Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Apr 2005). "Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant ... The epitopes which bind neutralizing antibodies are both linear and conformational. All extant rabies viruses appear to have ... Additionally, a monoclonal antibody with neutralizing functionality has been demonstrated to target antigenic site I. Other ... These antigenic sites, or epitopes, are categorized into regions I-IV and minor site a. Previous work has demonstrated that ...
The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. There have been efforts in epitope mapping since ... Ladner, Robert C. (2007-01-01). "Mapping the Epitopes of Antibodies". Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 24 (1): 1- ... many antibodies can bind the same epitope and levels of binding between antibodies that recognize the same epitope can vary. ... recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This ...
Using recombinant DNA techniques genetic sequences coding for epitopes that are recognized by common antibodies can be fused to ... Mutagenesis uses randomly/site-directed mutations at individual residues to map epitopes. B-cell epitope mapping can be used ... an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. ... If an antibody binds to an antigen's epitope, the paratope could become the epitope for another antibody that will then bind to ...
Epitope mapping identifies the sites of antibodies to which their target antigens bind. In the past, scientists would have to ... T-cell response is initiated when T-cells recognize these displayed epitopes. Only specific peptide sequences from some ... demonstrated that epitope-mapping tools could accurately identify the epitopes responsible for 95% of the murine T-cell ... T-cell and B-cell epitope mapping algorithms can computationally predict epitopes based on the genomic sequence of pathogens, ...
Therefore, antibodies that recognize linear epitopes instead of conformational epitopes are chosen for immunodetection. In ... Ahmad, TA; Eweida, A; El-Sayed, LH (2016). "T-cell epitope mapping for the design of powerful vaccines". Vaccine Reports. 6: 13 ... A linear or a sequential epitope is an epitope that is recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or ... antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes are preferred. Conformational epitope Polyclonal B cell response Goldsby, ...
Antigen Linear epitope Epitope mapping, finding (on an antigen protein) the epitope(s) for a specific antibody Goldsby, Richard ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only the paratope of the receptor that comes in contact with the epitope. ... An antigen is any substance that the immune system can recognize as foreign. Antigens are usually proteins that are too large ... A conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in direct contact with ...
... discovery Monitoring of clinical trials Profiling of antibody signatures and epitope mapping Finding neutralizing antibodies ... "Identification and Mapping of Linear Antibody Epitopes in Human Serum Albumin Using High-Density Peptide Arrays". PLOS ONE. 8 ( ... The reason for this is that such protein substructures recognize short linear motifs often exposed in natively unstructured ... to map an antibody epitope or to find key residues for protein binding. Practical applications are seromarker discovery, ...
"Differential epitope mapping of antibodies to PDC-E2 in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic ... "Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis". World ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... that peptides within the catalytic site may present the immunodominant epitopes recognized by the anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in PBC ...
This is because antibodies have to be generated for each TF, or, alternatively, transgenic model organisms expressing epitope- ... synthetic peptide antigens and that the epitopes they need to recognize in the XChIP may be disrupted or destroyed by ... XChIP is for mapping target sites of transcription factors and other chromatin associated proteins; NChIP is for mapping target ... The antibodies are commonly coupled to agarose, sepharose or magnetic beads. Alternatively, chromatin-antibody complexes can be ...
... MoPn binds mAbs recognizing Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP vs4 core epitope (T) LNPT (IA). DNA sequence ... Nov 1991). "Functional and structural mapping of Chlamydia trachomatis species-specific major outer membrane protein epitopes ... by use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies". Infect Immun. 59 (11): 4147-53. doi:10.1128/IAI.59.11.4147-4153.1991. PMC 259009 ... mAbs should recognize SFPD and that Chlamydia trachomatis B-serogroup mAbs specific for the vs4 epitope IAGAG should recognize ...
Mapping antigenic evolution[edit]. The ability of an antiviral antibody to inhibit hemagglutination can be measured and used to ... "Proximal glycans outside of the epitopes regulate the presentation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 helper epitopes". Journal of ... In individuals who express a protective HLA B*27 allele, the first mutation that occurs in the Gag epitope KK10 is at position ... virus families have different levels of ability to alter their genomes and trick the immune system into not recognizing. Some ...
"Have we cut ourselves too short in mapping CTL epitopes?". Trends in Immunology. 27 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1016/j.it.2005.11.001. ... The epitope peptide is bound on extracellular parts of the class I MHC molecule. Thus, the function of the class I MHC is to ... Therefore, in the absence of MHC I molecules, NK cells are activated and recognize the cell as aberrant, suggesting that it may ... Antibody receptor:. Fc receptor. Epsilon (ε). *FcεRI. *(FcεRII is C-type lectin) ...
An antibody for a given epitope antigen will recognize a mimotope which mimics that epitope. Mimotopes are commonly obtained ... As the mimic of binding site, mimotope analysis has been widely used in mapping epitopes, identifying drug target and inferring ... Because of this property it causes an antibody response similar to the one elicited by the epitope. ... When the term mimotope was first coined by Mario Geysen in 1986, it was used to describe peptides mimicking epitope. However, ...
This aptamer recognizes the exosite II of thrombin, which is involved in the activation of factor V and factor VIII and ... Functional mapping of the surface residues of human thrombin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 16854-16863 PubMed ID: ... The residues His71, Arg75, Tyr76, Arg77, Asn78, Ile79, Tyr117 in the exosite I epitope are involved in the interaction with TBA ... Similar to antibody, aptamers TBA and HD22 show avidity effect against thrombin after dimerization. When TBA and HD22 are ...
"Structural basis of differential neutralization of DENV-1 genotypes by an antibody that recognizes a cryptic epitope". PLOS ... Some of the epitopes are partially or totally inaccessible in the known structure of the mature virion. The corresponding ... Lisova O, Hardy F, Petit V, Bedouelle H (September 2007). "Mapping to completeness and transplantation of a group-specific, ... Its epitope is included in domain 1 (ED1) of the E protein. The human antibodies Ede1-C10, Ede2-A11, and Ede2-B7 potently ...
Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... This causes the antibodies to show specificity for a single epitope.[6] ... Mapping protein expression[edit]. Immunohistochemistry can also be used for a more general protein profiling, provided the ... Antibody types[edit]. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ...
Cleavage at Asp396 generates a neo-epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody M30®. This antibody does not recognize ... 1999). "Immunocytochemical detection and mapping of a keratin 18 neo-epitope exposed during early apoptosis". J Pathol. 187 (5 ... an ELISA composed of two antibodies (M5 and M6) for conventional epitopes of K18 M30®, Apoptosense®, M65®, EpiDeath®, and ... M30 Apoptosense® ELISA utilizes a second monoclonal antibody (M5) which recognizes an epitope N-terminal from the M30® epitope ...
Elkon KB, Hines JJ, Chu JL, Parnassa A (1990). "Epitope mapping of recombinant HeLa SmB and B' peptides obtained by the ... Autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus frequently recognize epitopes on the encoded protein. Two ... are distinguishable by antibodies as well as by differences in their mRNAs and gene structures". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (18): 10733 ... and SmN by binding an epitope restricted to B/B'". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 92 (2): 263-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1993.tb03390.x. ...
Antibody molecules secreted by activated B cells, though, recognize diverse epitopes-peptide, lipid, carbohydrate, and nucleic ... the epitope can be recognized by immunologic structures like T-cell receptors (TCRs). The molecular region which binds to the ... allelic polymorphism in MHC class II is reminiscent of that in mammals and predominantly maps to the peptide binding groove. ... In their development in the thymus, T lymphocytes are selected to recognize MHC molecules of the host, but not recognize other ...
A polyclonal antibody generated to the immunodominant epitope- EP6 confirms similar biochemical and cellular immunoreactivity ... Fontana J, Fulton D, Chen Y, Fairchild TA, McCabe TJ, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Sessa WC (May 2002). "Domain mapping studies reveal ... These ubiquitinated proteins are recognized and degraded by the 26S proteasome. Hence the 26S proteasome is an integral part of ... The study might generate new tools for the detection of disease-inducing epitopes and a possible therapeutic intervention. ...
Antibody binding subsequently spread to other epitopes. The similarity and cross-reactivity between the initial targets of nRNP ... The classical period began when the disease was first recognized in the Middle Ages. The term lupus is attributed to 12th- ... "A major susceptibility locus for systemic lupus erythemathosus maps to chromosome 1q31". American Journal of Human Genetics ... and Sm autoantibodies identifies a likely commonality in cause and a focal point for intermolecular epitope spreading.[68] ...
Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... This causes the antibodies to show specificity for a single epitope. For immunohistochemical detection strategies, antibodies ... The Human Protein Atlas displays a map of protein expression in normal human organs and tissues. The combination of ... prior to antibody staining. Although antibodies show preferential avidity for specific epitopes, they may partially or weakly ...
Some of these epitopes are recognized in children who do not have T-cell reactivities toward α-2 gliadin. A 26 residue ... Anti-gliadin antibodies have been found to synapsin I Omega-gliadin and the HMW Glutenin subunit antibodies have been found ... The sites belong to three epitope groups "α-I", "α-II", and "α-III" The insertion also creates a larger region of α-gliadin ... The other factors are (COX-2, CD25, p38 MAP kinase activation by CD3 negative cells (Lamina proxima mononuclear cells) and CD83 ...
"Two linear epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that elicit neutralising antibodies in COVID-19 patients". Nature ... "Functional mapping of B-cell linear epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 convalescent population". Emerging Microbes & Infections ... according to the developers of EpiVacCorona represent the protein regions containing B-cell epitopes that should be recognized ... "Linear epitope landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein constructed from 1,051 COVID-19 patients". Cell Reports. 34 (13): ...
Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs ... Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for ... Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be ... target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes). Generally, it is ...
The frequently recognized peptides from the V3 loop of Env and the novel epitopes from Tat by the LTNPs warrants further study ... The ADCC epitopes were mapped using the matrix of overlapping peptides. Indian LTNPs showed higher and broader ADCC responses ... The assay measured CD107a expression on NK cells as a marker of antibody-dependent NK cell activation and IFN- secretion by NK ... The frequently recognized peptides from the V3 loop of Env and the novel epitopes from Tat by the LTNPs warrants further study ...
Epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a widely used technique in evaluating the immunogenic potential of such ... Mapping the Epitopes Recognized by Monoclonal Anti-Lewis X and Anti-Lewis A Antibodies. Show full item record ... Mapping the Epitopes Recognized by Monoclonal Anti-Lewis X and Anti-Lewis A Antibodies. ... specifically for the design of epitope-based vaccines. The primary goal of designing such vaccines is to be able to target ...
Opuni, K. F., et al. Mass spectrometric epitope mapping. Mass Spectrom Rev. (2016). ... antibody binding to synthetic peptide epitopes. Eur J Cancer. 29, (2), 230-237 (1993). ... Chen, C. W., Chang, C. Y. Peptide Scanning-assisted Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody-recognized Linear B-cell Epitope. J ... Chen, C. W., Wu, M. S., Huang, Y. J., Cheng, C. A., Chang, C. Y. Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat ...
... the authors present a simple and efficient protocol to define a linear antigenic epitope using a purified monoclonal antibody ... scanning is a simple and efficient method that straightforwardly maps the linear epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody ( ... of antibodies against antigens depends on the spatial complementarity between the CDRs of the antibodies and the epitopes of ... Peptide Scanning-assisted Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody-recognized Linear B-cell Epitope. Chien-Wen Chen1, Chi-Yao ...
We have investigated the capacity of anti-La monoclonal antibodies SW1, SW3, and SW5 to immunoprecipitat … ... Mapping of the epitopes recognized by SW1, SW3, and SW5 revealed that all three monoclonal antibodies recognize an epitope ... Taken together, our results indicate that SW1 and SW5 recognize the same epitope and that SW3 recognizes a distinct epitope, ... competition studies suggested that the epitope recognized by SW1 and SW5 are identical but distinct from the epitope recognized ...
1995) Mapping of linear epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies with gene-fragment phage display libraries. Mol. Gen. ... Epitope mapping and alanine scanning of antibodies toward eight human protein targets. A, major epitope regions of antibodies ... The epitope mapping of the antibody toward the human epidermal growth factor receptor showed three distinct epitopes. The three ... Epitope mapping of polyclonal antibodies toward three protein targets. Antibodies toward three targets (HMGCR, HER2, and HYAL1 ...
Epitope mapping of MEDI0639. MEDI0639 binds specifically to human Dll4 but does not recognize human Dll1 (Figs. 1F and 4B). ... Mouse anti-human Jagged1 antibody detected with anti-mouse Fc-Cy5 secondary antibody or goat anti-human Dll1 antibody detected ... Moreover, agents targeting different epitopes in these key receptors may deliver different outcomes. In summary, this work ... Epitope mapping. Chimeric variants were engineered with portions of the extracellular domain of Dll4 replaced with the ...
Epitope mapping using shotgun mutagenesis alanine scanning across the 509 amino acids of GLUT4 identified the binding epitopes ... Antibodies that recognize endogenous GLUT4 have proven valuable as research tools (7⇓⇓-10), but all these antibodies recognize ... Current commercial antibodies against GLUT4 all recognize short peptidic epitopes that are useful for applications such as ... 2014) A high-throughput shotgun mutagenesis approach to mapping B-cell antibody epitopes. Immunology 143:13-20. ...
The location of each of these antibody escape virus mutations was consistent with the epitope-mapping findings in the DXMS and ... Moreover, the identification of the molecular and structural features of the epitopes recognized by these mAbs reveals critical ... Using diverse epitope-mapping techniques, including sequence analysis of antibody neutralization escape mutant viruses, ... A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved, novel epitope on the globular head of influenza ...
Using biochemical and biophysical methods, we demonstrate the binding of several Bp and Bm LPS-specific monoclonal antibodies ... Mice immunized with terminal disaccharide-CRM197 constructs produced high-titer antibody responses that crossreacted with Bm- ... In contrast, high-titer antibody responses that recognize the terminal epitope of Bp OAg could not be raised by immunization ... Epitope mapping of disaccharides/mAb 4C7 interactions probed by STD-NMR. Chemical structures and epitope binding of ...
... passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. Passive antibody therapy has ... Specific antibodies are active against the major agents of bioterrorism, including anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin, ... The only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike ... This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody ...
Antibody epitope mapping using peptide microarrays. Peptide microarrays are used for epitope mapping of antibody responses ... We use a fully validated peptide microarray assay to map and analyse specific antigenic regions recognized by antibodies ... as well as mapping of B cell epitopes upon vaccination. Besides the analysis of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses ... Thus enabling us to identify specific antigenic regions recognized by antibodies elicited by different vaccines.. The upper ...
If the monoclonal antibody recognizes a linear epitope, then it will probably recognize and bind to one or more of the protein ... From general experience with peptide mapping, only approximately 5-10% of monoclonal antibodies bind to linear epitopes. The ... Monoclonal antibodies have a single, defined binding epitope. Different monoclonal antibodies often bind to distinct epitopes ... if the primary antibody is a mouse antibody, or rabbit anti-human antibody, if the primary antibody is a human antibody. In ...
Dominant autoimmune epitopes recognized by pemphigus antibodies map to the N-terminal adhesive region of desmogleins. J. ... However, since the goal of the study was not to determine the IgG epitope recognized by PF patient antibodies, we cannot ... antibody (iv-vi) and the monoclonal a-Dsg3 antibody (vii), respectively. Contents of Dsg1 constantly increased from 3 days (iv ... Antibodies to desmogleins 1 and 3, but not to BP180, induce blisters in human skin grafted onto SCID mice. J. Pathol. 2001. 193 ...
Third, the omega loop epitope may be part of a discontinuous epitope recognized by the anti-CMY-2 antibody, and therefore the ... Mapping the anti-CMY-2 antibody-reactive epitopes of CMY-2 β-lactamase.Likewise, we mapped the epitopes of CMY-2 that were ... 1a) (1). Mapping the epitopes that are recognized by the polyclonal anti-SHV-1 antibody to a model generated from the SHV-1 ... Mapping the anti-SHV-1 antibody-reactive epitopes of SHV-1 β-lactamase.A SPOTs membrane, probed with anti-SHV-1 antibody, ...
Epitope Mapping. *Epitopes/genetics. *Epitopes/immunology. *Humans. *Protein Structure, Tertiary. *Viral Envelope Proteins/ ... Structural basis of differential neutralization of DENV-1 genotypes by an antibody that recognizes a cryptic epitope.. Austin ... Structural Basis of Differential Neutralization of DENV-1 Genotypes by an Antibody that Recognizes a Cryptic Epitope ... Structural Basis of Differential Neutralization of DENV-1 Genotypes by an Antibody that Recognizes a Cryptic Epitope ...
Neoantigens in complement component C3 as detected by monoclonal antibodies. Mapping of the recognized epitopes by synthetic ... Epitope mapping by cDNA expression.1992In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 282 ( Pt 3), p. 715-721 ... the epitopes recognized by these antibodies are mapped. The contribution of the individual amino acid residues in the formation ... recognizing such epitopes were produced in Balb/c mice after immunization with denatured human C3. Two of the three antibodies ...
Ghiso et al., Epitope map of two polyclonal antibodies that recognize amyloid lesions in patients with Alzheimers disease, ... pertussis toxin T helper cell epitopes, tetanus toxin T helper cell epitopes, measles virus F protein T helper cell epitope, ... capable of recognizing a B cell epitope from the presented immunogen and the production of B cell epitope-specific antibodies ... The term "epitope" is meant to refer to that portion of any molecule capable of being bound by an antibody which can also be ...
... the neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 2D5, recognizes an epitope that has been mapped to include Asp-35 (12); this epitope is ... The model allows the mapping of antibody epitopes that may lead to additional target surfaces on L1 for drug design. It would ... The neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 2D5, binds near or on the L1 β-sheets because its epitope has been mapped to include Asp- ... be interesting to find neutralizing antibodies with epitopes that do not map to the surface, suggesting either a conformational ...
We have evaluated antibody localization in vitro by epitope mapping the histone tail sites using proteolytic fragments and ... Here we present the latest results from our analysis of the epitopes recognized by our lead antibodies and other histone ... we are conducting extensive characterizations of the epitopes recognized by these, and other, histone targeting antibodies. ... We also note that chTNT-1 and NHS76 recognize epitopes whose accessibility is not lost in tumorigenic cells, making them good ...
Apr 2005). "Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant ... The epitopes which bind neutralizing antibodies are both linear and conformational. All extant rabies viruses appear to have ... Additionally, a monoclonal antibody with neutralizing functionality has been demonstrated to target antigenic site I. Other ... These antigenic sites, or epitopes, are categorized into regions I-IV and minor site a. Previous work has demonstrated that ...
Using recombinant DNA techniques genetic sequences coding for epitopes that are recognized by common antibodies can be fused to ... Mutagenesis uses randomly/site-directed mutations at individual residues to map epitopes. B-cell epitope mapping can be used ... an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. ... If an antibody binds to an antigens epitope, the paratope could become the epitope for another antibody that will then bind to ...
The human MAbs recognize an epitope in an area that once was identified utilizing a murine MAb that neutralized H1, H2, H5 and ... the dominant antibody reaction to the influenza HA is specific strain; a lot of the antibodies are fond of epitopes over the ... This part of the HA is certainly broadly conserved across many HA subtypes from group I. Predicated on where this area mapped, ... these rare cross-reactive antibodies were recognized using new technology that makes it possible to recognize antibodies that ...
... based protein footprinting in areas from reagent characterization to antibody epitope mapping. ... Higher-Order Structure Characterization of NKG2A/CD94 Protein Complex and Anti-NKG2A Antibody Binding Epitopes by Mass ... but it surely can be injected straight into recognized tumors, in a method of in situ vaccination (ISV). ISV is designed to ... to find out the binding epitopes of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies focusing on NKG2A. Such a mix strategy offers molecular ...
... specificity of the immune response to gluten in ME/CFS through mass spectrometry-assisted proteome analysis and epitope mapping ... "A small bowel biopsy is not needed if symptoms are neurologic and antibodies are positive," Schwarz says.. "If antibody results ... "Gluten ataxia is out there but so few of us have seen it-or perhaps recognized it," Schwarz says. "If you see a patient who has ... and is likely to target certain epitopes that are distinct from those in coeliac disease. We hypothesised that the enhanced ...
Epitope Mapping of Atlantic Salmon Major Allergen by Peptide Microarray Immunoassay. *Epitope Mapping of Antibodies to VlsE ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies And Uses Thereof. *IgE to Epitopes of Ara h 2 Enhance The Diagnostic Accuracy of Ara h 2‐Specific ... Methods of Identifying Glycopeptides Recognized by Disease-associated Auto-antibodies. *High-Throughput Microarray Incubations ... Comparison of Several Current Available Antibody Clones and Antibody Profiling. *Envelope-Specific Epitope Recognition Patterns ...
Latter are caused by somatic mutations, the so-called neoepitopes, and might be recognized by T cells if they are presented by ... Here, we present an integrated map of the genome, transcriptome, and immunome of 4T1. Results: We found Trp53 (Tp53) and Pik3g ... Vormehr M, Diken M, Türeci Ö, Sahin U, Kreiter S. (2020) Personalized Neo-Epitope Vaccines for Cancer Treatment. In: Theobald M ... CD4 neoantigen vaccine/LRT treatment followed by anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy further enhanced the efficacy with complete ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies from an HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial target multiple epitopes and ... Based on rich structural information of Env with CD4 and with antibodies, it is well recognized that Env likes a conformational ... domain is mostly a late-entry structure as previously revealed for the epitope structure of the cluster A C11-like antibody N12 ... Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. ...
The epitope clusters/peptides containing T cell epitopes identified by this study can play an important role in the development ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
Der p 5 Allergen from House Dust Mite: First Epitope Mapping of Rabbit IgG Blocking Antibodies ... Systematic Analysis of Phosphotyrosine Antibodies Recognizing Single Phosphorylated EPIYA-Motifs in CagA of Western-Type ... Elimination of Immunodominant Epitopes from Multispecific DNA-Based Vaccines Allows Induction of CD8 T Cells That Have a ... Monoclonal Antibody Proteomics: Use of Antibody Mimotopedisplaying Phages and the Relevant Synthetic Peptidesfor mAb Scouting ...
Der p 5 Allergen from House Dust Mite: First Epitope Mapping of Rabbit IgG Blocking Antibodies ... Systematic Analysis of Phosphotyrosine Antibodies Recognizing Single Phosphorylated EPIYA-Motifs in CagA of Western-Type ... Elimination of Immunodominant Epitopes from Multispecific DNA-Based Vaccines Allows Induction of CD8 T Cells That Have a ... Monoclonal Antibody Proteomics: Use of Antibody Mimotopedisplaying Phages and the Relevant Synthetic Peptidesfor mAb Scouting ...
... blood and will target a range of viral epitopes CMV-specific T cells generated from na ve T cells recognize atypical epitopes ... Computationally identified novel agonists for GPRC6A Epitope-based vaccine design yields fusion peptide-directed antibodies ... Targeting the intracellular WT1 oncogene product with a therapeutic human antibody The human gene connectome as a map of short ... NAD+ depletion Targeted killing of virally infected cells by radiolabeled antibodies to viral proteins A fully human antibody ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
These three IgG isotype mAbs (two IgG4 and one IgG3 subclass) recognized the Ig-like domain 2 of MuSK. The three MuSK mAbs ... In addition, most bind the first Ig-like domain in MuSK, however some patients harbor serum autoantibodies that recognize other ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) ... CD8+ Targeting of a Particular Nucleocapsid Protein Epitope with Potential Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Design ... COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 ...
  • An increasing number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against HIV have been identified in recent years and have illuminated new neutralizing epitopes on the envelope (Env) glycoprotein complex. (plos.org)
  • Epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a widely used technique in evaluating the immunogenic potential of such target antigens. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Generating mAbs against the native extracellular epitopes of multispanning membrane proteins is challenging, and as a result, few nonpeptidic mAbs against transporters have ever been isolated. (pnas.org)
  • The specific mAbs isolated here recognize native GLUT4 on the cell surface and can distinguish its different conformational states, thus representing some of the only state-specific mAbs ever isolated against any transporter. (pnas.org)
  • Epitope mapping of these mAbs revealed their binding sites as well as the mechanisms by which amino acids control the inward-open and outward-open states of GLUT4. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report the isolation and characterization of conformational mAbs that recognize the extracellular and intracellular domains of GLUT4, including mAbs that are specific for the inward-open and outward-open states of GLUT4. (pnas.org)
  • In recent years, there has been a renaissance in the use of antibodies for therapy: 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are currently licensed and dozens are in the developmental pipeline ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The N[H.sub.2] terminus of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has 31 additional amino acids not present in the skeletal isoforms, and this has aided in generating cTnI-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (8,9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The assay is based on chromium dioxide particle technology (26) and uses two mAbs recognizing different epitopes on cTnI than the other commercial cTnI methods. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Competition methods look to determine if two monoclonal antibodies (mABs) can bind to an antigen at the same time or compete with each other to bind at the same site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present work we discuss the production and biochemical characterization of a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the distal N-terminus of PrP C using a well-established methodology based on the immunization of Prnp 0/0 mice. (peerj.com)
  • Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. (rcsb.org)
  • To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. (mdpi.com)
  • Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. (mdpi.com)
  • Three conformational epitopes were detected on HA by blocking ELISA and immuno-dot blot analysis using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with HI activity, designated 8C1C, 4G8B, 24E4D, 11E11B, and 10D1A. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • All chickens immunized once with HPC5.5 did not show any typical clinical signs such as nasal discharge or facial edema against challenge inoculation with Av. paragallinarum serovar C. However, HPC5.1, which was recognized by four MAbs (not including MAb 8C1C), showed only partial protective immunity in five of eight immunized chickens. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Antibodies eluted from the beads showed neutralization profiles similar to those of the original plasmas, with potencies comparable to those of the known anti-MPER monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 4E10, 2F5, and Z13e1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alanine scanning of the MPER showed that the antibodies from these three plasmas had specificities distinct from those of the known MAbs, requiring one to three crucial residues at positions 670, 673, and 674. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we demonstrate that antibodies for native PrP c and PrP Sc can be produced by immunization of Prn-P o/o mice with partially purified PrP c and PrP Sc adsorbed to immunomagnetic particles using high-affinity anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (springer.com)
  • Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. (asm.org)
  • however, diversities between strains form the basis for serogroup and serovar determination with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) ( 14 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Attempts to map the epitopes of PorB recognized by serovar-specific MAbs by using amino acid alignments of the mature proteins as well as synthetic peptides have been published, but many epitopes remain unidentified ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, for several of the widely used MAbs, the exact antigenic epitopes of PorB are not identified. (asm.org)
  • Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. (plos.org)
  • Conformational epitopes within mature Env can be found within a single protomer, and distant patches of amino acid sequences that are brought together by protein folding. (plos.org)
  • Mapping of the epitopes recognized by SW1, SW3, and SW5 revealed that all three monoclonal antibodies recognize an epitope within the domain of the protein formed by the ribonucleoprotein motif. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the Human Proteome Project ( 5 ) has announced that one of the three pillars of the project will be antibody-based, with one of the aims being to generate antibodies to at least one representative protein from all protein-coding genes. (mcponline.org)
  • Knowledge about the binding site (epitope) of an antibody toward a target protein is thus important for gaining basic insights into antibody specificity and sensitivity and facilitating the identification and design of antigens to be used for reagents in proteomics, as well as for the generation of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines ( 1 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • One of the key parameters for antibodies includes the nature of the binding recognition toward the target, involving either linear epitopes formed by consecutive amino acid residues or conformational epitopes consisting of amino acids brought together by the fold of the target protein ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • L1 is a myristoylated envelope protein that is a potent target for neutralizing antibodies and an important component of current experimental vaccines. (pnas.org)
  • There are multiple ways to identify the linear epitopes of a protein antigen. (asm.org)
  • Protease digestion of antigen proteins, chemical cleavage at specific residues within a protein, and modification of specific amino acids are all methods to identify epitopes and study antigenicity ( 2 , 3 , 9 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • This technique is used primarily when few details are known about the protein-protein (e.g., antibody-antigen) binding interaction. (asm.org)
  • used this anti-SHV-1 polyclonal antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format for identification and quantification of SHV β-lactamases produced by clinical isolates and to assess levels of SHV protein expression in SHV mutants created in the laboratory setting ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Herein, we describe the crystal structures of DENV1-E111 bound to a novel CC' loop epitope on domain III (DIII) of the E protein from two different DENV-1 genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • In an attempt to generate an immunogen competent to generate 447-52D-like antibodies, the known epitope of 447-52D was inserted at three different surface loop locations in the small, stable protein Escherichia coli Trx (thioredoxin). (portlandpress.com)
  • Exposed epitopes of the spike protein may be recognized by neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV). (asm.org)
  • A protein fragment (S-II) containing predicted epitopes of the spike protein was expressed in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies raised against this fragment recognized the native spike protein of SARS CoV in both monomeric and trimeric forms. (asm.org)
  • Thus, this region of the spike protein might be a target for generation of therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against SARS CoV and for vaccine development to elicit protective humoral immunity. (asm.org)
  • One of the potential cell tropism determinants is the spike (S) protein that recognizes the host receptor ( 2 , 4 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their structure and interaction with the paratope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitopes that are masked when protein subunits aggregate are called cryptotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neotopes are epitopes that are only recognized while in a specific quaternary structure and the residues of the epitope can span multiple protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In several cases, multiple distinct epitopes could be identified for the same target protein, suggesting an efficient approach to the generation of paired antibodies. (mcponline.org)
  • Thus, antibodies are the main priority of several recent initiatives such as the Human Protein Atlas ( 3 ) and the ProteomeBinders consortium ( 4 , 5 ) and of efforts to generate antibodies against cancer-related targets ( 6 , 7 ), all of which aim to systematically generate affinity reagents, thereby facilitating the study of proteins and their role in biology and disease. (mcponline.org)
  • Individuals in areas where malaria is endemic possess EBA-140-specific antibodies, and individuals with high antibody titers to this protein have a lower rate of reinfection by parasites. (asm.org)
  • Exceptions are linear epitopes , which are determined by the amino acid sequence (the primary structure ) rather than by the 3D shape ( tertiary structure ) of a protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Epitopes can be mapped using protein microarrays , and with the ELISPOT or ELISA techniques. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, molecular biology and peptide chemistry provide two powerful tools for mapping the epitopes of a protein, given the recognizing antibody: combinatorial libraries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. (plos.org)
  • We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. (plos.org)
  • One recombinant protein, designated HPC5.5, was recognized by MAb 8C1C, and had strong ability to adsorb HI antibody to Av. paragallinarum serovar C. Other recombinant proteins designated HPC5.1, HPC4.8, and HPC2.5 did not react with MAb 8C1C and only slightly adsorbed HI antibody. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The results suggest that the HA epitope recognized by MAb 8C1C is the major epitope responsible for eliciting HI antibody, and HPC5.5 is a practical candidate protein to develop a new vaccine against avian infectious coryza caused by Av. paragallinarum serovar C. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • De novo protein design enables the precise induction of RSV-neutralizing antibodies. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we present a protein design algorithm called TopoBuilder, with which we engineered epitope-focused immunogens displaying complex structural motifs. (stanford.edu)
  • The localization of cell division protein FtsQ in Escherichia coli wild-type cells was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy with specific monoclonal antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2 extracellular domain protein to produce monoclonal antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody epitopes were localized using plasmids encoding recombinant HER2 protein variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although heat-denatured PrP Sc elicited more diverse antibodies with the revelation of C-terminal epitopes, remarkably, these were also predominantly IgM suggesting that the increasing immunogenicity, acquisition of protease sensitivity, and reduction in infectivity induced by heat are not associated with dissociation of the PrP molecules in the diseased-associated protein. (springer.com)
  • Adsorbing native proteins to immunomagnetic particles may have general applicability for raising polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies to any native protein, without attempting laborious purification steps that might affect protein conformation. (springer.com)
  • Female mice were immunized with a synthetic peptide containing this B cell epitope coupled to a carrier protein to provide helper T cell epitopes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Identifiseringen av en antigen epitop av immunsystemet åpner for forståelsen av den beskyttende mekanisme av nøytraliserende antistoffer som kan fremme utvikling av vaksiner og peptid narkotika. (jove.com)
  • Cross-reactivity of the anti-La monoclonal antibody SW5 with early endosome antigen 2. (nih.gov)
  • 16. A molecule comprising the antigen-binding portion of an antibody raised against the peptide of claim 10 . (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the SPOTs method, antibody-reactive epitopes are mapped on an antigen with known amino acid sequence. (asm.org)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • MHV, a group II CoV ( 5 , 6 ), recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules as another group of CoV receptors. (asm.org)
  • An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conformational and linear epitopes interact with the paratope based on the 3-D conformation adopted by the epitope, which is determined by the surface features of the involved epitope residues and the shape or tertiary structure of other segments of the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cell epitopes are presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell, where they are bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the antigen that immunoglobulin or antibodies bind to is called a B-cell epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. (rcsb.org)
  • • The structure recognized by an antibody is called an antigenic determinant or epitope . • In contrast, an epitope composed of a single segment of polypeptide chain is termed a continuous or linear epitope . • The interaction between an antibody and its antigen can be disrupted by high salt concentrations, extremes of pH, detergents, and sometimes by competition with high concentrations of the pure epitope itself. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=epitope&rid=imm.section.335#341 ">Antibodies bind to conformational shapes on the surfaces of antigens (Janeway Immunobiology Section 3.8) - The interaction of the antibody molecule with specific antigen. (thefullwiki.org)
  • One of the most interesting problems in molecular immunology is epitope mapping, i.e. the identification of the regions of interaction between an antigen and an antibody. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The solution to this problem, even if approximate, would help in designing experiments to precisely map the residues involved in the interaction and could be instrumental both in designing peptides able to mimic the interacting surface of the antigen and in understanding where immunologically important regions are located in its three-dimensional structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The correct identification of a conformational epitope can be obtained by structural determination of the antibody antigen complex, a time and labour consuming procedure that cannot be guaranteed to succeed in all cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is worth emphasizing that the library selection strategy does not require the knowledge of the antigen, but only the availability of an antibody, thereby it can also be used for identifying unknown agents provided antibodies against them can be elicited or found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of antigen epitopes in renal autoimmune diseases, such as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and ANCA vasculitis, has contributed to the understanding of the disease mechanisms in these entities. (asnjournals.org)
  • Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. (plos.org)
  • In various embodiments, the present invention is drawn to antibodies or antigen-binding fragments thereof that bind to a vertebrate high mobility group box (HMGB) polypeptide, methods of detecting and/or identifying an agent that binds to an HMGB polypeptide, methods of treating a condition in a subject. (google.ca)
  • 1. An antibody produced by a murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof. (google.ca)
  • 4. The isolated cell of claim 3 , wherein said isolated cell is selected from the group consisting of an immortalized B cell, a hybridoma and a recombinant cell comprising one or more exogenous nucleic acid molecules that encode said antibody or antigen-binding fragment of said antibody. (google.ca)
  • 5. An antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof wherein said antibody or fragment comprises the light chain CDRs (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) and the heavy chain CDRs (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of the 6E6 HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by the murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433. (google.ca)
  • 6. The antibody or antigen-binding fragment of claim 5 wherein said antibody or antigen-binding fragment further comprises a human framework region. (google.ca)
  • b) one or more ancillary reagents suitable for detecting the presence of a complex between said antibody or antigen-binding fragment and said HMGB1 polypeptide or said portion thereof. (google.ca)
  • In addition, novel vaccine antigen identification methods are being devised using combinations of various techniques such as genomics, proteomics, knockout technologies and epitope mapping. (thefishsite.com)
  • Furthermore, we discuss triggers of autoimmunity, such as molecular mimicry, ectopic antigen expression, epitope spreading, and potential mechanisms for the rising number of double autoantibody-positive patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 500 cells/mm 3 against overlapping HIV-1 peptides using a flow cytometry-based antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assay. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ADCC epitopes were mapped using the matrix of overlapping peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • The frequently recognized peptides from the V3 loop of Env and the novel epitopes from Tat by the LTNPs warrants further study to understand the role of ADCC responses to these regions in control and prevention of HIV-1 infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knowledge about an antibody's linear epitopes is also useful in, for instance, developing assays involving the capture of peptides obtained from trypsin cleavage of samples prior to mass spectrometry analysis. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we describe, for the first time, the design and use of peptide arrays covering all human proteins for the analysis of antibody specificity, based on parallel in situ photolithic synthesis of a total of 2.1 million overlapping peptides. (mcponline.org)
  • The analysis suggests that linear epitopes are relatively short, confined to five to seven residues, resulting in apparent off-target binding to peptides corresponding to a large number of unrelated human proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Antibodies are used in proteomics both as imaging reagents for the analysis of tissue specificity ( 1 ) and subcellular localization ( 2 ) and as capturing agents for targeted proteomics ( 3 ), in particular for the enrichment of peptides for immunoaffinity methods such as Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-peptide Antibodies ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Complementary binding peptides are then assayed by affinity binding of the antibody. (asm.org)
  • These overlapping peptides are assayed for binding reactivity, and the sequence common to the reactive peptides, the consensus sequence, is the epitope ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • From the sequence of immunoreactive peptides, we determined which amino acid residues play a role in the binding of the polyclonal rabbit antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • These neutralizing antibodies mapped to epitopes in two peptides, each comprising 20 amino acids. (asm.org)
  • T cell epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules are typically peptides between 8 and 11 amino acids in length, whereas MHC class II molecules present longer peptides, 13-17 amino acids in length, and non-classical MHC molecules also present non-peptidic epitopes such as glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform high-throughput, high-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. (mcponline.org)
  • With an upper theoretical limit of 2,000,000 individual peptides per array, these peptide microarrays may even be used for a systematic validation of antibodies at the proteomic level. (mcponline.org)
  • The reduction of brain amyloid beta (A β ) peptides by anti-A β antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The levels of serum anti-A β antibodies and plasma A β peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain A β 40 level of guinea pigs. (hindawi.com)
  • The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain A β peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of A β peptides by generated antibodies. (hindawi.com)
  • The immediate application of the server is the mapping of antibody epitopes, however the system is sufficiently flexible for allowing other questions to be asked, for example one can compare the peptides representing the surface of two proteins known to interact with the same macromolecule to find which is the most likely interacting region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The great diversity contained in a library allows the selection of peptides able to bind to an antibody. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is important to gain basic insights regarding the binding sites (epitopes) of antibodies and potential cross-reactivity to nontarget proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • However, subsequent analysis using recombinant proteins suggests that these linear epitopes have a strict conformational component, thus giving us new insights regarding how antibodies bind to their antigens. (mcponline.org)
  • Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) are also epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another technique involves high-throughput mutagenesis, an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, complexes formed between Abs and the therapeutic agents they recognize can adversely affect the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic characteristics of recombinant proteins by limiting or altering the volume of distribution in vivo ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. (mcponline.org)
  • Although epitopes are usually thought to be derived from nonself proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also classified as epitopes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Intensive research is currently taking place to design reliable tools that will predict epitopes on proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cyclin E-specific antibodies coprecipitated a number of cyclin E-associated proteins from cell lysates, among which are the spliceosome-associated proteins, SAP 114, SAP 145, and SAP 155, as well as the snRNP core proteins B′ and B. The three SAPs are all subunits of the essential splicing factor SF3, a component of U2 snRNP. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain-swapping approach to generate a series of L1 proteins composed of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) L1 backbone containing different regions of HPV16 L1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finer epitope mapping, using GST-L1 fusion proteins, mapped the 16A epitope to the L1 variable regions I and possibly II within the N-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, our design approach opens the possibility of targeting specific epitopes for the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and, more generally, will be applicable to the design of de novo proteins displaying complex functional motifs. (stanford.edu)
  • We isolated high mobility group (HMG) nonhisitone chromosomal proteins 1 and 2 (HMGB1/HMGB2) as target antigens of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, and have been analyzing the roles of those autoantibodies as well as the autoantigens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Knowledge of the amino acids that define recognition of anti-β-lactamase antibodies is critical to the interpretation of sensitivity and specificity of these antibodies when they are used in a clinical or research setting. (asm.org)
  • Impact of antibody specificity and calibration material on the measure of agreement between methods for cardiac troponin I. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against linear epitopes of the human proteome and obtained very detailed descriptions of the involved specificities. (mcponline.org)
  • In general, the antibodies were of exquisite specificity, frequently disallowing even single conservative substitutions. (mcponline.org)
  • Specificity, the quintessential characteristic of an antibody, is therefore not only of scientific interest, but also of considerable practical importance. (mcponline.org)
  • For any antibody-based application, the establishment of specificity constitutes an important aspect of the validation process. (mcponline.org)
  • Given that the crystallography model predicts the hypervariable regions to be displayed as surface-exposed loops [ 25 ]and that the loops are highly immunogenic, it is quite likely that the loop epitopes are the determinants of type-specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aberrations in glycan structure, referred to as Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs), offer a promising avenue for targeted cancer immunotherapy, specifically for the design of epitope-based vaccines. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Unlike vaccines, which require time to induce protective immunity and depend on the host's ability to mount an immune response, passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the vaccine against hepatitis B does not elicit an antibody response in approximately 10% of vaccines, and the percentage of nonresponders is substantially higher in immunocompromised persons ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The efficacy of these vaccines is critically dependent upon L1 type-specific conformational epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vaccinology, the induction of precise antibody responses remains a cornerstone for next-generation vaccines. (stanford.edu)
  • Research in the Aquatic Vaccine Unit focuses on fish disease control through the development of novel rapid diagnostic tests (both molecular and antibody based) and vaccines for both fresh water and marine cultured fish species. (thefishsite.com)
  • Numerous vaccines, antibodies and kits have been/are being commercialised from research projects performed at Stirling. (thefishsite.com)
  • In contrast, a linear epitope is formed by the 3-D conformation adopted by the interaction of contiguous amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A linear epitope is not determined solely by the primary structure of the involved amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results show that ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays can be used for linear epitope mapping. (mcponline.org)
  • We have used the SPOT peptide synthesis method to map the linear epitopes recognized by anti-SHV-1 and anti-CMY-2 polyclonal antibodies to their respective antigens. (asm.org)
  • The early promise of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic reagents that can selectively target tumors has been hampered by a lack of appreciation for the limited number of actual tumor-specific cell surface antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ruptures in the plasma membrane occur early in the stages of cell necrosis, allowing for antibody access to intracellular antigens, such as the DNA/Histone H1 complex targeted by our antibodies, chimeric TNT-1 and human NHS76. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Electron microscopy is a low-resolution method that can localize epitopes on larger antigens like virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve efficient, targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents to mesothelioma cells, we selected a naive human single-chain (scFv) phage antibody display library directly on the surface of live mesothelioma cells to identify internalizing antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated cell surface antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most importantly, these antibodies stain mesothelioma cells in situ and therefore define a panel of clinically represented tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=imm.figgrp.340 ">Antigens can bind in pockets or grooves, or on extended surfaces in the binding sites of antibodies (Janeway Immunobiology Figure 3.8) - Antigens can bind in pockets or grooves, or on extended surfaces in the binding sites of antibodies. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Fundamentally, pathogenic autoantibodies recognize cell surface antigens in their native conformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data suggest that because of the low accessibility of the V3 loop on primary isolates such as JRFL, it will be difficult to elicit a V3-specific, 447-52D-like antibody response to effectively neutralize such isolates. (portlandpress.com)
  • Hence, screening for the identification of the topographical repertoire of B-cell epitopes that elicit cross-protective immune response seems essential in the engineering of a superior PspA-based vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data demonstrate the existence of MPER-specific cross-neutralizing antibodies in plasma, although the ability to elicit such potent antiviral antibodies during natural infection appears to be rare. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To date, it has been impossible to elicit antibodies to native PrP Sc that are capable of recognizing PrP Sc without denaturation, even in Prn-P o/o mice that are intolerant of it. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies are of importance for the field of proteomics, both as reagents for imaging cells, tissues, and organs and as capturing agents for affinity enrichment in mass-spectrometry-based techniques. (mcponline.org)
  • This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. (cdc.gov)
  • What is the acceptable tolerance range for storage of antibodies and other reagents recommended at 4°C? (biolegend.com)
  • We also note that chTNT-1 and NHS76 recognize epitopes whose accessibility is not lost in tumorigenic cells, making them good tumor targeting reagents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As specific affinity reagents, antibodies have become indispensable tools with a wide range of scientific and diagnostic applications ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Using biochemical and biophysical methods, we demonstrate the binding of several Bp and Bm LPS-specific monoclonal antibodies with terminal OAg residues. (nature.com)
  • In the epitope spanning amino acids 102 to 114, alanine and X-Scan analysis demonstrated that D104, Y105, P107, and S109 are essential residues for antibody recognition. (asm.org)
  • A conformational epitope is formed by the 3-D conformation adopted by the interaction of discontiguous amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ∼1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. (rcsb.org)
  • Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We use a fully validated peptide microarray assay to map and analyse specific antigenic regions recognized by antibodies elicited by vaccination. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 6. The method of claim 5 wherein the peptide binds to an antibody in substantially the same way as an antibody binds to human estrogen receptor. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 5 wherein the target molecule mimic is a peptide that binds to an 1D5 estrogen receptor-specific monoclonal antibody to produce a detectable reaction and comprising an amino acid sequence QXP, where X can be any amino acid. (google.com)
  • Upon immunization, the V3 peptide-inserted Trx scaffold was able to generate anti-V3 antibodies that could compete out 447-52D binding to gp120. (portlandpress.com)
  • We previously reported that the A β peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-A β antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. (hindawi.com)
  • The peptide vaccine induced anti-A β antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. (hindawi.com)
  • The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-A β antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. (hindawi.com)
  • From an experimental point of view, both genetically encoded and chemically synthesised peptide libraries can be used to identify sequences recognized by a given antibody. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified three cross-neutralizing plasma samples with high-titer anti-membrane proximal external region (MPER) peptide binding antibodies from among 156 chronically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Similar to T cell epitopes, B cell epitopes can be divided into two groups: conformational or linear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
  • Methods for functionally mapping epitopes often use binding assays such as western blot, dot blot, and/or ELISA to determine antibody binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-HER2 antibodies were characterized with breast cancer cell lines using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • APP degradation activity of the 68 kDa serine protease, which was originally prepared from familial AD lymphoblastoid cells and harbors beta-secretase-like activity, was analyzed by Western blot using anti Abeta 1/40 antibody and anti APP cytoplasmic domain (CT) antibody. (arctichealth.org)
  • Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation ( i . e . quaternary epitopes). (plos.org)
  • In recent years, interest has shifted to uncover the target epitopes of these autoantibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With over 20 monoclonal-antibody-based drugs now on the market and over 100 in clinical trials, the field of antibody therapeutics has become a central component of the pharmaceutical industry ( 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Following the discovery of ERBB2 gene amplifications in breast cancer, the HER2 receptor became an attractive target for monoclonal antibody-based therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integral Molecular offers proprietary eptiope mapping services similar to those shown in this paper on a commercial basis. (plos.org)
  • This includes the molecular characterization of the infecting pathogen, identification of correlates of immune protection from infection and disease progression, biomarker discovery for TB diagnostics and treatment monitoring, characterization of HIV reservoirs, as well as mapping of B cell epitopes upon vaccination. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The immune system is endowed with a highly diverse repertoire of antibodies capable of targeting virtually any molecular structure. (mcponline.org)
  • Genetic sequences coding for epitopes that are recognized by common antibodies can be fused to genes, thus aiding further molecular characterization of the gene product. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Little is known about the ADCC responses to HIV-1 subtype C. We characterized ADCC responses in HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian subjects with slow disease progression and identified the dominant antigenic regions recognized by these antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. (plos.org)
  • Generally, it is thought that the broadly neutralizing epitopes may be relatively weakly immunogenic and structurally difficult to access [ 1 ]. (plos.org)
  • The future vaccine will have to be multivalent in order to provide adequate protection, perhaps consisting of a cocktail of different HPV neutralizing epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. (rcsb.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to identify haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes of Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar C that are capable of eliciting haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody, and to investigate their immunogenic role. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In these studies, only highly homologous HPVs, such as HPV6/11 and HPV18/45, induced cross-neutralizing sera and type-common epitopes were found to be less immunogenic than type-specific epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Not only do the papillomavirus loop sequences display potentially virus-neutralizing B cell epitopes, but the manner in which they are presented to the host immune system makes them highly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To overcome difficulties in tumor targeting, we are developing a series of antibodies targeting histones and nucleic acids, structures every cell needs to replicate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It becomes all the more critical that the epitopes for each of our antibodies are well characterized and the accessibility evaluated in appropriate tumor models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present invention provides antibodies useful as therapeutics for treating and/or preventing diseases associated with cells expressing GT468, including tumor-related diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, and hepatocellular cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In principle, a variety of antineoplastic agents can be attached to affinity agents that recognize tumor-associated cell surface molecules to achieve targeted killing ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The third variable loop region of gp120 (V3 loop) contains multiple immunodominant epitopes and is also functionally important for deciding cell-tropism of the virus. (portlandpress.com)
  • In contrast, immunization of mice with the functionally relevant F1 domain of region II results in antibodies that confer a 2-fold increase in parasite neutralization compared to that of the F2 domain. (asm.org)
  • Epitope mapping of diverse F1 and F2 monoclonal antibodies revealed that the functionally relevant F1 sialic acid-binding pocket is a privileged site inaccessible to antibodies, that the F2 sialic acid-binding pocket contains a nonneutralizing epitope, and that two additional epitopes reside in F1 on the opposite face from the sialic acid-binding pocket. (asm.org)
  • Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection. (plos.org)
  • The tails were once considered easily accessible, the only structural epitopes worth noting were those sites that were post-translationally modified with phosphorylation or acetylation during transcriptional regulation of chromatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As therapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies have emerged as essential drugs with a wide range of clinical applications, making monoclonal antibodies one of the highest priorities of the pharmaceutical industry ( 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In recent clinical trials, passive immunization with the anti-A β antibody, bapineuzumab and solanezumab, and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with mild to moderate AD [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2 , 3 Anti-PLA2R1 antibody levels associate with clinical outcome of affected patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • 16 , 17 PLA2R1 contains at least two more epitope regions involved in autoimmune processes in MN, and epitope spreading from the N-terminus toward the C-terminus might associate with a poor clinical outcome and a reduced response to immunosuppressive therapy. (asnjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we characterized the association of individual epitope profiles and changes of epitope recognition patterns over time with the clinical presentation. (asnjournals.org)
  • A high-affinity monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, ligelizumab, has recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations associated with the clinical use of the therapeutic anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab. (stanford.edu)
  • Mice immunized with terminal disaccharide-CRM197 constructs produced high-titer antibody responses that crossreacted with Bm -like OAgs. (nature.com)
  • This suggests that different papillomavirus genotypes may represent different serotypes and that neutralizing antibody responses to different papillomaviruses are type-specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the immunogens refocused preexisting antibody responses toward defined neutralization epitopes. (stanford.edu)
  • Identification and Characterization of Haemagglutinin Epitopes of Avibacterium Paragallinarum Serovar C." Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 131, no. 3-4, 2008, pp. 406-13. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 6. The molecule of claim 5, wherein the molecule is a monoclonal antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The molecule of claim 5, wherein the molecule is a chimeric or humanized antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17. The molecule of claim 16, wherein the molecule is a monoclonal antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 18. The molecule of claim 16, wherein the molecule is a chimeric or humanized antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The topographic relationship of polymorphic epitopes on the surface of the B7 molecule was assessed with various serological assays using cell surface B7 or papain solubilized B7 as the antigenic target. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, although antibodies are the most commonly used selectors in combinatorial library experiments, because they can be obtained from patient sera or by immunizing experimental animals, it should be apparent that the technique can be, and is, applied using any receptor as selector molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, 28 serum samples (90%) recognized multiple epitope domains along the molecule. (asnjournals.org)
  • The inability to adsorb cross-neutralizing antibodies with recombinant gp120 suggests that some of these antibodies recognize epitopes only apparent in the context of the trimeric glycoprotein or on the gp41 molecule ( 3 , 12 , 16 , 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By definition a monoclonal antibody is of one Ig subtype, while a polyclonal antibody contains multiple Ig subtypes. (biolegend.com)
  • Antibody epitope mapping of untensioned microfibrils revealed the juxtaposition of epitopes at the COOH terminus and near the proline-rich region, and of two internal epitopes that would be 42-nm apart in unfolded molecules, which infers intramolecular folding. (rupress.org)
  • However, the THSD7A epitopes targeted by patient autoantibodies are unknown. (asnjournals.org)
  • Notably, immunization experiments in rabbits and mice revealed that induced antibodies, like patient autoantibodies, preferentially bound to the most N-terminal domains of THSD7A. (asnjournals.org)
  • Further analyses of the recognition of La from other species by these monoclonal antibodies revealed that they all reacted with bovine La and were not reactive with La from rodents and Xenopus laevis. (nih.gov)
  • A detailed analysis of the recognition sites that are located in an area analogous to the omega loop of class A β-lactamases (V211 to V223) showed that the amino acids Q215 to E219 are important in antibody binding. (asm.org)
  • In the present study we wanted to discern whether SHV-1 variants are recognized as well as SHV-1 by the anti-SHV-1 antibody or whether SHV recognition due to mutations would be altered. (asm.org)
  • During follow-up, a loss of epitope recognition was observed in seven of 16 patients, and it was accompanied by decreasing antibody levels and remission of proteinuria. (asnjournals.org)
  • In four of 16 patients, epitope recognition patterns changed during follow-up. (asnjournals.org)
  • Regarding A β immunotherapy, both active immunization against A β and passive immunization with monoclonal A β antibodies were reported to attenuate amyloid plaque formation in the brains of APP transgenic mice [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we show that immunization of mice with the complete region II results in poorly neutralizing antibodies. (asm.org)
  • These mice showed an elevated level of serum HMG1, and the survival rate increased by a simultaneous i.p.injection of monoclonal anti-HMG1 antibody (J.Surg.Res.124:59,2005). (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody to ZP3 injected into female mice inhibits fertilization by binding to the zona pellucida and blocking sperm penetration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Serological studies of papillomavirus virus like particles (VLPs) demonstrate that antibodies cross-reactive with multiple HPV VLP types recognize type-common epitopes and generally are not neutralizing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the 447-52D-type antibodies were estimated to be present at concentrations of 50-400 μg/ml of serum, these were not able to effect neutralization of strains like JRFL and BAL but could neutralize the sensitive MN strain. (portlandpress.com)
  • Serum recognizing one or two epitope domains showed lower anti-THSD7A antibody levels than serum recognizing three or more epitope domains. (asnjournals.org)
  • We also analyzed the HMGB1 epitopes that were recognized by serum antibodies derived from patients with various autoimmune diseases : rheumatic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and autoimmune liver diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have evaluated antibody localization in vitro by epitope mapping the histone tail sites using proteolytic fragments and deletion mutants. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These monoclonal antibodies were capable of blocking S-II attachment to Vero cells and exhibited in vitro antiviral activity. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of colloidal gold and antibody binding sites in untensioned microfibrils and those extended in vitro, and immunofluorescence studies of fibrillin deposition in cell layers, indicate conformation changes and intramolecular folding. (rupress.org)
  • Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning against unwanted ( e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. (mcponline.org)
  • Further studies on the epitopes of HLA-B7 defined by murine monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • However, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) has been developed for the prophylactic treatment of infants at high risk for RSV infection [ 8 , 9 ]. (plos.org)
  • 3. An isolated cell that produces the 6E6 HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by the murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433. (google.ca)
  • Fc-mediated functions of Env-specific antibodies, such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), correlated with protection against HIV infection in an RV 144 phase III HIV vaccine trial ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This article reviews the activity of humoral immunity against several biological agents, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an antibody-based defense strategy ( Table ), and proposes stockpiling specific antibodies for use in the event of biological attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to establish if these antibodies were directly responsible for the observed neutralization breadth, we used MPER-coated magnetic beads to deplete plasmas of these specific antibodies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Anti-MPER antibodies have been detected in the plasma of HIV-infected individuals by using chimeric viruses with HIV-1 MPER grafted into a simian immunodeficiency virus or an HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein ( 11 , 35 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For a broad overview of all our cross-reactive antibodies, use our Antibody Cross-reactivity Chart . (biolegend.com)
  • This property is exploited by the immune system in regulation by anti-idiotypic antibodies (originally proposed by Nobel laureate Niels Kaj Jerne). (wikipedia.org)
  • if the second antibody is of IgG class, its binding can downregulate the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. (plos.org)
  • If an antibody binds to an antigen's epitope, the paratope could become the epitope for another antibody that will then bind to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • these features fit precisely and thus bind to antibodies. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The T-cell epitope of HMGB1 was investigated by measuring the affinity to bind to HLA-A2.1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been postulated that targeting of conformational epitopes on mature Env trimers may be necessary to neutralize HIV. (plos.org)
  • This antibody has previously been shown to neutralize diverse strains of the virus. (portlandpress.com)
  • Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We produced five new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, all directed against conformational epitope or epitopes restricted to the native form of the extracellular domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We revealed that the 9-mer of HMGB1 12-20 showed the similar affinity as a well-known CTL epitope, p17-WT. (nii.ac.jp)
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
  • An important factor to consider in the identification of autoantigens and their epitope targets is the methodology that is used in the experimental setting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some cases, broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies have been mapped to the CD4 binding site, the coreceptor binding site (CD4i), and other undefined epitopes within gp120. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The only currently available intervention that could provide a state of immediate immunity is passive immunization with protective antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • 14 , 15 Recently, the most N-terminal part of PLA2R1 was identified as the immunodominant epitope region in patients with PLA2R1-associated MN. (asnjournals.org)
  • A large number of methods have therefore been developed to determine the epitopes of antibodies, including mass spectrometry ( 9 ), solid phase libraries ( 10 , 11 ), and different display systems ( 12 ⇓ - 14 ) such as bacterial display ( 15 ) and phage display ( 16 ). (mcponline.org)
  • There are two main methods of epitope mapping: either structural or functional studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods for structurally mapping epitopes include X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. (rcsb.org)
  • We also address the methods used to analyze these epitopes, the relevance of their determination, and how this knowledge can inform studies on autoantibody pathogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is likely to be important in governing protection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and slowing disease progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assay measured CD107a expression on NK cells as a marker of antibody-dependent NK cell activation and IFN-γ secretion by NK cells upon activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • L1 is also involved in infection, because antibodies to L1 are able to block host cell invasion by the IMV form of the virus ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • B cell epitopes are mainly conformational. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] MHC class I and II epitopes can be reliably predicted by computational means alone, although not all in-silico T cell epitope prediction algorithms are equivalent in their accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies, either alone or in combination with TNF-α, were tested for their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell-dependent synergy and antagonism between anti-HER2 antibodies and TNF-α provide evidence for a complex interplay between HER2 and TNF-α signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we found that the major B-cell epitope of a monoclonal anti-HMGB1 antibody, FBH7, is a combinatorial structure which is constructed by amino acid residue 52-56, ant that this portion is different between neutrophil-derived and lymphocyte-derived HMGB1 (J.Biochem.136;155,2004). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The lack of ovarian histopathology or cellular cytotoxicity among the immunized animals may be because of the absence of zona pellucida T cell epitopes in this vaccine. (sciencemag.org)
  • The induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been one of the most pursued outcomes in the development of a preventive vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, it is known that some individuals develop broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies during natural HIV-1 infection ( 5 , 6 , 18 , 25 , 26 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The MPER has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for vaccine-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies ( 20 , 23 , 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope is called a paratope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colloidal gold binds microfibrils in the absence of antibody. (rupress.org)
  • The anti-MPER neutralizing antibodies in BB34 were present in the immunoglobulin G3 subclass-enriched fraction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Herein, we revisit epitope identification in PspA and the utility of hybridoma technology in directing the identification of protective epitope regions of PspA that can be used in vaccine research. (frontiersin.org)