mL prior to vaccination.. Immunogenicity subcohort=subset of 600 subjects from the 2 groups of the ATP cohort: subjects attended 1 extra clinic visit approximately 1 month (30 to 60 days) after the last dose was administered (Month 7).. ...
Virus serology in patients with suspected myocarditis: utility or futility?
Patients were included if they had a febrile infection of the bronchial tree, the gut, or the urinary tract within the last 6 months and at least one of the following: impaired global or regional left ventricular systolic function, increased serum concentrations of myocardial necrosis markers, pericardial effusion of unclear reason, VT or NS-VT, or VF of unknown origin. Subjects with familial cardiomyopathy were excluded. Samples for virus serology were collected before EMBs and in 30 patients second samples were drawn 7-28 days after the initial sample. Acute viral infection with enterovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus, and Epstein-Barr virus was diagnosed by demonstrating IgM or IgA in the initial samples or IgG seroconversion during the follow-up. Before EMB each individual underwent left heart catheterization with coronary angiography. Cardiac MRI and echocardiography were performed before EMB to choose the optimal biopsy site. Histopathological and ...
Anti-cytomegalovirus IgG antibody titer is positively associated with advanced T cell differentiation and coronary artery...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-cytomegalovirus IgG antibody titer is positively associated with advanced T cell differentiation and coronary artery disease in end-stage renal disease. AU - Yang, Feng Jung. AU - Shu, Kai Hsiang. AU - Chen, Hung Yuan. AU - Chen, I. Yu. AU - Lay, Fang Yun. AU - Chuang, Yi Fang. AU - Wu, Chien Sheng. AU - Tsai, Wan Chuan. AU - Peng, Yu Sen. AU - Hsu, Shih Ping. AU - Chiang, Chih Kang. AU - Wang, George. AU - Chiu, Yen Ling. PY - 2018/7/2. Y1 - 2018/7/2. N2 - Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with several health-related adverse outcomes including atherosclerosis and premature mortality in individuals with normal renal function. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit impaired immune function and thus may face higher risk of HCMV-related adverse outcomes. Whether the level of anti-HCMV immune response may be associated with the prognosis of hemodialysis patients is unknown. Results: ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition Archives | InDevR
InDevR, Inc., an innovative life science company dedicated to improving biopharmaceutical and vaccine manufacturing, announced study results and a joint publication with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of "Automated interpretation of influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays: is plate tilting necessary?" in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.. Serological screening is an important step in influenza monitoring and vaccine development. The hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) is widely used to evaluate vaccine-induced antibody responses as well as to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. HAI results are based on an endpoint titration where the titers are typically manually interpreted and recorded by a trained expert. For serological applications, the lack of a standardized endpoint interpretation and presence of interfering non-specific inhibitors can translate into a high degree of variability in the results. This variability along with the lack of a digital record ...
Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. IV: Viral antibody titres and viral infections. | Journal of...
A controlled serologic survey of antibody titres to 17 viruses was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. No consistent pattern of elevated antibody titre levels or the presence of antibody was noted in patients compared with two control groups. Because of the isolation of these islands, the mean age at acquisition of common childhood infections, including measles, was considerably older than that of inhabitants of Europe and the United States of America. The age of occurrence of varicella was consistently younger in patients than in controls. Of note is the fact that six patients had measles after the onset of MS. This study failed to incriminate any of the viruses tested in the aetiology of MS.. ...
Free Online Library: Lower antibody response in chickens homozygous for the Mx resistant allele to avian influenza.(Report) by Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences; Agricultural industry Biological sciences Alleles Reorganization and restructuring Allelomorphism Antibodies Genetic aspects Influence Properties Avian influenza Prevention Chickens Health aspects Immune response Influenza vaccines Viral antibodies
Development of a Novel In Vitro Assay (ALS Assay) for Evaluation of Vaccine-Induced Antibody Secretion from Circulating Mucosal...
ALS, a specific, reliable, and accurate immunoassay, was developed for the evaluation of fresh antibody production from circulating mucosal secreting B lymphocytes. In the human trial described here, the ALS assay detected the significant antitoxin increases induced by either formulation of the oral vaccine. The ALS results indicated a peak booster antitoxin response at day 21, which is 7 days after the second dose, that started to decrease at day 24. (Complete results for this clinical trial will be reported separately.). By assaying only antibodies secreted by circulating cells, the ALS method controlled the confounding effect of accumulative antibody in the serum samples, which contain both recent and preexistent soluble antibodies. Since the serum portion of the blood sample has been removed in the ALS assay, this assay measures only the secreting antibodies. When the ALS assay was performed, antibody titers from prevaccination samples were barely detectable, but background titers in serum ...
Looking for an antibody or information on antibodies?
The Antibody Resource Page (http://www.antibodyresource.com/) is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
immunology - What is the use of an antibody that is non-neutralizing? - Biology Stack Exchange
Neutralizing" is not a general concept; its context-dependent. Most often (in virology anyway) it means that the antibodies, by themselves in a tissue culture plate, can prevent infection of the cells by the virus. Many antibodies that are "non-neutralizing" in tissue culture are probably protective in the animal, in the context of complement and phagocytic cells and so on. That said, theres no reason why antibodies should be protective, let alone neutralizing. Antibodies dont arise in a guided manner with foreknowledge; antibody development is driven by physical interactions between the antibody and its binding partner. If they happen to arise to something irrelevant -- an internal protein of a virus, or a pollen grain, perhaps -- then they can still be driven through priming and development and maturation and still be functionally useless, or even harmful. On top of that, of course it would be beneficial for pathogens to be resistant to antibodies, and at least a few have evolved this ...
First coronavirus antibody test gets Public Health England approval - LBC
Antibodies to GABAA receptor α1 and γ2 subunits: clinical and serologic characterization. - Nuffield Department of Clinical...
OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Human Immunized with M. Gerbil Kidney Tissue Culture Inactivated HFRS Vaccine Assessed by...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
antibody test - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for antibody test
Antibody News | AntibodyChain
There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells... ...
Fairview Diagnostic Laboratories
Since antibodies are only produced after exposure to foreign material including organisms such as bacteria and viruses, they indicate exposure to that organism.. Because antibodies remain in circulation for quite some time, the presence of an antibody titre to a particular organism does not necessarily mean that that organism is the cause of the illness that your pet is experiencing.. The lack of an antibody titre to an organism can indicate either of two things. The first is that no exposure to that organism has occurred and therefore your pets current clinical condition is due to another cause. The other is that your pet has been so recently exposed to the organism that there has been insufficient time for antibodies to be produced in sufficient quantities to be detectable in the serum.. Therefore if we suspect that a particular disease (for example leptospirosis) is causing illness in your pet, it is important to obtain both acute and convalescent serum titres. This simply means that blood ...
Updated WWWsite: The Antibody Resource Page
Updated WWWsite: The Antibody Resource Page The Antibody Resource Page has been recently updated. The page will be invaluable to researchers and educators alike. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - some animated gifs have recently been added 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question or have an answer? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added. There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. ...and there is much more. Check it out at: http://www.antibodyresource.com/ Ps. Don t forget to visit our sponsors, ...
Virus neutralization by antibodies | BetweenTwoPines
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
Animal/Human antibodies / Secondary antibodies/blocking / Anti-dog / Fluorescent / DyLight / DyLight 550
Humanized antibody - The Full Wiki
It is possible to produce a humanized antibody without creating a chimeric intermediate. "Direct" creation of a humanized antibody can be accomplished by inserting the appropriate CDR coding segments (responsible for the desired binding properties) into a human antibody "scaffold". As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector and expression in mammalian cells. That is, after an antibody is developed to have the desired properties in a mouse (or other non-human), the DNA coding for that antibody can be isolated, cloned into a vector and sequenced. The DNA sequence corresponding to the antibody CDRs can then be determined. Once the precise sequence of the desired CDRs are known, a strategy can be devised for inserting these sequences appropriately into a construct containing the DNA for a human antibody variant. The strategy may also employ synthesis of linear DNA fragments based on the reading of CDR sequences.. Alemtuzumab is an ...
A group of 23 volunteers were each inoculated with 600 CCA of a new form of influenza virus A/England/42/72 vaccine; this vaccine consisted of purified haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens adsorbed to alhydrogel. No significant reactions to the vaccine were reported. Twenty-two volunteers produced increased titres of serum HI antibody, and all showed increased titres of NI antibody after immunization. Thus, for volunteers with no pre-immunization serum HI antibody, the geometric mean titre of serum antibody increased from 1/5 to 1/196 after immunization. Ten volunteers developed local neutralizing antibody after immunization; this antibody response was detected most frequently in volunteers who showed the greater serum antibody response to immunization, and in nasal washings with the higher concentrations of protein and IgA. Ten weeks after immunization, the vaccinees and a group of matched controls were inoculated intranasally with attenuated A/England/42/72 virus. Evidence of infection ...
Kit-G. Pig Serum Antibody detection ELISA kit, Qualitative-Genemed Synthesis Inc.
How Coronavirus Antibody, Genetic And Antigen Tests Work
Imaginative symptoms from rheuma, less fever,wrong blood clotting disorder more likely in bakteria are no safe signs and opposite signs make some very hard incredible of this lie. It is more confusable with harmless rhinovirusinfection even at all. with some pos but inactivated corona particles from vaccum cleaner or bird puks on the windshield of a car. Corona PCR can also amplify inactivated RNA by polymerase. corona viruses show more types : birds sniff, horses arteriosis, mouse hepatitis All are harmless for humans. All have an art barrier . At human there are no special signs At mucous membrane art strange viruses are deactivated at immediatly. PCR amplifies these deactivated also. Antibodies are not validated and often wild different at Corc19 , also caused by dead particles Antigens are not precise found in blood and fail at all. This would totally exclude any infection in body An vaccine for an dipper infection is nonsense, also herd immunity is as known not possible. vaccines cant ...
Locally available antibody tests could show exposure to COVID - The Dispatch
This is checking for the presence of the antibody for the specific virus related to COVID-19," Robertson said. "So if someone gets their test results back and it is antibody negative, that is saying that within at least ... the last four weeks or longer, they have not had the virus or been exposed to the virus. Verses if it comes back positive, it is saying that they have likely either been exposed to it or could have had a case of it.". Bogue compared it to testing for mononucleosis.. "If youve ever had mono before and then you get an antibody test (for that disease) later on, youre always going to show that you had mono. Its the same thing with the virus," she said. "A lot of people were really sick in December or January before we knew what this was, so thats where theyre kind of curious. Theyre like, Well, did I have it?". Both Allegro and State Urgent Care have tested patients who were sick in December or earlier this year before health care professionals were easily recognizing ...
What are Antibodies? - STD testing with Home STD Test Kit, at home STD testing
Our body has a unique method to fight aggressor foreign micro-organisms when they enter our body.. When any virus, fungus, or bacterium enters our body and starts meddling with our system, our body triggers this mechanism. As a result, our body immune system creates antibodies specific to that foreign substance.. They are basically proteins but all antibodies are not the same.. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses contain character specific proteins called antigens. Antigens are also found on non-living micro-particles such as toxins, snake venoms, pollen, bacterial toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. That marks them apart from each other.. After the antibodies are created, the second step is triggered by our defense system. Now there is a fight between the newly generated antibodies and the interfering antigens. This goes on till our body is clear of all antigens or the antigens completely overwhelm the antibodies. But, complete surrender of the antibodies is an ideal condition.. The ...
MonoExpress Antibody Services
An antigen is a substance which is used to generate the production of antibodies. In the case of this PolyExpressTM package, this is either a native protein or peptide sequence. The origin of your target antigen is the type of organism that the protein or peptide sequence to be used as an antigen originally came from. An accession number is a unique identification given to a biological polymer sequence and may be found in protein databases such as UniProt. Peptides created through GenScripts OptimumAntigen™ design program have many advantages over full proteins when it comes to antibody production. Our OptimumAntigen™ Design Tool combines the industrys most advanced algorithms with GenScripts time-tested expertise. Each peptide antigen is measured against several protein databases to confirm the desired antibody and epitope specificity. We guarantee a polyclonal antibody with ELISA titer of 1:32,000 or better for any host with the aid of our antigen design tool and unique antibody ...
Validated Anti-GATM Antibody | Antibodyplus: Free trial Antibody, Antibody Validation and reviews
"Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Grandien, M. (1996-05-01). "Viral ... Antibody detection works by attaching an indicator to an antibody with a known specificity and observing whether the antibody ... Antibodies are added to a bacterial solution, providing an antigen for the binding of fluorescent anti-antibody adherence. Mass ... A benefit of antibody detection (ELISA) is that protein identification on a microorganism becomes faster than a western blot. ...
... viral adsorption takes place and the adsorbed virus can be inhibited by viral antibodies. The second stage, which is 20 minutes ... In the third, antibody-refractory stage, viral envelope constituents remain detectable on the surface of cells. During the ... To obtain viral replication. For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. ... is pH dependent and an addition of viral antiserum can still inhibit ultimate fusion. ...
2015-16 Zika virus epidemic
The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... A test for IgM antibodies has seen to be effective over longer periods of time, as these antibodies can be present starting 4 ... The methods currently available to test for Zika antibodies cross-react with dengue antibodies. An IgM-positive result in a ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...
Scott K. Dessain
Dessain SK, editor (2008). Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology ... Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology and immunology; vol. 317). pp ... from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. His technique for cloning native human antibodies has ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ...
This can occur naturally, whereby maternal antibodies, primarily immunoglobulin G antibodies, are transferred across the ... producing a change in the viral epitope. Alternatively, the reassortment of separate viral genome segments, or ... Corti, D; Lanzavecchia, A (2013). "Broadly neutralizing antiviral antibodies". Annual Review of Immunology. 31: 705-42. doi: ... Individual immunity can also be gained passively, in which antibodies to a pathogen are transferred from one individual to ...
Colorado tick fever
Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... Viral replication in infected cells is associated with characteristic cytoplasmic granular matrices. Evidence suggests viral ... The double-stranded RNA viral genome is about 20,000 bp long and is divided into 12 segments, which are termed Seg-1 to Seg-12 ... Colorado tick fever (CTF) (also called mountain tick fever, American tick fever, and American mountain tick fever) is a viral ...
The recognition of viral proteins by maternal antibodies neutralizes the virus. Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B ... If these mutations occur in sites that are recognized by antibodies, the mutations block antibody binding which inhibits the ... Thus, an infant's immune system is not highly activated and the infant produces fewer antibodies. Even when B cells do bind to ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and FC receptors simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the FC receptors send a ...
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Diagnosis is by detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself. It is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever. Prevention ... viral S segment) to 31% (viral segment M). Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area; closely ... The tick bite occurred in the province of Ávila, 300 km away from the province of Cáceres, where CCHF viral RNA from ticks was ... Watts DM, Ussery MA, Nash D, Peters CJ (1989). "Inhibition of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral infectivity yields in vitro ...
... identification of antibodies to viruses) may be useful in viral meningitis. If tuberculous meningitis is suspected, the sample ... Bacterial and viral meningitis are contagious, but neither is as contagious as the common cold or flu. Both can be transmitted ... Mild cases of viral meningitis can be treated at home with conservative measures such as fluid, bedrest, and analgesics. Fungal ... Viral meningitis tends to run a more benign course than bacterial meningitis. Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus ...
Antibody therapy is also used to treat viral infections. In 1945, hepatitis A infections, epidemic in summer camps, were ... and is the most common antibody of the five types of antibodies found in the body. IgG antibodies protects against bacterial ... blood would be obtained for the antibodies. Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum ... Antibody treatments can be time consuming and are given through an intravenous injection or IV, while a vaccine shot or jab is ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Upon entering the host ... The disease affects mainly young chicks not protected by maternal antibodies. Age resistance to disease begins at about one ... The viral genome shares ~40% of its sequence with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). The genome is 2383 nucleotides long and has three ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Crowther, R. A., et ...
Vaccinations protect against viral diseases, in part, by eliciting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, ... some viral infection might even be beneficial to the host. The lethal viral diseases are believed to have resulted from an " ... Viral diseases List of viral diseases Wikipedia:WikiProject Viruses Crawford, Dorothy (2011). Viruses: A Very Short ... Every lethal viral disease presents a paradox: killing its host is obviously of no benefit to the virus, so how and why did it ...
"Immunotherapy of a viral disease by in vivo production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies". Human gene therapy. 11 (10): 1407 ... "Systemic long-term delivery of antibodies in immunocompetent animals using cellulose sulphate capsules containing antibody- ... Günzburg WH, Salmons B (May 2000). "Xenotransplantation: is the risk of viral infection as great as we thought?". Mol Med Today ... At the same time, the semi-permeable nature of the membrane prevents immune cells and antibodies from destroying the ...
Comparisons of antibody responses generated by natural (viral) infection, immunization with recombinant protein and ... but limit viral infection by down-regulating the expression of viral components. DNA vaccinations can be used to curb viral ... The conformation of the protein can also affect antibody responses. "Ordered" structures (such as viral particles) are more ... Antibody-secreting cells migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise there ...
IgG antibody is produced later and peaks at week 12. Engineering of SARS virus has been done. In a paper published in 2006, a ... The recombination allowed for efficient expression of viral transcripts and proteins. The engineering of this transcription ... As part of the immune response, IgM antibody to the SARS-CoV is produced. This peaks during the acute or early convalescent ...
Universal flu vaccine
Krammer F (May 2017). "Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins". Expert Review of ... 2016 BBC: 'Super antibody' fights off flu Independent: Scientists hail the prospect of a universal vaccine for flu "Universal ... In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called ... F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A ...
Viral RNA becomes detectable in stool and blood serum during incubation period. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against HEV appear ... Recovery is also marked by disappearance of IgM antibodies and increase of levels of IgG antibodies. While usually an acute ... Furthermore, studies showing evidence for viral replication in the placenta or reporting the full viral life cycle in placental ... The use of low doses of ribavirin over a three-month period has been associated with viral clearance in about two-thirds of ...
She developed a method to better visualise viruses by using antibodies to aggregate them. She worked on hepatitis B and the ... She published Manual for rapid laboratory viral diagnosis in 1979. Almeida died in Bexhill from a heart attack in 2007. The ... Publications credited her for her work on identifying viral structure. Her abilities were recognised by A. P. Waterson, then ... ISBN 1-55581-507-3. Almeida, June Dalziel, patents, accessed October 2012 WHO Manual for rapid laboratory viral diagnosis 1979 ...
Blood tests can be done to detect antibodies against viral antigens and foreign proteins. Virus isolation is the most sensitive ... Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. The virus ... Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves ... "Polioencephalitis and the brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes". J. Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 (2- ...
Vicente J, León-Vizcaíno L, Gortázar C, José Cubero M, González M, Martín-Atance P (July 2002). "Antibodies to selected viral ... Antibodies to the virus are also common in pigs in other countries. The main route of transmission is through direct contact ... Of the 25 swine exhibitors aged 9 to 19 at the fair, 19 tested positive for antibodies to SIV, but no serious illnesses were ... Genetic components of these 1998 triple-hybrid stains would later form six out of the eight viral gene segments in the 2009 flu ...
Rates of infection are determined by the presence of antibodies against either viral species. In the US, 58% of the population ... Akhtar, Jihan; Shukla, Deepak (December 2009). "Viral entry mechanisms: cellular and viral mediators of herpes simplex virus ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body ...
These glycoproteins allow for attachment and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion of these membranes allows the viral ... In each of these techniques, the antibodies for the protein of interest are added and the presence of the specific protein is ... Both forms work by exposing the body to the viral strains within the vaccine. As a result, the immune system develops ... Most children between five and ten years old have already produced antibodies for influenza virus C. As with all influenza ...
Digital transcriptome subtraction
Serological tests to measure pathogen-specific antibody titer. Bacterial culture/viral culture, which is considered as the gold ... As viral transcripts are exceedingly rare ratio tissue mRNA (10 transcripts in 1 million), it is unlikely to generate a ... It can also be used to identify viral pathogens in non-cancer related disease. Future clinical applications could include the ... Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to related pathogen to determine existence the pathogen in tissues. ...
Ronald C. Kennedy
Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS
Like the ELISA procedure, the western blot is an antibody detection test. However, unlike the ELISA method, the viral proteins ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to human antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ... If no viral bands are detected, the result is negative. If at least one viral band for each of the GAG, POL, and ENV gene- ... Antibodies that do not attach are washed away, and enzyme-linked antibodies with the capability to attach to the person's ...
Dermot P. Kelleher
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... Progressive loss of memory T cell potential and commitment to exhaustion during chronic viral infection. Journal of Virology. ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ...
... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ...
... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). *Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus reactivation ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
... or alternatively the result of chronic viral infection which is known to also elevate anti-tranglutaminase antibody. A German ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association ... The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3. One of the ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3. Later it was ...
... , also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. ... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 ... Clinically, Lassa fever infections are difficult to distinguish from other viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg ...
A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ... stimulation the accumulation and the clonal expansion of memory and effector T-cells hampered immune defences against viral ... and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated. In 2014, a ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low. ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
The Spi-B factor was shown to be crucial in initiating viral replication in certain strains of transgenic mice. The protein ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... JC viral DNA can be detected in both non-PML affected and PML-affected (see below) brain tissue. ... "Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months. Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
White blood cell
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
For instance, an antibody deficiency can be diagnosed in the presence of low immunoglobulins, recurrent infections and failure ... It is a treatment that has been effective in preventing and treating viral infections after HSCT. VST therapy uses active donor ... VSTs have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral ... Absent B cells with a resultant severe reduction of all types of antibody: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (btk deficiency, or ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... as the endotoxins alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
Innate immune system
When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... When a part of a plant becomes infected with a microbial or viral pathogen, in case of an incompatible interaction triggered by ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
2002). "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ... Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ...
In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... Viral antigens. For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... Such antagonists include (but are not limited to) specific antibodies that target the molecule of interest, which act only in a ... "An antibody reactive with domain 4 of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor allows BB binding while inhibiting ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
negative regulation of viral genome replication. • humoral immune response. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 production. ... This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies. More recently, research in the Laboratory of ... inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6 producing cells. ...
Epidemiology of herpes simplex
... the numbers of individuals infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2 by determining if they have developed antibodies against either viral ... having antibodies for HSV-2. In British Columbia in 1999, the seroprevalence of HSV-2 antibody in leftover serum submitted for ... Antibodies for HSV-1 or HSV-2 are also more likely to be found individuals born outside of Israel, and individuals residing in ... HSV-2 antibodies were found in more than 41% of women of childbearing age in Brazil. However, no increase in seroprevalence was ...
Viral disease. Notes and references. *^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... In these forms of viral infection, the illness is often treated by the body's own immune response, and therefore the virus is ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ...
Human digestive system
There has been some research success towards a "universal flu vaccine" that produces antibodies against proteins on the viral ... The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be ... the viral particles of all influenza viruses are similar in composition. These are made of a viral envelope containing two ... symptoms and viral shedding show a similar pattern, but with viral shedding preceding illness by one day. Children are much ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
"Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". Current Opinion in Virology. Viral ... Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation. Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... "Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ... engineering aglycosylated full-length IgG antibodies for human therapy". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 22 (6): 858-67. doi: ...
Test for Past Infection (Antibody Test) | Inkster, MI
Antibody tests check your blood by looking for antibodies, which can show if you had a past infection with the virus that ... Antibody tests should not be used to diagnose COVID-19. To see if you are currently infected, you need a viral test. Viral ... Test for Past Infection (Antibody Test) Antibody tests check your blood by looking for antibodies, which can show if you had a ... If you test positive or negative for COVID-19 on a viral or an antibody test, you still should take preventive measures to ...
ME/CFS Australia (SA) Inc: New Blood Test Can Identify Every Virus You've Ever Had
To identify a greater number of antibodies, researchers used peptides (naturally occurring biological molecules) from 206 viral ... "This means that you can look at viral exposures in an unbiased way without having to suspect a particular infection ahead of ... "From a personal health standpoint, you could imagine an annual blood test for all viral exposures to try to find infections ... Until now, blood tests that measured the amount of viruses based on antibodies released by the immune system have been limited ...
Antibodies and B cell memory in viral immunity. - PubMed - NCBI
Antibodies and B cell memory in viral immunity.. Dörner T1, Radbruch A. ... Secreted protective antibodies of humoral memory provide an efficient line of defense against reinfection and are backed up by ... There is evidence that polyspecific "natural" antibodies provide early protection, independent of T cell help. If that line of ... Thus, coevolution provides us with some insight into just how substantial antiviral antibodies and memory B cell are in ...
Viral Pneumonia Medication: Antiviral agents, Monoclonal Antibodies, Immune Globulins, Beta-Agonists
Viral pneumonia decreases in frequency in healthy young and middle-aged adults, but it then increases substantially among the ... Monoclonal Antibodies. Class Summary. Humanized monoclonal antibodies such as palivizumab are useful in the prevention of lower ... By inhibiting viral neuraminidase, the release of viruses from infected cells and viral spread are decreased. Zanamivir is ... By inhibiting viral neuraminidase, it decreases the release of viruses from infected cells and thus viral spread. Oseltamivir ...
Anti-Siglec-1 antibodies block Ebola viral uptake and decrease cytoplasmic viral entry | Nature Microbiology
Blockage of the Siglec-1 receptor by anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies halted Ebola viral uptake and cytoplasmic entry, ... and anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies can antagonize this process. ... which recognizes sialylated gangliosides anchored to viral membranes. ... Anti-Siglec-1 antibodies block Ebola viral uptake and decrease cytoplasmic viral entry. *Daniel Perez-Zsolt1,2. , ...
Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries. | PNAS
Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries.. R A Williamson, R ... Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries. ... Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries. ... Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries. ...
JCI - Kinetics of protective antibodies are determined by the viral surface antigen
These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context ... They further suggest that structural features of viral GPs or coevolutionary adaptation of the viruss GP to the hosts naive B ... Delayed and weak virus neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a hallmark correlating not only with the establishment ... Using a reverse genetic approach, we evaluated possible underlying mechanisms in 2 widely studied viral infection models. ...
JCI - Kinetics of protective antibodies are determined by the viral surface antigen
These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context ... WT and recombinant viral genomes. (. A. ) The LCMV-ARM genome consists of 2 single-stranded negative-strand ambisense RNA ... Immunogold staining of viral particles budding from BHK-21 cells infected with the viruses as indicated. The nAbs of the ... They further suggest that structural features of viral GPs or coevolutionary adaptation of the viruss GP to the hosts naive B ...
EBV Antibody To Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Antigen-Antibody Pen For Biotin-tagged antibodies (all species). 11. Antigen-Antibody Pen For Chicken Primary antibodies. ... BioSign® H. pylori - Rapid H. pylori Antibody (IgM/IgG/IgA) Test. 8. Double Antibody Estradiol RIA. 9. Antigen-Antibody Pens, a ... OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. 2. Reveal Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test. 3. Wampole PreVue B. Burgdorferi Antibody ...
Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization. - PubMed - NCBI
The viral RNA can be protected within the autophagic organelles since anti-dengue neutralizing antibodies do not have an effect ... Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization.. Wu YW1,2, Mettling C3, Wu SR ... These vesicles contain viral proteins E, NS1, prM/M, and viral RNA, as well as host lipid droplets and LC3-II, an autophagy ... The infection rate in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibody 137-22 was quantified using an antibody against NS4b and ...
New, highly potent HIV antibody restricts development of viral resistance
In contrast, treatment with the antibody 1-18 resulted in suppression of the viral load that was maintained for the duration of ... Tags: Antibodies, Antibody, Antiretroviral, Blood, Drugs, Efficacy, HIV, Hospital, Immunization, Immunotherapy, Medicine, ... New, highly potent HIV antibody restricts development of viral resistance. *Download PDF Copy ... Clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies by reducing the viral load in the blood of ...
Antibodies neutralize viral infectivity inside cells
Antibodies are thought to neutralize viral infectivity in several ways: by forming noninfectious aggregates that ... These molecules, produced 7-14 days after infection, neutralize viral infectivity, thereby limiting the spread of infection. ... Antibodies are an important component of the host defense against viral infection. ... neutralizing antibodies reduce viral infectivity. When levels of cellular TRIM21 protein were depleted, neutralizing antibodies ...
Frontiers | Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases | Immunology
Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial ... Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial ... As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including ... As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including ...
TNO Repository search for: subject:'Antibodies, Viral'
Health · Immunogen · RSV fusion protein · Vaccine · Animals · Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antigens, Viral · ... Health · Animals · Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antigens, Viral · Disease Models, Animal · Epitopes, B- ... Chemicals/CAS: Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antibodies, Viral; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Hemagglutinins, Viral; ... Antibodies, Monoclonal · Antibodies, Viral · Antibody Formation · CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes · Comparative Study · Female · ...
Single POC test detecting HIV antibodies, viral RNA in development
University College of Dentistry for the development of a single point-of-care test able to detect HIV/AIDS antibodies and viral ... Within 7 minutes, one portion of the sample runs off onto a strip to test for HIV antibodies while the other goes through an ... University College of Dentistry for the development of a single point-of-care test able to detect HIV/AIDS antibodies and viral ... "As a result, many individuals with a positive antibody screening test opt out of taking the corroborative test. Our research ...
Detection of antigens and IgM antibodies for rapid diagnosis of viral infections: a WHO Memorandum*
VRC01 antibody prolonged time to HIV viral rebound after treatment interruption | EurekAlert! Science News
A new study has shown that infusion of a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in virally suppressed, early treated volunteers ... VRC01 antibody prolonged time to HIV viral rebound after treatment interruption. The U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP) ... VRC01 antibody prolonged time to HIV viral rebound after treatment interruption Study administered broadly neutralizing ... Trevor Crowell, "HIV-Specific Broadly-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody, VRC01, Minimally Impacts Time to Viral Rebound ...
Texas stops combining coronavirus antibody, viral test data - News - Austin American-Statesman - Austin, TX
... the Texas Department of State Health Services combined the count for antibody tests with the count for standard viral tests to ... health officials in Texas have changed how they report data about the number of standard tests for the virus and antibody tests ... Texas stops combining coronavirus antibody, viral test data. Madlin Mekelburg @madlinbmek Friday. May 22, 2020 at 10:04 AM May ... "Antibody and viral testing have distinct and vital roles in responding to the COVID-19 outbreak," the group said in a blog post ...
More Pfizer Phase I Results: Antibodies, Viral Mutations, and T Cells | In the Pipeline
34 comments on "More Pfizer Phase I Results: Antibodies, Viral Mutations, and T Cells" * Roney. says: ... More Pfizer Phase I Results: Antibodies, Viral Mutations, and T Cells. By Derek Lowe 20 July, 2020. ... Both antibody & T cell responses observed. They claim that one dose elicited a good response. We will have to wait and see the ... It tends to lead to higher viral loads but not to sicker patients. (Take this with a grain or two of salt as I dont remember ...
PRIME PubMed | IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infectio
PubMed journal article IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infectio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime ... Antigens, ViralBlood DonorsBlood TransfusionHepacivirusHepatitis AntibodiesHepatitis CHumansImmunization, PassiveImmunoglobulin ... IgM Antibody Response in Acute Hepatitis C Viral Infection. Blood. 1992 Jan 1;79(1):169-72. PubMed PMID: 1309424. ... IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infection.. Blood 1992; 79(1):169-72Blood ...
Experimental antibody plus TLR7 agonist maintains viral suppression in monkeys | aidsmap
Monkeys that received both the antibody, known as PGT121, and the TLR7 agonist GS-9620 maintained an undetectable viral load ... Treatment with a broadly neutralising antibody plus an immune-stimulating drug led to long-term viral remission after ... Even after rebounding, monkeys that received the combination treatment had lower viral load setpoints and lower viral DNA ... Borducchi E et al (Barouch D presenting). PGT121 combined with GS-9620 delays viral rebound in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys. ...
Viral recognition by antibodies, artwork - Stock Image C013/4722 - Science Photo Library
Antibodies, or immunoglobulin, molecules have two arms that can bind to specific antigens, for instance viral or bacterial ... Antibodies can also kill some pathogens directly and can neutralise toxins. - Stock Image C013/4722 ... Computer artwork of rabies (family Rhabdoviridae) virus particles (virions, pink) being identified by monoclonal antibodies (Y- ... Antibodies, or immunoglobulin, molecules have two arms that can bind to specific antigens, for instance viral or bacterial ...
Antibodies and ELISA Kits against Viral Targets
Antibodies against viral targets. Viral Target. Pubmed References?. Available Antibodies. Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV). yes. ... Antibodies-online offers ELISA kits and antibodies for research of over 150 viral targets and virus like particles to assist ... The use of antibodies in viral research is essential in the continuing efforts to develop vaccines and drug therapies for ... ELISA kits for viral targets. We offer ELISA kits for a wide variety of virus targets. Please find below a list of all ...
Tiny alpaca-derived antibodies point to targets preventing viral infection
... single-domain antibody fragments (also called VHHs or nanobodies) to perturb cellular processes in mammalian cells, including ... Tiny alpaca-derived antibodies point to targets preventing viral infection. June 20, 2016, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical ... New technique efficiently turns antibodies into highly tuned nanobodies. November 2, 2014 Antibodies, in charge of ... Tiny antibodies point to vulnerability in disease-causing parasites. August 24, 2015 By teasing apart the structure of an ...
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Antibodies in Nigerian Populations | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Antibodies to Lassa and Rift Valley fever viruses were found in all locations in Nigeria, whereas Ebola and Marburg antibodies ... Antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses were detected in 30 and 29 sera, respectively. Of the 357 Lassa virus antibody-positive ... Three hundred fifty-seven (21.3%) were positive for Lassa virus antibody, while antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus were ... a serosurvey for antibodies to five viral agents associated with hemorrhagic febrile infections was conducted with 1,677 human ...
PRO 140 antibody injections maintain viral suppression in phase 2 study | aidsmap
In HIV, optimal viral suppression is measured as the reduction of viral load (HIV RNA) to undetectable levels and is the goal ... and no-one developed antibodies against PRO 140. All participants who restarted ART regained full viral suppression. ... Those who experienced viral rebound restarted ART.. Among the 28 patients in the cohort assessing longer-term treatment, 15 ... PRO 140 is a humanised monoclonal antibody that works by blocking CCR5, thereby preventing HIV from getting into cells and ...
Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia |...
Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia - ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia. * G ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ...
A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid
... ... 2011). A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid. ... Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: ... Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines : ...
Antibodies as anti-virals | HSTalks
Dennis Burton on Antibodies as anti-virals, part of a collection of online lectures. ... Antibodies as anti-virals. *Prof. Dennis Burton - The Scripps Research Institute, USA ... Burton, D. (2007, October 1). Antibodies as anti-virals [Video file]. In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry ... Novel approaches to diagnosis of viral infections Novel approaches to diagnosis of viral infections ...
Host Cell Viral Restriction Factor Antibody Sampler Kit | Cell Signaling Technology
Antibody Sampler Kit for studying BST2/eIF2A (Ser52) phosphate/IFITM1/IFITM3/MX1/OAS1/RNAseL/SAMHD1 (Thr592) phosphate/TRIM5 in ... Each antibody in the Host Cell Viral Restriction Factor Antibody Sampler Kit detects endogenous levels of its target protein. ... Host Cell Viral Restriction Factor Antibody Sampler Kit 68355. Toggle Between Dark and Light Modes Filter: * ... The Host Cell Viral Restriction Factor Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting the expression of various ...
Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections - Tabular View -...
Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (ESTUAR). The safety ... Efficacy and Safety Study of Homeopathic Oral Antibodies to Treat Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. ... homeopathic dilutions of oral antibodies to a key-protein of the immune system are effective and safe in the treatment of viral ... In this blinded study, TAO1 was given in drinking water for 5 days before and 10 days after viral challenge. The statistical ...
viral antibody discovery Tutorial | Sophia Learning
Now we focus on antibody discovery services for virology researches. Empowered by advanced phage and yeast display platform, ... Biolabs has becoming a leader of recombinant antibody (rAb) discovery, engineering and manufacturing, providing high quality ... viral antibody discovery Over the last 10 years, Creative ... viral antibody discovery. Over the last 10 years, Creative ... Now we focus on antibody discovery services for virology researches. Empowered by advanced phage and yeast display platform, ...
Monoclonal antibodyInfectionAntigenAntigensInfectionsEpitopesPathogensAntiviral antibodiesAssayTitresInfluenza virusSpecific antibodiesProteinDetectionAcuteNeutralize viral infectivityParticlesAnti-viralGlycoproteinsReplicationNucleic acidNeutralizationDetectInhibitBroadlySeraHepatitisDevelopment of therapeutic antibodiesTiters of neutraliziInfectiousAffinityTherapeuticVirologyTargetsVivoExperienced viral reboundType of antibodyVirionsCross-reactive antibodiesInfectivityAssaysPhage-displayBindPersistent viralCoronavirusUndetectable levelsRecombinant antibodiesAntinuclear antibodiesCombinatorial
- Here we show that human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments against a plethora of infectious agents can be readily derived from a single library. (pnas.org)
- The infection rate of the recipient was detected by flow cytometry with an NS4b monoclonal antibody. (nih.gov)
- In the work described here, a combinatorial solid-phase peptide library was screened with a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb 19) to identify peptide mimics (mimotopes) of a conserved and conformationally-determined epitope of RSV fusion (F) protein. (tudelft.nl)
- Subcutaneous injections of PRO 140, a monoclonal antibody that blocks HIV entry into cells, was well tolerated and maintained undetectable viral load for more than a year after stopping antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people with viral suppression, according to a study presented at the ASM Microbe 2016 meeting last week in Boston. (aidsmap.com)
- PRO 140 is a humanised monoclonal antibody that works by blocking CCR5, thereby preventing HIV from getting into cells and replicating. (aidsmap.com)
- To test relevance for a therapeutic antibody used clinically, the researchers examined rituximab, which was the first FDA-approved monoclonal antibody for treatment of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (medicalxpress.com)
- Zhang, M. Y., Shu, Y., Sidorov, I., and Dimitrov, D. S. (2004) Identification of a novel CD4i human monoclonal antibody Fab that neutralizes HIV-1 primary isolates from different clades. (springer.com)
- Our established human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb) 5A7 recognized a highly conserved regionof hemagglutinin (HA) in influenza B viruses (FluB). (nii.ac.jp)
- We generated a human monoclonal antibody against scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), monoclonal antibody (mAb)16-71, which can efficiently prevent infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes by cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc). (ugent.be)
- Thus, coevolution provides us with some insight into just how substantial antiviral antibodies and memory B cell are in protecting the host from virus infection. (nih.gov)
- Acute lower respiratory tract infection from viral etiologies can be treated with antiviral agents. (medscape.com)
- Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody. (nature.com)
- Wu, L. & KewalRamani, V. N. Dendritic-cell interactions with HIV: infection and viral dissemination. (nature.com)
- Siglec-1 Is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosides. (nature.com)
- Delayed and weak virus neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a hallmark correlating not only with the establishment of persistent infection but also with unsuccessful vaccine development. (jci.org)
- Using a reverse genetic approach, we evaluated possible underlying mechanisms in 2 widely studied viral infection models. (jci.org)
- These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context. (jci.org)
- The viral RNA can be protected within the autophagic organelles since anti-dengue neutralizing antibodies do not have an effect on the vesicle-mediated transmission that is able to initiate a new round of infection in target cells. (nih.gov)
- This discovery explains the inefficiency of neutralizing antibody upon dengue infection as a potential immune evasion mechanism in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Efficient infection of DENV avoids neutralizing antibody in a direct-contact co-culture. (nih.gov)
- The infection rate was quantified using a specific antibody against dengue NS1 (b) or NS4b (c) and flow cytometry analysis. (nih.gov)
- (e) Two different concentrations of neutralizing antibody were added in transwell and close-contact co-culture during the infection. (nih.gov)
- The infection rate of the recipient was detected by flow cytometry using NS1 or NS4b antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Broadly neutralizing antibodies are a focus of ongoing research on novel options for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. (news-medical.net)
- 1-18 binds and inactivates a surface structure of HIV that is particularly relevant because it is essential for viral infection and replication. (news-medical.net)
- The therapeutic efficacy of the newly identified antibody 1-18 was studied using a mouse model that allows recapitulation of HIV infection as it occurs in humans. (news-medical.net)
- Antibodies are an important component of the host defense against viral infection. (virology.ws)
- These molecules, produced 7-14 days after infection, neutralize viral infectivity , thereby limiting the spread of infection. (virology.ws)
- Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. (frontiersin.org)
- Notably, although antibodies have been proven to be effective against a number of diseases, most FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used to treat cancer and immune disorders ( 1 , 2 ), and only one antiviral humanized mAb, palivizumab, has been approved as a prophylactic to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in neonates and immunocompromised individuals ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Immunization of BALB/c mice with these mimotopes, presented as MAPs, resulted in the induction of anti-peptide antibodies that inhibited the binding of MAb 19 to RSV and neutralized viral infection in vitro, with titers equivalent to those in sera from RSV-infected animals. (tudelft.nl)
- This is the first time that the VRC01 antibody has been evaluated in people who started ART during acute HIV infection," said Dr. Trevor Crowell, the MHRP research physician who presented the findings. (eurekalert.org)
- IgM antibody against hepatitis C virus (IgM anti-HCV) was measured in serial samples from 15 transfusion recipients in whom posttransfusion chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) developed and three plasmapheresis donors during acute HCV infection using recombinant proteins derived from three immunodominant regions: core, NS-3, and NS-4 (c100). (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The very first few weeks of infection, until the body has created antibodies against the infection. (aidsmap.com)
- Whitehead Institute scientists have determined how to use alpaca-derived, single-domain antibody fragments (also called VHHs or nanobodies) to perturb cellular processes in mammalian cells, including the infection of human cells by influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (phys.org)
- When Schmidt analyzed these hits, he found that the nanobodies jammed the viruses' infection machinery using tactics specific to each virus-anti-IAV VHHs targeted the viral nucleoprotein NP, while the anti-VSVs recognized the viral nucleocaspid N. (phys.org)
- Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland? (cambridge.org)
- Emory researchers have found that in a mouse model of chronic viral infection, a kind of traffic pileup inside the body limits how effective therapeutic antibodies can be. (medicalxpress.com)
- However, during a chronic LCMV infection, the mouse's immune system is producing its own antibodies against the virus, which form complexes with viral proteins. (medicalxpress.com)
- Just the presence of a LCMV infection or high antibody levels alone were not enough for the "clogging" effect - both virus and antiviral antibodies had to be present and form immune complexes. (medicalxpress.com)
- Dr. Dan Barouch While the role of antibodies in preventing infection is clear, a growing number of researchers are enlisting antibodies to help cure HIV. (amfar.org)
- The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body develops in response to infection with Epstein-Barr Virus . (requestatest.com)
- IgM antibodies typically appear shortly after infection and disappears at around 4-6 weeks. (requestatest.com)
- IgM antibodies are typically detectable within 2-3 weeks of infection but may be detectable earlier in some people. (requestatest.com)
- These antibodies will typically no longer be detectable 4-6 weeks after infection. (requestatest.com)
- Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading. (frontiersin.org)
- A positive viral test confirms an active COVID-19 case, while antibody tests use blood samples to look for biological traces of past exposure or infection. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- The researchers, including Jackson Professor Derry Roopenian, showed that mice lacking FcRn were not able to fend off influenza infection even when given influenza-specific IgG antibodies before infection, whereas normal mice were. (healthcanal.com)
- Intracellular neutralization of viral infection in polarized epithelial cells by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated IgG transport. (healthcanal.com)
- Our results provide a new strategy of targeting viral genomic RNA for degradation by antibody for the prevention of influenza virus infection in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
- Initially, when CDC launched its website and its laboratory test reporting, viral testing (tests for current infection) were far more commonly used nationwide than serology testing (tests for past infection)," she stated in an e-mail. (reporter.am)
- Antibody tests, on the other hand, recognize whether a person has actually been contaminated by the infection in the past, not whether they're presently contaminated. (reporter.am)
- People with chronic hepatitis usually experience several infection stages, starting with a high viral load (called immune-tolerant or immune-trained) during childhood and early adulthood, followed by years and even decades of "active" hepatitis B where the immune system tries to clear the infection, indicated by elevated liver enzyme tests. (hepb.org)
- Despite their "inactive" infection, studies show two-thirds of these people will never develop surface antibodies, said Dr. Gish, medical consultant to the Hepatitis B Foundation and professor consultant of gastroenterology and hepatology at Stanford University. (hepb.org)
- That level was used because most adults who had a short-term or acute case of hepatitis B were able to generate lots of surface antibodies once they've cleared the infection, and people who were vaccinated also tended to generate high surface antibody levels. (hepb.org)
- Dr. Gish speculates that the surface antibodies that labs measure may all bind to any HBsAg that remain following infection, so there may not be any excess of this one type of surface antibodies to measure. (hepb.org)
- Bottom line, "immune memory" and antibodies that labs may not be able to identify remain ready to fight infection following vaccination and even after a chronic infection. (hepb.org)
- Glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is essential for attachment and penetration of cells during infection and is a major target for neutralizing antibodies during an adaptive immune response. (ebscohost.com)
- Currently there are no recombinant antibodies capable of binding gD epitopes for use in treating BoHV-1 infection. (ebscohost.com)
- Our study suggests that this bovine single-chain antibody could be developed for use as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent against BoHV-1 infection in cattle. (ebscohost.com)
- It may thus be prudent to restrict the use of multidose vials in addition to the implementation of vigorous adherence to standard hygienic procedures to prevent recurrence of similar outbreaks.To investigate the role of the HCV glycoproteins in the viral infection of mammalian cells, we developed a VSV/HCV pseudotyped virus. (dissertations.se)
- 90 %) failed to display a detectable neutralizing activity.In order to evaluate the progression of liver fibrosis associated with HCV infection, two liver biopsy specimens obtained prior to anti-viral therapy from 98 patients with HCV were scored and evaluated using statistical methods appropriate for ordered categorical data. (dissertations.se)
- In the final part of our manuscript, we illustrate that this system confers an advantage to the host in vivo by demonstrating that there is a rapid TRIM21-dependent inflammatory response in mice upon viral infection, whereas in the absence of TRIM21 production of crucial cytokines like interferon is delayed. (prolekare.cz)
- TRIM21 intercepts incoming antibody-opsonized virions during cellular infection, mediating efficient post-entry neutralization [ 2 ] and innate immune signaling [ 3 , 4 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Upon in vivo challenge with mouse adenovirus 1 (MAV-1), mice lacking TRIM21 succumb to fatal viral infection within 7 days [ 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- This rapid degradation of incoming viral particles provides a potent block to infection [ 1 , 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- A 2-week anti-SR-BI therapy that was initiated 1 day before viral inoculation completely protected all chimeric mice from infection with serum-derived HCV of different genotypes. (ugent.be)
- 2016). CT findings in viral lower respiratory tract infection caused by parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. (advimmuno.com)
- Following SFV infection, lesions of demyelination were present in the brains of both immunocompetent and μMT mice, indicating that antibodies are not required to generate lesions of demyelination. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Semliki Forest virus infection of laboratory mice: a model to study the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Antibody-based countermeasures targeting the ZIKV envelope protein have been hampered by concerns for cross-reactive responses that induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of heterologous flavivirus infection. (nature.com)
- Although some studies suggest that antibodies against ZIKV NS1 are protective, their activity during congenital infection is unknown. (nature.com)
- Anti-NS1 antibodies provide an alternative strategy for protection against congenital ZIKV infection without causing ADE. (nature.com)
- Viral (nucleic acid or antigen) tests check samples from the respiratory system (such as nasal or oral swabs or saliva) to determine whether an infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is present. (cdc.gov)
- Viral tests are recommended to diagnose acute infection of both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, to guide contact tracing, treatment options, and isolation requirements Some tests are point-of-care tests, meaning results may be available at the testing site in less than an hour. (cdc.gov)
- FDA has not authorized using antibody tests to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection, and CDC does not currently recommend using antibody testing as the sole basis for diagnosis of acute infection. (cdc.gov)
- To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. (bmj.com)
- There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. (mdpi.com)
- Efficient antibody-mediated depletion during persistent LCMV infection required increased levels of antibody bound to target cells or use of afucosylated antibodies with increased affinity for FcγRs. (sciencemag.org)
- Antibodies targeting the highly expressed CD90 antigen or overexpressed human CD20 efficiently depleted their target cells in naïve and persistently infected mice, whereas antibodies directed against less abundant antigens failed to deplete their target cells during persistent LCMV infection. (sciencemag.org)
- The unusually specific nature of antibody binding makes monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) a good choice to attach the exposed antigenic sites of the virus, thus preventing their entry into the host cell and so averting infection. (news-medical.net)
- A combination of several noncompetitive mAbs may be optimal to achieve effective treatment of an exposed patient, by using a variety of mechanisms to prevent viral infection. (news-medical.net)
- The RBD of the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 binds to the virus, but viral infection can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies acting on other epitopes as well. (news-medical.net)
- Viral bronchitis is an infection in the bronchial airways of the lungs caused by a virus rather than by bacteria, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
- The AuNPs homogeneous immunoassay developed was further used in the detection of antibodies in vitro to detect Dengue virus infection. (preprints.org)
- Researchers at Hokkaido University in Japan have developed a microfluidic test that can detect antibodies against viral infection. (plexusmd.com)
- Most importantly, infection and current vaccines do not appear to effectively induce these antibodies in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, typical HA-specific antibodies neutralize viral infectivity and fully protect against infection when they are present at sufficient concentration in the lining fluid of the respiratory tract, and typical NA-specific antibodies inhibit the release of newly formed virus from infected host cells and thus limit the spread and shedding of virus during infection. (cdc.gov)
- Anti-dsDNA antibodies can also be produced through infection via a mechanism known as molecular mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
- Conventional antibody generation usually requires active immunization with antigen immediately prior to the preparation procedure. (pnas.org)
- The variable domains of these HCAbs, referred to as VHHs, nanobodies (a term coined by Ablynx, a biopharmaceutical company) or single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) ( 7 ), represent the smallest naturally derived antigen-binding functional fragments (~15 kDa). (frontiersin.org)
- Zhou F (2009) Molecular mechanisms of viral immune evasion proteins to inhibit MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)
- We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. (frontiersin.org)
- Targeting viral proteins by antibody has a limited success due to the antigen drift and shift. (nih.gov)
- For decades, people living with chronic hepatitis B were told they would be "cured" only when they lost the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
- The authors performed a high throughput multiplexed antigen screen of memory B cell from immune individuals to identify potential antibodies that have a neutralizing effect on viral epitopes. (moleculardevices.com)
- Measurement of heterophil antibody and antibodies to EB viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM in suspected cases of infectious mononucleosis. (bmj.com)
- To evaluate the association between core antigen and HCV RNA levels with regards to the change in liver histology over time, as well as to study the effect of duration of storage on viral load results, sequential sera were analyzed from 45 patients. (dissertations.se)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- We examined the sera of 13 patients by Western blot immunoassays for reactivity to bovine innerear antigen (anti-HSP70) antibodies. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- Authorized assays for viral testing include those that detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or antigen. (cdc.gov)
- Unlike direct viral detection methods, such as nucleic acid amplification or antigen detection tests that can detect acutely infected persons, antibody tests help determine whether the individual being tested was previously infected-even if that person never showed symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. (bmj.com)
- We report the results of a national study examining the relations between self reported risk behaviour and the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the Irish prisoner population. (bmj.com)
- They found that the ability of antibodies to deplete target cells is dependent on antigen expression levels. (sciencemag.org)
- The best therapeutic or vaccine can be designed only if the antigenic site is fully delineated via neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target all the epitopes of the viral antigen. (news-medical.net)
- Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
- Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
- The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
- Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
- Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
- This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
- The nAb's of the indicated specificity were used for detection of the viral surface antigens. (jci.org)
- In 1989, researchers reported the isolation of stable mouse antibody VH domains that could bind antigens with relatively high affinity (20 nM), and the term "domain antibodies (dAbs)" was suggested ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. (frontiersin.org)
- This hypothesis suggests that B cells initially recruited to neutralize external pathogens after somatic mutations and maturation start to produce low-to-middle affinity cross-reactive antibodies able to recognize self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
- This chapter will detail several methods that have been successfully employed to produce, purify, and characterize soluble and secreted versions of several viral envelope glycoproteins which have been successfully used as antigens to capture and isolate human phage-displayed monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
- Detection of influenza and other acute respiratory viruses: haemagglutinin-specific antibodies and viral antigens for assay development and research. (advimmuno.com)
- Advanced ImmunoChemical offers 15 antigens of influenza and other acute respiratory diseases, as well as a selection of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of these respiratory illnesses: influenza type A and type B, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and Newcastle disease. (advimmuno.com)
- Treatment with a broadly neutralising antibody plus an immune-stimulating drug led to long-term viral remission after interrupting antiretroviral therapy in a monkey study, according to data presented at the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018) this week in Boston. (aidsmap.com)
- Using the immunofluorescence test, a serosurvey for antibodies to five viral agents associated with hemorrhagic febrile infections was conducted with 1,677 human sera from different parts of Nigeria. (ajtmh.org)
- It is intended for the treatment of viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) such as common cold, influenza or influenza-like illnesses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The results, published this week in Immunity , have implications for biotechnology researchers who continue to refine antibodies for therapeutic purposes, as well as bolster our understanding of how chronic viral infections impair the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
- OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of aCL isotypes and requirement of protein cofactor in viral infections in order to establish the importance, if any, of these antibodies in these infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
- CONCLUSIONS The presence of aCLs in viral infections is principally cofactor independent, suggesting that cofactor dependence of the aCLs should be assessed to distinguish subjects most likely to suffer from clinical symptoms observed in the presence of these antibodies. (bmj.com)
- While there was no significant difference in terms of patient or kidney transplant survival after a median of 3 years, patients with BK infections were more likely to develop antibodies against their kidney transplants. (medicalxpress.com)
- That's due to the fact that antibody tests aren't utilized to detect present infections or identify whether a person is possibly transmittable. (reporter.am)
- But antibody tests are typically meant for the public- not simply individuals with thought infections- so they can alter an essential sign of just how the pandemic is advancing: the percent of tests that return favorable. (reporter.am)
- Viral tests, or analysis tests, have the ability to recognize present infections. (reporter.am)
- Neutralizing antibodies are a critical component in the protection or recovery from viral infections. (springer.com)
- For efficient prevention of viral infections and cross protection, simultaneous targeting of multiple viral epitopes is a powerful strategy. (ugent.be)
- Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies continues to be employed for differential medical diagnosis of severe versus latest/previous infections. (acmbcb.org)
- Keywords: antibody, avidity, genital infections, HPV, prevalence Background Consistent attacks with high-risk individual papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16 trigger half of cervical cancers (CxCa) morbidity/mortality [1, (acmbcb.org)
- IV: Viral antibody titres and viral infections. (bmj.com)
- On the basis of information from the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform, prisons were categorised according to expected prevalence for blood borne viral infections into low, medium, and high risk prisons. (bmj.com)
- The treatment of such viral infections is not straightforward as with most viral infections and anti-viral research is faced with challenges such as highly divergent strain differences causing similar diseases. (mdpi.com)
- The actions of antibody-based drugs can therefore be severely impaired in individuals with chronic infections. (sciencemag.org)
- Whether afucosylation can be universally used to enhance antibody functions during chronic infections remains to be seen. (sciencemag.org)
- Persistent viral infections can interfere with FcγR-mediated antibody effector functions by excessive immune complex (IC) formation, resulting in resistance to therapeutic FcγR-dependent antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
- As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. (frontiersin.org)
- Neutralizing VHH recognizing different epitopes in the receptor binding sites on the spikes with affinities in the low nanomolar range were identified for all the three viruses by viral neutralization assays. (ugent.be)
- The results show that multimerization of VHH fragments targeting multiple epitopes on a viral trimeric spike protein is a powerful tool for anti-viral therapy to achieve 'best-in-class' and broader neutralization capacity. (ugent.be)
- For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
- The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the virus attachment site blocks the virus from adsorbing to the receptor site on the host cell membrane. (ccbcmd.edu)
- Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
- Human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries. (pnas.org)
- Our research aims to address this problem through the development of an affordable, easy to use POC test , capable of detecting pathogen nucleic acids and antibodies to the pathogens in less than one hour. (healio.com)
- Antibodies can also kill some pathogens directly and can neutralise toxins. (sciencephoto.com)
- Finlay BB, McFadden G (2006) Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens. (springer.com)
- Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy. (semanticscholar.org)
- The CD01 study included 39 HIV-positive adults with exclusively CCR5-tropic HIV (according to the Trofile DNA Co-receptor Tropism Assay), viral load below 40 copies/ml on a stable ART regimen and a CD4 T-cell count above 350 cells/mm 3 . (aidsmap.com)
- Among people tested with a single-copy HIV RNA assay, the lowest median viral load was 0.4 copies/ml. (aidsmap.com)
- however, both antibodies inhibited the fusion of CMV with HEL cells, as measured by an assay in which viral envelope is labeled with a fluorescent amphiphile (octadecyl rhodamine B chloride, or R18), resulting in increased fluorescence during fusion of virus with the cell membrane. (asm.org)
- Evaluation and optimization of a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae IgA antibodies. (ebscohost.com)
- We determined that saturating protein concentrations improved AuNPs surface coverage and uniformity of the assay and addition of sodium chloride improved sensitivity of the antibody detection method and assay stability. (preprints.org)
- Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
- By contrast, memory helper T cell numbers (CD4+CD45RO(hi)) were positively correlated with in vivo IgG antibody titres to three of the four vaccine strains. (tudelft.nl)
- In addition, an excellent correlation between aCL titres and β2-GP I antibody has been reported, 9 10 giving rise to the idea that autoimmune aCLs and β2-GP I antibodies are one and the same. (bmj.com)
- and also with titres from 91 healthy students known to have had EB IgG antibody for at least six months. (bmj.com)
- Higher titres of anti-dsDNA antibodies are more suggestive of SLE and lower titres can be found in people without the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Increases in titres of the antibodies can coincide with, or even precede an increase of disease activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Zanamivir inhibits neuraminidase, which is a glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus that destroys the infected cell's receptor for viral hemagglutinin. (medscape.com)
- Peramivir elicits antiviral activity by inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from the plasma membrane of infected cells. (medscape.com)
- A research team headed Dr. Xiaoping Liu at the University of Maryland, along with scientists at Synbiotics in College Park, Md., China Agricultural University in Beijing, California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, and The Jackson Laboratory, now show that by pairing with a special receptor, known as FcRn, antibodies can enter cells that have been invaded by influenza virus and shut down their replication machinery. (healthcanal.com)
- To target nucleocapsid protein (NP)-encoding viral genomic RNA (NP-vRNA) of H9N2 influenza virus, the library was screened against a 18-nucleotide single stranded nucleic acid substrate, dubbed asNP(18), the sequence of which is unique to the NP-vRNA. (nih.gov)
- Monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus PB2 and NP polypeptides interfere with the initiation step of viral mRNA synthesis in vitro. (asm.org)
- Current influenza virus vaccines attempt to induce strong antibody responses against the viral glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and, with lesser emphasis, neuraminidase (NA) because their protective efficacy is well documented. (cdc.gov)
- Further examination of a number of libraries shows that whenever antibody against a pathogen can be detected in the serum of the donor, then specific antibodies can be derived from the corresponding library. (pnas.org)
- Results: Mabs were not able to bind to the free and soluble peptides, nor did these peptides induce anti-RSV specific antibodies. (tudelft.nl)
- Such donor-specific antibodies are known to be detrimental to the survival of transplanted organs. (medicalxpress.com)
- This study is the first to link 2 common complications of kidney transplantation, namely BK viremia and donor-specific antibodies," said Dr. Sawinski. (medicalxpress.com)
- However, we cannot comment on the exact mechanism by which BK viremia predisposes patients to the development of donor-specific antibodies. (medicalxpress.com)
- The article, entitled "Persistent BK Viremia Does Not Increase Intermediate-Term Graft Loss But is Associated with De Novo Donor Specific Antibodies," will appear online at jasn.asnjournals.org/ on September 25, 2014. (medicalxpress.com)
- Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). (frontiersin.org)
- These haemagglutinin-specific antibodies are suitable for the detection of specific strains of influenza through ELISA and Western blotting. (advimmuno.com)
- A cytoplasmic protein called TRIM21 (tripartite motif-containing 21) was recently found to bind with high affinity to the conserved regions of antibody molecules. (virology.ws)
- When levels of cellular TRIM21 protein were depleted, neutralizing antibodies had little effect on adenovirus infectivity. (virology.ws)
- These observations show that adenovirus neutralization by antibodies occurs in the cell cytoplasm, and is dependent upon the binding of antibodies to TRIM21 protein. (virology.ws)
- When antibodies were introduced in uninfected cells, they still associated with TRIM21 protein. (virology.ws)
- Material and methods: An 8-mer solid- phase (TG resin) library was screened with a neutralising and protective RSV fusion protein specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab-19). (tudelft.nl)
- Conclusions: This report demonstrates for the first time that: (1) a protective epitope of the conserved RSV fusion protein can be mimicked by synthetic peptides: and (2) immunisations with these mimotopes induced specific anti-RSV neutralising antibodies and reduced vital load in vivo. (tudelft.nl)
- Many people have been wondering about the effects of mutations in the Spike protein of the coronavirus - both on infectivity and severity of disease, and what these might mean for both monoclonal antibodies and for vaccines. (sciencemag.org)
- After the primary antibody is bound to the target protein, a complex with HRP-linked secondary antibody is formed. (cellsignal.com)
- The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the presence of anti-heat shock protein 70 (anti-HSP70) antibodies during the acute phase of MD and to relate its presence to the antibody pattern. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
- It has been postulated that antibodies specific to the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) within the putative envelop protein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) can neutralize virus. (semanticscholar.org)
- In addition to having positive implications for REGN-COV2 trials and those of other antibody therapies, these data also support the promise of vaccines targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (bioquicknews.com)
- A new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv * in May 2020 describes a panel of neutralizing antibodies that bind to multiple attachment sites on the spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the current COVID-19 disease pandemic. (news-medical.net)
- With SARS-CoV-2, the spike (S) protein on the viral surface is a significant component of the cell entry mechanism. (news-medical.net)
- The final analysis was carried out on eight antibodies with unique sequences that were specifically bound to the RBD and the S1 subunit but not to the N-terminal domain of the S protein. (news-medical.net)
- In this study, AuNPs conjugated to Bovine Serum Albumin or Envelope protein from Dengue II were developed as a homogeneous immunoassay for antibody detection. (preprints.org)
- To address this, these researchers have developed a new type of microfluidic test, which is based on binding a fluorescently labeled protein to the antibody of interest in a serum sample. (plexusmd.com)
- The most promising approaches are based on antibodies specific for the relatively conserved ectodomain of matrix protein 2 and the intersubunit region of hemagglutinin. (cdc.gov)
- A 'functional' cure would suppress HIV viral load, keeping it below the level of detection without the use of ART. (aidsmap.com)
- In certain situations, serologic assays may be used to support clinical assessment of persons who present late in their illnesses when used in conjunction with viral detection tests. (cdc.gov)
Neutralize viral infectivity3
- Antibodies are thought to neutralize viral infectivity in several ways: by forming noninfectious aggregates that cannot enter cells, or by blocking virion attachment to cells or uncoating (figure). (virology.ws)
- How does the interaction of TRIM21 with antibodies bound to adenovirus neutralize viral infectivity? (virology.ws)
- It has always been difficult to understand how just a few antibody molecules can neutralize viral infectivity. (virology.ws)
- When adenovirions were mixed with neutralizing antibodies and added to cells, the antibody-coated particles entered the cytoplasm where they became associated with TRIM21. (virology.ws)
- Computer artwork of rabies (family Rhabdoviridae) virus particles (virions, pink) being identified by monoclonal antibodies (Y-shaped, blue). (sciencephoto.com)
- Antibodies-online offers ELISA kits and antibodies for research of over 150 viral targets and virus like particles to assist researchers investigating virus structure, replication, pathogenesis and evolution . (antibodies-online.com)
- In addition, a highly promiscuous mAb was able to specifically capture bona fide viral particles (circulating HCV RNA) as well as rHCV-like particles assembled in insect cells expressing structural viral polypeptides derived from an HCV 1a isolate. (jimmunol.org)
- Viral particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
- These agents inhibit DNA synthesis and viral replication by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase. (medscape.com)
- Ribavirin inhibits viral replication by inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. (medscape.com)
- It inhibits viral replication at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases. (medscape.com)
- Within 7 minutes, one portion of the sample runs off onto a strip to test for HIV antibodies while the other goes through an isothermal process of nucleic acid isolation and amplification, according to the release. (healio.com)
- Based on the template of a sequence-nonspecific nucleic acid-hydrolyzing, single domain antibody of the light chain variable domain, 3D8 VL, we generated a synthetic library on the yeast surface by randomizing putative nucleic acid interacting residues. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that this catastrophic uncoating might also expose viral genomes for sensing by nucleic acid pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). (prolekare.cz)
- Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization. (nih.gov)
- Neutralization of antibody-coated adenovirus was not affected by an inhibitor of autophagy, but was blocked by a proteasome inhibitor. (virology.ws)
- As would be expected, antibody neutralization of adenovirus is more efficient when cells are treated with interferon. (virology.ws)
- The participation of cytoplasmic TRIM21 in antibody-mediated virus neutralization might explain a variety of previously unexplained observations. (virology.ws)
- An important issue that is not addressed by these studies is the relationship between viral entry and TRIM21 mediated neutralization. (virology.ws)
- If TRIM21 were shown to be involved in neutralization of poliovirus, it would not be consistent with the observation that poliovirions do not exit endosomes - the viral RNA is simply translocated across the endosome membrane. (virology.ws)
- Testing for Rift Valley fever virus antibody was confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. (ajtmh.org)
- The NIH has awarded $335,000 to the New York University College of Dentistry for the development of a single point-of-care test able to detect HIV/AIDS antibodies and viral RNA from one specimen, according to a press release. (healio.com)
- If part of the nation's gain in testing has come from antibody test expansion instead of viral tests, its ability to detect an outbreak would be worse than it seems. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abgent.com)
- Fig. 5: Anti-Siglec-1 mAbs inhibit HIV-1 and Ebola viral uptake. (nature.com)
- Anti-idiotype antibodies that mimic gp86 of human cytomegalovirus inhibit viral fusion but not attachment. (asm.org)
- Importantly, this scFv was shown to inhibit BoHV-1 infectivity and to reduce the number of viral plaques by blocking viral attachment to MDBK cells. (ebscohost.com)
- Methods 13:255-264, 1986) were purified and tested for their ability to inhibit the transcriptase activity associated with viral cores purified from virions. (asm.org)
- The inhibitory effect was not due to a nonspecific effect of the antibody preparations, because these MAbs did not inhibit transcription when tested on influenza B virus nucleocapsids, which are not recognized by the antibodies. (asm.org)
- Clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies by reducing the viral load in the blood of HIV-infected individuals. (news-medical.net)
- In this model, other broadly neutralizing antibodies showed only short-term effects because of the rapid development of viral resistance. (news-medical.net)
- July 25, 2017 (PARIS) -- A new study has shown that infusion of a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) in virally suppressed, early treated volunteers was associated with a modestly delayed rebound of HIV after interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). (eurekalert.org)
- Thirteen volunteers with undetectable viral loads were randomized into an intervention group that received VRC01, a broadly neutralizing antibody that inhibits multiple strains of HIV by adhering to the CD4 binding site on the virus. (eurekalert.org)
- PGT121 is a broadly neutralising antibody that targets the V3 glycan site on the outer envelope of HIV and SIV, a related virus that infects monkeys. (aidsmap.com)
- Three hundred fifty-seven (21.3%) were positive for Lassa virus antibody, while antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus were detected in 42 (2.5%) of the sera. (ajtmh.org)
- Of the 357 Lassa virus antibody-positive sera, 297 (83.2%) were positive for Lassa only. (ajtmh.org)
- Serial sera were tested for heterophil antibody and EBVCA specific IgG and IgM from 61 university students with infectious mononucleosis. (bmj.com)
- Single sera from 406 patients in hospital or general practice sent to the diagnostic laboratory for heterophil antibody tests were also tested for EBV antibodies without prior knowledge of the heterophil antibody result. (bmj.com)
- Antibodies in human sera specific to hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can block viral attachment. (semanticscholar.org)
- We studied such antibodies in sera of patients who were infected in a single-source outbreak by a contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin preparation (HCV-AD78). (semanticscholar.org)
- Here, we used this new format to measure the cytopathic effect (CPE) of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies in human sera to this virus. (cdc.gov)
- Today, experts are redefining what constitutes a "functional cure" from chronic hepatitis B and taking the surface antibody out of the equation. (hepb.org)
- But isn't developing surface antibodies the gold standard for recovery from hepatitis B? (hepb.org)
- Hepatitis B surface antibodies are very specific in their mission, and we're learning that the body may be making other types of surface antibodies that we cannot measure. (hepb.org)
- However, Dr. Gish cautions, it's important to remember that once infected with hepatitis B (indicated by presence of the hepatitis B core antibody - anti-HBc), people will always retain low levels of the hepatitis B virus in their bodies - even if they develop surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
- To determine whether laboratory findings showing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis represent false-positive results and to identify possible explanations for true-positive results in these patients. (annals.org)
- Testing for HCV antibodies in patients with autoimmune hepatitis frequently elicits positive results when the ELISA-I or ELISA-II tests are used. (annals.org)
- There has been no data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) viral markers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in Korea which is an endemic area of HBV. (ecco-ibd.eu)
- We estimated that a sample of 1200 prisoners was required to measure the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in the high and medium risk prisons. (bmj.com)
Development of therapeutic antibodies1
Titers of neutralizi1
- It has affinity for viral thymidine kinase and, once phosphorylated, causes DNA chain termination when acted on by DNA polymerase. (medscape.com)
- Kinetic binding and affinity studies on recombinant antibodies were performed on the Octet QK system using Human IgG FC capture (AHC) biosensors. (moleculardevices.com)
- TRIM21 is a ubiquitously expressed high-affinity cytosolic antibody receptor and E3 ubiquitin ligase [ 1 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- The specific binding affinity for RBD was highest and lowest for the antibodies MD29 and MD67, respectively. (news-medical.net)
- Moreover, the relatively large size of antibodies, which results in correspondingly low tissue accessibility and penetration, affects their therapeutic efficacy ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we review sdAbs in relation to their possible therapeutic applications against highly aggressive human viral diseases. (frontiersin.org)
- Monkeys that received PGT121 had therapeutic antibody levels for 10 weeks, followed by a decline to undetectable levels in their blood, lymph nodes and gut. (aidsmap.com)
- One of the ways these "therapeutic antibodies" work is to grab onto malignant or inflammatory cells and escort them to their doom. (medicalxpress.com)
- These results indicate that development of viral resistance against the new antibody 1-18 is restricted when compared to other antibodies', says Dr. Henning Grüll, resident physician at the Institute of Virology and also first author of the work. (news-medical.net)
- Now we focus on antibody discovery services for virology researches. (sophia.org)
- Empowered by advanced phage and yeast display platform, hybridoma platform, B cell sorting platform and single B cell sequencing technology, we are dedicated to providing specific virology antibodies within agreed timelines. (sophia.org)
Experienced viral rebound3
- Seventeen of the 18 volunteers experienced viral rebound and reinitiated ART. (eurekalert.org)
- One monkey maintained an undetectable viral load for about three months after stopping ART, but eventually they all experienced viral rebound. (aidsmap.com)
- Those who experienced viral rebound restarted ART. (aidsmap.com)
Type of antibody1
- Binding was evaluated by the ability of each pair of antibodies to simultaneously bind RBD, using biolayer interferometry. (news-medical.net)
- The resulting antibodies were assayed for their ability to bind S1. (news-medical.net)
- The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
- In HIV, optimal viral suppression is measured as the reduction of viral load (HIV RNA) to undetectable levels and is the goal of antiretroviral therapy. (aidsmap.com)
- They test negative for HBsAg, their viral load drops to undetectable levels and their liver enzyme tests (for ALT or SGPT) show no signs of liver damage. (hepb.org)