Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Kinetoplastida: An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blastocystis hominis: A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Theileria parva: A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Tritrichomonas: A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (1/3338)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (2/3338)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin subclass distribution and diagnostic value of Leishmania donovani antigen-specific immunoglobulin G3 in Indian kala-azar patients. (3/3338)

Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a fatal tropical disease, remains problematic, as early diagnosis is difficult and treatment often results in drug resistance and relapse. We have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts (LAg) to detect specific antibody responses in 25 untreated Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients. To investigate the pathogenetic significance of isotype markers in kala-azar, relative levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses were analyzed under clinically established diseased conditions. Since LAg showed higher sensitivity for specific IgG than lysate, the immunoglobulin isotype responses were evaluated, with LAg as antigen. Compared to 60 controls, which included patients with malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhoid and healthy subjects, visceral leishmaniasis patients showed significantly higher IgG (100% sensitivity, 85% specificity), IgM (48% sensitivity, 100% specificity), and IgE (44% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) responses. Low levels of IgA in visceral leishmaniasis patients contrasted with a 13-fold-higher reactivity in sera from patients with leprosy. Among IgG subclasses, IgG1, -3, and -4 responses were significantly higher in visceral leishmaniasis patients than in the controls. IgG2 response, however, was significantly higher (twofold) in leprosy than even visceral leishmaniasis patients. The rank orders for sensitivity (IgG = IgG1 = IgG3 = IgG4 > IgG2 > IgM > IgE > IgA) and specificity (IgM = IgG3 > IgE > IgG4 > IgG2 > IgG > IgG1 > IgA) for LAg-specific antibody responses suggest the potentiality of IgG3 as a diagnostic marker for visceral leishmaniasis.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection. (4/3338)

With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.  (+info)

Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to Entamoeba histolytica on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). (5/3338)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed (1993 through 1995) among two different groups of persons on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. In the first group, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens from a household-based sample of 557 dwellers from the rural area of the island. In the second group, 1,633 inpatients and outpatients at the General Hospital of Malabo (the capital of the country) were studied. All age groups were represented in both groups. The average prevalence of the most common protozoan and helminthic intestinal infections in rural and urban areas, respectively, was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (14.9% and 32.7%, respectively), Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 8.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.8% and 31.4%), and Trichuris trichiura (25.7% and 36.4%). Seventy-nine sera from patients with amebic liver abscess (suspected by ultrasonography) were studied by an immunohemagglutination assay, with 44 (56%) showing anti-E. histolytica titers > or = 1:32. Of these 79 sera, 71 were studied by an enzyme immunoassay, 86% of which were positive with titers > or = 1:64. This study showed that parasitic infections in Equatorial Guinea represent a major health problem.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (6/3338)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Antibodies reactive with the N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen inhibit cell proliferation by agglutinating merozoites and schizonts. (7/3338)

The serine repeat antigen (SERA) is a vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization of mice with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein of the SERA N-terminal domain (SE47') induced an antiserum that was inhibitory to parasite growth in vitro. Affinity-purified mouse antibodies specific to the recombinant protein inhibited parasite growth between the schizont and ring stages but not between the ring and schizont stages. When Percoll-purified schizonts were cultured with the affinity-purified SE47'-specific antibodies, schizonts and merozoites were agglutinated. Indirect-immunofluorescence assays with unfixed parasite cells showed that SE47'-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) bound to SERA molecules on rupturing schizonts and merozoites but the IgG did not react with the schizont-infected erythrocytes (RBC). Furthermore, double-fluorescence staining against SE47'-specific IgG and anti-human RBC membrane IgG showed that the RBC membrane disappeared from SE47'-specific-IgG-bound schizonts after cultivation. These observations suggest that the SE47'-specific antibodies inhibit parasite growth by cross-linking SERA molecules that are associated with merozoites in rupturing schizonts with partly broken RBC and parasitophorous vacuole membranes, blocking merozoite release.  (+info)

Value of Western blotting in the clinical follow-up of canine leishmaniasis. (8/3338)

Specific serum antibody levels in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with a combination of glucantime and allopurinol were estimated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The sensitivity of Western blot was greater than that obtained with immunofluorescence titration. In general, both diagnostic methods concurred with the post-treatment clinical status of the animals. Clinical improvement of successfully treated dogs was related to lower immunofluorescence titers and simpler and/or less reactive immunodetection patterns in Western blotting. The recognition, by infected dogs, of certain low molecular weight antigens, particularly one of approximately 26 kDa, was restricted to pretreatment samples and a single animal in relapse thus apparently constituting an active infection marker.  (+info)

*Cryptobia

The protozoans can be identified in skin and gill biopsies and blood samples. For some of the protozoans, antibodies can be ... These protozoans can be found on most continents. Bloodfeeding leeches are implicated in the transmission of the bloodborne ... detected in the fish using ELISA and fluorescent antibody testing. Chemical treatment with isometamidium chloride has been ...

*Z-RNA

Formation of Z-RNA in living cells was suggested by experiments using anti-Z-RNA antibodies to stain fixed protozoan cells ...

*Crithidia luciliae

... a type of anti-nuclear antibody. Anti-nuclear antibodies are a common feature in SLE and anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly ... As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage ... C.luciliae is a eukaryotic single-cell protozoan. The family Trypanosomatidae belongs to the order kinetoplastida and is ... The kinetoplast found in C.luciliae allows them to be used for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies, ...

*Malabsorption

IgA Anti-transglutaminase antibodies or IgA Anti-endomysial antibodies for Coeliac disease (gluten sensitive enteropathy). ... Microscopy is particularly useful in diarrhoea, may show protozoa like Giardia, ova, cyst and other infective agents. Fecal fat ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254 - ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.252 -- antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 -- ... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.252 -- antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.254 -- ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ...

*Hypothetical technology

Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain ... Malaria vaccines are an area of intensive research, in an effort to cure the disease caused by parasitic protozoans (a type of ... Potential candidates for antibodies and early stage results from clinical trials have been announced. ...

*Blood-brain barrier

Antibodies are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, and only certain antibiotics are able to pass. In some cases, a drug ... is a condition in which trypanosoma protozoa are found in brain tissue. It is not yet known how the parasites infect the brain ... Therapeutic molecules and antibodies that might otherwise be effective in diagnosis and therapy do not cross the BBB in ... Patients with neuromyelitis optica have high levels of antibodies against a protein called aquaporin 4 (a component of the ...

*Malaria vaccine

Antibodies that interfere with the binding, by either targeting the key region of the DARC or the DBP will prevent the ... By their very nature, protozoa are more complex organisms than bacteria and viruses, with more complicated structures and life ... Antibodies against the Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (PfSEA-1) were found to disable the parasite ability to rupture from the ... Antibodies are part of the specific immune response. They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating ...

*Ticks of domestic animals

... the ticks act as long term reservoirs of the protozoans. In addition, some species of protozoans (within the Theileria and ... Vaccinated cattle develop antibodies circulating in their blood. When the Rh. microplus female ticks engorge with blood, the ... Against Babesia protozoa are imidocarb and diminazine, both of which can be used to treat patent clinical infections. Against ... Acquisition of immunity may be aided by the protection of antibodies in the mother's colostrum (first milk). At least on ...

*Outline of immunology

Antibodies Kinds of Antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies Autoantibody Microantibody Neutralizing antibody ... Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Antibodies Immunoglobulin A (IgA) IgA1 IgA2 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) Foreign Pernicious anemia Hemolytic disease of the newborn Autoimmune ...

*Trans-splicing

... is used by certain microbial organisms, notably protozoa of the Kinetoplastae class to express genes. In these ... "Trans-splicing as a novel method to rapidly produce antibody fusion proteins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...

*Frederick Parker Gay

He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ... He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses ... 1912: (with G.Y. Rusk) Studies in the Locus of Antibody Formation, Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, ...

*History of emerging infectious diseases

Many viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and prions are identified as a confirmed or potential pathogen. In the ... An additional study found that many IBS patients from whom Blastocystis could not be identified showed a strong antibody ... The most prevalent protozoa in these studies are considered emerging infectious diseases by some researchers, because a ... Giardiasis is a disease caused by infection with the protozoan Giardia lamblia. Infection with Giardia can produce diarrhea, ...

*Immunoglobulin E

In the second approach, antibodies specific for a domain of 52 amino acid residues, referred to as CεmX or M1' (M1 prime), ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE also has an ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE- ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...

*Toxoplasmosis

The IgM antibodies appear sooner after infection than the IgG antibodies and disappear faster than IgG antibodies after ... Splendore reported the protozoan in a rabbit, while Nicolle and Manceaux identified it in a North African rodent, the gundi ( ... IgG antibodies usually appear within a week or two of infection, peak within one to two months, then decline at various rates. ... Toxoplasma IgG antibodies generally persist for life, and therefore may be present in the bloodstream as a result of either ...

*Blastocystosis

These antibodies, known as immunoglobulin A (IgA), make up the immune defense system of human by preventing the growth of ... Khalifa AM, El Temsahy MM, Abou El Naga IF (2001). "Effect of ozone on the viability of some protozoa in drinking water". ... Fecal antibody testing: A 2003 study at Ain Shams University in Egypt indicated that patients symptomatically infected could be ... By breaking up the antibodies, it allows the persistence of Blastocystis in the human gut. Another more recent study has also ...

*Hepatocystis

The protozoa are transmitted by the bite of the insect vector. The sporozoites migrate to the liver where they typically form ... Dracopoli NC, Turner TR, Else JG, Jolly CJ, Anthony R, Gallo RC, Saxinger WC (1986). "STLV-I antibodies in feral populations of ... Mature gametocytes are larger than a normal erythrocyte stain poorly compared to other protozoa. In both male and female ... Bray RS (1984). "Some parasitic protozoa from the Gambia". J. Euk. Microbiol. 31 (4): 577-8. Leathers CW (1978). "The ...

*Phagocyte

Pathogenic bacteria and protozoa have developed a variety of methods to resist attacks by phagocytes, and many actually survive ... Opsonin receptors increase the phagocytosis of bacteria that have been coated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies or with ... The protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania infect macrophages, and each has a unique way of ... Their size and rate of phagocytosis increases-some become large enough to engulf invading protozoa. In the blood, neutrophils ...

*Babesia

... is a protozoan parasite found to infect vertebrate animals, mostly livestock mammals and birds, but also and humans. ... To supplement a blood smear, diagnoses should be made with an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. IFA testing has a much ... As a protozoan parasite, the most effective way to identify Babesia infection is through blood sample testing. Babesia species ... Diagnostic measures through antibody testing are also particularly useful for identifying serum prevalence in asymptomatic ...

*Trypanosoma brucei

Antibody-mediated trypanosome killing can also be observed in vitro by a complement-mediated lysis assay. However, with each ... an unusual feature unique to the kinetoplastid protozoans. The kinetoplast and the basal body of the flagellum are strongly ...

*Amoebiasis

... protozoa and from cysts of free-living protozoa as discussed above. Recovery procedures are not very accurate; cysts are easily ... The levels of antibody are much higher in individuals with liver abscesses. Serology only becomes positive about two weeks ... Since antibodies may persist for years after clinical cure, a positive serological result may not necessarily indicate an ... The most accurate test is finding specific antibodies in the blood, but it may remain positive following treatment. Bacterial ...

*Steak tartare

"Antibodies toToxoplasma gondiiin individuals with mania". Bipolar Disorders. 16: 129-136. doi:10.1111/bdi.12123. PMID 24102676 ... "Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan ...

*Pasteur Institute

Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... as the endotoxins alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. Regarding curative medicine, it was in 1911 ... especially the implication of antibodies and the mechanisms of action of the complement; Charles Nicolle received the Nobel ...

*Occupational hazards of human nail dust

It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ... Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence of trichophyton rubrum antibodies in podiatrists ranged from 14%-31%. ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

... fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly recognizes certain sugar groups on the surface of microorganisms but also binds ... including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy and cancer vaccines. ...
There are various products for anti-parasite treatment for dogs to keep ticks, fleas or lice off your dog. Can be used as a preventive measure or in cases of actual infestation.TRIXIE has been focussing on pets for over 40 years, with now 6,500 products on offer and lots of ideas and information on your pet.
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Treating tuberculosis (TB) has become more difficult since the appearance of TB bacteria that can resist more than one antibiotic. Such forms of TB are ...
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People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was
Figure 4: Fine epitope mapping of naturally acquired human anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies on a peptide array. (a) The fine specificity of human affinity-purified anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies was analyzed by a peptide microarray with 52 overlapping peptides of 15 amino acids shifted by four residues covering 3D7 Pf332-DBL (amino acids 1-219). Two overlapping 15 mers having the peptide sequence KKDEYIDIQSRV in common were recognized by the human antibodies. Nonimmune IgG gave a reactivity lower than 250 ± 200, and is therefore not displayed in the graph. Peptides are ordered from N-terminus (top) to C-terminus (bottom). Bars represent the mean reactivity of three subarrays; error bars indicate standard deviation. (b) Mapping of epitopes recognized by the affinity-purified human anti-Pf332-DBL antibody on the 3D model of Pf332-DBL. Subdomain 1 (yellow), subdomain 2 (red), and subdomain 3 (green). The epitope recognized by the human affinity-purified anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies (blue) is located on one of ...
life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role ...
The roles of allelic and conserved epitopes in vaccine-induced immunity to the C-terminal 42-kDa fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) were investigated. The C-terminal fragment of MSP1 was expressed as a baculovirus recombinant protein, BVp42. Rabbits were immunized with BVp42, and antibodies were tested for reactivity to MSP1s of the homologous and heterologous allelic forms, represented by the FUP, FVO, FC27, and Honduras parasite isolates, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Despite the fact that allelic sequences accounted for approximately 50% of the BVp42 molecule, anti-BVp42 antibodies cross-reacted extensively with parasites carrying heterologous MSP1 alleles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays confirmed that an overwhelming majority of the anti-BVp42 antibodies were cross-reactive, suggesting that determinants within conserved block 17 are dominant B-cell epitopes in the anti-BVp42 response. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malaria-specific antibody responses and parasite persistence after infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi. AU - Achtman, A. H.. AU - Stephens, Robin. AU - Cadman, E. T.. AU - Harrison, V.. AU - Langhorne, J.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - While it is known that antibodies are critical for clearance of malaria infections, it is not clear whether adequate antibody responses are maintained and what effect chronic infection has on this response. Here we show that mice with low-grade chronic primary infections of Plasmodium chabaudi or infections very recently eliminated have reduced second infections when compared with the second infection of parasite-free mice. We also show that parasite-specific antibody responses induced by infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi contain both short- and long-lived components as well as memory B cells responsible for a faster antibody response during re-infection. Furthermore, parasite-specific antibodies to the C-terminal fragment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV infection drives IgM and IgG3 subclass bias in Plasmodium falciparum-specific and total immunoglobulin concentration in Western Kenya. AU - Odhiambo, Eliud O.. AU - Datta, Dibyadyuti. AU - Guyah, Bernard. AU - Ayodo, George. AU - Ondigo, Bartholomew N.. AU - AbongO, Benard O.. AU - John, Chandy. AU - Frosch, Anne E.P.. PY - 2019/8/30. Y1 - 2019/8/30. N2 - Background: HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses. Methods: HIV infected and uninfected adults were recruited from Bondo subcounty hospital in Western Kenya at the time of HIV testing (antiretroviral and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis naïve). Total and Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and glutamate rich protein-R0 (GLURP-R0) specific IgM, IgG and IgG subclass ...
In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, immunoglobulin G is acquired by the fetus in utero, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy. The potential protective effect of transferred anti-P. falciparum maternal antibodies was examined in a longitudinal study of 100 infants from birth to 1 year of age. The probability of acquiring a P. falciparum infection and developing an episode of clinical malaria was determined in relation to the P. falciparum-specific antibody level of the infant at birth against P. falciparum schizont antigen or recombinant merozoite surface protein MSP1(19) antigen. The risk of acquiring an episode of clinical malaria increased from birth to 6 months of age, after which it decreased. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum parasitemia was highest (48.9%) in the 6-month-old infants. The age-specific hematocrit value showed the lowest mean value (30.2) from 6 to 9 months, and the spleen rate was the highest (69.8%) at the same age. There was a lower risk of ...
This study shows that two sympatric ethnic groups in Mali, the Fulani and the Dogon, exhibit differential frequencies in the expression of FcγRIIa R131H genotypes and allotypes. It furthermore, confirms and extends the previous findings regarding differences in anti-malarial responses between sympatric ethnic groups living in West Africa [12, 13]. The Fulani were less parasitized, had fewer parasite clones and had higher anti-malarial IgG subclass levels than the sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon. Fulani also showed a higher spleen rate as compared to Dogon. Interestingly, the Fulani showed significantly lower haemoglobin levels as compared to the Dogon, which was recently confirmed in both a longitudinal study and two cross sectional studies in the same study area (Dolo et al, personal communication).. The FcγRIIa R131H genotype results of this study contradict those from previous reports, where the R/R genotype has been associated with protection (reviewed by Braga [8]). Here it was revealed ...
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Development and Standardization of Dot - ELISA for Detection of Neospora caninum Antibodies in Cattle and Comparison with Standard Indirect ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT).
A toxoplasmose é uma parasitose prevalente em todo o mundo que quando adquirida podendo se transmitida ao feto quando contraída durante o período gestacional e causar, entre outros problemas, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, déficit visual e de audição. A prevenção da transmissão vertical deve ser iniciada antes da concepção ou o mais precocemente possível durante o exame pré-natal. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo objetivando a avaliação da soroprevalência da toxoplasmose em parturientes, atendidos na Unidade Básica de Saúde de Brasília Teimosa-Natal/RN, usando o teste sorológico de imunofluorescência indireta. Os resultados mostram que 62,5% dessas pacientes possuem anticorpos anti-toxoplasma, sendo que 22,5% da classe IgG e IgM concomitantemente, em diferentes títulos, e 62,5% possuíam anticorpos da classe IgG. O índice de prevalência de anticorpos anti-toxoplasma neste grupo de gestantes está relacionada à localização geográfica, hábitos ...
BACKGROUND: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. METHODS: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and
BACKGROUND: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. METHODS: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and
infections; (ii) specific antibodies detected by conventional serology (CS) with epimastigote extracts, fixed trypomastigotes or other parasite antigens may circulate years after parasite elimination; (iii) functional antibodies are evidenced by complement-mediated lysis of freshly isolated trypomastigotes, a test which is 100% specific, highly sensitive, and the first to revert after T. cruzi elimination and (iv) the parasite target for the lytic antibodies is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight (gp160) anchored at the parasite surface. The complement regulatory protein has been cloned, sequenced and produced as a recombinant protein by other groups and is useful for identifying functional anti-T. cruzi antibodies in ELISA tests, thus dispensing with the need for live trypomastigotes to manage treated patients. If used instead of CS to define cures for Chagas patients, ELISA will avoid unnecessary delays in finding anti-T. cruzi drugs. Other highly sensitive techniques for parasite DNA ...
Processing-inhibitory anti-MSP119 mAbs can prevent MSP-1 and erythrocyte invasion in in vitro culture, and can be rendered ineffective by the simultaneous
... ! Generic Stromectol is a high-calls medication which is used to treat infections caused by certain parasites. Generic Stromectol is an anti-parasite medication. It causes the death of certain parasitic organisms in the body. Generic Stromectol may also be used for other purposes.
Generique Ivermectin Pas Cher Générique Stromectol Ou Commander Generique Stromectol 12 mg Le Moins Cher. Stromectol Générique est un médicament anti-parasite. Il cause la mort de certains organismes parasitaires dans le corps et il.... ...
The kinetics of parasite-specific antibody responses in relation to worm burden and egg output were investigated in hamsters infected with 25, 50 and 100 Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (MC). Levels of antibody to egg, excretory-secretory (ES) and somatic antigens were examined by ELISA on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and month 1 postinfection (p.i.), and repeated monthly up to 6 months. The antibody responses were first detected as early as 14 days after infection. Hamsters that were infected with 100 MC and 50 MC showed higher antibody levels than those of 25 MC, during early infection until 1 month p.i. Then, the antibody levels were increased rapidly to a plateau at approximately month 2 p.i. and, subsequently, were relatively stable in all groups. The average antibody levels to egg and somatic, but not to ES antigens, were significantly higher in hamsters infected with 25 MC than those of 50 MC and 100 MC. These antibody responses, particularly to egg and ES antigens, were not correlated with worm ...
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites, with many hosts in common. The prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs from Durango City, Mexico. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (51.5%) of the 101 dogs with titers of 1:25 in 27, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 5, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 1. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the Neospora sp. agglutination test (NAT). Two of the 101 dogs had N. caninum antibodies; these dogs did not have T. gondii antibodies, supporting the specificity of the tests used. The N. caninum antibody titers of the 2 dogs were: 1:400 by IFAT and 1:200 by NAT in 1, and 1:25 by NAT and IFAT in the other. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoans are antigenically different ...
Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disease of unknown cause. Previous studies have reported that toxoplasmosis may be a possible cause of schizophrenia. To ascertain possible relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia, a cross sectional study, employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to study the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, demographic data analysis from schizophrenic patients were analysed to associate toxoplasmosis with schizophrenia. A total of 288 serum samples from schizophrenic patients (n=144) and psychiatrically healthy volunteers (n=144) were recruited in this study. Interestingly, a significant result in the serointensity rate of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody (, 60IU/mL) in schizophrenic patients (61.1%) was demonstrated as compared to psychiatrically healthy volunteers (40.8%) (X² = 4.236, p , 0.050). However, there was no significant difference between the seropositivity rate ...
Background: Antibodies in adults living in malaria endemic areas that target specific parasite antigens are implicated in protective immunity to infection and disease. This study aimed to identify, isolate and characterise targets of protective immunity in malaria. A Plasmodium falciparum antigen termed UB05 (Genbank Accession Number DQ235690: PlasmoDB PF10_ 0372) that had been isolated by immunoscreening with semi-immune sera was studied. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and bioinformatics were used to analyse the UB05 gene. A specific mouse anti-UB05 antibody was used in parasite reinvasion growth/inhibition assays and in immunoflourescence to localise the antigen. In a cross-sectional study, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to study immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the antigen. Results: The gene revealed significant homologies with gene sequences from Plasmodia and other apicomplexan parasites and had two alleles in the wild P. falciparum isolates. The antigen is ...
Background and aims: Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease of warm-blooded animals, is notably influenced by environmental features. Recognizing spatial pattern of Toxoplasma gondii distribution in environment can provide significant contributions to public health and toxoplasmosis control. This study was designed to survey the frequency of T. gondii antibody in rural dogs and cats and also analyze possible relation between environmental factors and spatial distribution of T. gondiiantibody in Golestan province, using GIS. Methods: From 2015 to 2016, 106 rural cats and 154 rural dogs were randomly sampled. Serum samples were tested for presence of T. gondii antibody through modified agglutination test (MAT). The relation between T. gondii antibody frequency and environmental factors was surveyed in ArcGIS and Idrisi Selva software with multiple linear regression model. Results: From sampled rural cats and rural dogs, 85 (80.1%) and 99 (64.2%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, respectively.
Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P,0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between ...
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease in various species of animals caused by a sporozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The disease occurs throughout the world including Iran. This disease is a common infection of sheep, goats and it is recognized as one of major infection cause of reproductive failure. This survey was carried out to show the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Tabriz (Iran). 490 sera samples were collected from both native and industrial cattle. The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) was used to determine the rate of infection. The results of this survey are showed that the overall seroprevalence of antibody of Toxoplasma incattle in Tabriz is 15.91%. There was significant differences in infection to Toxoplasma gondii in the age group of cattle (P
Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i.e. Kurunegala and Moneragala of Sri Lanka. Sera was collected from 1,186 individuals from the two districts and were subjected to standard ELISA together with control sera from non-immune individuals to obtain Optical Density (OD) values for four anti-malarial antibodies i.e. anti-MSP1 and anti-AMA1 for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The sero-positive samples were determined as mean OD + 3SD of the negative controls. The ...
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Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
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Upon rupture of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) schizonts in vitro (an event known as egress), merozoites are released into the culture medium. The merozoites invade fresh red blood cells, a process that involves shedding of a microneme protein called apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) from the merozoite surface. This shedding, which takes place even in the absence of invasion, is therefore a surrogate marker for the degree of egress taking place in a culture, and can be measured using a specific capture ELISA to quantify AMA1 levels in culture supernatants (Collins et al., 2013). The assay uses a monoclonal antibody specific for AMA1 (called 4G2dc1) (Kocken et al., 1998; Collins et al., 2009) to capture and immobilize the protein from culture supernatants, then uses a specific rabbit polyclonal antiserum to detect the immobilized antigen. A phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody is finally used to quantify the binding of the second antibody. Egress is absolutely dependent upon the
Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected. Among the HIV patients, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were significantly higher in age group of 30-39 years old (P=0.05). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with CD4+|100 cells/μl was 33.3% that was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.042) with or without IgG antibodies. The CD4+ count mean of seropositive patients was lower than that of seronegative patients. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in
Serum samples collected from breeder chickens ranging in age from 1 day to 55 weeks were tested for CAA antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The relationship of ELISA to IFA test was determined. The sensitivity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 82.64%, and the specificity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 56.25%. Agreement between the ELISA and the IFA test was highly significant (Kappa = 0.74, Z = 5.78). We concluded that the ELISA is as good as the IFA test for detecting CAA antibody in sera from chickens.
Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odors in male rats. Relevant proximate mechanisms include interaction of gonadal testosterone and brain nonapeptide arginine-vasopressin. Both of these substrates are sexually dimorphic with preferential expression in males; suggesting either absence of behavioral change in females or mediation by analogous neuroendocrine substrates. Here we demonstrate that Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odor in female rats. This change is not accompanied by altered steroid hormones; cannot be rescued by gonadal removal; and, does not depend on arginine-vasopressin. Thus behavioral change in males and female occur through non-analogous mechanisms that remain hitherto unknown ...
Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus and malaria is not uncommon in people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Since HIV infection results in immune deficiency, it may alter the ability of HIV patients to mount proper immune responses against malaria parasites. We measured specific malaria antibodies in 47 specimens from 25 couples from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to their HIV status, and investigated probable interaction between malaria and HIV infection. Plasma samples were analyzed for HIV markers (western blot and viral load) and malaria parasite-specific antibody (antibody titer, pattern of antigen recognized by western blotting, and parasite neutralizing antibodies assayed by growth inhibition). No correlation was identified between measured HIV infection status and malaria-specific parameters.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Type I IFN signaling in CD8- DCs impairs Th1-dependent malaria immunity. AU - Haque, Ashraful K M Nazmul. AU - Best, Shannon E. AU - Montes de Oca, Marcela. AU - James, Kylie R. AU - Ammerdorffer, Anne. AU - Edwards, Chelsea L. AU - de Labastida Rivera, Fabian Rivera. AU - Amante, Fiona H. AU - Bunn, Patrick T. AU - Sheel, Meru. AU - Sebina, Ismail. AU - Koyama, Motoko. AU - Varelias, Antiopi. AU - Hertzog, Paul John. AU - Kalinke, Ulrich. AU - Gun, Sin Yee. AU - Renia, Laurent. AU - Ruedl, Christiane. AU - MacDonald, Kelli P A. AU - Hill, Geoffrey R. AU - Engwerda, Christian R. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites, suppress cellular immune responses through activation of type I IFN signaling. Recent evidence suggests that immune suppression and susceptibility to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is mediated by type I IFN; however, it is unclear how type I IFN suppresses immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. ...
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A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be 49, in which 39, 4 and 6 for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the differences in Toxoplasma seroprevalence rates among the races were significant: the highest rate was in the Malays (55.7), followed by the Indian (55.3) and the Chinese (19.4) (-0.05) populations. An increase in Toxoplasma seroprevalence with increasing parity was detected (-0.05). Women with no children had a prevalence of 39.7, while women with one or more than two children had a prevalence of 44.2 and 62.9, respectively. In this study, there was no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and various possible risk factors in pregnant women (P�,�0.05). When multivariate analysis was performed, no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and history of contact with ...
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive monoclonal B-cell malignancy that is rare (sporadic) worldwide, but is 100-fold more common (endemic) in equatorial Africa, particularly among children. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and malaria are epidemiologically linked to endemic BL in epidemiologic studies, but questions remain about role of EBV variants and the evidence for association with malaria is weak. EBV is ubiquitous, yet only few children develop BL, possibly because only a few EBV variants are pathogenitically relevant. The association of BL with malaria is based on ecologic and non-comparative clinical studies. Two case-control studies have reported significant association of high anti-malarial antibodies with BL (OR=5_ among children in Uganda and in Malawi, but selection bias (cases and controls came from dissimilar geographical areas) and reverse causality bias were limitations. Three studies were conducted in the 1960s and 70s to test association of carriage of malaria-resistance gene with ...
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive monoclonal B-cell malignancy that is rare (sporadic) worldwide, but is 100-fold more common (endemic) in equatorial Africa, particularly among children. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and malaria are epidemiologically linked to endemic BL in epidemiologic studies, but questions remain about role of EBV variants and the evidence for association with malaria is weak. EBV is ubiquitous, yet only few children develop BL, possibly because only a few EBV variants are pathogenitically relevant. The association of BL with malaria is based on ecologic and non-comparative clinical studies. Two case-control studies have reported significant association of high anti-malarial antibodies with BL (OR=5_ among children in Uganda and in Malawi, but selection bias (cases and controls came from dissimilar geographical areas) and reverse causality bias were limitations. Three studies were conducted in the 1960s and 70s to test association of carriage of malaria-resistance gene with ...
This study examined the evolution of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgG3 antibodies against the asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum protein, MSP1(19), before and after a heavy malaria transmission period in clinically immune Senegalese subjects living under different epidemiological conditions. Plasma was tested for antibodies to a yeast-produced, recombinant PfMSP1(19) antigen (the Q-KNG allelic variant) that has previously been demonstrated to react with IgG1, IgG3, or both in the majority of these people. Anti-P. falciparum antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses, previously reported to be associated with protection, were shown to evolve independently one from another after the transmission period in both settings. These results suggest differential regulation of MSP1(19)-specific IgG1 and IgG3. The precise role of these antibody isotypes in maintaining malaria immunity remains to be determined.
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(Medical Xpress) -- Mothers who are treated for malaria may pass on lower levels of natural immunity to their young, animal studies show.
References for Abcams Recombinant |em|T. gondii|/em| Toxoplasma gondii GRA 1 protein (ab73746). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
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유희왕OCG, 확률에 대해확률은 많은 게임에서 지표로 사용되고 있다.유희왕OCG등의 TCG에선, 확률이 덱 구성과 플레잉의 지표가 된다.여기서는 주료 덱 구성에 대해, 확률의 유효한 활용법을 기술한다.그리고, 아래의 확률은 고등학교 수학Ⅰ수준의 지식과 계산기가 있으면 구할 수 있다는 것을 명기해 둔다.하급 몬스터의 투입 장수(표1)은, 40장 덱에서의 ...
Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic derivative of the natural estrogen estradiol. It is one of two estrogens currently used in oral contraceptive pills. The other, mestranol, is converted to ethinyl estradiol before it is biologically active. Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone are used together as an oral contraceptive agent ...
The Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1(Pf MSP1), a predominant antigen on the surface of the asexual blood stage of the parasite, plays a role in erythrocyte invasion. It elicits immune responses during exposure to natural P. falciparum infections, hence, it is a potential vaccine candidate. However, its extensive sequence diversity causes antigenic variability. Parasites that express variants other than that targeted by immune protection mounted as a result of a vaccine variant, evade the resultant host immune protection. This compromises the efficacy of allele-specific vaccines formulated to protect against a single variant. Due to this, Pf MSP1 has been extensively studied, including in Kenya. However, the extent of Pf MSP1 diversity in children with multiple infections are unknown in Kilifi which is a moderate to high malaria transmission zone. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted from 421 blood samples in 33 children aged below 5 years who had at least 9 multiple infections. ...
Substantial evidence indicates that antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Different malaria antigens induce distinct immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses, but the importance of different responses in protective immunity from malaria is not known and the factors determining subclass responses in vivo are poorly understood. We examined IgG and IgG subclass responses to the merozoite antigens MSP1-19 (the 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1), MSP2 (merozoite surface protein 2), and AMA-1 (apical membrane antigen 1), including different polymorphic variants of these antigens, in a longitudinal cohort of children in Papua New Guinea. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant subclasses of antibodies to each antigen, and all antibody responses increased in association with age and exposure without evidence of increasing polarization toward one ...
To investigate the protective role of antibodies to the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) epitopes against Plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria, a cohort study was conducted in a Malagasy village over 7 months. In the 304 indiv
No vaccine has yet proven effective against the blood-stages of Plasmodium falciparum, which cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. We recently found that PfRH5, a P. falciparum-specific protein expressed in merozoites, is efficiently targeted by broadly-neutralizing, vaccine-induced antibodies. Here we show that antibodies against PfRH5 efficiently inhibit the in vitro growth of short-term-adapted parasite isolates from Cambodia, and that the EC(50) values of antigen-specific antibodies against PfRH5 are lower than those against PfAMA1. Since antibody responses elicited by multiple antigens are speculated to improve the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines, we conducted detailed assessments of parasite growth inhibition by antibodies against PfRH5 in combination with antibodies against seven other merozoite antigens. We found that antibodies against PfRH5 act synergistically with antibodies against certain other merozoite antigens, most notably with antibodies against other erythrocyte
Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the major causes of death in African populations infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Only 1% of infected subjects develop CM. The reasons for these differences are not fully understood, but it is likely that the host humoral response against blood-stage antigens plays a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to distinguish between defined P. falciparum- specific Ab response patterns in patients presenting with mild malaria (MM) vs. CM. Methods: We used a panel of P. falciparum conserved antigens including crude blood-stage extracts schizont, merozoite and parasitised erythrocyte membranes and MSP-1p19, PfEB200, R23 and GST-5 recombinant antigens in a retrospective casecontrol study of symptomatic adults, one group presenting confirmed CM without fatal outcome and another group with MM. We further matched P. falciparum-specific Ab responses with
Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol. 2000; 30(12-13):1217-58. Rahimi MT, Mahdavi SA, Javadian B et al. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in HIV/AIDS individuals from North of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2015; 10(4):584-9. Sarvi S, Daryani A, Rahimi MT et al. Cattle toxoplasmosis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015; 8(2):120-6. Kazemi B, Bandehpour M, Maghen L et al. Gene cloning of 30 kDa Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites surface antigen (SAG1). Iran J Parasitol. 2007; 2(2): 1-8. Dubey JP, Jones JL. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. Int J Parasitol. 2008; 38(11):1257-78. Tekkesin N. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: a review. HOAJ Biol. 2012; 1(1): 9-12. Rahimi MT, Daryani A, Sarvi S et al. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2015;82(1):823. Chen J, Li ZY, Petersen E et al. DNA ...
There is longstanding evidence for a role of immunoglobulin (Ig)G in protection against malarial disease and infection. IgG1 and IgG3 have been shown to be particularly efficient at associating with monocytes in potentially protective mechanisms (i.e. antibody-dependent cellular inhibition, opsonization and phagocytosis). Conversely, there is some evidence that IgG2 (and possibly IgG4) antibodies may be antagonistic to this protection. The protective effect of IgG subclass antibody activity present before the beginning of a malaria transmission season (preseason antibody levels) against severe malaria has not been tested in longitudinal studies. We measured IgG class and subclass antibody levels specific to crude Plasmodium falciparum lysates by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in a case-control study of 76 children on the coast of Kenya. The mean optical density values for both IgG class and subclass antibodies were not significantly different between the children who developed severe malaria ...
Although Plasmodium vivax is a leading cause of malaria around the world, only a handful of vivax antigens are being studied for vaccine development. Here, we investigated genetic signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of two leading vivax vaccine antigens--Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1) and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). Using scalable next-generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced amplicons of the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1 (n = 44) and the complete gene of pvcsp (n = 47) from Cambodian isolates. These sequences were then compared with global parasite populations obtained from GenBank. Using a combination of statistical and phylogenetic methods to assess for selection and population structure, we found strong evidence of balancing selection in the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1, which varied significantly over the length of the gene, consistent with immune-mediated selection. In pvcsp, the highly variable central repeat region also showed patterns
This study is a cross sectional and descriptive study. Sample population was the women referred for marriage consultation to Gorgan Marriage Consultation Center in 2004. The prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies (IgG, IgM) was determined by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected randomly from 300 women referred to the center for consultation. They were transferred to the laboratory for antibodies determination. Gorgan located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian sea. The results showed that the general prevalence to the positive cases based on high titer of IgG was 48.3% and of IgM was 11.7%. There was not any relation between positive cases and age, education, place of residence, job, keeping domestic animals (except cat) vegetable consumption and wash-up, but there was a relation between the positive cases of IgM and keeping cat at home (PV,.025). More over 51.7% of pregnant women in Gorgan were seronegative and the were prone to acute toxoplasmosis during their pregnancy. The results ...
Malaria antigen-induced polarization of T cells into effectors Th1 and/or Th2 cells and their subsequent release of cytokines is known to affect antibody production. This thesis includes studies on early innate responses to the parasite, with a focus on γδT cells, and acquired specific responses in African sympatric ethnic tribes. In the last part of this thesis, a method for enrichment for the asexual blood stages of P. falciparum and their use in in vitro T-cell studies is presented.. To investigate mechanisms involved in parasite growth inhibition by γδT cells, an in vitro system was set up using blood stage parasites co-cultured with differently treated γδT cells. The results showed that Vγ9/δ2+ γδT cells inhibited the in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites whereas CD4+ and CD8+ T cells did not. This inhibition was positively correlated with the expression of cytolytic molecules in the cell lines tested. Anti-granulysin antibodies reversed γδT cell-mediated inhibition, ...
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30-40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37-6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79-30.46; P = ...
Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL) ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic usefulness of the full-length recombinant Toxoplasma gondii MAG1 protein by determining the levels of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in mouse and human sera obtained from individuals with acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The obtained results revealed that IgG antibodies against MAG1 are a sensitive and specific marker of T. gondii infection since the protein was recognized by both mouse and human sera, 100% and 94.3%, respectively, rendering the full-length rMAG1 a prospective alternative for the polyvalent native antigen (TLA).. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, diagnostics of toxoplasmosis, ELISA, MAG1 antigen. Clinical diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection, one of the most common parasitic zoonoses worldwide, relies primarily on a two-step procedure involving detection of specific antibodies (mostly IgM and IgG) and consecutive estimation of IgG avidity to distinguish between acute and chronic invasion in individuals with ...
Malaria parasites run through a complex life cycle in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. This not only requires tightly controlled mechanisms to govern stage-specific gene expression but also necessitates effective strategies for survival under changing environmental conditions. In recent years, the combination of different -omics approaches and targeted functional studies highlighted that Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites use heterochromatin-based gene silencing as a unifying strategy for clonally variant expression of hundreds of genes. In this article, we describe the epigenetic control mechanisms that mediate alternative expression states of genes involved in antigenic variation, nutrient uptake and sexual conversion and discuss the relevance of this strategy for the survival and transmission of malaria parasites ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. (KA4859) - Products - Abnova
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The app ...
From the neo- (Latin, "new") + spora (Greek, "seed") and canis (Latin, "dog"), Neospora caninum (Figure) is a sporozoan parasite that was first described in 1984. It is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs but can also infect horses, goats, sheep, and deer. Antibodies to N. caninum have been found in humans, predominantly in those with HIV infection, although the role of this parasite in causing or exacerbating illness is unclear.. ...
The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 reduced episodes of both clinical and severe malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age by approximately 50% in an ongoing phase 3 trial. We studied infants 6 to 12 weeks of age recruited for the same trial ...
BERTOZZI, Luciana C.; SUZUKI, Lisandra A. and ROSSI, Cláudio L.. Diagnóstico sorológico da toxoplasmose: utilidade da detecção de anticorpos IgA e da determinação da avidez dos anticorpos IgG em um paciente com uma resposta persistente de anticorpos IgM anti-Toxoplama gondii. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 1999, vol.41, n.3, pp.175-177. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46651999000300008.. No presente trabalho, são descritos os resultados da detecção de anticorpos específicos da classe IgA e da determinação da avidez dos anticorpos IgG em amostras sequenciais de soro de um paciente apresentando níveis significativos de anticorpos IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii durante sete anos após o início das manifestações clínicas da infecção. Os anticorpos IgM foram detectados pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e por três técnicas imunoenzimáticas (ELISA) comerciais. Os anticorpos IgA foram quantificados por uma técnica de ELISA de captura, ...
Examination of the serum from an aborting cow is only indicative of exposure to N. caninum and histologic examination of the fetus is necessary for a definitive diagnosis of neosporosis. The brain, heart, liver, placenta, and body fluids or blood serum are the best specimens for diagnosis and diagnostic rates are higher if multiple tissues are examined. Although lesions of neosporosis are found in several organs, fetal brain is the most consistently affected organ. Because most aborted fetuses are likely to be autolyzed, even semi-liquid brain tissue should be fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for histologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. Immunohistochemistry is necessary because there are generally only a few N. caninum present in autolyzed tissues and these are often not visible in H and E stained sections. The most characteristic lesion of neosporosis is focal encephalitis characterized by necrosis and nonsuppurative inflammation (Barr et al., 1991). ...
This gene encodes a glutamate-rich protein that contains five WD-repeat motifs. The encoded protein may play a critical role in ribosome biogenesis and may also play a role in histone methylation through interactions with CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin E3 ligase. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
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Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP]. Validated: ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Protozoa. 100% Guaranteed.
Buy anti-MSP2 antibody, Rabbit MSA2 PFB0300c Polyclonal Antibody-XP_001349578.1 (MBS1490049) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), ELISA (EIA). Not yet tested in other applications.
Researchers provide insight into how Toxoplasma gondii, a common parasite of people and other animals, triggers an immune response in its host. The report will appear online on January 19th in The Journal of Experimental Medicine . A strong immune response spares T. gondii -infected hosts from deadly infection-an event
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant |em|T. gondii|/em| Toxoplasma gondii p30 protein (ab68110). Please download our general protocols booklet
As people tend to have little concern about dealing with these kinds of issues, it is important to at least use some method that can be used constantly to tackle these kinds of problems;. Germitox is a product created to attack these agents that cause so many diseases, it was created based on completely natural ingredients and if there is a parasite in the body, it can attack and combat them in just 30 days.. See the side effects of Germitox. Many people tend to ignore and overlook some symptoms that in one way or another may indicate that something inside the body is not right.. Sometimes it may happen that someone is having a stomach infection and doesnt make a difference until its too late to counteract gastritis or start having diabetes, for example.. What you can find in this article. Germitox is a product specially created to fight and eliminate the appearance of parasites, fungi, viruses and worms that affect the digestive system in the body. Diseases caused by this type of agents will ...
Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic hemo-flagellate, is the causative agent of Chagas disease. This disease constitutes a major health hazard to humans in South and Central America. Thus far, no successful chemotherapeutic cure or immunological prevention has been developed. Since both humans and animals can develop acquired resistance to acute infections of Trypanosoma cruzi, an effective immunophrophylaxis for controlling this parasite should be practical with adequate knowledge. This will include an understanding of the anti-parasite immune responses and a clear distinction between those parasite antigens which do and do not provide immunity. Accordingly, a major emphasis of our research is to identify relevant antigens and to develop methods for acquiring these antigens in sufficient amounts to test their vaccination properties ...
购买我们的重组弓形虫Toxoplasma gondii p30蛋白。Ab68110为有活性的蛋白片段,在大肠杆菌中生产并经过Western blot, ELISA实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
Паразитоид (паразитарных) ос представляют собой основной класс естественных врагов многих насекомых, включая...
Ayurveda uses hot spices both to stimulate digestion and destroy parasites. The two primary herbs used is anti-parasite formulas are vidanga and kutaja.
ICSBP−/− mice can be stimulated exogenously to control T. gondii infection in vitro (A) and in vivo (B). (A) PECs were collected from naive mice (resident
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasites blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is ...
Background. Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria infection would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts. Methods. The relationship between IgG antibody and IFN-gamma and IL-10 responses to the 42 kD C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP142) and risk-of-(re)infection were examined following drug-mediated clearance of parasitemia in 94 adults and 95 children in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Results. Positive IFN-gamma ELISA and ELISPOT responses to MSP-142 3D7 were associated with delayed time-to-(re)infection whereas high-titer IgG antibodies to MSP-142 3D7 or FVO alleles were not independently predictive of risk-of-(re)infection. When IFN-gamma and IL-10 responses were both present, the protective effect of IFN-gamma was abrogated. A Cox
A dose escalating, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial was conducted to test the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine containing recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated in Montanide ISA720. Three groups of volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly with 5 microg, 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1, respectively, in 0.5 mL of formulation at 0, 3 and 6 months. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels and T cell stimulation indices were measured before and after each vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. Most subjects generated a mild to moderate, transient local reaction after the first vaccination. Three subjects developed a local reaction approximately 10 days following vaccination. Six of the 29 subjects seroconverted. Only one of these developed a high antibody titre. However, the interpretation of this trial was compromised by a loss of potency of the formulated vaccine during the course of the study ...
Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. Since the early studies demonstrating that antibodies transferred from immune individuals diminish P. falciparum parasitaemia [11] a lot of effort has been put forward to identify parasite epitopes and mechanisms of action of antibody-mediated immune response to malaria. Besides their role in infection control, antibodies can modulate parasite development in the sporogonic [3 - 5], exoerythrocytic [6] and erythrocytic [7] cycle. However, there is almost no information on the effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium immunogenic molecules.. There are evidences that antibodies can interfere with parasite multiplication. An increase on sporozoite number recovered from the salivary glands when mosquitoes were fed on anti-Plasmodium antibodies was observed [3, 4] and IgG isolated from Kenyan immune adults enhanced parasite growth in culture while the serum from which they were isolated had an inhibitory ...
ABSTRACT. Rocha D.S., Guimarães L.A., Bezerra R.A., Mendonça C.E.D., Dórea T.G., Munhoz A.D. & Albuquerque G.R. [Seroprevalence and factors associated to Neospora caninum infection in sheep from Southeastern Bahia, Brazil.] Soroprevalência e fatores associados à infecção de Neospora caninum em ovinos no sudeste da Bahia, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4):443-447, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA 415Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662- 000, Brasil. E-mail: [email protected] This study aimed at identifying the main factors related to Neospora caninum seroprevalence in sheep. The Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (RIFI) was used to identify antibodies in 795 samples of sheep serum, from 31 farms distributed in nine municipalities of the Southeastern Bahia. The prevalence was 13.2% (105/795), with titers varying between 50 (12.4%), 100 (26.7%), 200 (14.3%), 400 (19%), 800 (18%), 1600 (4.8%) and 3200 ...
Looking for online definition of circumsporozoite protein in the Medical Dictionary? circumsporozoite protein explanation free. What is circumsporozoite protein? Meaning of circumsporozoite protein medical term. What does circumsporozoite protein mean?
Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) is an essential ligand for reticulocyte invasion making it a premier asexual blood stage vaccine candidate. However, strain-specific immunity due to DBPII allelic variation may complicate vaccine efficacy, suggesting that an effective DBPII vaccine needs to target immune responses to conserved epitopes that are potential targets of strain-transcending neutralizing immunity. Anti DBPII monoclonal antibodies, which were previously characterized by COS7 cell binding assay as inhibitory and non-inhibitory to DBPII-erythrocyte binding, were mapped to DBPII gene fragment libraries using phage display. Inhibitory mAb 3C9 binds to a conserved conformation-dependent epitope in subdomain 3 while non-inhibitory mAb 3D10 binds to a linear epitope in subdomain 1 of DBPII. More definitive epitope mapping of mAb 3D10 was achieved using a random peptide library displayed on phage. Since DBP region II is mostly made up of alpha-helices, we used a randomized helical scaffold
Sarah Steinfurth (2016) : Studien zur Identifizierung der Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) Bindungsdomänen für die Endothelrezeptoren CD9 und P-Selektin. Marius Schmitt (2016) : Localization of Plasmodium vivax (Grassi and Feletti, 1890) VIR proteins by means of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) transgenic cell lines.. Eugenia Reit (2015) : Production of transgenic CHO-cell lines for investigation of interaction of Plasmodium falciparum with the human endothelial receptors VCAM-1, PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin.. Michael Dörpinghaus (2015) : Development of a system to characterize the binding properties of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains to human endothelial receptors. Lisa Roth (2015) : Characterization of binding characteristics of human endothelial receptors among human erythrocytes infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. Ellen Drews (2014) : Etablierung lentiviraler Expressionssysteme zur Charakterisierung der ...
OBJECTIVES. For the last decades, anti-Leishmania antibodies have been detected in sera from dogs living in areas of leishmaniosis endemicity (1). The presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has also been described in aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (2). Nevertheless, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dog urine samples. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of dogs suffering from leishmaniosis.. MATERIALS. Fifty dog urine samples collected from patients examined at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB from year 2000 since 2002, were obtained from the sample bank of the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service of Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). The urine samples were analyzed at the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service for protein-to-creatinine ratios. Their clinicopathological data were obtained from the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVIII. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-2 gene in isolates from symptomatic patients. AU - Basco, Leonardo K.. AU - Tahar, Rachida. AU - Escalante, Ananias. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Merozoite surface antigen-2 (MSA-2) is a polymorphic genetic marker that is highly discriminatory for characterizing Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Genetic diversity of isolates obtained from symptomatic patients residing in Yaounde, Cameroon was analyzed by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of amplification products. Of 137 isolates, 25 (18%) had only FC27-type alleles, 40 (29%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 72 (53%) had multiple parasite populations with both alleles. Of 295 fragments, 145 (49.2%) and 150 (50.8%) belonged to FC27 and 3D7 alleles, respectively. There were 23 different MSA-2 alleles (10 FC27-type and 13 3D7-type that yielded 44 different combinations in ...
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS. Congenital toxoplasmosis: public health policy concerns Tazio Vanni; Rodrigo A. Ribeiro; Ivana S. Varella; Carisi A. Polanczyk; Benedito A. L. Fonseca; Ricardo Kuchenbecker. Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Address for correspondence. Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and is most often a benign disease. Two populations are at risk of severe disease, immunocompromised such as HIV-infected patients and fetuses or children with toxoplasmosis transmitted from their mothers via placenta. Congenital toxoplasmosis is rare on average, less than one case per 1,000 pregnancies, since mother-to-child transmission occurs only when infection is acquired for the first time during pregnancy [1]. Overall, about a third of infected mothers give birth to an infant with toxoplasmosis. Most children with congenital toxoplasmosis are developmentally normal but up to 4% die or have ...

The Toxoplasma Blog: Diagnosis of Sarcocystis cruzi, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii infections in cattleThe Toxoplasma Blog: Diagnosis of Sarcocystis cruzi, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii infections in cattle

Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the three protozoans was performed. Sarcocystis cruzi sarcocysts were found in ... Antibodies against S. cruzi were detected in all samples, those against N. caninum in 73% and against T. gondii in 91% of the ... The Toxoplasma Blog features the latest news regarding this protozoan parasite, including information about relevant scientific ... Up to date information and news regarding the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii ...
more infohttp://toxoplasmaparasite.blogspot.com/2007/12/diagnosis-of-sarcocystis-cruzi-neospora.html

Microbiology Society Journals | Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum by dual...Microbiology Society Journals | Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum by dual...

... species assay was able to detect ten Cryptosporidium species and did not cross-react with a panel of ten other protozoan ... Keyword(s): DFA, direct fluorescent antibody, COWP, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein SGM , Published by the Microbiology ... Caccio, S. & Pozio, E. ( 2001 ). Molecular identification of food-borne and water-borne protozoa. Southeast Asian J Trop Med ... and immunofluorescent antibody (FA) test kits for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts of species other than Cryptosporidium ...
more infohttp://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.2008/001461-0

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antibodies, Protozoan.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antibodies, Protozoan.}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: Rome, Italy : Université de Rome "La Sapienza", [1996]Dissertation note: Thesis (doctoral) - Università degli Studî di Roma "La Sapienza", 1996. Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 765 96DO] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntibodies,%20Protozoan.%7D

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antibodies, Protozoan}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antibodies, Protozoan}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: Rome, Italy : Université de Rome "La Sapienza", [1996]Dissertation note: Thesis (doctoral) - Università degli Studî di Roma "La Sapienza", 1996. Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 765 96DO] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntibodies,%20Protozoan%7D

Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to...Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to...

Antibodies, Protozoan/blood. *Brain/parasitology*. *Brain/pathology. *Encephalitis/parasitology. *Encephalitis/pathology. * ... Treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) once weekly for 3 weeks beginning at 10 weeks ... Mice infected with the Beverley strain developed foci of acute inflammation in their brains after treatment with an antibody to ... Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8202451?dopt=Abstract

Prevalence of agglutinating anti-Leishmania antibodies in two multi-thousand Bengoli communities.  - PubMed - NCBIPrevalence of agglutinating anti-Leishmania antibodies in two multi-thousand Bengoli communities. - PubMed - NCBI

Prevalence of agglutinating anti-Leishmania antibodies in two multi-thousand Bengoli communities.. Chowdhury MS1, el Harith A, ... Antibodies, Protozoan/blood*. *Bangladesh/epidemiology. *Child. *Child, Preschool. *Cross-Sectional Studies. *Female ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8415555?dopt=Abstract

Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs  - pdf...Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs - pdf...

Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs . Aline ... Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs ... Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs - Descarga ... Wilma Aparecida Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/aug3/150189864350-Seroprevalence-rates-of-antibodies-against-leishmania-infantumand-other-protozoan-and-rickettsial-parasites-in-dogs.php

Effect of different East Coast fever control strategies on disease incidence in traditionally managed Sanga cattle in Central...Effect of different East Coast fever control strategies on disease incidence in traditionally managed Sanga cattle in Central...

Antibodies, Protozoan / blood. Cattle. Immunization. Oxytetracycline / administration & dosage, therapeutic use. Protozoan ... 0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0/Antibodies, Protozoan; 0/Protozoan Vaccines; 0/Pyrethrins; 52315-07-8/cypermethrin; 79-57-2/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effect-different-East-Coast-fever/9646334.html

Long-term preservation of blood samples for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.Long-term preservation of blood samples for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

... field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in ... Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis*. Blood Preservation / methods*. Chagas Disease / diagnosis*. Evaluation Studies as Topic. ... Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by ... field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Long-term-preservation-blood-samples/2111039.html

Persistence of antibodies to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense after treatment of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda. | CureHunterPersistence of antibodies to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense after treatment of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda. | CureHunter

Persistence of antibodies to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense after treatment of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda. - C Paquet, T ... Antibodies, Protozoan (isolation & purification) *Follow-Up Studies. *Humans. *Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (immunology) ... Persistence of antibodies to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense after treatment of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda.. Authors. C ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed1353180.do

Gentaur Molecular :AbD \ MOUSE ANTI CRYPTOSPORIDIUM Alexa Fluor® 488, Product Type  Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity ...Gentaur Molecular :AbD \ MOUSE ANTI CRYPTOSPORIDIUM Alexa Fluor® 488, Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity ...

Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, Target Species Protozoan, Host Mouse, Format ALEXA FLUOR® 488, ... antibody-antibodies.com/anti-elisa/IgG3.html MOUSE ANTI CRYPTOSPORIDIUM Alexa Fluor® 488, Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, ... For antibodies in a liquid form or reconstituted lyophilized antibodies small amounts of the soultion could be captured on the ... Target Species Protozoan, Host Mouse, Format ALEXA FLUOR® 488, Isotypes IgG3, Applicat antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1396832&supplier=search&name=MOUSE%20ANTI%20CRYPTOSPORIDIUM%20Alexa%20Fluor%C2%AE%20488,%20Product%20Type%20%20Monoclonal%20Antibody,%20Specificity%20%20CRYPTOSPORIDIUM,%20Target%20Species%20%20Protozoan,%20Host%20%20Mouse,%20Format%20%20ALEXA%20FLUOR%C2%AE%20488,%20Isotypes%20%20IgG3,%20Applicat

Opsonization of T. pallidum by antisera to recombinant  | Open-iOpsonization of T. pallidum by antisera to recombinant | Open-i

Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology*. *Bacterial Proteins*. *Opsonin Proteins/immunology*. *Porins/genetics/immunology*. * ... Mentions: The variable domain of Tpr K was examined as a potential target of opsonic antibodies for three reasons: RT-PCR ... Mentions: The variable domain of Tpr K was examined as a potential target of opsonic antibodies for three reasons: RT-PCR ... Antibodies directed to purified recombinant variable domain of Tpr K can opsonize T. pallidum, Nichols strain, for phagocytosis ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2192927_JEM981157.f4&req=4

pLDH detectability for Plasmodium falciparum and recomb | Open-ipLDH detectability for Plasmodium falciparum and recomb | Open-i

Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. ... Antigens, Protozoan/blood*/immunology. *Blood/parasitology*. *Blood Donors*. *Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods* ... Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. ... Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors antigenaemia and antibody levels varied ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3750723_1475-2875-12-279-1&req=4

Effect of HIV on the anti-CS2VSA antibody levels in the | Open-iEffect of HIV on the anti-CS2VSA antibody levels in the | Open-i

Effect of HIV on the anti-CS2VSA antibody levels in the No Malaria histopathology group.In a univariate analysis of women ... Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology*. *Erythrocytes/parasitology*/pathology*. *HIV Infections/complications*/immunology. *Malaria/ ... Phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) are valuable tools to study acquired immunity to malaria in the context of HIV co-infection. ... Phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) are valuable tools to study acquired immunity to malaria in the context of HIV co-infection. ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3139654_pone.0022491.g002&req=4

GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components...GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components...

Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components in the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus Nag-1. ... Find the right antibody for your research needs. ... antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research ... Antibodies Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral ... Morphogenetic and molecular analyses of cyst wall components in the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus Nag-1. The cyst wall of ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/pubmed-27573234-Morphogenetic_and_molecular_analyses_of_cyst_wall_components_in_the_ciliated_protozoan_Colpoda_cucullus_Nag1.html

Treatment and seroconversion in a cohort of children suffering from recent chronic Chagas infection in Yoro, HondurasTreatment and seroconversion in a cohort of children suffering from recent chronic Chagas infection in Yoro, Honduras

Antibodies, Protozoan. en. dc.subject.mesh. Chagas Disease. en. dc.subject.mesh. Child. en. ... A total of 24,471 children were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibodies through conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... A total of 24,471 children were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibodies through conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
more infohttps://fieldresearch.msf.org/handle/10144/116331?show=full

Browsing Other Diseases by SubjectsBrowsing Other Diseases by Subjects

The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
more infohttps://fieldresearch.msf.org/handle/10144/11653/browse?view=list&rpp=20&offset=20&etal=-1&sort_by=-1&type=subject&order=ASC

anlage tumor retinal 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineanlage tumor retinal 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Protozoan; EC 3.6.1.15 / Nucleoside-Triphosphatase ... Hu X, Zhuge QY, Li YF, Pan CW, Tan F: [Application of double antibody sandwich ELISA for detection of nucleoside triphosphate ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Karyotyping. Keratins / analysis. Male. Melanoma ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=anlage+tumor+retinal+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Low prevalence of antibodies to preerythrocytic but not blood-stage Pl by Gregory S. Noland, Brett Hendel-Paterson et al."Low prevalence of antibodies to preerythrocytic but not blood-stage Pl" by Gregory S. Noland, Brett Hendel-Paterson et al.

Levels of antibodies to CSP, LSA-1, TRAP, and AMA-1 in the oldest age group (,40 years) in the unstable transmission area were ... In contrast, antibody levels to and frequencies of MSP-1 and EBA-175 were similar in adults in areas of stable and unstable ... We hypothesized that this suboptimal clinical and parasitological immunity may in part be due to reduced antibodies to CSP or ... Suboptimal immunity to malaria in areas of unstable malaria transmission may relate in part to infrequent high-level antibodies ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/qhs_pp/404/

Trying to remember - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske ForskningsdatabaseTrying to remember - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske Forskningsdatabase

Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review; Age Factors; Antibodies, Protozoan; Antibody Formation; B- ... We propose that long-lived antibody responses may not always be a prerequisite for protection, and that antibody longevity ... and that the often transient antibody responses to this parasite are evidence of such a dysfunction. ...
more infohttp://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/274515034

School of Medicine - Research Output
     - Keio UniversitySchool of Medicine - Research Output - Keio University

Anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 antibody, anti-BP180(NC16a) antibody, anti-BP230 antibody].. Amagai, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. ... Anti-Ku antibodies].. Hirakata, M. & Suwa, A., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. 68 Suppl 6 ... Anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12, and other anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies].. Hirakata, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. ... Anti-Jo-1(histidyl tRNA synthetase) antibodies].. Hirakata, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/1500-school-of-medicine/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

School of Medicine - Research Output
     - Keio UniversitySchool of Medicine - Research Output - Keio University

Anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 antibody, anti-BP180(NC16a) antibody, anti-BP230 antibody].. Amagai, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. ... Anti-Ku antibodies].. Hirakata, M. & Suwa, A., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. 68 Suppl 6 ... Anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12, and other anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies].. Hirakata, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. ... Anti-Jo-1(histidyl tRNA synthetase) antibodies].. Hirakata, M., 2010 Jun, In : Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/1500-school-of-medicine/publications/?ordering=title&descending=false

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Protozoa antibody assay Current Synonym true false Associated Value Sets Value Set Name Version(s) ... Measurement of filarial antibody (procedure) {121903004 , SNOMED-CT } Measurement of Naegleria fowleri antibody (procedure) { ... Measurement of Taenia solium antibody (procedure) {122125008 , SNOMED-CT } Measurement of Theileria equi antibody (procedure) { ... Measurement of Babesia species antibody (procedure) {121929004 , SNOMED-CT } Measurement of Brugia malayi antibody (procedure ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=39611002

Failure of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Plasmodium falciparum antigens to protect Saimiri monkeys against malariaFailure of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Plasmodium falciparum antigens to protect Saimiri monkeys against malaria

Antibodies, Protozoan (MeSH) * Antigens, Protozoan (MeSH) * Antigens, Surface (MeSH) * Epitopes (MeSH) * Female (MeSH) ... All of the monkeys that received vaccinia virus recombinants or the control virus produced good anti-vaccinia virus antibody ... Most of the monkeys produced detectable antibodies to the RESA epitopes after challenge infection. One group of monkeys was ... While these monkeys failed to produce significant antibody against MSA-2 or AMA-1 after immunization, they produced enhanced ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication17504

Comparison of antibody avidity and titre elicited by peptide as a protein conjugate or as expressed in vacciniaComparison of antibody avidity and titre elicited by peptide as a protein conjugate or as expressed in vaccinia

Antibodies, Protozoan (MeSH) * Antibody Affinity (MeSH) * Antigens, Protozoan (MeSH) * Antigens, Surface (MeSH) ... Peptide expressed in vaccinia (and without carrier) produced intermediate levels of antibody but the avidity of the antibodies ... Comparison of antibody avidity and titre elicited by peptide as a protein conjugate or as expressed in vaccinia Academic ... Alum was a poor adjuvant, producing the lowest titre and avidity of antibody compared with all the other groups. ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication17642
  • Antibodies that induce phagocytosis of malaria infected erythrocytes: effect of HIV infection and correlation with clinical outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • In women with placental malaria infection, phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) were decreased in the presence of HIV (p = 0.011) and correlated positively with infant birth weight (coef = 3.57, p = 0.025), whereas total IgG to CS2(VSA) did not. (nih.gov)
  • Phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) are valuable tools to study acquired immunity to malaria in the context of HIV co-infection. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of HIV on the anti-CS2VSA antibody levels in the 'No Malaria' histopathology group.In a univariate analysis of women that showed no evidence of either peripheral or placental malaria infection, using Mann-Whitney ranksum tests, phagocytic antibodies (A) are shown to be significantly decreased by HIV infection (z = −2.17, p = 0.03). (nih.gov)
  • In areas where levels of transmission of Plasmodium falciparum are high and stable, the age-related acquisition of high-level immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to preerythrocytic circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) has been associated with protection from clinical malaria. (umassmed.edu)
  • In contrast, antibody levels to and frequencies of MSP-1 and EBA-175 were similar in adults in areas of stable and unstable malaria transmission. (umassmed.edu)
  • It has long been speculated that malaria parasites are directly able to undermine the establishment and maintenance of immunological memory, and that the often transient antibody responses to this parasite are evidence of such a dysfunction. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The immunogenicity of a malaria peptide presented in various forms was tested in terms of the quality and quantity of the antibody response in rabbits. (edu.au)
  • Treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) once weekly for 3 weeks beginning at 10 weeks after infection augmented the inflammatory changes in the brains of mice infected with each strain. (nih.gov)
  • However, those that received a single construct containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) given at eight sites did not produce significant antibody to any of the three major RESA repeat epitopes after immunization but were primed for an enhanced antibody response after challenge infection with P. falciparum. (edu.au)
  • We have identified a family of genes that code for targets for opsonic antibody and protective immunity in T. pallidum subspecies pallidum using two different approaches, subtraction hybridization and differential immunologic screening of a T. pallidum genomic library. (nih.gov)
  • Treponema pallidum major sheath protein homologue Tpr K is a target of opsonic antibody and the protective immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies directed to purified recombinant variable domain of Tpr K can opsonize T. pallidum, Nichols strain, for phagocytosis, supporting the hypothesis that this portion of the protein is exposed at the surface of the treponeme. (nih.gov)
  • Frequencies and levels of IgG antibodies to CSP, LSA-1, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175), and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) were compared in 243 Kenyans living in a highland area of unstable transmission and 210 residents of a nearby lowland area of stable transmission. (umassmed.edu)
  • Peptide conjugated to a protein carrier, diphtheria toxoid (DT), required strong adjuvants (e.g. muramyl dipeptide, MDP and Freund's adjuvant, FCA) to elicit high levels of antibody with high avidity. (edu.au)
  • In their assay systems, when Mab for 30 kDa protein was used as a antibody of solid phase and Mab for 24.5 kDa protein was labeled with biotin and streptolysin, the sensitivity and specificity of the reaction showed excellent results. (nii.ac.jp)
  • All of the monkeys that received vaccinia virus recombinants or the control virus produced good anti-vaccinia virus antibody responses. (edu.au)
  • We propose that long-lived antibody responses may not always be a prerequisite for protection, and that antibody longevity varies in an exposure- and age-dependent manner. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Effect of the strain of Toxoplasma gondii on the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice treated with antibody to interferon-gamma. (nih.gov)
  • Mice infected with the Beverley strain developed foci of acute inflammation in their brains after treatment with an antibody to IFN-gamma. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by specific techniques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The protozoans can be identified in skin and gill biopsies and blood samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV significantly affected the function of phagocytic antibodies (z = −2.17, P = 0.03) (Figure 2A), but not the total IgG to CS2VSA (Z = −1.35, P = 0.179) (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • Levels of antibodies to CSP, LSA-1, TRAP, and AMA-1 in the oldest age group (>40 years) in the unstable transmission area were lower than or similar to those of children 2 to 6 years old in the stable transmission area. (umassmed.edu)
  • Peptide expressed in vaccinia (and without carrier) produced intermediate levels of antibody but the avidity of the antibodies produced were comparable to that produced by peptide conjugates given with muramyl dipeptide. (edu.au)