Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (1/3338)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (2/3338)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin subclass distribution and diagnostic value of Leishmania donovani antigen-specific immunoglobulin G3 in Indian kala-azar patients. (3/3338)

Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a fatal tropical disease, remains problematic, as early diagnosis is difficult and treatment often results in drug resistance and relapse. We have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts (LAg) to detect specific antibody responses in 25 untreated Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients. To investigate the pathogenetic significance of isotype markers in kala-azar, relative levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses were analyzed under clinically established diseased conditions. Since LAg showed higher sensitivity for specific IgG than lysate, the immunoglobulin isotype responses were evaluated, with LAg as antigen. Compared to 60 controls, which included patients with malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhoid and healthy subjects, visceral leishmaniasis patients showed significantly higher IgG (100% sensitivity, 85% specificity), IgM (48% sensitivity, 100% specificity), and IgE (44% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) responses. Low levels of IgA in visceral leishmaniasis patients contrasted with a 13-fold-higher reactivity in sera from patients with leprosy. Among IgG subclasses, IgG1, -3, and -4 responses were significantly higher in visceral leishmaniasis patients than in the controls. IgG2 response, however, was significantly higher (twofold) in leprosy than even visceral leishmaniasis patients. The rank orders for sensitivity (IgG = IgG1 = IgG3 = IgG4 > IgG2 > IgM > IgE > IgA) and specificity (IgM = IgG3 > IgE > IgG4 > IgG2 > IgG > IgG1 > IgA) for LAg-specific antibody responses suggest the potentiality of IgG3 as a diagnostic marker for visceral leishmaniasis.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection. (4/3338)

With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.  (+info)

Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to Entamoeba histolytica on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). (5/3338)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed (1993 through 1995) among two different groups of persons on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. In the first group, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens from a household-based sample of 557 dwellers from the rural area of the island. In the second group, 1,633 inpatients and outpatients at the General Hospital of Malabo (the capital of the country) were studied. All age groups were represented in both groups. The average prevalence of the most common protozoan and helminthic intestinal infections in rural and urban areas, respectively, was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (14.9% and 32.7%, respectively), Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 8.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.8% and 31.4%), and Trichuris trichiura (25.7% and 36.4%). Seventy-nine sera from patients with amebic liver abscess (suspected by ultrasonography) were studied by an immunohemagglutination assay, with 44 (56%) showing anti-E. histolytica titers > or = 1:32. Of these 79 sera, 71 were studied by an enzyme immunoassay, 86% of which were positive with titers > or = 1:64. This study showed that parasitic infections in Equatorial Guinea represent a major health problem.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (6/3338)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Antibodies reactive with the N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen inhibit cell proliferation by agglutinating merozoites and schizonts. (7/3338)

The serine repeat antigen (SERA) is a vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization of mice with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein of the SERA N-terminal domain (SE47') induced an antiserum that was inhibitory to parasite growth in vitro. Affinity-purified mouse antibodies specific to the recombinant protein inhibited parasite growth between the schizont and ring stages but not between the ring and schizont stages. When Percoll-purified schizonts were cultured with the affinity-purified SE47'-specific antibodies, schizonts and merozoites were agglutinated. Indirect-immunofluorescence assays with unfixed parasite cells showed that SE47'-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) bound to SERA molecules on rupturing schizonts and merozoites but the IgG did not react with the schizont-infected erythrocytes (RBC). Furthermore, double-fluorescence staining against SE47'-specific IgG and anti-human RBC membrane IgG showed that the RBC membrane disappeared from SE47'-specific-IgG-bound schizonts after cultivation. These observations suggest that the SE47'-specific antibodies inhibit parasite growth by cross-linking SERA molecules that are associated with merozoites in rupturing schizonts with partly broken RBC and parasitophorous vacuole membranes, blocking merozoite release.  (+info)

Value of Western blotting in the clinical follow-up of canine leishmaniasis. (8/3338)

Specific serum antibody levels in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with a combination of glucantime and allopurinol were estimated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The sensitivity of Western blot was greater than that obtained with immunofluorescence titration. In general, both diagnostic methods concurred with the post-treatment clinical status of the animals. Clinical improvement of successfully treated dogs was related to lower immunofluorescence titers and simpler and/or less reactive immunodetection patterns in Western blotting. The recognition, by infected dogs, of certain low molecular weight antigens, particularly one of approximately 26 kDa, was restricted to pretreatment samples and a single animal in relapse thus apparently constituting an active infection marker.  (+info)

There are various products for anti-parasite treatment for dogs to keep ticks, fleas or lice off your dog. Can be used as a preventive measure or in cases of actual infestation.TRIXIE has been focussing on pets for over 40 years, with now 6,500 products on offer and lots of ideas and information on your pet.
Buy now a great natural anti-parasite, anti-microbial herb-based supplement. Extremely powerful formula, absolutely harmless and highly recommended. Che...
Anti-Parasite Advantage Vitamins Buy 1 Get 2 Free. Vitamins Because Your Worth It is your Pure choice for quality discount vitamins, minerals, herbs and nutritional supplements
Treating tuberculosis (TB) has become more difficult since the appearance of TB bacteria that can resist more than one antibiotic. Such forms of TB are ...
Combien Stromectol Ivermectin Generique. Stromectol Générique est un médicament anti-parasite. Il cause la mort de certains organismes parasitaires dans le corps et il est utilisé pour traiter les infections causées par ces parasites. ...
购买NANP兔多克隆抗体(ab61029),NANP抗体经IHC-P验证,可与人样本反应。产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
Rosa TF, Flammersfeld A, Ngwa CJ, Kiesow M, Fischer R, Zipfel PF, Skerka C, Pradel G (2016) The Plasmodium falciparum blood stages acquire factor H family proteins to evade destruction by human complement. Cell Microbiol 18(4), 573-590. PubMed ...
People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was
life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role ...
Belonging to the best range of Water Treatments awarded by the Pratical Fishkeeping Manufacturers Poll. Anti-Parasite is a single dose treatment to eradicate parasites such as Trichodina, Costia and Oodinium.
The roles of allelic and conserved epitopes in vaccine-induced immunity to the C-terminal 42-kDa fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) were investigated. The C-terminal fragment of MSP1 was expressed as a baculovirus recombinant protein, BVp42. Rabbits were immunized with BVp42, and antibodies were tested for reactivity to MSP1s of the homologous and heterologous allelic forms, represented by the FUP, FVO, FC27, and Honduras parasite isolates, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Despite the fact that allelic sequences accounted for approximately 50% of the BVp42 molecule, anti-BVp42 antibodies cross-reacted extensively with parasites carrying heterologous MSP1 alleles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays confirmed that an overwhelming majority of the anti-BVp42 antibodies were cross-reactive, suggesting that determinants within conserved block 17 are dominant B-cell epitopes in the anti-BVp42 response. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malaria-specific antibody responses and parasite persistence after infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi. AU - Achtman, A. H.. AU - Stephens, Robin. AU - Cadman, E. T.. AU - Harrison, V.. AU - Langhorne, J.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - While it is known that antibodies are critical for clearance of malaria infections, it is not clear whether adequate antibody responses are maintained and what effect chronic infection has on this response. Here we show that mice with low-grade chronic primary infections of Plasmodium chabaudi or infections very recently eliminated have reduced second infections when compared with the second infection of parasite-free mice. We also show that parasite-specific antibody responses induced by infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi contain both short- and long-lived components as well as memory B cells responsible for a faster antibody response during re-infection. Furthermore, parasite-specific antibodies to the C-terminal fragment ...
Many studies on the role of merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) in immunity against malaria have focused on a conserved section of MSP3. New evidence suggests that polymorphic sequences within MSP3 are under immune selection. We report a detailed analysis of naturally-acquired antibodies to allele-specific and conserved parts of MSP3 in a Kenyan cohort. Indirect and competition ELISA to heterologous recombinant MSP3 proteins were used for antibody assays, and parasites were genotyped for msp3 alleles. Antibody reactivity to allele-specific and conserved epitopes of MSP3 was heterogeneous between individuals. Overall, the prevalence of allele-specific antibody reactivity was significantly higher (3D7-specific 54%, K1-specific 41%) than that to a recombinant protein representing a conserved portion of C-terminal MSP3 (24%, P | 0.01). The most abundant IgG subclass was IgG3, followed by IgG1. Allele-specific reactivity to the K1-type of MSP3 was associated with a lower risk of clinical malaria episodes
Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method would provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia. In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed. IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-119) and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1) were measured by ELISA in paired saliva
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV infection drives IgM and IgG3 subclass bias in Plasmodium falciparum-specific and total immunoglobulin concentration in Western Kenya. AU - Odhiambo, Eliud O.. AU - Datta, Dibyadyuti. AU - Guyah, Bernard. AU - Ayodo, George. AU - Ondigo, Bartholomew N.. AU - AbongO, Benard O.. AU - John, Chandy. AU - Frosch, Anne E.P.. PY - 2019/8/30. Y1 - 2019/8/30. N2 - Background: HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses. Methods: HIV infected and uninfected adults were recruited from Bondo subcounty hospital in Western Kenya at the time of HIV testing (antiretroviral and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis naïve). Total and Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and glutamate rich protein-R0 (GLURP-R0) specific IgM, IgG and IgG subclass ...
In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, immunoglobulin G is acquired by the fetus in utero, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy. The potential protective effect of transferred anti-P. falciparum maternal antibodies was examined in a longitudinal study of 100 infants from birth to 1 year of age. The probability of acquiring a P. falciparum infection and developing an episode of clinical malaria was determined in relation to the P. falciparum-specific antibody level of the infant at birth against P. falciparum schizont antigen or recombinant merozoite surface protein MSP1(19) antigen. The risk of acquiring an episode of clinical malaria increased from birth to 6 months of age, after which it decreased. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum parasitemia was highest (48.9%) in the 6-month-old infants. The age-specific hematocrit value showed the lowest mean value (30.2) from 6 to 9 months, and the spleen rate was the highest (69.8%) at the same age. There was a lower risk of ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Development and Standardization of Dot - ELISA for Detection of Neospora caninum Antibodies in Cattle and Comparison with Standard Indirect ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT).
Malaria pathogenesis results from the asexual replication of Plasmodium falciparum within human red blood cells, which relies on a precisely timed cascade of
A toxoplasmose é uma parasitose prevalente em todo o mundo que quando adquirida podendo se transmitida ao feto quando contraída durante o período gestacional e causar, entre outros problemas, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, déficit visual e de audição. A prevenção da transmissão vertical deve ser iniciada antes da concepção ou o mais precocemente possível durante o exame pré-natal. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo objetivando a avaliação da soroprevalência da toxoplasmose em parturientes, atendidos na Unidade Básica de Saúde de Brasília Teimosa-Natal/RN, usando o teste sorológico de imunofluorescência indireta. Os resultados mostram que 62,5% dessas pacientes possuem anticorpos anti-toxoplasma, sendo que 22,5% da classe IgG e IgM concomitantemente, em diferentes títulos, e 62,5% possuíam anticorpos da classe IgG. O índice de prevalência de anticorpos anti-toxoplasma neste grupo de gestantes está relacionada à localização geográfica, hábitos ...
Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and genetic factors ...
BACKGROUND: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. METHODS: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and
BACKGROUND: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. METHODS: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and
Chronic heart failure (CHF) involves interactions between the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and immune systems. This study investigated the seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA in patients with CHF. Ninety-seven patients with CHF and 50 healthy volunteers were selected for this investigation. The seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies among CHF patients (68%) was significantly higher than in healthy volunteers (36%). Thus, parasitological screening of this group of patients should be periodically performed to prevent the possible dissemination of toxoplasmosis ...
infections; (ii) specific antibodies detected by conventional serology (CS) with epimastigote extracts, fixed trypomastigotes or other parasite antigens may circulate years after parasite elimination; (iii) functional antibodies are evidenced by complement-mediated lysis of freshly isolated trypomastigotes, a test which is 100% specific, highly sensitive, and the first to revert after T. cruzi elimination and (iv) the parasite target for the lytic antibodies is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight (gp160) anchored at the parasite surface. The complement regulatory protein has been cloned, sequenced and produced as a recombinant protein by other groups and is useful for identifying functional anti-T. cruzi antibodies in ELISA tests, thus dispensing with the need for live trypomastigotes to manage treated patients. If used instead of CS to define cures for Chagas patients, ELISA will avoid unnecessary delays in finding anti-T. cruzi drugs. Other highly sensitive techniques for parasite DNA ...
Processing-inhibitory anti-MSP119 mAbs can prevent MSP-1 and erythrocyte invasion in in vitro culture, and can be rendered ineffective by the simultaneous
Buy Stromectol Online! Generic Stromectol is a high-calls medication which is used to treat infections caused by certain parasites. Generic Stromectol is an anti-parasite medication. It causes the death of certain parasitic organisms in the body. Generic Stromectol may also be used for other purposes.
Generique Ivermectin Pas Cher Générique Stromectol Ou Commander Generique Stromectol 12 mg Le Moins Cher. Stromectol Générique est un médicament anti-parasite. Il cause la mort de certains organismes parasitaires dans le corps et il.... ...
Abstract We have investigated seroreactivity against Plasmodium falciparum crude parasite antigens, the P. falciparum ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA), as well as against two synthetic peptides (EENV)6 and (EENVEHDA)3 that represent important epitopes of Pf155/RESA. The study population consisted of 421 children and adult Thais living in an area with moderate malaria transmission. We related these serologic findings to some important epidemiologic baseline data collected in the study area. The parasite rate in study subjects was 18.76%. Sixty-two percent were seropositive to crude P. falciparum antigens, 30.3% to the Pf155/RESA antigen, 23.05% to (EENV)6, and 20.17% to (EENVEHDA)3. Antibody responses to crude P. falciparum antigens and to Pf155/RESA were age dependent and increased with exposure. There was evidence that Pf155/RESA antibodies might play a role in protective immunity in this population. Since Pf155/RESA is a potential vaccine candidate antigen, the information
TY - JOUR. T1 - A role for balance of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production in protective immunity against Neospora caninum infection. AU - Nishikawa, Yoshifumi. AU - Inoue, Noboru. AU - Makala, Levi. AU - Nagasawa, Hideyuki. PY - 2003/10/20. Y1 - 2003/10/20. N2 - A suitable balance in the production of Th1/Th2-type cytokines has a crucial role in the control of microbial infections. We investigated cytokine production patterns and effects during Neospora caninum infection, based on two mouse models and an in vitro system. In the acute infection of N. caninum, BALB/c-background IFN-γ-deficient mice that were sensitive to the N. caninum infection showed high levels of IL-10 production, whereas significant levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production were observed in resistant wild type mice. BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing N. caninum surface protein NcSRS2 resisted parasite spread throughout the body, low levels of IFN-γ ...
Background and aims: Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease of warm-blooded animals, is notably influenced by environmental features. Recognizing spatial pattern of Toxoplasma gondii distribution in environment can provide significant contributions to public health and toxoplasmosis control. This study was designed to survey the frequency of T. gondii antibody in rural dogs and cats and also analyze possible relation between environmental factors and spatial distribution of T. gondiiantibody in Golestan province, using GIS. Methods: From 2015 to 2016, 106 rural cats and 154 rural dogs were randomly sampled. Serum samples were tested for presence of T. gondii antibody through modified agglutination test (MAT). The relation between T. gondii antibody frequency and environmental factors was surveyed in ArcGIS and Idrisi Selva software with multiple linear regression model. Results: From sampled rural cats and rural dogs, 85 (80.1%) and 99 (64.2%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, respectively.
Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P,0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between ...
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease in various species of animals caused by a sporozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The disease occurs throughout the world including Iran. This disease is a common infection of sheep, goats and it is recognized as one of major infection cause of reproductive failure. This survey was carried out to show the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Tabriz (Iran). 490 sera samples were collected from both native and industrial cattle. The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) was used to determine the rate of infection. The results of this survey are showed that the overall seroprevalence of antibody of Toxoplasma incattle in Tabriz is 15.91%. There was significant differences in infection to Toxoplasma gondii in the age group of cattle (P
Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i.e. Kurunegala and Moneragala of Sri Lanka. Sera was collected from 1,186 individuals from the two districts and were subjected to standard ELISA together with control sera from non-immune individuals to obtain Optical Density (OD) values for four anti-malarial antibodies i.e. anti-MSP1 and anti-AMA1 for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The sero-positive samples were determined as mean OD + 3SD of the negative controls. The ...
toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg elisa kit | order toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg elisa kit | How to use: toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg el
toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg elisa kit | order toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg elisa kit | How to use: toxoplasma gondii toxoplasma gondii igg el
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected. Among the HIV patients, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were significantly higher in age group of 30-39 years old (P=0.05). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with CD4+|100 cells/μl was 33.3% that was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.042) with or without IgG antibodies. The CD4+ count mean of seropositive patients was lower than that of seronegative patients. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in
Serum samples collected from breeder chickens ranging in age from 1 day to 55 weeks were tested for CAA antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The relationship of ELISA to IFA test was determined. The sensitivity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 82.64%, and the specificity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 56.25%. Agreement between the ELISA and the IFA test was highly significant (Kappa = 0.74, Z = 5.78). We concluded that the ELISA is as good as the IFA test for detecting CAA antibody in sera from chickens.
The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined.Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12-73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (,150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that ...
Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus and malaria is not uncommon in people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Since HIV infection results in immune deficiency, it may alter the ability of HIV patients to mount proper immune responses against malaria parasites. We measured specific malaria antibodies in 47 specimens from 25 couples from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to their HIV status, and investigated probable interaction between malaria and HIV infection. Plasma samples were analyzed for HIV markers (western blot and viral load) and malaria parasite-specific antibody (antibody titer, pattern of antigen recognized by western blotting, and parasite neutralizing antibodies assayed by growth inhibition). No correlation was identified between measured HIV infection status and malaria-specific parameters.
Multiplex assays have been developed for detecting Abs to combinations of viral and bacterial pathogens (7, 13) and to different bacterial serotypes (8, 9). The multiplex assay described herein is to the first to measure Ab responses to P. falciparum malarial proteins, including sporozoite (CSP), liver-stage Ag (LSA-1), and asexual blood-stage Ags (MSP-142, AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-3, and RESA) simultaneously. The assay for malaria proved to be rapid, allowing us to screen over 250 samples against the nine Ags in an afternoon. The assay also requires small amounts of Ag and minimal amounts of plasma. It has a wider dynamic range and is as sensitive as ELISA. Thus, this multiplex immunoassay is a useful new tool for research on malaria.. A major concern with multiplexing microspheres coated with different Ags is that combining Ags might result in Ab competition or blocking. In this study, no significant difference was found when antigen-coated spheres were used alone or in combination (Fig. 2). ...
Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non -schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), ...
View more ,We examined immunity induced by subpatent blood-stage malaria (undetectable by microscopy) using the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, postulating that limited infection may allow expansion of antigen-specific T cells that are normally deleted by apoptosis. After three infections drug cured at 48 h, mice were protected against high-dose challenge with homologous or heterologous parasites (different strain or variant). Immunity differed from that generated by three untreated, patent infections. Subpatently infected mice lacked immunoglobulin G (IgG) to variant surface antigens, despite producing similar titers of total malaria-specific IgG to those produced by patently infected mice, including antibodies specific for merozoite surface antigens conserved between heterologous strains. Antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes harvested prechallenge was significantly higher in subpatently infected mice than in patently infected or naive mice. In subpatently ...
BACKGROUND: The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasites ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 8552406. Parasite Immunol. 1995 Jul;17(7):341-52. Immunogens based upon sequences from the P. falciparum asexual blood stage antigen Pf332 were assessed for their capacity to induce antibodies inhibiting parasite growth or cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes in vitro. Selection of the Pf332 sequences was based on their reactivity with the human monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 33G2 which inhibits parasite growth as well as cytoadherence in vitro. Octameric multiple antigen peptides (MAP) were assembled based upon either a trimer of the minimal epitope recognized by the MoAb, VTEEI, or a Pf332 sequence including that motif, SVTEEIAEEDK. A dimer of SVTEEIAEEDK was also expressed in Escherichia coli, genetically fused to ZZ, two IgG-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. Rabbit antibodies elicited by the immunogens reacted with Pf332 in immunofluorescence and in ELISA with Pf332 peptides which were also recognized by MoAb 33G2. The MAP with branched (VTEEI)3 peptide ...
Avidity Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA kit is a Sandwich (qualitative) ELISA for the measurement of Avidity Toxoplasma gondii IgG in Human Serum, Hep Plasma, Cit plasma samples.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Type I IFN signaling in CD8- DCs impairs Th1-dependent malaria immunity. AU - Haque, Ashraful K M Nazmul. AU - Best, Shannon E. AU - Montes de Oca, Marcela. AU - James, Kylie R. AU - Ammerdorffer, Anne. AU - Edwards, Chelsea L. AU - de Labastida Rivera, Fabian Rivera. AU - Amante, Fiona H. AU - Bunn, Patrick T. AU - Sheel, Meru. AU - Sebina, Ismail. AU - Koyama, Motoko. AU - Varelias, Antiopi. AU - Hertzog, Paul John. AU - Kalinke, Ulrich. AU - Gun, Sin Yee. AU - Renia, Laurent. AU - Ruedl, Christiane. AU - MacDonald, Kelli P A. AU - Hill, Geoffrey R. AU - Engwerda, Christian R. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites, suppress cellular immune responses through activation of type I IFN signaling. Recent evidence suggests that immune suppression and susceptibility to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is mediated by type I IFN; however, it is unclear how type I IFN suppresses immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. ...
BackgroundNeospora caninum causes infections in a wide range of intermediate hosts and remains a threatening disease worldwide because of the lack of effective drugs and vaccines. Our previous studies demonstrated that N. caninum 14-3-3 protein (Nc14-3-3), which is inc...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be 49, in which 39, 4 and 6 for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the differences in Toxoplasma seroprevalence rates among the races were significant: the highest rate was in the Malays (55.7), followed by the Indian (55.3) and the Chinese (19.4) (-0.05) populations. An increase in Toxoplasma seroprevalence with increasing parity was detected (-0.05). Women with no children had a prevalence of 39.7, while women with one or more than two children had a prevalence of 44.2 and 62.9, respectively. In this study, there was no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and various possible risk factors in pregnant women (P�,�0.05). When multivariate analysis was performed, no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and history of contact with ...
ACCU Reference Medical Lab is a regional leader in the fields of toxicology, pharmacogenetics and molecular testing, in addition to routine blood and urine testing. In particular, ACCU Reference Medical Lab has revolutionized testing for respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, which allows for a significantly earlier detection of pathogens than any other technology.
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive monoclonal B-cell malignancy that is rare (sporadic) worldwide, but is 100-fold more common (endemic) in equatorial Africa, particularly among children. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and malaria are epidemiologically linked to endemic BL in epidemiologic studies, but questions remain about role of EBV variants and the evidence for association with malaria is weak. EBV is ubiquitous, yet only few children develop BL, possibly because only a few EBV variants are pathogenitically relevant. The association of BL with malaria is based on ecologic and non-comparative clinical studies. Two case-control studies have reported significant association of high anti-malarial antibodies with BL (OR=5_ among children in Uganda and in Malawi, but selection bias (cases and controls came from dissimilar geographical areas) and reverse causality bias were limitations. Three studies were conducted in the 1960s and 70s to test association of carriage of malaria-resistance gene with ...
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive monoclonal B-cell malignancy that is rare (sporadic) worldwide, but is 100-fold more common (endemic) in equatorial Africa, particularly among children. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and malaria are epidemiologically linked to endemic BL in epidemiologic studies, but questions remain about role of EBV variants and the evidence for association with malaria is weak. EBV is ubiquitous, yet only few children develop BL, possibly because only a few EBV variants are pathogenitically relevant. The association of BL with malaria is based on ecologic and non-comparative clinical studies. Two case-control studies have reported significant association of high anti-malarial antibodies with BL (OR=5_ among children in Uganda and in Malawi, but selection bias (cases and controls came from dissimilar geographical areas) and reverse causality bias were limitations. Three studies were conducted in the 1960s and 70s to test association of carriage of malaria-resistance gene with ...
Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Infected Rbcs antibody [11B7] for ICC/IF. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Infected Rbcs mAb (GTX39330) is tested in Plasmodium falciparum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Title: RTS,S/AS01E immunization increases antibody responses to vaccine-unrelated Plasmodium falciparum antigens associated with protection against clinical malaria in African children: A case-control study  Author: Gyan, B.; Dobaño, C.; Ubillos, I.; Jairoce, C.; Vidal, M.; Jiménez, A.; Santano, R.; Dosoo, D.; Nhabomba, A.J.; Ayestaran, A.; Aguilar, R.; Williams, N.A.; Díez-Padrisa, N.; Lanar, D.; Chauhan, V.; Chitnis, C.; Dutta, S.; Gaur, D.; Angov, E.; Asante, K.P.; Owusu-Agyei, S.; Valim, C.; Gamain, B.; Coppel, R.L.; Cavanagh, D.; Beeson, J.G.; Campo, J.J.; Moncunill, G. Date: 2019-08-14 ...
Top performende anti-Parasite Heat Shock 60kDa Protein 1 (Chaperonin) Antikörper für Immunoprecipitation (IP) vergleichen & kaufen.
Releases extra protection when you need it most.Reduces underarm wetness. 24 hour protection. Extra effective. Degree Women Clinical Protection is formulated...
(Medical Xpress) -- Mothers who are treated for malaria may pass on lower levels of natural immunity to their young, animal studies show.
References for Abcams Recombinant |em|T. gondii|/em| Toxoplasma gondii GRA 1 protein (ab73746). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
Antibodies for proteins involved in defense response to protozoan pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
T. gondii -ն իր կենսական ցիկլի ընթացքում ունենում է մի քանի կենսաձևեր[31]։ Տախիզոիտները պատասխանատու են սուր վարակի զարգացման համար։ Դրանք արագ կիսվում են և տարածվում օրգանիզմի հյուսվածքներում։ Տախիզոիտները հայտնի են նաև տախիզոիկ մերոզոիտներ տերմինով, որն ավելի լավ է բնութագրում դրանց մակաբուծային բնույթը[32]։ Բազմանալուց հետո տախիզոիտները վերածվում են բրադիզոիտների, որոնք ներբջջային ցիստերի տեսքով ներառվում են մկանային և ուղեղային հյուսվածքում։ Ցիստերի ձևավորումը որոշակիորեն պայմանավորված է տիրոջ իմունային համակարգի պատասխան ռեակցիայով[33]։ ...
유희왕OCG, 확률에 대해확률은 많은 게임에서 지표로 사용되고 있다.유희왕OCG등의 TCG에선, 확률이 덱 구성과 플레잉의 지표가 된다.여기서는 주료 덱 구성에 대해, 확률의 유효한 활용법을 기술한다.그리고, 아래의 확률은 고등학교 수학Ⅰ수준의 지식과 계산기가 있으면 구할 수 있다는 것을 명기해 둔다.하급 몬스터의 투입 장수(표1)은, 40장 덱에서의 ...
Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic derivative of the natural estrogen estradiol. It is one of two estrogens currently used in oral contraceptive pills. The other, mestranol, is converted to ethinyl estradiol before it is biologically active. Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone are used together as an oral contraceptive agent ...
The protozoans can be identified in skin and gill biopsies and blood samples. For some of the protozoans, antibodies can be ... These protozoans can be found on most continents. Bloodfeeding leeches are implicated in the transmission of the bloodborne ... detected in the fish using ELISA and fluorescent antibody testing. Chemical treatment with isometamidium chloride has been ...
IgA Anti-transglutaminase antibodies or IgA Anti-endomysial antibodies for Coeliac disease (gluten sensitive enteropathy). ... Microscopy is particularly useful in diarrhoea, may show protozoa like Giardia, ova, cyst and other infective agents. Fecal fat ...
... against the protozoan parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: Effects on antibody production and protection". Journal of Fish ... Philasterides dicentrarchi is a marine protozoan ciliate that was first identified in 1995 after being isolated from infected ... formalin and adjuvant concentration on antibody response and protection against the pathogen". Aquaculture. 278 (1-4): 22-26. ...
Antibodies that interfere with the binding, by either targeting the key region of the DARC or the DBP will prevent the ... By their very nature, protozoa are more complex organisms than bacteria and viruses, with more complicated structures and life ... Antibodies against the Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (PfSEA-1) were found to disable the parasite ability to rupture from the ... Antibodies are part of the specific immune response. They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating ...
... a type of anti-nuclear antibody. Anti-nuclear antibodies are a common feature in SLE, and anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly ... As a parasitic protozoan, C. luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage ... C. luciliae is a eukaryotic single-cell protozoan. The family Trypanosomatidae belongs to the order Kinetoplastida and is ... The kinetoplast found in C. luciliae allows them to be used for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies, ...
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan of single celled character and belongs to the family, Sarcocystidae, a group ... Antibody detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers more insight, but tends to be cofounded by flood contamination during ... Transmission of the protozoan from the infected horse to other animals is not possible based on the schizonts and daughter ... The protozoan, S. neurona, is a member of the genus Sarcocystis, and is most commonly associated with equine protozoal ...
182550). The monoclonal antibody bearing liposomes with encapsulated chq were found to be highly effective in the treatment of ... protozoan (malaria, leishmaniasis) and fungal (candidasis and cryoptococcosis) origin. In general, specialized groups of ... It was further demonstrated that the entrapment of anti-malarial drugs like chloroquine (chq), in the antibody-coated liposomes ... Encouraged by these results, the liposomes were coated with F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody which specifically ...
Formation of Z-RNA in living cells was suggested by experiments using anti-Z-RNA antibodies to stain fixed protozoan cells ...
In a meta-analysis of 23 studies that met inclusion criteria, the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in people with ... In 1908, while working at the Pasteur Institute in Tunis, Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux discovered a protozoan organism in ... Minks, being semiaquatic, are also susceptible to infection and being antibody-positive toward Toxoplasma gondii. Minks can ... Toxoplasma gondii (/ˈtɒksoʊplæzmə ˈɡɒndiaɪ/) is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan eukaryote (specifically an ...
β-tubulin in Tetrahymena (a ciliated protozoan). Partial surface profile of a 1-Euro coin, measured with a Nipkow disk confocal ... Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ...
... while the malaria protozoans are spread via mosquito. Finally, under the microscope, the merozoite form of the B. microti ... the FDA approved an antibody-based screening test for blood and organ donors. An important difference from malaria is that B. ...
Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... as the endotoxins alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. Regarding curative medicine, it was in 1911 ... especially the implication of antibodies and the mechanisms of action of the complement; Charles Nicolle received the Nobel ...
... an antibody that targets the hemagglutinin protein, was discovered in 2011. FI6 is the only known antibody effective against ... protozoa and fungi that are forever changing and adapting themselves to the human host and the defenses that humans create. ... The H5N2 antibody titers of paired sera of 13 subjects increased fourfold or more. H5N8 In February 2021, Russia reported the ... Furthermore, they are also the antigen proteins to which a host's antibodies can bind and trigger an immune response. Influenza ...
It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ... Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence of trichophyton rubrum antibodies in podiatrists ranged from 14%-31%. ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ...
... the ticks act as long term reservoirs of the protozoans. In addition, some species of protozoans (within the Theileria and ... Vaccinated cattle develop antibodies circulating in their blood. When the Rh. microplus female ticks engorge with blood, the ... These pathogenic protozoa can be detected circulating in populations of the cattle hosts and tick vectors with only low levels ... Babesia bovis protozoa are transmitted by R. microplus and cause babesiosis or redwater fever in cattle throughout the tropics ...
... which the Taliaferros found to initiate formation of not only antibodies that had lytic properties, but also antibodies that ... She specialized in tropical parasitology, specifically trypanosomes, a group of unicellular parasitic protozoa found in ... Transfer of antibody-forming capacity in splenic materials. Science, 119:585-86. 1955 With W. H. Taliaferro. Reactions of the ... The localization of X-ray injury to the initial phases of antibody response. J. Infect. Dis., 91:105-24. 1954 With W. H. ...
Antibodies Kinds of antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies Autoantibody Microantibody Neutralizing antibody ... Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) Foreign Pernicious anemia Hemolytic disease of the newborn Autoimmune ... A LILRA1 LILRA2 LILRA3 LILRA4 LILRA5 LILRA6 LILR subfamily B LILRB1 LILRB2 LILRB3 LILRB4 LILRB5 Eicosanoid receptors Antibodies ...
He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ... He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses ... 1912: (with G.Y. Rusk) Studies in the Locus of Antibody Formation, Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, ...
... blood tests detect antibody to parasite for visceral leishmaniasis. The second pathogen from this phylum is Trypanosoma cruzi. ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Some protozoa are photoautotrophic protists. These protists include strict aerobes, and use photosystems I and II in order to ... Protozoa are chemoorganotrophic protists and have three different ways of acquiring nutrients. The first method of acquiring ...
Many viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and prions are identified as a confirmed or potential pathogen. In the ... An additional study found that many IBS patients from whom Blastocystis could not be identified showed a strong antibody ... The most prevalent protozoa in these studies are considered emerging infectious diseases by some researchers, because a ... Giardiasis is a disease caused by infection with the protozoan Giardia lamblia. Infection with Giardia can produce diarrhea, ...
The protozoan reproduces asexually, the first division is longitudinal while the succeeding ones are approximately regular and ... The ELISA assay might be useful for monitoring levels of protection in susceptible populations, as elevated antibody titres ... The protozoan pathogenicity is associated with the trophont attachment to host tissues; trophonts constantly twist and turn, ... In this phase, the protozoan is round and encapsulated in a cellulose wall, which becomes thicker and confers upon it an ...
June 2010). "Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice". The ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE may have evolved ... In the second approach, antibodies specific for a domain of 52 amino acid residues, referred to as CεmX or M1' (M1 prime), ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has been found only in mammals. IgE is ...
... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 - ... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.254 - ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ...
The IgM antibodies appear sooner after infection than the IgG antibodies and disappear faster than IgG antibodies after ... Splendore reported the protozoan in a rabbit, while Nicolle and Manceaux identified it in a North African rodent, the gundi ( ... IgG antibodies usually appear within a week or two of infection, peak within one to two months, then decline at various rates. ... Toxoplasma IgG antibodies generally persist for life, and therefore may be present in the bloodstream as a result of either ...
... protozoa and from cysts of free-living protozoa as discussed above. Recovery procedures are not very accurate; cysts are easily ... The levels of antibody are much higher in individuals with liver abscesses. Serology only becomes positive about two weeks ... It is important to distinguish the E. histolytica cyst from the cysts of nonpathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Entamoeba ... Since antibodies may persist for years after clinical cure, a positive serological result may not necessarily indicate an ...
These antibodies, known as immunoglobulin A (IgA), make up the immune defense system of human by preventing the growth of ... Khalifa AM, El Temsahy MM, Abou El Naga IF (2001). "Effect of ozone on the viability of some protozoa in drinking water". ... Fecal antibody testing: A 2003 study at Ain Shams University in Egypt indicated that patients symptomatically infected could be ... By breaking up the antibodies, it allows the persistence of Blastocystis in the human gut. Another more recent study has also ...
About 40 cases of human babesiosis, caused by intraerythrocytic protozoans (protozoa inside red blood cells) of the genus ... To supplement a blood smear, diagnoses should be made with an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. IFA testing has a much ... In different environments, individual protozoa may develop mutations which, when they increase the protozoa's fitness, allow ... As a protozoan parasite, the most effective way to identify Babesia infection is through blood sample testing. Babesia species ...
The protozoa are transmitted by the bite of the insect vector. The sporozoites migrate to the liver where they typically form ... Dracopoli NC, Turner TR, Else JG, Jolly CJ, Anthony R, Gallo RC, Saxinger WC (1986). "STLV-I antibodies in feral populations of ... Mature gametocytes are larger than a normal erythrocyte stain poorly compared to other protozoa. In both male and female ... Bray RS (1984). "Some parasitic protozoa from the Gambia". J. Euk. Microbiol. 31 (4): 577-8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1984. ...
Antibody action contributes to premunition. However, premunition is probably much more complex than simple antibody and antigen ... Premunity is progressive development of immunity in individuals exposed to an infective agent, mainly belonging to protozoa and ... In the case of malaria, the sporozoite and merozoite stages of Plasmodium elicit the antibody response which leads to ... However, Plasmodium can change its surface antigens, so the development of an antibody repertoire that can recognize multiple ...
Antibodies in mucosal secretions represent the first line of immune defense of the mucosae. They are capable to bind to ... Specific immunofluorescence was observed on those protozoa which had been treated with anti-lactobacillus serum and anti- ... April 1987). "IgA antibody-producing cells in peripheral blood after antigen ingestion: evidence for a common mucosal immune ... The production of specific antibodies both in serum and in the vaginal secretion has been demonstrated. As a result of the ...
The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ... because the IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.[120] ... The immune system takes some time to produce antibodies in quantity. After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and ...
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified protein derivative ( ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... as the endotoxins alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. ...
The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no Extracellular protozoa. *Entamoeba histolytica ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... Invertebrates do not possess lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral immune system, and it is likely that a multicomponent, ...
"Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum.[6] ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...
Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ...
These observations suggest that although TLR activation can lead to increases in antibody responses, TLR activation is not ... an immune signal that promotes antibody production. Alum adheres to the cell's plasma membrane and rearranges certain lipids ... "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling". Science. 314 (5807): 1936-8. Bibcode ... "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (9): 1010- ...
Raikov, IB (1994). "The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: A comparative review". European Journal of Protistology. 30 ... Mitotic cells can be visualized microscopically by staining them with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. ...
Antibody responses in humans to an inactivated hantavirus vaccine (Hantavax). Vaccine. 1999;17:2569-75. ...
Protozoa." (First class. Primordial animals. Protozoa.) [Note: each column of each page of this journal is numbered; there are ... "Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments from a bacteriophage antibody display library". Experimental ... Cox, F.E.G. (1991). "Systematics of parasitic protozoa". In: Kreier, J.P. & J. R. Baker (ed.). Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed., vol ... Protozoa. Thiere, in welchen die verschiedenen Systeme der Organe nicht scharf ausgeschieden sind, und deren unregelmässige ...
B) is the cyst wall selectively imaged through use of fluorescent-labelled (TRITC) antibody that is cyst wall specific.. (C) is ... Kaneda Y, Tanaka T, Saw T (1990). "Effects of berberine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of anaerobic protozoa in axenic ... People with recurring Giardia infections, particularly those with a lack of the Immunoglobulin A antibody, may develop chronic ... është një parazit flagellated protozoan që kolonizon dhe riprodhohet në intestine të vogla, që shkakton giardiasis. Paraziti i ...
Serologic testing for antibodies against Babesia (both IgG and IgM) can detect low-level infection in cases with a high ... Babesia species are in the phylum Apicomplexa, which also has the protozoan parasites that cause malaria, toxoplasmosis, and ... April 1994). "Diagnosis of babesiosis: evaluation of a serologic test for the detection of Babesia microti antibody". J. Infect ... Since detectable antibody responses require about a week after infection to develop, serologic testing may be falsely negative ...
Template:Protozoan infection navs(edit talk links history). *Template:Psych navs(edit talk links history) ({{Psychology navs ...
For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Immunoassay B on the other hand may detect or measure antibodies produced by an organism's immune system that are made to ...
1907 - Alphonse Laveran, France, for his work on the way protozoa can cause disease[7] ... 1987 - Susumu Tonegawa, Japan, for his discovery how the genes make different antibodies[78] ... for theories about the development and control of the immune system and the discovery of monoclonal antibodies are made[75] ... for finding out the chemical structure of antibodies[63] ...
ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಣೆ ಅಥವಾ ಇಮ್ಯೂನೈಸೇಷನ್ ಎನ್ನುವುದು ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆಯಾಗಿದ್ದು, ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳ ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯು ರೋಗಕಾರಕ ಪದಾರ್ಥದ ವಿರುದ್ದ (ಇಮ್ಯುನೋಜೆನ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ) ಬಲಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ.. ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯು ದೇಹಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿರುವ ಕಣಗಳಿಗೆ (ಸ್ವಂತದಲ್ಲದ ) ಒಡ್ಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಾಗ, ಅದು ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಯೊಂದನ್ನು ಸಂಯೋಜಿಸುತ್ತದೆ, ಆದರೆ ಅದು ಅನಂತರದ ಸಂಘರ್ಷಗಳಿಗೆ (ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಾ ಸ್ಮರಣೆಯ ಮೂಲಕ) ತ್ವರಿತವಾಗಿ ...
1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92, : 313-24. doi:10.1017/ ... Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... an in vitro assay of protective antibodies". J Immunol. 132 (2): 909-13. PMID 6317752.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ...
Research on antibody[edit]. In the early 1890s, Paul Ehrlich started to work with Emil Behring, professor of medicine at the ... a protozoan parasite that causes sleeping sickness. In 1904 they successfully prepared a red arsenic dye they called Trypan Red ... Ehrlich was also nominated for that year.[5]) From Behring's work, Ehrlich understood that antibodies produced in the blood ... He speculated that these antibodies act as bullets fired from a gun to target specific microbes. But after further research, he ...
Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... With the exception of blood derivatives (such as fractionated antibodies), all blood components are infective. The parasite ... Burkholder JE, Allison TC, Kelly VP (April 1980). "Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas) (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) in invertebrate, ... harbored a flagellate protozoan, a new species of the genus Trypanosoma, and was able to demonstrate experimentally that it ...
Examples of eukaryotic pathogens capable of sex include the protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, ... Treating the symptoms of a viral infection gives the host immune system time to develop antibodies against the viral pathogen ... protozoan, prion, viroid, or fungus.[3][4][5] Small animals, such as certain kinds of worms and insect larvae, can also produce ... Some eukaryotic organisms, including a number of protozoa and helminths, are human parasites. ...
Flagyl (metronidazole) is a nitroimidazole antibiotic medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is ... PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, CS1001.[58] In October, Pfizer announced it had acquired Arixa Pharmaceuticals.[59] ...
Stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody ... In addition, IFN-γ can activate iNOS to produce NOx free radicals to directly kill intracellular bacteria and protozoa. Th1 ... Antibodies do not play a direct role in this allergy type. T cells play an important role in this hypersensitivity, as they ... They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing ...
... ay isang tropikal na sakit na dulot ng parasite o parasito na dulot ng protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi.[1] Ito ay kadalasang ... Ang pagkakatukoy ng matagalang sakit ay sa pamamagitan ng pagkakakita ng mga antibody para sa T. cruzi sa dugo.[3] ...
Zanetti, Maurizio; Capra, Donald J. (2003-09-02). The Antibodies. CRC Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780203216514.. ... Galactofuranose occurs in bacteria, fungi and protozoa,[7] and is recognized by a putative chordate immune lectin intelectin ...
Beekeepers have high levels of antibodies (mainly IgG) reacting to the major antigen of bee venom, phospholipase A2 (PLA).[30] ... The common agents of disease that affect adult honey bees include fungi, bacteria, protozoa, viruses, parasites, and poisons. ... HELD, W.; STUCKI, M.; HEUSSER, C.; BLASER, K. (February 1989). "Production of Human Antibodies to Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in ... Antibodies correlate with the frequency of bee stings. The entry of venom into the body from bee-stings may also be hindered ...
Most acantharean species of protozoa[69] and some fungi in mycorrhizae[70] have naturally multinucleated cells. Other examples ... Antibodies to certain types of chromatin organization, in particular, nucleosomes, have been associated with a number of ... Barned S, Goodman AD, Mattson DH (February 1995). "Frequency of anti-nuclear antibodies in multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 45 ( ... "The relation of immunoglobulin class, pattern of anti-nuclear antibody, and complement-fixing antibodies to DNA in sera from ...
High correlation with protozoa Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax was then established. Progress in microscopy in the ... Genco RJ, Mashimo PA, Krygier G, Ellison SA (May 1974). "Antibody-mediated effects on the periodontium". J. Periodontol. 45 (5 ... The presence of complement and antigen-antibody complexes is evident throughout the connective and epithelial tissue. It is in ...
The protozoan is in the smaller of its two forms, called an amastigote, which is round, non-motile, and only 3-7 micrometers in ... comparison of two immunochromatographic strip tests for detection of anti-K39 antibody". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (1): 251-3. doi ... This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... Visceral Leishmaniasis/kala-azar samples from India revealed the presence of not only the primary causative protozoan parasite ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in defense response to protozoan pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... Antibodies for proteins involved in defense response to protozoan pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
Protozoa Host: Goat Clone: Polyclonal 1 PubMed reference , Order Toxoplasma Gondii (Tachyzoites) antibody (ABIN2476906). ... Protozoa. Host Goat. Clonality Polyclonal Application Immunofluorescence (IF). Options Bulk discount 1 reference available ... "Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne ...
What is Antibodies, protozoan? Meaning of Antibodies, protozoan medical term. What does Antibodies, protozoan mean? ... protozoan in the Medical Dictionary? Antibodies, protozoan explanation free. ... Protozoa. (redirected from Antibodies, protozoan). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Protozoa. [pro″to-zo´ah ... Antibodies, protozoan , definition of Antibodies, protozoan by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Cows injected with a protein that mimics HIVs envelope make broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit multiple strains of ... Immunized Cows Produce Anti-HIV Antibodies. By Jef Akst , July 20, 2017 ...
DNA-Delivered Antibodies Fight Off Lethal Bacterial Infection. By Catherine Offord , October 3, 2017 ... tags: protozoans x disease/medicine x neuroscience x cell & molecular biology x ... Mice receiving the treatment produced their own monoclonal antibodies and survived infection with the life-threatening pathogen ...
Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components in the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus Nag-1. ... Find the right antibody for your research needs. ... antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research ... Antibodies Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral ... Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components in the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus Nag-1. The cyst wall of ...
Book; Format: print Publisher: Rome, Italy : Université de Rome "La Sapienza", [1996]Dissertation note: Thesis (doctoral) - Università degli Studî di Roma "La Sapienza", 1996. Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 765 96DO] (1). ...
Immunity to encapsulated pathogens; antibody immunity; vaccine development. Top Protozoan physiology and pathogenesis. Johanna ...
Antibodies, Protozoan/blood. *Brain/parasitology*. *Brain/pathology. *Encephalitis/parasitology. *Encephalitis/pathology. * ... Treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) once weekly for 3 weeks beginning at 10 weeks ... Mice infected with the Beverley strain developed foci of acute inflammation in their brains after treatment with an antibody to ... Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to ...
Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs . Aline ... Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs ... Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs - Descarga ... Wilma Aparecida Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in ...
Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis * Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use * Dog Diseases / prevention & control* * Dogs ...
Prevalence of agglutinating anti-Leishmania antibodies in two multi-thousand Bengoli communities.. Chowdhury MS1, el Harith A, ... Antibodies, Protozoan/blood*. *Bangladesh/epidemiology. *Child. *Child, Preschool. *Cross-Sectional Studies. *Female ...
... protozoa; or antigens specific to these microbes; rheumatoid factor; antibodies, including, but not limited to IgG, IgM, IgA ... Patterned antibody-binding protein layers with bound antibodies cause patterned placement or binding of analytes thereon. ... antibodies) to these and other viruses; antigens specific to RSV or host response (antibodies) to the virus; an antigen; enzyme ... antibodies) to these and other viruses; antigens specific to RSV or host response (antibodies) to the virus; an antigen; enzyme ...
Antibody Engineering. John McCafferty, Hennie R. Hoogenboom, and David J. Chiswell * Molecular Biology of Parasitic Protozoa. ...
Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the sera of 5 (9.61%) cases. Results of the molecular study showed T. gondii infection ... Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti-Leishmania antibodies, by ... Protozoan Parasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Significance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran. Zeinab Seifollahi, ... The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. Materials and ...
Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, Target Species Protozoan, Host Mouse, Format ALEXA FLUOR® 488, ... antibody-antibodies.com/anti-elisa/IgG3.html MOUSE ANTI CRYPTOSPORIDIUM Alexa Fluor® 488, Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, ... For antibodies in a liquid form or reconstituted lyophilized antibodies small amounts of the soultion could be captured on the ... Target Species Protozoan, Host Mouse, Format ALEXA FLUOR® 488, Isotypes IgG3, Applicat antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for ...
Antibodies, Protozoan / blood* * Antigens, Protozoan / immunology * Antigens, Surface / immunology * Child, Preschool * Enzyme- ... We have found that while all the peptides react with serum antibodies, as does the whole crude blood stage antigen, a ... We have estimated antimalarial antibodies against three synthetic peptides derived from blood stage antigens of Plasmodium ...
Intestinal protozoans. Antibody response. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Diarrhea. Malnutrition. Signs and Symptoms, Digestive ... We will additionally measure Total IgG antibody titers in the blood, and we will compare groups using logged values of the ... antibody levels.. *ASQ Child Development Scores [ Time Frame: Measured 24 months after intervention ]. Interviewers will ...
Intestinal protozoans. Antibody response. Water. Sanitation. Hand washing. Breast Feeding. Complementary Feeding. ... We will additionally measure Total IgG antibody titers in the blood, and we will compare groups using logged values of the ... antibody levels.. *ASQ Child Development Scores [ Time Frame: Measured 24 months after intervention ]. Interviewers will ...
Flegr J., Zitkova S., Kodym P. and Frynta D. (1996). Induction of changes in human behaviour by the parasitic protozoan ... Assessment of antitoxoplasmatic IgG antibodies with the ELISA method). Ceskoslovenska Epidemiologie 38, 355-361. ... Roberts C. W., Walker W. and Alexander J. (2001). Sex-associated hormones and immunity to protozoan parasites. Clinical ...
Abbreviations used: DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; mAb, monoclonal antibody; PFGE, pulsed ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Jorge ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ...
Acris Antibodies. monoclonal. IgG1. Rat. (liquid, supernatant, Tris/HCl, foetal calf serum, azide). ELISA, IH, IP, WB. Bovine, ... Acris Antibodies. polyclonal. Rabbit. (liquid, prrified Ig fraction, PBS, azide, affinity purified). ELISA, IB, IH, WB. Human, ... These antibodies do not cross-react with the cardiac isoform of myosin light chain 2. -. ... OC(paper on antibodies;paper on oligimerization; Charles G Glabe, University of California, Irvine)References:Lefterov, ...
contains antibodies SA170, SA171, SA172 and blocking peptides, plus GAR-HRP secondary antibody. NFκB plus IkBα. -. ...
Monoclonal antibodies against sporangia and spores of Marteilla sp. (Protozoa: Ascetospora) DAO 18:211-216 , Full text in pdf ... Histopathology of Goussia clupearum (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Coccidia) in some marine fish from Scottish waters DAO 18:195-202 ... Typing of French isolates of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) with monoclonal antibodies using indirect ... Characterization of the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus glycoprotein using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies DAO 18:29 ...
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Leishmaniasis Vaccines); 0 (Protozoan Proteins); EC 1.11.1.15 ( ...
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Antigens, Protozoan); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Epitopes); 0 (HRP-2 antigen, Plasmodium falciparum); 0 ( ... 0 (Antigens, Protozoan); 0 (Single-Domain Antibodies); EC 4.1.2.13 (Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase). ... The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite ... The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA ...
Antibodies, Protozoan / blood. Cattle. Immunization. Oxytetracycline / administration & dosage, therapeutic use. Protozoan ... 0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0/Antibodies, Protozoan; 0/Protozoan Vaccines; 0/Pyrethrins; 52315-07-8/cypermethrin; 79-57-2/ ...
... field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in ... Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis*. Blood Preservation / methods*. Chagas Disease / diagnosis*. Evaluation Studies as Topic. ... Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by ... field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP]. Validated: ICC/IF. Tested ... Reactivity: Protozoa. 100% Guaranteed. ... Secondary Antibodies. *Anti-Mouse HRP Labeled Antibodies. *Anti ... Cant find what you are looking for? Use our Antibody Concierge Service & we will help you locate your antibody! Or feel free ... Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP] Summary. Immunogen. Trypsinised fraction of P. falciparum ...
  • Treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) once weekly for 3 weeks beginning at 10 weeks after infection augmented the inflammatory changes in the brains of mice infected with each strain. (nih.gov)
  • 1992) Strategies of anti-cytokine monoclonal antibody development: immunoassay of IL-10 and IL-5 in clinical samples. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Starke Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, vol. (duhnnae.com)
  • The first section of this book discusses prions, viruses, protozoa, and helminth parasites both in host organisms and in food, drinking water and the environment. (indigo.ca)
  • Sex-associated hormones and immunity to protozoan parasites. (ajtmh.org)
  • HIV infection increases the burden of disease of malaria in pregnancy, in part by impairing the development of immunity.We measured total IgG and phagocytic antibodies against variant surface antigens of placental-type CS2 parasites in 187 secundigravidae (65% HIV infected).Secundigravidae may be an informative group for identification of correlates of immunity. (nih.gov)
  • We measured total IgG and phagocytic antibodies against variant surface antigens of placental-type CS2 parasites in 187 secundigravidae (65% HIV infected). (nih.gov)
  • whereas, the occurrence of eukaryotic parasites such as protozoans and microsporidians in these birds is little known. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The in vitro culture of protozoan parasites involves highly complex procedures, which are subject to many variables. (asm.org)
  • There are a number of issues involved in the culture of protozoan parasites that make these procedures highly complex and subject to many variables, some of which are known and some of which are still undefined. (asm.org)
  • Certainly protozoan parasites have complex life cycles. (asm.org)
  • At the present time, are there any advantages in the in vitro culture of protozoan parasites, especially when revolutionary developments are going on in the field of molecular biology? (asm.org)
  • The aim of this work was to establish a methodology for antibody delivery (antibody transfection) into viable parasites. (scirp.org)
  • In electroporation was impossible to visualize the antibody inside parasites and with saponin permeabilization, antibodies were successfully introduced, but with loss of parasites viability. (scirp.org)
  • Anti-cyclin antibodies were visualized in the cytoplasm from fixed transfected parasites (immunofluorescence assays). (scirp.org)
  • C) Activity against parasites/protozoa Both the Bothrops brazili crude venom and its metalloproteinase (BbMP-1) are act against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and showed low IC50 levels (0.17 and 3.2 mg/mL respectively) 71. (bartleby.com)
  • Sand flies transmit protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis as well as phleboviruses (order Bunyavirales , family Phenuiviridae , genus Phlebovirus ) ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Rapid card tests detecting parasite antigens and host antibodies are available for several important protozoan parasites and serve particularly well in the field setting. (els.net)
  • We have estimated antimalarial antibodies against three synthetic peptides derived from blood stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum and against P. falciparum crude antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in children and adults. (nih.gov)
  • Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (scribd.com)
  • The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens. (scribd.com)
  • Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (scribd.com)
  • Primary antibodies are the key links to detect, analyze and manipulate specific antigens. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. (frontiersin.org)
  • IgG4 antibodies are known to reflect repeated exposure to environmental antigens and allergens ( 22 , 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The invention further provides antibodies, monoclonal and/or polyclonal, labeled and/or unlabeled, that react with the antigens. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention is also directed to a method of diagnosing Lyme disease by detecting the antigens in a biological sample taken from a host using the antibodies in conventional immunoassay formats. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The advantage of the antibodies used in the invention is that they react with the antigens from geographically diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, but do not react with antigens from related Borrelia spirochetes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi, antibodies that are raised against the antigens and the use of the antibodies to diagnose Lyme disease and for immune capture and cultivation of microorganisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To determine specificity of the APM virophage antibodies, we tested 2 positive serum samples (1 from each patient) and the negative serum sample from the woman by Western blotting and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with purified APM virophage, mamavirus antigens, and A. castellanii antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • The present-day extensive use of enzyme immunoassays and molecular methods (e.g., polymerase chain reaction) for diagnosis and characterization of animal pathogens has its origins in the use of isotope-labeled antigens and antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Feasability and suitability for field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 1209 samples under different conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Persistence of antibodies to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense after treatment of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda. (curehunter.com)
  • This antibody recognizes Trypanosoma brucei procyclin GPEET. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei, a flagellated protozoan parasite, between life cycle stages typically occurs through an asymmetric cell division process, producing two morphologically distinct daughter cells. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Chagas disease is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mostly transmitted during a meal blood of blood‑sucking triatomine insects (kissing bugs). (bartleby.com)
  • Glycolysis is essential to Trypanosoma brucei (Tb), the protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock, and to Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), that causes Chagas ' Disease. (bartleby.com)
  • Trypanosoma rangeli ( Tr ) is non-pathogenic to mammals and shown to elicit cross-reactive anti- Tc antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunity: Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or breast feeding (colostrum). (scribd.com)
  • 2. . Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunity: Preformed antibodies (antiserum) are introduced into body antiserum) by injection. (scribd.com)
  • We have identified a family of genes that code for targets for opsonic antibody and protective immunity in T. pallidum subspecies pallidum using two different approaches, subtraction hybridization and differential immunologic screening of a T. pallidum genomic library. (nih.gov)
  • Phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) are valuable tools to study acquired immunity to malaria in the context of HIV co-infection. (nih.gov)
  • Also present in the mucus are protective antibodies , which are products of specific immunity. (britannica.com)
  • Immunity to Protozoa and Worms 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Foals were protected when antibodies providing immunity were passed on in the mares' colostrum. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by specific techniques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are no publications for Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (NB100-64491PCP). (novusbio.com)
  • Be the first to review our Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP] and receive a gift card or discount. (novusbio.com)
  • Finally, we study Plasmodium protozoa, which cause malaria. (hhmi.org)
  • Griffin, Chen, Fout, Wade, Egorov: "Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne pathogens. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These potential pathogens, which include viruses , bacteria , fungi , protozoans , and worms , are quite diverse , and therefore a nonspecific defense system that diverts all types of this varied microscopic horde equally is quite useful to an organism. (britannica.com)
  • pathogens, and other possible related protozoans. (umd.edu)
  • The identification of protozoan pathogens is based upon direct detection of the respective causative agent in clinical specimens and/or upon detection of specific immune reactions of the host. (els.net)
  • The size of protozoan pathogens varies from ∼2 μm (amastigote Leishmania spp. (els.net)
  • Although numerous protocols for molecular detection of protozoan pathogens have been established in the past years, consent on the most reliable technique is missing for most protozoan taxa, thus demonstration of the causative agent in native material or stained smears is still the gold standard for detection. (els.net)
  • defence against bacteria.Duality of Immune System I. . antibodies and are called plasma cells. (scribd.com)
  • Bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells and are inaccessible to antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • We examine selected extracellular and intracellular bacteria, viruses and protozoa, to explore the similarities and differences of vector/pathogen/host interactions among groups of microorganisms. (hhmi.org)
  • Macrophage white blood cells engulf such organisms, which include bacteria and protozoa. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Our studies suggest that in T. cruzi PP2A is important for the complete transformation of trypomastigotes into amastigotes during the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. (biochemj.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated that parasite-specific antibody production is important in both resistance to and pathogenesis of disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • In vitro cultivation of parasitic protozoa that cause human disease is invaluable, as it provides not only information on the development of the parasite but also avenues for new approaches to the containment and/or eradication of the parasite. (asm.org)
  • This polyvalent antibody immunoprecipitated S-AcP activity but did not cross-react with the surface membrane acid phosphatase, indicating that these two parasite enzymes are separate gene products. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • for that reason, antibodies may be taken as a tool for studying the parasite proteins function by blocking these molecules with specific antibodies. (scirp.org)
  • It was also observed that anti-cyclin-A antibodies inhibit the parasite population doubling (p (scirp.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide-distributed, cyst-forming protozoan parasite that affects warm-blooded animals and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti- Leishmania antibodies, by ELISA, or anti- T. gondii antibodies, by modified agglutination test (MAT). (hindawi.com)
  • The antibody can be used for easy quantification of in vitro cell proliferation by ELISA and has successfully been used for monitoring cytotoxity and apoptosis as well as ELISA-based co-culture angiogenesis and proliferation assays. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody may be used in combination with clone MP5-32C11 (OASA05651) in sandwich ELISA and ELISPOT assays. (avivasysbio.com)
  • We have available a DIY ELISA protocol for detection of HIV-1 gp120env incorporating code D7324 as the capture antibody. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • In this study, a new commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK® Toxoplasma Ab SR, Prionics Schlieren-Zurich, Switzerland) for the detection of anti- T. gondii antibodies in serum, plasma and meat juice of sheep, was evaluated by comparing it with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and real-time PCR, on samples from experimentally inoculated and naturally exposed sheep. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For some of the protozoans, antibodies can be detected in the fish using ELISA and fluorescent antibody testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-EF-Tu polyclonal antibody showed that Colpoda EF-Tu (p45) was localized in the lepidosomes. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Without primary antibodies (whether polyclonal or monoclonal), the opportunity for further research involving secondary antibodies is non-existent. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Many parasitic protozoa infect only humans without adequate immunological defenses although a few infect the immunocompetent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe seroconversion to antibodies against the APM virophage in 2 humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the around 100 protozoan species that can infect humans, some are of prime importance for human health, including the causative agents of malaria, amebiasis, leishmaniasis and sleeping sickness . (els.net)
  • We have found that while all the peptides react with serum antibodies, as does the whole crude blood stage antigen, a nonapeptide from RESA antigen gave the most uniform results. (nih.gov)
  • Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (scribd.com)
  • Results were negative for serum anti-A IgM, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). (cdc.gov)
  • 2. Purified antibodies or antigen-binding fragments of said antibodies raised against purified extracellular membrane vesicles exported from Borrelia burgdorferi. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention further relates to kits, for the diagnosis of Lyme disease, comprising the antibodies and ancillary reagents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Diagnosis of EPM is based upon finding antibodies or, more recently, a DNA detection test of either blood or cerebrospinal fluid. (horses-and-horse-information.com)
  • The American College of Physicians recognizes that blood tests… "cannot diagnose Lyme disease alone, but they are used to confirm a diagnosis," and that "anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies may take up to 2 to 6 weeks after infection to appear in the blood. (google.com)
  • The development of resistance and susceptibility of microorganisms to their specific antibodies. (indiana.edu)
  • We routinely test all serum samples for antibodies against intracellular microorganisms discovered at the World Health Organization Collaborative Center for Rickettsioses and Arthropod Borne Bacterial Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibodies that induce phagocytosis of malaria infected erythrocytes: effect of HIV infection and correlation with clinical outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • In women with placental malaria infection, phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) were decreased in the presence of HIV (p = 0.011) and correlated positively with infant birth weight (coef = 3.57, p = 0.025), whereas total IgG to CS2(VSA) did not. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of HIV on the anti-CS2VSA antibody levels in the 'No Malaria' histopathology group.In a univariate analysis of women that showed no evidence of either peripheral or placental malaria infection, using Mann-Whitney ranksum tests, phagocytic antibodies (A) are shown to be significantly decreased by HIV infection (z = −2.17, p = 0.03). (nih.gov)
  • Antiserum: Antiserum: Serology: Serology: Gamma Globulins: Globulins: Fraction of serum that contains most of the antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • Specific neutralizing antibodies were found in 13.9% (26/187) of human serum samples taken at the site of isolation of NPV as well as a disparate site in northeastern Kenya, suggesting a wide distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevalence of agglutinating anti-Leishmania antibodies in two multi-thousand Bengoli communities. (nih.gov)
  • Four monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were generated against the soluble extracellular acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) (S-AcP) of Leishmania donovani. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Mice receiving the treatment produced their own monoclonal antibodies and survived infection with the life-threatening pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (the-scientist.com)
  • The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. (hindawi.com)
  • Journal Article] Effects of a transferring antibody against Neospora caninum infection in a murine model. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Babesia serological testing is used to diagnose infection by the Babesia tick-borne protozoan. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. (scielo.br)
  • Toxoplasma gondii infection is a protozoan infection to which most adults have antibody protection. (health.am)
  • serologic testing for specific antibodies to T cruzi is the cornerstone of diagnosing chronic T cruzi infection (Kirchhoff, et al. (bartleby.com)
  • Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a tiny organism called a protozoan. (mountsinai.org)
  • Active infection usually occurs one time in a person's life, although the protozoan remains inactive in the body. (mountsinai.org)
  • The details of the immunogen for this antibody are not available. (abcam.com)
  • IgY antibodies are first obtained from the egg of a domestic fowl hen which has been actively immunized against said one or more pathogenic organisms by injection with an immunogen containing immunogenic determinants specific to elicit such antibodies. (google.it)
  • 1. A method for treating systemic manifestations of an infectious non- intestinal disease associated with pathogenic organisms or molecules in a mammal, said method comprising orally administering to said mammal IgY antibodies obtained from the egg of a domestic fowl hen which has been actively immunized against said pathogenic organisms by injection of the hen with an immunogen containing immunogenic determinants specific to elicit said antibodies. (google.it)
  • The immune response induced by arthropod saliva is mainly Th2, which favors the production of antibodies ( 20 , 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This antibody has been shown to be useful, using immunofluorescence, in the detection of dsDNA in fx. (abcam.com)
  • The feces were examined by coprological techniques (staining with iron hematoxylin, Ziehl-Neelsen, and modified Weber's chromotrope 2R-based trichrome), and with immunofluorescence antibody MERIFLUOR Cryptosporidium/Giardia assay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One hundred forty-eight women with high-risk pregnancies who had abnormal pregnancy outcomes (cases) and 100 with normal pregnancies (controls) were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA in their blood by a nested PCR and specific antibodies to Toxoplasma by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • van Lieshout L and Verweij JJ (2010) Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa. (els.net)
  • Opportunistic protozoan infections caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii are seen in patients who are immunosuppressed by disease or drug therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to interferon-gamma. (nih.gov)
  • Cows injected with a protein that mimics HIV's envelope make broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit multiple strains of the virus. (the-scientist.com)
  • Treponema pallidum major sheath protein homologue Tpr K is a target of opsonic antibody and the protective immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies directed to purified recombinant variable domain of Tpr K can opsonize T. pallidum, Nichols strain, for phagocytosis, supporting the hypothesis that this portion of the protein is exposed at the surface of the treponeme. (nih.gov)
  • The captured gp120 protein is recognised at a separate site by a second antibody that is, in turn, detected using a third, enzyme labelled,anti-antibody. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • Development and properties of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we performed a search in the Neospora caninum genome by linear B-cell epitopes using immunoinformatic tools aiming to develop a chimeric protein with high potential to bind specifically to antibodies from infected cattle samples. (asm.org)
  • The anti- T. cruzi epimastigote stage antibody isotype profiles in the sera of Brazilian patients from each clinical category, as well as from uninfected individuals (UNINF) from the same endemic area were analyzed. (ajtmh.org)
  • Three blood cultures as well as serologic investigations for the detection of antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, performed on day 3 and 7 after the onset of clinical symptoms, remained negative. (curezone.org)
  • The present study investigated the presence of dispersive stages of potentially zoonotic protozoans belonging to the genera Blastocystis , Giardia and Cryptosporidium , and Microsporidia spores in feces collected from birds inhabiting the breeding colony established at one lake island in Poland, Europe. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most salivary proteins (SPs) are highly immunogenic, able to elicit antibody production and memory responses ( 15 , 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Giardia lamblia Antibody Cat. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Giardia lamblia antibody is in a phosphate saline buffer (0.01M, pH 7.2) containing 0.1% sodium azide preservative. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Giardia lamblia antibody can be stored at -20˚C, stable for one year. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Autoinmunidad humoral en la enfermedad de Chagas cronica : anticuerpos contra las proteinas ribosomales P. / Gabriela Laura Levitus. (who.int)
  • Thanks to years of painstaking antibody research , ProSci has created an impressive primary antibody production catalog of research-ready primary antibodies for a wide range of clinical applications. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Our primary antibody selection can benefit your research endeavors, no matter your targeted study area. (prosci-inc.com)
  • We're researchers ourselves, with years of lab and clinical experience backing our primary antibody production catalog. (prosci-inc.com)
  • ProSci's primary antibody product line offers a wide-ranging selection of antibodies backed by science - and well-regarded by our growing client base. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Call a ProSci primary antibody expert at (888) 513-9525, or visit our contact page for department-based email contacts and a secure message portal. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Antibodies are found in extracellular fluids (blood plasma. (scribd.com)
  • We used anti-cyclin-A antibody (human origin) in western blot assay with epimastigote of T. cruzi proteins and this recognized a ~ 55 kDa polypeptide. (scirp.org)
  • This is the first report of antibody-delivery into viable epimastigote forms of T. cruzi , with a simple and cheap technique, which will allows carrying out further studies of this protozoan. (scirp.org)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components in the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus Nag-1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Of special concern are macroscopic tapeworm cysts and microscopic cysts of protozoa. (fda.gov)
  • Several protozoan infections show a more severe progression in the immunocompromised host , important examples are toxoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, cryptosporidiosis and visceral leishmaniasis. (els.net)
  • Consider other non-malarial protozoan infections may occur due to occur Multi-EGFR tKIs An alternative is available vitamin e. 3-dehydroretinol is a quick check to the cytoplasmic glucocortico- steroid tablets with permission. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Consider other non-malarial protozoan infections may occur due to occur. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • These data suggest the presence of complex immunoregulatory processes, most likely related to differential cytokine involvement, which can influence the expression of antibody isotypes and possibly the course of disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here, we present a brief review on the antibody response against SPs and the hypothetical implication of IgG4 antibodies in disease progression of several vector-borne diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Broadly, the present invention is directed to the use of egg antibody preparations in the treatment of systemic disease in human and non-human mammals. (google.it)
  • The antibodies are then administered orally to a mammal suffering from an infectious systemic disease caused or exacerbated by such pathogenic organism or organisms. (google.it)
  • Equine protozoa myelitis (which, fortunately, is shortened to EPM), is a common neurological disease. (horses-and-horse-information.com)
  • Blood antibody titers, however, should not be considered evidence of the clinical disease. (horses-and-horse-information.com)
  • CDC also first recognized New Jersey as endemic for Babesiosis , another tickborne disease caused by a protozoa, in 2002. (google.com)
  • Chronic exposure to mosquito bites induces higher IgG4 antibodies against SPs than other IgG subclasses ( 22 , 26 , 27 ), suggesting that this specific antibody subclass may be a marker of intense exposure to arthropod vectors ( 28 , 29 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila , a wide variety of programmed rearrangements occur during the development of the somatic nucleus including chromosome fragmentation and deletion of specific DNA sequences. (els.net)
  • Surprisingly, antibodies elicited by the vaccine enter the tick when the arthropod feeds, and destroy OspA-producing B. burgdorferi in the vector. (hhmi.org)
  • We will additionally measure Total IgG antibody titers in the blood, and we will compare groups using logged values of the antibody levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
  • 14. Risk assessment of waterborne protozoa: current status and future trends. (indigo.ca)
  • Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:50). (scielo.br)
  • This is due to the fact that, although IgG4 may act as a blocking antibody, it is not efficient in forming large immune complexes ( 30 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) is one of the most common causes of thrombocytopenia in dogs where the dog's immune system produces antibodies which attack and destroy the blood cells. (justanswer.com)
  • V(D)J recombination is a DNA rearrangement that occurs during the development of the human immune system to assemble functional genes encoding antibodies. (els.net)
  • Individuals who have sex once or twice a week show 30 percent higher levels of an antibody called immunoglobulin A, which is known to boost the immune system," he says. (valleyforward.org)
  • Increased antibodies against an Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus virophage indicated seroconversion. (cdc.gov)