Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Tetanus ToxoidImmunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).HemocyaninChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... It is a single chain variable fragment of a monoclonal antibody targeted against component 5 of the complement system. ... Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab. *Certolizumab pegol ...
... , sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis. ... Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab. *Certolizumab pegol ... "Repeated subcutaneous injections of IL12/23 p40 neutralising antibody, ustekinumab, in patients with relapsing-remitting ...
Antibodies. Monoclonal. Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab ...
Polyclonal antibodies. Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), ... Antibodies. Antibodies are sometimes used as a quick and potent immunosuppressive therapy to prevent the acute rejection ... Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are directed towards exactly defined antigens. Therefore, they cause fewer ... T-cell receptor directed antibodies. Muromonab-CD3 is a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody of the IgG2a type that ...
It fuses the TNF receptor to the constant end of the IgG1 antibody. First, the developers isolated the DNA sequence that codes ... Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab. *Certolizumab pegol ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Ruplizumab (trade name Antova) is a humanized monoclonal antibody intended for the treatment of rheumatic diseases like ... Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab. *Certolizumab pegol ...
by whole serum: serotherapy, including antiserum therapy. *by immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin therapy *by monoclonal antibodies ...
It has a serum half-life of 9.5 days and can be detected in serum 8 weeks after infusion treatment. ... Other monoclonal antibodies targeting TNF-α are golimumab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol. Etanercept also binds and ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ... Infliximab and adalimumab (another TNF antagonist) are in the subclass of "anti-TNF antibodies" (they are in the form of ...
Antibodies. Monoclonal. Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab ...
... an elevated serum IgE levels (> 1000 kU/L); increased titers of antifilarial antibodies; peripheral blood negative for ...
I. Serum immunoglobulins, antibodies and complement". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 7 (4): 349-52. doi: ... Anti-rheumatoid factor antibodies are also increased. In addition, cross-reactive anti-beef-collagen antibodies (IgG) may ... 2006). "Anti-ganglioside antibodies in coeliac disease with neurological disorders". Dig Liver Dis. 38 (3): 183-7. doi:10.1016/ ... Patients with ataxia and CD have antibodies that react with Purkinje fibers but is restricted to the anti-gliadin IgA/IgG. ...
Weinstein, A; Bordwell, B; Stone, B; Tibbetts, C; Rothfield, NF (February 1983). "Antibodies to native DNA and serum complement ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
If the serum is known to contain antibodies against a specific antigen (for example if the serum comes from an organism ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. ... The serum is initially allowed to bind to the GST affinity matrix. This will remove antibodies against the GST part of the ... Examples of biological sources are serum proteins, lectins and antibodies. Inorganic sources as moronic acts, metal chelates ...
Elevated plasma or serum vitamin B12. *Autoantibodies: Non-specific. Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, ... The Goal serum trough is 5-15 ng/ml and can consider PCP prophylaxis but usually not needed. ... ALPS patient T cells: Do not die with anti-Fas monoclonal antibody exposure. Normal T cells from unaffected patient do. ... plasma or serum vitamin B12 ,1500 ng/L, Plasma IL-18 ,500pg/ml) and immunohistochemical findings on biopsy consistent with ALPS ...
"Identification of candidate serum antibody biomarkers in autism". Retrieved 20 March 2014.. ... Hewitson and colleagues are screening serum from children with and without autism for specific antibodies, which they hope ...
I. Serum immunoglobulins, antibodies and complement". Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine. 7 (4): 349-52. doi: ... Anti-rheumatoid factor antibodies are also increased. In addition, cross-reactive anti-beef-collagen antibodies (IgG) may ... Anti-gliadin IgA antibodies are found also more commonly in patients with IgA Nephropathy. The paper finds a link between GSE ... Anti-gliadin antibodies correlate with higher risk for chronic-fatique when no clinical finding of CD is present. While fatigue ...
Diagnostics involves the detection of antigens and antibodies in blood samples; the profiling of sera to discover new disease ... The lysate is arrayed onto the microarray and probed with antibodies against the target protein of interest. These antibodies ... Chang TW (December 1983). "Binding of cells to matrixes of distinct antibodies coated on solid surface". J. Immunol. Methods. ... Antibody characterization is characterizing cross-reactivity, specificity and mapping epitopes. Treatment development involves ...
If the serum contains antibodies to the allergen, those antibodies will bind to the allergen. Radiolabeled anti-human IgE ... The unbound anti-human IgE antibodies are washed away. The amount of radioactivity is proportional to the serum IgE for the ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine ... 2007). "Accuracy of IgE antibody laboratory results". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 99 (1): 34-41. doi:10.1016/s1081-1206(10) ...
Sibinovic KH, Brown FA, Pettigrew KD, Vought RL (January 1971). "Lecithin-agar assay for lecithinase antibodies in serum". ...
This forms antibodies in the rabbit's body. The rabbit's blood is then drawn and clotted. The serum separated from the red ... When such a serum is treated with that of blood of monkeys or apes, a clear white precipitate is formed. When the serum is ... Then, the serum is separated from the erythrocytes. A rabbit is then injected with a small amount of serum at regular intervals ... In this method, anti-serum of the involved animals has to be prepared. For human study, human blood is collected and allowed to ...
Smith AC, Molyneux K, Feehally J, Barratt J (2006). "O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 antibodies against mucosal and systemic ... Primary IgA nephropathy is characterized by deposition of the IgA antibody in the glomerulus. There are other diseases ... evidence suggests that both galactose-deficient o-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1 and synthesis and binding of antibodies ...
... a combination of tests with purified adult worm antigens is used for antibody detection. All serum specimens are tested by FAST ... Antibody detection. Antibody detection can be useful to indicate schistosome infection in people who have traveled to ... The presence of antibody is indicative only of schistosome infection at some time and cannot be correlated with clinical status ... A positive reaction (greater than 9 units/µl serum) indicates infection with Schistosoma species. Sensitivity for S. mansoni ...
Lumbar puncture and serum test for anti-ganglioside antibodies. These antibodies are present in the branch of CIDP diseases ... It is a polyclonal antibody. Although chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents have shown to be effective in treating CIDP ... A treatable multifocal motor neuropathy with antibodies to GM1 ganglioside. Ann Neurol 24: 73-78 Nobile-Orazio E. Multifocal ... In some case EMG/NCV can be normal). Serum test to exclude other autoimmune diseases. ...
Notermans, S.; Dufrenne, J.; Wijnands, L. M.; Engel, H. W. B. (1988-01-01). "Human serum antibodies to extracellular ... Various studies have also noted a presence of circulating antibodies to the extracellular polysaccharide of P. digitatum in ... Latex agglutination detects Aspergillus and Penicillium species in foods by attaching antibodies specific for the extracellular ... both human and rabbit sera. This presence is suggested to be due to the intake of contaminated fruits and/or breathing air ...
Hricova M, Mistrikova J (2007). "Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 serum antibodies in general human population". Acta virologica. 51 ...
The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. Unlike their ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ... In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies ...
Effect of proctocolectomy on serum antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. ... Effect of proctocolectomy on serum antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. ... Only one patient was proteinase-3 antibody positive and all 15 patients were myeloperoxidase antibody negative. The clinical ... METHODS--Serum samples were taken from 15 patients with ulcerative colitis immediately before and at a mean of 24 months after ...
Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 ... Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 ... It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). An antibody is a substance made ... About 70% of adults have been infected by HSV-1 and have antibodies against the virus. About 20 to 50% of adults will have ...
Serum antibodies in celiac disease.. Dieterich W1, Storch WB, Schuppan D. ... These serological tests, which are based on the detection of antibodies against gliadin and autoantibodies against components ...
... Fred sjo at students.wisc.edu Mon Jan 20 17:27:58 EST 1997 *Previous message: Antibody in Serum. ... If I raise antibody with some antigen and get polyclonal serum from the rabbit, how much percent of the total pool of antibody ... is the specific antibody that I want to make? Thank you in advance *Previous message: Antibody in Serum. ... Can anybody answer my questions? I want to know that how much percent of the proteins in the serum is antibody.. And, ...
Serum by CF, ID, ELISA,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Coccidioides Antibody by ID. 7. Coccidioides Antibody, IgM by ELISA. 8. Anti-GBM Antibodies ELISA. 9. Sm/RNP Anti-Extractable ... Coccidioides Antibodies Panel, CSF by CF, ID, ELISA. 3. Coccidioides Antibody by CF. 4. Coccidioides Antibody, IgG by ELISA. 5 ... SS-B (La) Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies Kit. 11. Sm Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies Kit. ...
Cytomegalovirus IgG & IgM Antibodies - Serum (CMV_G) Data File: CMV_G.xpt First Published: October 2013. Last Revised: NA ... CMV antigen detects specific antibody in serum. CMV is clinically important in several patient populations. CMV Immunoglobulin ...
The aim of this study was to compare the serum IgG and IgE response to Malassezia in atopic dogs with and without clinical ... Atopic dogs had significantly higher serum IgG and IgE levels than either healthy dogs or nonatopic dogs with clinical evidence ... Reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays for Malassezia-specific IgG and IgE in canine serum were established. ...
Serum anti-CA I and anti-CA II antibodies were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-CA II antibody was ... Elevated serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis ... Positive rate of anti-CA II antibody was significantly higher in UC patients as compared to the control. In CD patients and non ... I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We studied 58 IBD patients [36 UC ...
Norovirus antibody - Serum (SSNORO_A) Data File: SSNORO_A.xpt First Published: July 2017. Last Revised: NA ... Antibody con. in dup. 1 for GII.3 ag English Text: Antibody con. in dup. 1 for GII.3 ag Target: Both males and females 16 YEARS ... SSGI1C1 - Antibody con. in dup. 1 for GI.1 ag. Variable Name: SSGI1C1. SAS Label: Antibody con. in dup. 1 for GI.1 ag. English ... SSGI1C2 - Antibody con. in dup. 2 for GI.1 ag. Variable Name: SSGI1C2. SAS Label: Antibody con. in dup. 2 for GI.1 ag. English ...
Serum,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and ... California Encephalitis Antibody, IgM by IFA, Serum. 4. Encephalitis Antibody, California IgM. 5. Encephalitis Antibody, ... California Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, CSF. 2. California Encephalitis Antibody, IgM by IFA, CSF. 3. ... Encephalitis Antibody, California IgG (CSF). 7. Encephalitis Antibody, California IgM (CSF). 8. Allergens, Inhalants, ...
If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
Serum herpes simplex antibodies. Definition. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the ... It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). An antibody is a substance made ... About 70% of adults have been infected by HSV-1 and have antibodies against the virus. About 20 to 50% of adults will have ... The sample is taken to the lab and tested for the presence and amount of antibodies. ...
A proteomics approach for the identification and cloning of monoclonal antibodies from serum.. Cheung WC1, Beausoleil SA, Zhang ... Using this technology, we isolated monoclonal antibodies for five antigens from the sera of immunized rabbits and mice. The ... approach that identifies antigen-specific antibody sequences directly from circulating polyclonal antibodies in the serum of an ... The approach involves affinity purification of antibodies with high specific activity and then analyzing digested antibody ...
Tick-borne Encephalitis and Borrelial Antibodies in Serum. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... positive serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, ... In clinical practice, tick-borne encephalitis is confirmed by demonstration of tick-borne encephalitis antibodies in serum of a ... Patients with tick-borne encephalitis and positive borrelial antibodies in serum, but not fulfilling criteria for Lyme ...
... serum gel tube is acceptable. Spin down and send 1 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial. ... Aspergillus Antibodies, Serum. Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching. Aspergillus ...
Serum,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and ... Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, CSF. 9. St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody, IgM by IFA, Serum. 10. California ... Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis IgG (CSF). 5. Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis IgM (CSF). 6. Encephalitis Antibody, St. Louis ... Mumps IgG ELISA test system is ... IgG antibody in human serum. When performed ... this test, together with other clinical ...
Measurement of Serum Antibodies to Infliximab (Remicade) and Adalimumab (Humira). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (e.g. ... The measurement of serum antibodies to infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira) has been proposed to monitor for the ... Impact of antibodies to infliximab on clinical outcomes and serum infliximab levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease ... The measurement of antibodies to include the measurement of serum drug concentrations to adalimumab, infliximab or vedolizumab ...
Serum specific antibodies for dust mites. Question. "The patient is a 25 year old with history of perennial allergic rhinitis. ... Should I order for serum specific IgE antibodies for dust mites? Is he a candidate for immunotherapy to dust mites?" ... Therefore the answer is yes, you should order for serum specific antibodies to dust mites and cockroaches extracts because he ...
Perform Antibody Purification with Antibody Serum Purification Kit (Protein A) ab109209. Abcam offers , 1,000 kits cited in , ... I would like to use this Serum Purification kit on an antibody that is 60 uL of Ascites fluid. Should I dilute this antibody to ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... I would recommend a protein G kit would be more suitable for sheep antibodies, for example: ab128751 Serum Antibody ...
K. Miki, "Gastric cancer screening by combined assay for serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody and serum pepsinogen ... Association between Gastric Cancer Risk and Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titers. Mitsutaka Shuto,1,2 Toshio Fujioka,1,2 ... "Predicting the development of gastric cancer from combining Helicobacter pylori antibodies and serum pepsinogen status: a ... H. Kishikawa, K. Kimura, A. Ito et al., "Predictors of gastric neoplasia in cases negative for Helicobacter pylori antibody and ...
... Mitsutaka Shuto,1,2 Toshio Fujioka,1,2 ... "Association between Gastric Cancer Risk and Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titers," Gastroenterology Research and Practice ...
Not all phospholipid antibodies possess lupus anticoagulant activity.(3) Only those phospholipid antibodies that are capable of ... and/or the presence of IgG and/or IgM anti-beta-2 GP 1 antibody (,99th percentile). All antibodies must be demonstrated on 2 or ... Most phospholipid antibodies bind to an epitope associated with domain 1 near the N-terminus. Autoantibodies can also be ... Anticardiolipin and anti-beta-2 GP1 antibodies of the IgA isotype are not part of the laboratory criteria for APS due to lack ...
Antimyelin antibodies (ELISA-Doxa Kit-Myelin Basic Protein Antibodies) were assessed in 31% (n 11) of examined serum samples of ... Lyme borreliosis-incidence of serum anti-myelin antibodies. Posted By wp_admin. On April 1, 2002 @ 12:00 am In Uncategorized , ... antimyelin antibodies) for a group of serum samples (n 36) with positive anti-borrelia immunoglobulins IgG and IgM (ELISA- ... www.prohealth.com/library/lyme-borreliosis-incidence-of-serum-anti-myelin-antibodies-13501 ...
Anti-Mouse Serum Albumin antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 4 ... Anti-Mouse Serum Albumin antibody (HRP). See all Mouse Serum Albumin primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... All lanes : Anti-Mouse Serum Albumin antibody (HRP) (ab19195) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human liver tissue lysate - total protein ( ...
Here, we describe an approach for systematic analysis of serum, based on antibodies and using color-coded beads for the ... creation of antibody arrays in suspension. This method, adapted from planar antibody ar … ... Antibody microarrays offer a powerful tool to screen for target proteins in complex samples. ... Antibody suspension bead arrays within serum proteomics J Proteome Res. 2008 Aug;7(8):3168-79. doi: 10.1021/pr700890b. Epub ...
AntigenAntigensSpecificityMonoclonal antibodyTitersBovine serum aConclusionsAlbuminMeasurement of Serum AntibodiesQuantified by enzyme-linkeSpecimensReactiveAssaysPatientsReactivityPurificationHerpes simplex antibodiesConcentrationImmuneDiagnosisSignificantlyPolyclonal antibodyNormal Rabbit SerumDatasheetCharacterizationRabbitEnzyme immunoassayGoatCorrelatesAmyloidPrimaryProteomicsDetection and quantitativeMarkersConjugateAnti-dsDNAResults
- And, If I raise antibody with some antigen and get polyclonal serum from the rabbit, how much percent of the total pool of antibody is the specific antibody that I want to make? (bio.net)
- CMV antigen detects specific antibody in serum. (cdc.gov)
- The serum samples were diluted 1:50 and incubated in the antigen-coated wells. (cdc.gov)
- We describe a proteomics approach that identifies antigen-specific antibody sequences directly from circulating polyclonal antibodies in the serum of an immunized animal. (nih.gov)
- The antigen-specific activities of the monoclonal antibodies recapitulate or surpass those of the original affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
- The antibody was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). (abcam.com)
- Becker titer results showed >1.0mg/ml (antigen/antibody). (thermofisher.com)
- In this report, we describe the characterization of a carbohydrate antigen array and assay for profiling human serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Berger S, Ballo H, Stutte HJ (1996) Immune complex-induced interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and prostaglandin secretion by human monocytes: a network of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines dependent on the antigen:antibody ratio. (springer.com)
- This antibody titer did not correlate to serum values of prostate-specific antigen. (diva-portal.org)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013 ). (rndsystems.com)
- The glucosylated form of the O-antigen mediated enhanced survival in human serum and decreased complement binding. (osti.gov)
- Sera from these subjects were tested against the recombinant 96-thermoresistant antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and the kinetics of antibody production to this protein show that titers tend to increase with age and are also related to antigen exposure. (ajtmh.org)
- The data suggest that antibodies against the 96-kD antigen participate in conferring some immunity to falciparum malaria. (ajtmh.org)
- Recently, we developed a quantitative luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) test for detecting B. burgdorferi antibodies using a liquid-phase assay that employed the synthetic VOVO antigen, composed of immunogenic epitopes from the VlsE and OspC proteins fused to the light-emitting protein Renilla luciferase, named VOVO-LIPS. (asm.org)
- As a result, the mother's body could develop antibodies against the Rh antigen. (findacode.com)
- Although conventional serum markers for esophageal SCC, such as SCC antigen, CYFRA21-1 and CEA, cannot detect early stages of tumors [ 2 ], the recently developed serum p53 antibodies test is useful for detecting superficial esophageal SCC [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Initially, samples were tested for the presence of HSV-1-specific antibodies and HSV-2-specific antibodies by using HSV-infected cell lysates as antigen targets in Western blot assays. (asm.org)
- Using this technology, we isolated monoclonal antibodies for five antigens from the sera of immunized rabbits and mice. (nih.gov)
- further, IgM seroreactivity was limited to MPB70/MPB83, whereas IgG antibodies recognized both test antigens. (medworm.com)
- We also report antibody profiles for 48 human subjects and evaluate for the first time the effects of age, race, sex, geographic location, and blood type on antibody profiles for a large set of carbohydrate antigens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Finally, we conducted a longitudinal study with a separate group of 7 serum donors to evaluate the variation in anti-carbohydrate antibody levels within an individual over a period ranging from 3 to 13 weeks and found that, for nearly all antigens on our array, antibody levels are generally stable over this period. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In basic and preclinical research, serum antibody profiling can facilitate the discovery of new antigens and guide vaccine design. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A variety of high-throughput approaches, including SEREX, 1 phage display, 2 , 3 and peptide/protein arrays, 4 , 5 have been developed to identify disease specific antibodies to protein and peptide antigens from the repertoire of antibodies present in serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A commercial test was used to detect food-specific IgG directed against a panel of 113 food antigens in sera of 54 patients with metastatic RCC. (springer.com)
- The presence of antibodies in sera of patients with breast cancer reacting with antigens in the cytoplasm of mouse mammary tumor cells was shown by various methods including indirect immunofluorescence (5). (annals.org)
- The specificity of the reactivity of human antibodies with MMTV-associated antigens has been questioned by some investigators (8). (annals.org)
- p53 antibodies (p53-Abs) were discovered 20 years ago during the course of tumor-associated antigens screening. (aacrjournals.org)
- We identified a serum autoantibody for retinal antigens and to quantify its titer in diabetic retinopathy (DR). (arvojournals.org)
- Immunization of rabbits with Streptococcus mutans antigens results in the production of serum antibodies that bind in vitro to human, rabbit, and monkey cardiac muscle. (jimmunol.org)
- Several of the normal sera did not have antibody activity to S. mutans antigens, indicating that these HRA do not cross-react with these bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
- Conversely, affinity-purified antibodies to S. mutans antigens did not bind to myosin or to other cardiac muscle components. (jimmunol.org)
- Because of the high specificity of endomysial antibodies for celiac disease, the test may obviate the need for multiple small bowel biopsies to verify the diagnosis. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- Current methods to determine antibody binding and specificity are still labor-intensive and complicated. (mcponline.org)
- The specificity of antibodies detected in ELISA was confirmed by immunoblotting in a subset of sera with varying levels of antibodies. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 90.6% Concordance of 89%, coefficient of correlation r is equal to 0.97 (Karl Pearson's) and rho is equal to 0.86 (Spearman's), was found between OD value of OF and serum. (ebscohost.com)
- The VOVO-LIPS test showed high diagnostic performance for detecting Lyme disease, with 98% sensitivity and 98% specificity, and had the ability to detect a wide range of antibody titers ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- Antibodies are useful not only to detect specific biomolecules but also to measure changes in their level and specificity of modification by processes such as phosphorylation, methylation, or glycosylation. (abbkine.com)
- Infliximab is a chimeric (mouse/human) anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody. (wellmark.com)
- Adalimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to TNF-α. (wellmark.com)
- Trastuzumab (herceptin) is a humanized IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody (mAb). (waters.com)
- The antibody was obtained through genetic engineering6, 7 by joining the constant regions of the human monoclonal antibody with the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a mouse monoclonal antibody able to bind human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 proteins (HER2) receptors. (waters.com)
- A stock solution of trastuzumab (150 kDa monoclonal antibody) was spiked with the internal standard ( 1 3 C 15 N -isotopically labeled extended peptide GRFTISADTS K ), and digested using trypsin to produce a stock solution containing 5 μM of digested trastuzumab and 10 μM of internal standard peptide (FTISADTSK). (waters.com)
- PVDF membrane was probed with 0.2 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF018 ). (rndsystems.com)
- Rat Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF018 ). (rndsystems.com)
- Albumin was detected in immersion fixed BG01V human embryonic stem cells differentiated to hepatocytes using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (rndsystems.com)
- Albumin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) at 0.1 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Mouse IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001 ). (rndsystems.com)
- HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was stained with Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # MAB003 , open histogram), followed by Allophycocyanin-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0101B ). (rndsystems.com)
- This method utilizes either a biotinylated monoclonal antibody to Bluetongue virus and streptavadin-enzyme in conjunction with synthetic substrate, or an enzyme-conjugated monoclonal to detect antibodies specific for Bluetongue virus. (google.com)
- Association between Gastric Cancer Risk and Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titers," Gastroenterology Research and Practice , vol. 2017, Article ID 1286198, 6 pages, 2017. (hindawi.com)
- Although the estimated correlation between HI and MN titers was high (r = 0.82) for the seasonal vaccine strains, the MN assay generally yielded higher titers and detected more seroconversions (i.e., fourfold or greater increases in antibody titers) to A/California/04/2009 than the HI assay. (cdc.gov)
- Antibody titers against human-like swIAVs and supposed human precursor IAVs correlated with correlation coefficients of 0.30-0.86. (cdc.gov)
- The increase in antibody titers with age correlates positively with the ability of the individual to prevent development of a high parasitemia. (ajtmh.org)
- Antibodies to heart, however, have also been reported to occur at lower titers in the sera of unimmunized rabbits. (jimmunol.org)
- Although immunization of rabbits with S. mutans caused increased titers of HRA (two to three doubling dilutions), Western blot assays using anti-S. mutans sera showed banding patterns qualitatively similar to those of normal sera on heart extracts. (jimmunol.org)
- Of eighteen normal rabbit sera sixteen had antimyosin titers of 10 to 40, whereas all eighteen anti-S. mutans sera had titers of 10 to 160. (jimmunol.org)
- After the first infection seric antibody titers were quite weak but increased sharply after challenge. (eurekamag.com)
- OBJECTIVE To study the humoral immune response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OA) in children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Purification of IgM from goldfish immunized with bovine serum albumin. (nii.ac.jp)
- Reacts with a protein of ~66 kDa, identified as bovine serum albumin (BSA). (biotium.com)
- A single-mode tapered fiber optics biosensor was utilized for the real-time attachment of model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the antibody-immobilized surface of the taper. (spie.org)
- CONCLUSIONS A high level of antibodies to BSA commonly associates with IDDM, whereas the humoral immune response to OA is similar in diabetic and nondiabetic children. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Conclusions M. genitalium serum IgG was associated with infertility in women, however insignificant after adjustment for C. trachomatis IgG, but not with infertility subtypes within this study. (bmj.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: Human Serum Albumin Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # R0101-1E, RRID AB_2225649. (thermofisher.com)
- Human serum albumin (HSA) consists of a single polypeptide chain of 584 amino acids, stabilized by 17 disulfide bridges. (thermofisher.com)
- Detects human Serum Albumin in direct ELISAs and Western blots. (rndsystems.com)
- Sera from residual specimens from NHANES 1999-2000 participants were tested for IgG antibodies against seven norovirus strains: GI.1 Norwalk, GI.4, GII.3, GII.4 US95/96, GII.4 Farmington Hills, GII.4 New Orleans, and GIV.1. (cdc.gov)
- These tests were conducted on residual serum specimens stored at NCHS. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, using stored serum specimens collected during previous vaccine studies, CDC assessed the level of cross-reactive antibody to the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in cohorts of children and adults before and after they had been vaccinated with the 2005--06, 2006--07, 2007--08, or 2008--09 influenza season vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Serum specimens were provided to CDC from academic, government, and industry partners for use as part of the public health response to the emergence of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. (cdc.gov)
- The serum specimens were grouped for influenza serology testing by the age of participants and formulation of the vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Serum specimens were treated with receptor-destroying enzymes. (cdc.gov)
- For the MN assay, serum specimens were heat inactivated (at 133 o F [56 o C], for 30 minutes) and tested at an initial dilution of 1:10. (cdc.gov)
- Serum specimens were obtained from diabetic patients without DR (DM group) and DR patients (DR group). (arvojournals.org)
- Although no human sera neutralized Eastern equine encephalitis virus, two different specimens of serum from one donkey neutralized the virus in two different tests. (ajtmh.org)
- An AlphaLISA further confirmed the significant difference in serum antibody levels between the patients and healthy donors using a different set of serum specimens. (omicsonline.org)
- The results indicated that before vaccination, no cross-reactive antibody to the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus existed among children. (cdc.gov)
- Previous vaccination of children with any of four seasonal trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) or with live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) did not elicit a cross-reactive antibody response to the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, the MN assay was used to assess the level of cross-reactive antibody to A/California/04/2009 in populations before and after vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of the sperm-reactive IgM antibodies indicates that they are not elicited by sperm. (sciencemag.org)
- In 2009, only persons born before the 1950s had cross-reactive antibodies against pH1N1, so a pandemic was possible ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- Yersinia-specific antibodies in serum and synovial fluid in patients with Yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. (bmj.com)
- Serum antibodies reactive with the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase are associated with extraocular muscle involvement in active TAO of recent onset. (ovid.com)
- Waalen K , Kilander A , Dudman S G , Ramos-Ocao R , Hungnes O . Age-dependent prevalence of antibodies cross-reactive to the influenza A(H3N2) variant virus in sera collected in Norway in 2011. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Heart-reactive antibodies in rabbit anti-Streptococcus mutans sera fail to cross-react with Streptococcus mutans. (jimmunol.org)
- In this study, the specificities of heart-reactive antibodies (HRA) in sera of unimmunized and S. mutans-immunized rabbits were compared using indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot, and Bio-Dot immunoassays. (jimmunol.org)
- HRA were removed from anti-S. mutans sera by absorption with S. mutans but this effect was not specific, because a non-cross-reactive internal standard antibody was also absorbed to the same extent. (jimmunol.org)
- These results indicated that naturally occurring antibodies to cardiac muscle components are present in the sera of unimmunized rabbits and that immunization with S. mutans does not stimulate production of new heart-reactive antibody, but rather serves to boost antibody production by preexisting clones of self-reactive B-lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays for Malassezia -specific IgG and IgE in canine serum were established. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Phospholipid antibodies detected by functional assays are often called lupus anticoagulants because they produce prolongation of phospholipid-dependent clotting in vitro and are found in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- 3) Only those phospholipid antibodies that are capable of cross-linking beta-2 GP1 molecules can interact efficiently with phospholipid surfaces in functional coagulation assays. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis were detected in serum samples from 98 patients by three immunological assays. (asm.org)
- Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (abgent.com)
- SV40-neutralizing antibodies were measured using plaque neutralization assays. (aacrjournals.org)
- Further studies will be required to determine the relative sensitivities and specificities of the assay for gB-2 aa 18 to 75, HSV gG assays, and HSV lysate Western blot assays for detecting virus type-specific antibody responses in acute and chronic HSV-2 infections. (asm.org)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and anti-CA II antibodies in a series of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Anti-CA II antibody was detected in 27.8% of UC patients, whereas anti-CA I antibody was detected in only 5.6% of UC patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Positive rate of anti-CA II antibody was significantly higher in UC patients as compared to the control. (ingentaconnect.com)
- In CD patients and non-IBD diarrheal patients, there were no significant increase in positive rate of either anti-CA I or II antibody. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Patients with Lyme meningitis or meningoradiculitis also have cerebrospinal pleocytosis, however the presence of borrelial antibodies in serum does not attest Lyme neuroborreliosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients with tick-borne encephalitis and positive borrelial antibodies in serum, but not fulfilling criteria for Lyme neuroborreliosis, are often being treated with antibiotics in several European countries due to the possibility of double infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- However, the use of these agents have been associated in some patients with the development of antidrug antibodies (ADA), which may promote adverse effects and diminish drug efficacy. (wellmark.com)
- Therapy with monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized therapy in patients with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. (wellmark.com)
- Cytotoxic antibodies to cloned rat islet cells in serum of patients with diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
- We have found complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies in the serum of 8 of 24 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus using a 51Cr cytotoxicity assay with monolayers of cloned rat islet cells (clones RINm 5F and RINm 14B). (jci.org)
- In contrast, complement-dependent cytotoxicity with 51Cr release greater than 24% was found with sera from 34 controls or from 5 patients with polyglandular failure without diabetes, and was present in only 1 serum our of 12 from patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
- The present study identifies nonspecies-specific cytotoxic antibodies in the serum of patients with diabetes mellitus, and the assay used should facilitate studies of humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
- Variant-specific trypanolytic antibodies in sera from patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. (who.int)
- The aim of this work is develop and characteristics of biosensor chips for detection specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus in patients' blood sera. (mdpi.com)
- Glycosylation of sera thyroglobulin antibody in patients with thyroid diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The aim of our study was to investigate the glycosylation of sera TgAb in patients with different thyroid diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Sera from 146 patients were collected and divided into four groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n=90), Graves' disease (GD, n=20), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, n=17), and PTC with histological lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-T, n=19). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- PTC-T patients had significantly higher sialylated TgAb than HT and GD patients, and no significant difference was found between PTC and PTC-T. There was no significant difference in the three carbohydrate residue contents on sera TgAb among HT subgroups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- To determine serum concentration of gastrin and pepsinogens (PGs) as markers for the gastric mucosal status and to elucidate the prevalence of serum Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) IgG antibodies and parietal cell autoantibodies (PCAs) in patients with gastric polyps. (unboundmedicine.com)
- There were no significant differences between FGP patients and controls in serum concentrations of gastrin, PG I and PG II. (unboundmedicine.com)
- FHP patients showed significantly higher serum gastrin, lower PG I, higher PG II levels and, as a consequence, far lower PG I/PG II ratio compared with controls. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Here, electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. (mdpi.com)
- We present evidence that sera of all MS patients contain autoantibodies against histones and 73% of IgGs purified from the sera of 59 MS patients efficiently hydrolyze from one to five histones: H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4. (mdpi.com)
- Baranova SV, Mikheeva EV, Buneva VN, Nevinsky GA. Antibodies from the Sera of Multiple Sclerosis Patients Efficiently Hydrolyze Five Histones. (mdpi.com)
- and profiling the antibody repertoire in body fluids, such as serum from patients with autoimmune diseases. (mcponline.org)
- In an initial proof of principle study for the second application, we have screened serum from alopecia and arthritis patients. (mcponline.org)
- Serum antibodies against such major glycolipids as GM1, GD1b, and LM1 have been reported in patients in the acute phase of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). (nih.gov)
- Antibody activity was detected against a band that migrated just below GD1a in 6 of the 50 patients with GBS tested. (nih.gov)
- We found that RCC patients with elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies against S. cerevisiae , commonly known as baker's yeast and yet another bread component, have an unfavorable clinical course. (springer.com)
- Our findings indicate that serum levels of IgG against S. cerevisiae may predict survival in patients with metastatic RCC. (springer.com)
- The antiprostasome antibody titer in serum, sampled before any kind of therapy for prostate cancer, was examined together with clinicopathologic variables and outcome over a median follow-up of 350 days in 218 patients with verified prostate cancer. (diva-portal.org)
- We detected these antibodies in 191 (88%) of these patients. (diva-portal.org)
- Serum TTG Ab was elevated in almost one-quarter of our total EoE cohort, and at least 20% of these patients did not have potential CD, suggesting EoE is a heterogeneous disease with differing immune mechanisms activated in some patients. (ovid.com)
- HealthDay News) - For patients with systemic amyloidosis, treatment with (R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (CPHPC) followed by an anti-serum amyloid P component (SAP) efficiently depletes amyloid load in the liver and kidney, according to a study published online July 15 in the New England Journal of Medicine . (empr.com)
- Patients who had received a sufficient dose of antibody in relation to their amyloid load had reduced liver stiffness at six weeks, based on measurement with use of transient elastography. (empr.com)
- The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of anti-idursulfase antibodies on idursulfase safety (measured by infusion related adverse events) between patients who develop anti-idursulfase antibodies and patients who do not after long-term idursulfase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study is being conducted to satisfy post-marketing commitments to monitor anti-idursulfase antibody development in Hunter syndrome patients after long-term idursulfase enzyme replacement therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- ASCA ( anti saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies)are considered to be a serological marker for Crohn's disease and have been studied in patients with spondyloarthropathy with conflicting results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The aim of our study is to investigate wether these new serological markers are present in the sera of patients with spondyloarthropathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Infliximab is an anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mousehuman IgG1/k antibody used to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. (lu.se)
- In this study, we have compared different methods of assessing drug levels and anti-infliximab antibodies (Abs) and analysed the character of these Abs in sera of RA patients treated with infliximab for 1.5-18 months. (lu.se)
- Specific and neutralizing anti-infliximab antibodies develop in RA patients treated with infliximab, and that low trough levels of functional infliximab are associated with the presence of such antibodies. (lu.se)
- Methods Sera from 44 pSLE patients and 30 healthy individuals were collected. (bmj.com)
- pSLE patients with active nephritis at the time of sample collection demonstrated significantly elevated levels of anti-C1q antibodies compared to those without active nephritis. (bmj.com)
- Salah M, Abdel Kader M, Abd Elaziz M, Hisham M. Role of serum anti-C1q antibodies as a biomar ker for nephritis activity in pediatric and adolescent Egyptian female patients with SLE. (bmj.com)
- The purpose of this study was to measure serum antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase in patients with TAO and correlate their presence with factors of TAO. (ovid.com)
- Sera of patients with active TAO of 6 months' duration or less were tested for antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. (ovid.com)
- A total of 559 suspected CD patients underwent serum EMA/anti-tTG detection, upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy sampling, histologic analysis, and organ culture to detect EMA/anti-tTG in supernatants. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Two hundred forty-one out of 559 (43.1%) patients showed intestinal villous atrophy, whereas serum and organ culture EMA/anti-tTG were positive in 293/559 (52.4%) and 334/559 (59.7%) patients, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In contrast, serum levels of MIF were not significantly elevated in patients with PAN and GCA. (biomedsearch.com)
- Serum concentration of anti-hsp60 in the CVD patients did not differ from control values. (ahajournals.org)
- Toward this end, this study examines the serum IgM antibodies directed against Pi in 14 patients with major depression, 14 patients with CFS, 14 subjects with partial CFS, and in 11 normal controls. (nel.edu)
- We found that the prevalence and mean value for the serum IgM levels directed against Pi were significantly greater in patients with major depression and CFS than in normal controls and patients with partial CFS. (nel.edu)
- For GIV.1, serum with high reactivity to GIV.1 (kind gift from B. di Martino) was used as a positive control because serum from subjects with known GIV.1 infections was not available. (cdc.gov)
- The serum sample with the lowest reactivity across all seven VLPs was used as the assay negative control. (cdc.gov)
- Due to cross-reactivity between strains and declining antibody levels after infection, there is no standard cutpoint value to determine seropositivity to norovirus in a single serum sample. (cdc.gov)
- This reactivity could be abolished by absorption of the sera with MMTV (5, 6) or intracytoplasmic type A particles (7). (annals.org)
- Antibody cross-reactivity to the influenza A(H3N2) variant virus recently reported in the United States, was investigated in Norwegian sera. (eurosurveillance.org)
- The approach involves affinity purification of antibodies with high specific activity and then analyzing digested antibody fractions by nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
- To purify antibodies for use with our GOLD conjugation kits, please use our Gold antibody purification kit (ab204909) . (abcam.com)
- ab109209 is not suitable for goat antibody purification. (abcam.com)
- This method, adapted from planar antibody arrays, offers a fast, flexible, and multiplexed procedure to screen larger numbers of serum samples, and no purification steps are required to remove excess labeling substance. (nih.gov)
- If the concentration of the recovered antibody is low then it can very quickly and easily be concentrated using our Concentration kit ( ab102778 ). (abcam.com)
- At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB concentrations in milk and 18-month serum. (nih.gov)
- The strongest associations suggested a decrease in the antibody concentration by about 20% for each doubling in PCB exposure. (nih.gov)
- At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum. (nih.gov)
- An antibody is a substance made by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. (medlineplus.gov)
- These antibodies are present in a broad spectrum of human sera from males and females, 1 day to 40 years of age, and are absent or markedly deficient in a large proportion of sera from individuals with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or at risk for AIDS. (sciencemag.org)
- An immune serum pool was prepared by immunizing chinchillas with killed bacterial cells of nontypable H. influenzae 3245. (asm.org)
- Pooled preimmune or immune serum from these immunized animals was administered intravenously to a group of nonimmune chinchillas 1 day before intrabullar challenge with strain 3245. (asm.org)
- Of 5 animals receiving preimmune serum, 5 developed otitis media compared with 0 of 10 animals receiving immune serum (P = 0.008). (asm.org)
- Anti-LPS antibodies were removed from the immune serum pool by affinity chromatography, and affinity-purified anti-LPS antibodies were recovered. (asm.org)
- Immune serum, immune serum absorbed of LPS antibodies, or affinity-purified LPS antibodies were then administered to another group of experimental animals 1 day before bacterial challenge. (asm.org)
- Of four animals that received the affinity-purified LPS antibodies, four developed otitis compared with zero of four animals that received the immune serum or zero of four animals that received the LPS-absorbed immune serum (P = 0.028). (asm.org)
- Acetylation did not affect serum survival, but phase variation can be an immune evasion mechanism, and thus, this modification may contribute to persistence in a host. (osti.gov)
- Functional serum infliximab levels and anti-infliximab Abs were measured by fluid-phase RIAs using I-125-labelled ligands in combination with molecular size and affinity chromatography, and immune complex precipitation. (lu.se)
- Maes I, Mihaylova V, Leunis E, Increased serum IgM antibodies directed against phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that an IgM-mediated immune response against Pi is one factor underpinning the comorbidity between both CFS and dep Neuro Endocrinol Lett. (nel.edu)
- The prevalence of antibodies appears to decrease with duration of insulin-dependent diabetes, and in one patient studied, cytotoxic antibodies were present at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. (jci.org)
- Neither before nor after diagnosis of IDDM was there any significant trend in antibody levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Given the present lack of clinically useful tests for the accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP), there is a need to select out those immunological factors measured in the maternal serum, as potential biomarkers. (biomedsearch.com)
- We conducted a case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, to investigate the association between antibodies to JCV, BKV, and SV40, as measured in serum collected 1-22 years before diagnosis and incident primary malignant brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study, comparing the presence of polyomavirus antibodies in serum collected years before diagnosis between incident cases of primary brain tumors and cancer-free controls. (aacrjournals.org)
- These markers are antibodies to certain defined glycans , and their use may permit an improved diagnosis of IBD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Wikipedia has a decent sub-article on animal selection in polyclonal antibody production . (metafilter.com)
- We are a polyclonal antibody producer and we only use hens. (metafilter.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: Chicken Serum Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 103-4101. (thermofisher.com)
- Detection and characterization of serum antitrichomonal antibodies in urogenital trichomoniasis. (asm.org)
- This technology will establish a new state-of-the-art strategy for the characterization of individual serum glycoproteomes as a diagnostic and monitoring tool which represents a major step towards understanding the changes that take place during disease. (mcponline.org)
- Furthermore, the analysis and size characterization of a fluorescent antibody in blood plasma using AF4 are demonstrated. (springer.com)
- It seems like the turnaround time is way better than with rabbit or goat serum antibodies, and plus chickens are pretty easy to take care of. (metafilter.com)
- Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in single precipitin arc against anti-rabbit serum and multiple precipitin arcs against Chicken Serum. (thermofisher.com)
- Normal rabbit serums, which are from non-immuned rabbit hosts, are lipid extracted to improve clarity, dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing sodium azide. (abbkine.com)
- Hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies in serum are accepted correlates of protection ( 18 ). (cdc.gov)
- The results suggest that MIF contributes to the inflammatory process and correlates with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. (biomedsearch.com)
- Treatment with CPHPC followed by an anti-SAP antibody safely triggered clearance of amyloid deposits from the liver and some other tissues," the authors write. (empr.com)
- However, all amyloid deposits contain the normal, non-fibrillar, plasma glycoprotein, serum amyloid P component (SAP) 2 , 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This gene encodes a member of the serum amyloid A family of apolipoproteins. (genetex.com)
- Advanced method for evaluation of gastric cancer risk by serum markers: determination of true low-risk subjects for gastric neoplasm," Helicobacter , vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2014. (hindawi.com)
- Antibodies to carbohydrates also have tremendous potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers (for some recent examples see 6 - 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Serum tumor markers have the potential to be used for early detection. (omicsonline.org)
- Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age. (nih.gov)
- These results indicate that the antiprostasome antibody titer in serum may be a novel marker for prostate cancer liability to metastasize. (diva-portal.org)
- Proper validation with controls and optimization ensure the quality of the antibody, and establish confidence in your results. (abgent.com)
- Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
- According to these results, serum IL-15 is a promising marker differentiating an MA from an EP. (biomedsearch.com)