Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Capromab is a mouse monoclonal antibody which recognizes prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) from prostate cancer cells ... and normal prostate tissue. It is linked to pendetide, a derivative of DTPA. Pendetide acts as a chelating agent for the ...
"Monoclonal antibodies to laminin reveal the heterogeneity of basement membranes in the developing and adult mouse tissues". The ... "Regulation of programmed cell death by basement membranes in embryonic development". The Journal of Cell Biology. 150 (5): 1215 ... including somatic cell nuclear transfer[5][6][7] or the reprogramming of somatic cells to yield induced pluripotent stem cells ... "Mass Transfer Limitations in Embryoid Bodies during Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation". Cells Tissues Organs. 196 (1): ...
... with stronger accentuation along the cell membranes. CD117 antibodies can also be used in the diagnosis of mast cell tumours ... Miettinen M, Lasota J (2006). "KIT (CD117): a review on expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, and mutations and their ... It is also a marker for mouse prostate stem cells. In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of ... as recognized by specific sets of antibodies, used to identify the cell type, stage of differentiation and activity of a cell. ...
... such as the cell membrane, cytoplasm, or nuclear membrane. Under certain conditions the method can be adapted to provide ... tissue, or organ. Antigens are organic molecules, usually proteins, capable of binding to an antibody. These antigens can be ... Transmission Electron Microscopy has been used as a way to view immunolabeled tissues and cells. For instance, bacteria can be ... Electron microscopy is a common method that uses the immunolabeling technique to view tagged tissues or cells. The electron ...
... the semi-permeable nature of the membrane prevents immune cells and antibodies from destroying the encapsulated cells regarding ... Paul A, Ge Y, Prakash S, Shum-Tim D (September 2009). "Microencapsulated stem cells for tissue repairing: implications in cell- ... autologous cells), from another donor (allogeneic cells) or from other species (xenogeneic cells). The use of autologous cells ... Both mammalian cell lines and bacterial cells remain viable and continue to replicate within the capsule membrane in order to ...
Activation of the EGFR has diverse effects on target cells depending on cell type and tissue context. It directs cell fate ... Matuzumab binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the outer membrane of normal and tumor cells. The matuzumab ... Matuzumab (formerly EMD 72000) is a humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. It binds to the epidermal growth ... decision relating to cell growth, survival and, differentiation. Development of matuzumab and other antibodies to the EGFR (for ...
permeabilization of cells with proteinase K to open cell membranes (around 25 minutes, not needed for tissue sections or some ... staining of antibody (e.g., with alkaline phosphatase) The protocol takes around 2-3 days and takes some time to set up. Some ... if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in ... Samples (cells, tissues, and CTCs) are fixed, then treated to allow RNA target accessibility (RNA un-masking). Target-specific ...
... by using a new monoclonal antibody produced through immunization with a cell-cell junction enriched in plasma membrane fraction ... It localizes at junctions of epithelial cells, both at tight junctions and adherens junctions depending on cell tissue: In ... It has been suggested that JACOP is involved in anchoring cell-cell contacts to actin-based cytoskeletons within cells. ... In intestinal tissue, paracingulin is associated with non junctional actin filaments in the basal region of the cells. In ...
In Goodpasture syndrome, IgG antibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane trigger an inflammatory reaction, ... The nephritic syndrome is characterised by blood in the urine (especially Red blood cell casts with dysmorphic red blood cells ... Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue specimens shows linear IgG deposits.. *Type 2 is characterised by immune-complex- ... Thin basement membrane diseaseEdit. Main article: Thin basement membrane disease. Thin basement membrane disease is an ...
... rapidly moves to membrane ruffles and the leading edge of the cell. Additionally, ligation of EMR2 by antibody promotes ... The interaction between EMR2 and chondroitin sulfate B in inflamed rheumatoid synovial tissue suggests a role of the receptors ... EMR2 has been shown to be necessary for in vitro cell migration. Upon cleavage the N-terminus has been shown to associate with ... EMR2 is expressed by monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells and all types of granulocytes. In the case of EMR2 the N-terminal ...
... or muscle cell). It also contains capillaries and nerves. It overlies the muscle fiber's cell membrane: the sarcolemma. ... Anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) are present in celiac disease. They do not cause any direct symptoms to muscles, but detection ... Perimysium Epimysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Saladin, K. S. (2012). Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and ... The elastic fiber of collagen is the major protein that composes connective tissues like endomysium. Endomysium has been shown ...
... experiments with protoplasts and anti-ABP1 antibodies suggest ABP1 may have a function at the plasma membrane, and cells can ... In other cases, auxin-promoted cell division and cell expansion may be closely sequenced within the same tissue (root ... Growth and division of plant cells together result in growth of tissue, and specific tissue growth contributes to the ... contributes to cell differentiation and specification of the cell fate. Depending on the specific tissue, auxin may promote ...
cell membrane The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. cell nucleus The "control room" for the cell. The ... mast cell A cell filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other ... or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma ... cell plate Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell ...
In Goodpasture syndrome, IgG antibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane trigger an inflammatory reaction, ... The nephritic syndrome is characterised by blood in the urine (especially Red blood cell casts with dysmorphic red blood cells ... Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue specimens shows linear IgG deposits. Type 2 is characterised by immune-complex-mediated ... Thin basement membrane disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by thin glomerular basement membranes ...
Many virulence factors are proteins made by bacteria that poison host cells and cause tissue damage. For example, there are ... Some virulent bacteria produce proteins that either disrupt host cell membranes or stimulate their own endocytosis or macro- ... For example, a common bacterial strategy is to produce proteins that bind host antibodies. The polysaccharide capsule of ... These virulence factors allow the bacteria to enter host cells and facilitate entry into the body across epithelial tissue ...
... the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and ... This creates a hole or pore in the membrane that can kill or damage the pathogen or cell.[citation needed] The lectin pathway ... But significant amounts are also produced by tissue macrophages, blood monocytes, and epithelial cells of the genitourinary ... which causes osmotic lysis of the target cell. Kupffer cells and other macrophage cell types help clear complement-coated ...
It is also possible that the anti-dsDNA antibodies are internalised by cells when they bind membrane antigens and then are ... In addition to SLE, these antibodies are highly associated with mixed connective tissue disease. Anti-nRNP antibodies recognise ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... antibodies are antibodies to components of the nuclear membrane and are found in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Each antibody ...
Rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder in which immune cells attack and inflame the membrane around ... Each also has "classic" blood test abnormalities and abnormal antibody patterns. However, each of these diseases can evolve ... Scleroderma - an activation of immune cells that produces scar tissue in the skin, internal organs, and small blood vessels. It ... A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology. Connective ...
... it would be much less accessible to antibodies than EpCAM in cancer tissue, where it is homogeneously distributed on the cancer ... In cancer cells, EpCAM is expressed in a dispersed pattern across the cell membrane. However, EpCAM expression in carcinomas is ... 1997). "Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) modulates cell-cell interactions mediated by classic cadherins". J Cell Biol ... This means that EpCAM on the surface of one cell binds to the EpCAM on a neighboring cell thereby holding the cells together. ...
... basement membrane, or BM) and the tissue surrounding the tumor by the cell Intravasation of the circulatory system: the cell ... This antibody-drug conjugate targets only cancerous cells. It works by only releasing its toxic payload when triggered by a ... a cell-surface adhesion molecule) is important for tumor attachment, cell-to-cell communication between the breast tumor cells ... cell motility, cell migration, invasion, cancer- cell proliferation and survival. ECM-tumor cell interactions play a critical ...
The presence of functional mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ subtypes were detected in both cell lines as well as in breast tumor tissues. ... A study about the mPRγ subtype has generated an antibody against this receptor in order to explore the role of mPRγ. Scientists ... Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the ... membrane progesterone receptors are good candidates for the membrane receptors mediating many of the nonclassical cell surface- ...
During this process cells absorb material from the outside of the cell by imbibing it with their cell membrane. The ... Tumor cells labeled with QD can be tracked with multiphoton microscopy as they invade lung tissue. In both studies, spectral ... It was shown that Pep-1 could facilitate rapid cellular uptake of various peptides, proteins, and even full-length antibodies ... However, the ability of cross caca membrane is not unidirectional; arginine-based CPPs are able to enter-exit the cell membrane ...
The glomerular basement membrane is a tissue in the kidney that filters the blood. An abnormal glomerular basement membrane may ... One theory proposes that it is caused by a thin glomerular basement membrane and red blood cell (RBC) renal tubular congestion ... This is a condition in which small amount of a type of normal antibody (called IgA) get stuck in the kidney as it passes ... Thin membrane disease. In this condition the membrane that filters the blood to make urine is too thin, and blood can pass ...
The NPs can be conjugated with antibodies for tissue-specific delivery, providing a systematic way to customize for either ... Once in the cell, the low pH of lysosome's intracellular environments breaks down the phospholipid bilayer. Fe catalyzed ... decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into ROSs results in membrane lipid oxidation, damage to DNA and proteins, and tumor death. ... Antibodies for the bacteria conjugated to the FePt NP bind to the bacteria and magnetic dipoles are used to detect the FePt NP- ...
Contraction of mesangial cells is dependent on cell membrane permeability to calcium ions and relaxation is mediated by ... Damage to mesangial cells using Thy 1-1 antibody specific to mesangial cells causes the vasoconstriction of arterioles mediated ... VEGF and connective tissue growth factor. The mesangium is exposed to macromolecules from the capillary lumen as they are ... The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus. Mesangial cells can be ...
Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ... Other organelles in a plasma cell include ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. ... Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ...
... , aPL Antibody, Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Antiphospholipid Antibody, Anticardiolipin Antibody ... IgM, IgG, or IgA binding to cell-membrane constituents. *Measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... Connective Tissue Disease with clotting disorder. *Recurrent thrombosis without obvious cause. *See Hypercoagulability ... Antiphospholipid Antibody Test, aPL Antibody, Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Antiphospholipid Antibody, Anticardiolipin Antibody ...
Suitable for all liquid sample types but intended for use with cell and tissue lysates. Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-based, ... Membrane Antibody Array. Screen and compare protein expression levels with high specificity and sensitivity (pg/ml levels). No ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ...
Nanoparticles coated with blood cell membranes can move through the body to clean up toxins or heal tissues - without ... Nanosponges sop up toxins and help repair tissues. Tiny particles coated with cell membranes can do more than deliver drugs ... How antibody tests work and could help fight the coronavirus By Dawn Fallik. March 27, 2020. ...
Again AQP4/1 antibody stained most or all the cell including the nucleus, whereas AQP4/2 had a plasma membrane and sometimes ... In gill, both antibodies stained large cells in the primary filament and secondary lamellae. Again AQ... ... In gill, both antibodies stained large cells in the primary filament and secondary lamellae. ... AQP4/2 showed a basal or basolateral membrane distribution whereas AQP4/1 was often distributed throughout the cell including ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Prostaglandin E Receptor EP2/PTGER2 antibody [EPR8030(B)] - BSA and Azide free. Validated in WB, ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell ... Cell without incubation with primary antibody and secondary antibody (Blue). This data was developed using the same antibody ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Somatostatin Receptor 1/SSTR1 antibody [UMB7]. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Cell membrane.. * Target information above from: UniProt accession P30872. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein ... Expression and selective activation of somatostatin receptor subtypes induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells.. Oncol Lett 17 ...
Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone GM022 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH11259-7), Abgent ... Alkaline Phosphatase (Placental) / PLAP (Germ Cell Tumor Marker) ... Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor, GPI-anchor.. Tissue Location ... Tissue Selections. Abgent offers a variety of tissue extracts and whole cell lysates for use in combination with our antibodies ... Primary Antibodies. Secondary Antibodies. Cell/Tissues/Lysates. FLcDNA Clones. All Products. Citations ...
Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF (ALS18581), Abgent ... Localized to the cell membrane and intracellular organelles. Tissue Location Widely expressed (PubMed:16044242). Highly ... Tissue Selections. Abgent offers a variety of tissue extracts and whole cell lysates for use in combination with our antibodies ... Primary Antibodies. Secondary Antibodies. Cell/Tissues/Lysates. FLcDNA Clones. All Products. Citations ...
Both concentrate within vulval cells at the basement membrane gap boundary and halt expansion of the shifting basement membrane ... Tissue remodelling events create gaps in the basement membrane and have been previously accounted for by the degradation or ... Live-cell imaging shows that basement membrane sliding enlarges the opening of the uterus during Caenorhabditis elegans ... Laser ablation and mutant analysis reveal that the invaginating vulval cells promote basement membrane movement. Further, an ...
In order to develop methods to generate antibodies reactive to the extracellular domains of multipass plasma membrane proteins ... suggest that DC immunization is an effective method to produce antibodies reactive to extracellular regions of plasma membrane ... The immunized mice produced significant amounts of antibodies against these proteins. Our results ... Antibody mediated therapeutic strategies against human malignant tumors have been widely authorized and clinically applied to ...
Acute inflammable cells seen; antibody deposition on basement membrane during immunofluorescence. Inflammatory cells with ... This defect may cause the formation of residual tissue planes within the auricular cartilage. When subjected to repeated minor ... The auricular cartilage in particular may be more susceptible to traumatic insult because of its lack of connective tissue ... This defect causes the formation of residual tissue planes within the auricular cartilage. When subjected to repeated minor ...
Prostate-specific membrane antibody (PSMA) is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed in both benign and malignant prostate ... Prostate cancer is well suited to therapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting antigens specific for prostate tissue and tumors ... Phase I trial of 177lutetium-labeled J591, a monoclonal antibody to prostate-specific membrane antigen, in patients with ... Phase I trial of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 for androgen-independent ...
CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; ESTERS; HEMAGGLUTININS; LEUKOCYTES; LUMINESCENCE; MATERIALS; MEMBRANE PROTEINS; MEMBRANES; MITOGENS; ... CELL MEMBRANES; CONCANAVALIN; FLUORESCENCE; LECTINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININ; AGGLUTININS; ANIMAL CELLS; ... To study the effect of other T cell activators on these T cell membrane antigens, the authors incubated mononuclear cells for 0 ... ANTIBODIES; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BLOOD; BLOOD CELLS; BODY FLUIDS; CARBOHYDRATES; CARCINOGENS; CELL CONSTITUENTS; ...
1986; 409 (2):263-73), nerve cells, lateral membranes of certain surface epithelia, e.g. Fallopian tube, uterus and vesicular ... A monoclonal antibody detecting dipeptidylpeptidase IV in human tissue. Virchows Arch. A. Pathol. Anat. Histopathol. ... T-cell activation, attachment of cancer cells to the endothelium and the entry of HIV into lymphoid cells. ... 0033] DPIV is present in a wide variety of mammalian organs and tissues e.g. the intestinal brush-border (Gutschmidt S. et al ...
1986; 409 (2):263-73), nerve cells, lateral membranes of certain surface epithelia, e.g. Fallopian tube, uterus and vesicular ... A monoclonal antibody detecting dipeptidylpeptidase IV in human tissue. Virchows Arch. A. Pathol. Anat. Histopathol. ... including epithelial cells and leukocyte subsets. Furthermore, it is a membrane-associated ectopeptidase which exhibits its ... T-cell activation and the entry of HIV into lymphoid cells. The present invention provides a new use of DPIV-inhibitors for the ...
Definition Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the bodys immune system reacts against some of its own tissue and ... produces antibodies to attack itself. Description To better understand autoimmu ... The skin and mucous membranes house macrophages (white cells of the tissues) and antibodies. The macrophages job is to digest ... when antibodies are directed against the bodys own cells, or when B and T cells attack and destroy their own bodys cells and ...
... adhere to the hosts cell membranes? Second, can the bacteria harm its host? For example, does it secrete toxins or have ... Does it inactivate the hosts protective antibodies or resist antibiotics? ... flagella that could disrupt the hosts mucosal tissue? And third, can the bacterium protect itself? ...
The monoclonal McB2 antibody was used to target the α2-subunit protein. The brain tissue homogenate was used as a control. ... A representative immunoblot of the aortic smooth muscle cell membrane extracts. A 15-μg sample of cell extract protein was ... A representative immunoblot of the aortic smooth muscle cell membrane extracts. A 5-μg sample of cell extract protein was ... Total Cell Protein Amount and Relative Cell Homogenate Protein Concentrations of Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells: Effect of ...
Predicted cell location: Cytoplasm,Cell membrane . Positive control: Human brain tissue . Recommended dilution: 1/50-200 The ... Predicted cell location: Cytoplasm,Cell membrane . Positive control: Human brain and liver cancer tissue . Recommended dilution ... Predicted cell location: Cytoplasm,Cell membrane . Positive control: Human brain and liver cancer tissue . Recommended dilution ... Host: Rabbit; Target Name: GRM3; Sample Tissue: NCI-H226 Whole Cell lysates; Antibody Dilution: 1.0 ug/ml. *TA342669 ...
Predicted cell location: Cytoplasm, Cell membrane . Positive control: Human lung cancer tissue. Recommended dilution: 1/10-50 ... Western Blot analysis of IL1RAP expression in transfected 293T cell line (H00003556-T02) by IL1RAP MaxPab polyclonal antibody. ... Background of IL1RAP antibody. Kit Component:. - KN308258G1, Il1rap gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - KN308258G2, Il1rap ... The image on the left is immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human lung cancer tissue using IL1RAP antibody at dilution 1 ...
Immunochemistry of the Streptococcus mutans BHT cell membrane: detection of determinants cross-reactive with human heart tissue ... human heart tissue and myosin using monoclonal antibodies to S. mutans.. Doyle G, Everhart D, Mallett C, Ayakawa G, Bleiweis AS ... Demonstration of shared antigenic determinants between Streptococcus mutans BHT cell membrane, ... Sequence analysis of the cloned streptococcal cell surface antigen I/II.. Kelly C, Evans P, Bergmeier L, Lee SF, Progulske-Fox ...
... bringing the material into the cell. When the antigen enters the tissues, the body can create antibodies against the virus. ... Endocytosis is a process in which the injected material is surrounded by cell membrane, ... During pre-clinical trials, the institute found that oral vaccination led to higher levels of anti-IBV antibodies.. If the ... This soluble protein delivers the antigen to the viral into tissues via endocytosis. ...
The antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) produced in the blood of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) sufferers allows doctors to ... Serum antibodies that attach (bind) to mitochondrial membranes within the tissue cells can then be observed with a microscope. ... Antimitochondrial Antibodies (AMA). *What are antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)?. *Do AMA cause the destruction of the bile ... As expected, they found that these antibodies bound to the mitochondria within the cells. But, sure enough, recent information ...
Order this anti-RHOU antibody. , Product number ABIN350806 ... Rabbit Polyclonal RHOU antibody Internal Region for IHC, WB. ... Cell membrane, Lipid-anchor, Cytoplasmic side. Golgi apparatus membrane, Lipid-anchor. Cell junction › focal adhesion. Cell ... Note: Localizes to podosomes in SRC-transformed cells.. Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. ... anti-RHOU antibody (Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member U) (Internal Region) RHOU antibody (Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member U) ( ...
Investigating what tissue has the antibody already been used to detect the antigen, what other tissues are expected to express ... With IF, both nuclear and cell membrane counterstains are often used. However, counterstains need to be of a different color or ... With label conjugated secondary antibodies, each label conjugated antibody will bind to the primary antibody. It is a two-step ... The object of fixation is to preserve cells and tissue constituents in as close a life-like state as possible, and to allow ...
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • It is known that certain type I membrane molecules (complement receptors type 1 and 2) belonging to the regulators of complement activation (RCA) family are involved in the regulation of B lymphocyte activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In humans, membrane complement receptors CR1 and CR2, mainly recognizing C3b or C3d deposited on other surfaces, are expressed on B lymphocytes and certain T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using their Fc receptors, microglia would then internalize these tau-antibody complexes and digest them. (alzforum.org)
  • The binding of nucleic acids to the endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and TLR9 is considered as a triggering mechanism for the production of antinuclear antibodies 2 , 3 . (jrheum.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of Brain (Pituitary) using anti GRM3 antibody SP4400P after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human brain tissue using GluR2/3 antibody (#TA313973).The picture on the right is treated with the synthesized peptide. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemical detection of keratin, actin and type IV collagen in serial sections of methacarn-fixed breast cancer tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatoma, using GPAA1(GTX115131) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded mouse muscle, using GPAA1(GTX115131) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Cancer and para-cancer tissues of 24 cases with PDAC were assessed by standardized immunohistochemical (IHC) detection with two kinds of anti-MSLN antibodies (EPR4509 and EPR19025-42) to detect their positive expression rates and study the correlation between the expression of MSLN and the clinicopathological data. (medsci.org)
  • AQP4/1 and AQP4/2 antibodies localized to the same tubules segments in serial sections although the intensity and sub-cellular distribution were different. (frontiersin.org)
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
  • The central role of DCs in immunity may explain why DC-mediated vaccines have been used for induction of cellular immunity against malignant tumor cells and infectious pathogens [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Potassium (K) channels regulate cell membrane potential and modulate a number of important cellular functions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We find no evidence at the cellular or molecular level for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of labeled cells into myofibroblasts. (pnas.org)
  • Providing the raw materials for the creation of these new cells from the nutrients you get in your food is one way that nutrition plays an important role in sustaining your cellular, and therefore your overall health. (whfoods.com)
  • To more clearly illustrate how nutrition benefits health at a cellular level, let's take a look at the function of three of your cell's components ' (1) the cellular membrane, (2) the nucleus, and (3) the mitochondria ' and see how nutrition influences their structure, functioning, and integrity. (whfoods.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the major cellular component of the blood vessel wall where they normally exist in a contractile, differentiated state, and they function to regulate vascular tone. (biologists.org)
  • In order to examine the cellular, structural and molecular layout of tissues and organs, researchers use a method known as histological staining. (jove.com)
  • Ca 2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that is central to regulating cellular dynamics of many cell types, including β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphoinositides are membrane-bound regulatory lipids with remarkable importance in orchestrating a range of cellular functions including transmembrane signaling, lipid transport and vesicular trafficking [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polychondritis is an uncommon autoimmune disorder associated with cartilaginous tissues on the nose and ear. (medscape.com)
  • The approach may one day provide a flexible strategy to treat autoimmune diseases caused by misdirected antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Autoimmune diseases arise when this complex system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. (nih.gov)
  • With further development, this approach could potentially be used for any autoimmune disease caused by misdirected antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue damage present in autoimmune diseases (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus), and chronic infectious diseases (e.g., leprosy) can be attributed, in part, to immune complex reactions. (dentalcare.com)
  • The evolution of the immune system has provided a multilevel system that interconnects the innate and adaptive immune systems to serve at least three central purposes: the defense from microbial pathogens, the capacity for discrimination of self- from non-self necessary for the prevention of autoimmune disease, and essential effector roles in wound repair and tissue remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and robustly induce adaptive immunity mediated by T cells and B cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results suggested that GMI administration decreased the risk of neurological disorders in mother rats and their offspring by reducing the white blood cell count, lessening inflammatory responses and PM 2.5 -induced memory impairment, and preventing dendritic branches in the hippocampi from declining and microRNAs from PM 2.5 -induced modulation. (nature.com)
  • Positive control: Human lung cancer tissue. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Human Melanoma cell line C 32 was cultured overnight on round cover slides placed in a 24 well tissue culture plate. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This antibody does not appear to work in human with Western blot. (novusbio.com)
  • We have feedback that this antibody does not work in human samples with Western blot. (novusbio.com)
  • The team showed in laboratory experiments that human T cells engineered to express portions of Dsg3 killed anti-Dsg3 B cells derived from people with pemphigus vulgaris. (nih.gov)
  • Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. (mybiosource.com)
  • We have analyzed normal and fibrotic mouse and human lungs by confocal microscopy to define stromal cell populations with respect to several commonly used markers. (pnas.org)
  • This ITGB3 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 734-760 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human ITGB3. (avivasysbio.com)
  • This IL6ST Antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to amino acid residues surrounding Y905 of human IL6ST. (mybiosource.com)
  • We followed a functional genomics strategy based on massive parallel signal sequencing (MPSS) and microarray data obtained in human islets, purified primary rat beta cells, non-beta cells and INS-1E cells to identify promising beta cell markers. (springer.com)
  • Candidate biomarkers were validated and screened using established human and macaque ( Macacus cynomolgus ) tissue microarrays. (springer.com)
  • We propose human FXYD2γa as a novel beta cell-specific biomarker. (springer.com)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • Tissue factor (TF) expression in human cancers has been associated with a procoagulant state and facilitation of metastasis. (ovid.com)
  • However, Northern analysis of human tissues and cancer cells showed only a single transcript of ~ 7.5 kb with the exception of the proerythroleukemia line K562, which contained significantly higher level of the 7.5 kb transcript along with smaller ones of 2.4, 3.5 and 4.2 kb size. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Nectin‑2/CD112 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2229) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Daudi human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line and Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line are shown as negative controls. (rndsystems.com)
  • Nectin‑2/CD112 in MCF‑7 Human Cell Line. (rndsystems.com)
  • Nectin‑2/CD112 was detected in immersion fixed MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line using Goat Anti-Human Nectin‑2/CD112 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2229) at 1.7 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (rndsystems.com)
  • Nectin‑2/CD112 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Goat Anti-Human Nectin‑2/CD112 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2229) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • A specific band was detected for Nectin‑2/CD112 at approximately 71-86 kDa (as indicated) using 20 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Nectin‑2/CD112 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2229) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF109 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • It does however contain a complete open reading frame that subsequent research has demonstrated to be transcribed in a limited number of human tissues. (genecards.org)
  • The human monoclonal IgM antibody SAM-6 was isolated from a stomach cancer patient by using the conventional human hybridoma technology (trioma technique). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Jurkat (Human Acute T cell Leukemia) cell was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70oC. (genetex.com)
  • In the present study, we established transgenic zebrafish models with mutated Cx30.3 specifically expressed in the supporting cells of zebrafish inner ears driven by the agr2 promoter, to demonstrate and understand the mechanism by which the human CX26 R.184 mutation causes NSHL. (mdpi.com)
  • Fibrosis, the replacement of normal tissue with ECM, is a common pathological response of organs to injury, inflammation, or stress. (pnas.org)
  • Cells are the fundamental units of life ' the bricks from which all your tissues and organs are made ' and are the smallest components considered to be living organisms in your body. (whfoods.com)
  • If your cells cannot operate efficiently, the functioning of your tissues and organs, which are built of your cells, will become compromised, and you can experience a diminishment of physical functioning and the onset of a host of health conditions and diseases. (whfoods.com)
  • While cells of different tissues or organs may vary from one another in shape, size or attributes, they each contain similar components that perform specific tasks. (whfoods.com)
  • This particular antibody labels high and low molecular weight keratins in many epithelia, including keratinized and corneal epidermis, stratified squamous epithelia of internal organs, stratified epithelia, hyperproliferative keratinocytes, and simple epithelia. (osu.edu)
  • Dilution: 1:50 using IHC-Tek TM Antibody Diluent (Cat# IW-1000 or IW-1001) to reduce background and unspecific staining and serum blocking step is NOT needed. (ihcworld.com)
  • Using landmark photobleaching and optical highlighting of laminin and type IV collagen, we find that a new mechanism, basement membrane sliding, underlies basement membrane gap enlargement during uterine-vulval attachment in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • Basement membrane sliding followed by targeted adhesion represents a new mechanism for creating precise basement membrane breaches that can be used by cells to break down compartment boundaries. (nature.com)
  • mAb L8 specifically detected two polypeptides of 85 and 73 kD in immunoprecipitation of both hepatocyte- and RLEC-iodinated plasma membranes. (rupress.org)
  • The gap junctions were first characterized by electron microscopy as regionally specialized structures on plasma membranes of contacting adherent cells. (genecards.org)
  • This assay employs a novel dye (F2N12S) that incorporates selectively into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, contrary to SNX9, which primarily acts in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the plasma membrane, endogenous SNX18 localized to AP-1- and PACS1-positive endosomal structures, which were devoid of clathrin and resistant to Brefeldin A. Moreover, a γ-adaptin recognition motif was defined in a low-complexity region of SNX18, and a complex of endogenous SNX18 and AP-1 could be immunoprecipitated after Brefeldin A treatment. (biologists.org)
  • Internalized material can either recycle back to the plasma membrane by one of several routes, be sorted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or end up in the lysosomal pathway leading to degradation of the cargo. (biologists.org)
  • Since most plasma cell tumors in the dog express lambda rather than kappa light chains, it is a good marker for plasma cell tumors in the dog. (osu.edu)
  • There are various cells or corpuscles floating in the plasma. (chegg.com)
  • 55% of blood volume is plasma and 45% of blood volume comprises of other cells and solid constituents. (chegg.com)
  • Antibodies actually are synthesized and secreted by plasma cells that are derived from the B cells of the immune system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • B cells are activated upon binding to their specific antigen and multiply and transform into plasma cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cell fractionation revealed that Gβ is tightly associated with plasma membrane, but can also be detected in purified nuclei. (deepdyve.com)
  • PI4KIIIα has been linked to regulation of ER exit sites and to the synthesis of plasma membrane phosphoinositides and recent studies have also revealed its importance in replication of the Hepatitis C virus in liver. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)