Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)

Rapid and sensitive identification of epitope-containing peptides by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry of peptides affinity-bound to antibody beads. (1/86)

A method has been developed for rapid and sensitive identification of epitope-containing peptides, based on direct MALDI-MS/MS analysis of epitope-containing peptides affinity bound to affinity beads. This technique provides sequence information of the epitope that allows unambiguous identification of the epitope either by database searching or de novo sequencing. With MALDI-MS, affinity beads with bound peptides can be placed directly on the MALDI target and analyzed. Coupling a MALDI source to an orthogonal injection quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer allows direct sequencing of the bound peptides. In contrast to ESI-MS/MS, elution of the affinity-bound peptides followed by additional concentration and purification steps is not required, thus reducing the potential for sample loss. Direct mass spectrometric sequencing of affinity-bound peptides eliminates the need for chemical or enzymatic sequencing. Other advantages of this direct MALDI-MS/MS analysis of epitope-containing peptides bound to the affinity beads include its sensitivity (femtomole levels) and speed. In addition, direct analysis of peptides on affinity beads does not adversely affect the high mass accuracy of a QqTOF, and database searching can be performed on the MS/MS spectra obtained. In proof-of-principle experiments, this method has been demonstrated on beads containing immobilized antibodies against phosphotyrosine, the c-myc epitope tag, as well as immobilized avidin. Furthermore, de novo sequencing of epitope-containing peptides is demonstrated. The first application of this method was with anti-FLAG-tag affinity beads, where direct MALDI MS/MS was used to determine an unexpected enzymatic cleavage site on a growth factor protein.  (+info)

Phosphorylation state-specific antibodies: applications in investigative and diagnostic pathology. (2/86)

Until recently, the investigation of protein phosphorylation was limited to biochemical studies of enzyme activities in homogenized tissues. The availability of hundreds of phosphorylation state-specific antibodies (PSSAs) now makes possible the study of protein phosphorylation in situ, and is opening many exciting opportunities in investigative and diagnostic pathology. This review illustrates the power of PSSAs, especially in immunohistochemical applications to human disease and animal models. Technical considerations, including antibody specificity and lability of phosphoepitopes, are covered, along with potential pitfalls, illustrated by a case study. In the arena of oncology, PSSAs may prove especially valuable in directly demonstrating the efficacy of chemotherapies targeted at protein kinase cascades. Novel applications of PSSAs are also beginning to reveal molecular mechanisms of inflammatory, degenerative, and toxin-induced diseases.  (+info)

Differential phosphorylation and subcellular localization of La RNPs associated with precursor tRNAs and translation-related mRNAs. (3/86)

The La protein facilitates the production of tRNAs in the nucleus and the translation of specific mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We report that human La that is phosphorylated on serine 366 (pLa) is nucleoplasmic and associated with precursor tRNAs and other nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts while nonphosphorylated (np)La is cytoplasmic and associated with a subset of mRNAs that contain 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine (5'TOP) motifs known to control protein synthesis. Thus, La ribonucleoproteins (RNP) exist in distinct states that differ in subcellular localization, serine 366 phosphorylation, and associated RNAs. These results are consistent with a model in which the relative concentrations of the La S366 isoforms in different subcellular compartments in conjunction with the relative concentrations of specific RNA ligands in these compartments determine the differential association of npLa and pLa with their respective classes of associated RNAs.  (+info)

Replication protein A (RPA) phosphorylation prevents RPA association with replication centers. (4/86)

Mammalian replication protein A (RPA) undergoes DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation at numerous sites on the N terminus of the RPA2 subunit. To understand the functional significance of RPA phosphorylation, we expressed RPA2 variants in which the phosphorylation sites were converted to aspartate (RPA2(D)) or alanine (RPA2(A)). Although RPA2(D) was incorporated into RPA heterotrimers and supported simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro, the RPA2(D) mutant was selectively unable to associate with replication centers in vivo. In cells containing greatly reduced levels of endogenous RPA2, RPA2(D) again did not localize to replication sites, indicating that the defect in supporting chromosomal DNA replication is not due to competition with the wild-type protein. Use of phosphospecific antibodies demonstrated that endogenous hyperphosphorylated RPA behaves similarly to RPA2(D). In contrast, under DNA damage or replication stress conditions, RPA2(D), like RPA2(A) and wild-type RPA2, was competent to associate with DNA damage foci as determined by colocalization with gamma-H2AX. We conclude that RPA2 phosphorylation prevents RPA association with replication centers in vivo and potentially serves as a marker for sites of DNA damage.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila wingless signaling pathway based on RNA interference. (5/86)

Regulation of Armadillo (Arm) protein levels through ubiquitin-mediated degradation plays a central role in the Wingless (Wg) signaling. Although zeste-white3 (Zw3)-mediated Arm phosphorylation has been implicated in its degradation, we have recently shown that casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha) also phosphorylates Arm and induces its degradation. However, it remains unclear how CKIalpha and Zw3, as well as other components of the Arm degradation complex, regulate Arm phosphorylation in response to Wg. In particular, whether Wg signaling suppresses CKIalpha- or Zw3-mediated Arm phosphorylation in vivo is unknown. To clarify these issues, we performed a series of RNA interference (RNAi)-based analyses in Drosophila S2R+ cells by using antibodies that specifically recognize Arm phosphorylated at different serine residues. These analyses revealed that Arm phosphorylation at serine-56 and at threonine-52, serine-48, and serine-44, is mediated by CKIalpha and Zw3, respectively, and that Zw3-directed Arm phosphorylation requires CKIalpha-mediated priming phosphorylation. Daxin stimulates Zw3- but not CKIalpha-mediated Arm phosphorylation. Wg suppresses Zw3- but not CKIalpha-mediated Arm phosphorylation, indicating that a vital regulatory step in Wg signaling is Zw3-mediated Arm phosphorylation. In addition, further RNAi-based analyses of the other aspects of the Wg pathway clarified that Wg-induced Dishevelled phosphorylation is due to CKIalpha and that presenilin and protein kinase A play little part in the regulation of Arm protein levels in Drosophila tissue culture cells.  (+info)

Site-selective regulation of platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation by T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. (6/86)

The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor mediates mitogenic and chemotactic signals. Like other tyrosine kinase receptors, the PDGF beta receptor is negatively regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). To explore whether T-cell PTP (TC-PTP) negatively regulates the PDGF beta receptor, we compared PDGF beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in wild-type and TC-PTP knockout (ko) mouse embryos. PDGF beta receptors were hyperphosphorylated in TC-PTP ko embryos. Fivefold-higher ligand-induced receptor phosphorylation was observed in TC-PTP ko mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) as well. Reexpression of TC-PTP partly abolished this difference. As determined with site-specific phosphotyrosine antibodies, the extent of hyperphosphorylation varied among different autophosphorylation sites. The phospholipase Cgamma1 binding site Y1021, previously implicated in chemotaxis, displayed the largest increase in phosphorylation. The increase in Y1021 phosphorylation was accompanied by increased phospholipase Cgamma1 activity and migratory hyperresponsiveness to PDGF. PDGF beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in PTP-1B ko MEFs but not in PTPepsilon ko MEFs was also higher than that in control cells. This increase occurred with a site distribution different from that seen after TC-PTP depletion. PDGF-induced migration was not increased in PTP-1B ko cells. In summary, our findings identify TC-PTP as a previously unrecognized negative regulator of PDGF beta receptor signaling and support the general notion that PTPs display site selectivity in their action on tyrosine kinase receptors.  (+info)

ZIP kinase is responsible for the phosphorylation of myosin II and necessary for cell motility in mammalian fibroblasts. (7/86)

Reorganization of actomyosin is an essential process for cell migration and myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation plays a key role in this process. Here, we found that zipper-interacting protein (ZIP) kinase plays a predominant role in myosin II phosphorylation in mammalian fibroblasts. Using two phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the phosphorylated MLC20 is diphosphorylated and that the localization of mono- and diphosphorylated myosin is different from each other. The kinase responsible for the phosphorylation was ZIP kinase because (a) the kinase in the cell extracts phosphorylated Ser19 and Thr18 of MLC20 with similar potency; (b) immunodepletion of ZIP kinase from the cell extracts markedly diminished its myosin II kinase activity; and (c) disruption of ZIP kinase expression by RNA interference diminished myosin phosphorylation, and resulted in the defect of cell polarity and migration efficiency. These results suggest that ZIP kinase is critical for myosin phosphorylation and necessary for cell motile processes in mammalian fibroblasts.  (+info)

Molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PX-866, a novel inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling. (8/86)

We have developed biologically stable semisynthetic viridins as inhibitors of phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-3-kinases. The most active compound was PX-866 (acetic acid (1S,4E,10R,11R,13S,14R)-[4-diallylaminomethylene-6-hydroxy-1-methoxymethyl-10,13- dimethyl-3,7,17-trioxo-1,3,4,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-2-oxa-cyclopen ta[a]phenanthren-11-yl ester), which inhibited purified PtdIns-3-kinase with an IC50 of 0.1 nmol/L and PtdIns-3-kinase signaling measured by phospho-Ser473-Akt levels in HT-29 colon cancer cells with an IC50 of 20 nmol/L. PX-866 administered to mice at 10 mg/kg inhibited phospho-Ser473-Akt in HT-29 colon tumor xenografts up to 80% with recovery taking >48 hours after p.o. administration but more rapidly after i.v. or i.p. administration. PX-866 was eliminated from mouse plasma with a half-life of 18 minutes and a clearance of 360 mL/min/kg following i.v. administration and, when administered i.p. or p.o., showed first-pass metabolism with sequential N-deallylation. Synthetic standards of the N-deallylated metabolites of PX-866 inhibited PtdIns-3-kinase at low nanomolar per liter concentrations. PX-866 exhibited in vivo antitumor activity against s.c. OvCar-3 human ovarian cancer and A-549 human lung cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice with log cell kills up to 1.2. PX-866 also increased the antitumor activity of cisplatin against A-549 xenografts and radiation treatment against OvCar-3 xenografts. The results show that PX-866 is a biologically stable broad-spectrum PtdIns-3-kinase inhibitor with good pharmacokinetics that causes prolonged inhibition of PtdIns-3-kinase signaling in human tumor xenografts. PX-866 exhibits single agent in vivo antitumor activity and increases the antitumor effects of cisplatin and radiation treatment.  (+info)

Does anyone has experience with phospho-flow of peripheral blood samples? We would like to know how long after the blood draw the phosphorylation site remains stable. thanks in advance, kewal , Kewal Asosingh, Ph.D. , Department of Pathobiology/NC22 , Cleveland Clinic , 9500 Euclid Ave. , Cleveland, OH 44195 , , Phone: 216-444-0891 , Fax: 216-636-0104 =================================== P Please consider the environment before printing this e-mail Cleveland Clinic is ranked one of the top hospitals in America by U.S. News & World Report (2008). Visit us online at for a complete listing of our services, staff and locations. Confidentiality Note: This message is intended for use only by the individual or entity to which it is addressed and may contain information that is privileged, confidential, and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient or the employee or agent responsible for delivering the message ...
MI Bioresearch presented the following webinar Phospho-Flow Cytometry for the Screening of Intracellular Signaling Events in Cancer Cells and Immune Cells
Phosphospecific peptide synthesis (up to 15 amino acids) -- 10 mg used for phosphospecific epitope affinity purification, 10 mg used for antibody production, and 10 mg delivered to client ...
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PPD® Laboratories biomarker lab has access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in both the bioanalytical lab and the central lab. The biomarker lab can accommodate research assays to fully validated assays with CAP/CLIA, GLP and GCLP compliance. The lab also provides training to clinical sites on proper sample processing for complex procedures, such as phospho-flow and activation assays. The biomarker lab has experience with various sample types including whole, frozen and lysed blood, as well as PBMCs. The test menu includes routine cell surface assays and intracellular assays.. Key Instrumentation: ...
Cellular phosphorylation is a reversible, covalent modification of a protein or lipid that results in the modification of the activity of the phosphorylated molecule by inducing small conformational changes within the molecule.1-2 -
T-Cell Receptor Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 188 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. (AA0040) - Products - Abnova
EGF Phospho-Specific Array includes 214 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies related to the EGF family of proteins. (AA0023) - Products - Abnova
SAB is a professional manufacturer of phospho-specific antibody products, committed to provide high-quality antibody research tools for the global life science researchers. Currently, SAB researches and develops more than 4000 kinds of antibody...
We manufacture our GluR1 ser831 rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, affinity purified from pooled serum. Optimized in WB.
p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) is a member of the PAK family of serine/threonine kinases. These kinases have a highly conserved amino-terminal Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain and a carboxyl-terminal kinase domain. PAK kinases are implicated in the regulation of a number of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton
The stat proteins function both as cytoplasmic signal transducers and as activators of transcription. Stat1 is expressed as two variants of 84 and 91 kDa. Stat1 proteins contain SH2 and SH3 domains, and are components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. This complex is the primary transcription
It seemed that the state of tyrosine phosphorylation was not altered by the expression of the caveolin-1 mutant. We next used a variety of phospho-specific antibodies (12) that have been generated against the activated forms of well-known signal transducers. Fig. 4d ⇓ shows that both intracellular MAPKs and p38-MAPK 4 were constitutively activated in the caveolin-1 mutant clones. On the other hand, the status of phosphorylation of AKT was not changed, although v-Src-transformed cells (SR3Y1) showed increased phosphorylation of AKT. Again, these experiments demonstrated the capacity for the mutant to drive cell transformation. These observations are compatible with previous reports showing that alteration of caveolin-1 function could be involved in the cellular transformation as a dominant negative effect of caveolin-1.. The mutation-positive cases of breast cancer were mostly involved in the pathologically invasive types such as scirrhous carcinomas (18) . Hence, we suspected that the ...
The Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway is an active focus of MM research. In mononuclear cells from the BM of patients with MM, constitutively activated STAT3 signaling contributes to disease pathogenesis by preventing apoptosis [14]. MM cells express constitutively active forms of nuclear factor-κB and STAT3, and the suppression of these transcription factors inhibits the survival of these malignant cells [15]. Apoptosis has been shown to be induced in diverse MM cells treated with agents that inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway [1617]. However, few studies have examined the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with BM tissue expression of PY-STAT3. Brown et al. [18] used phospho-flow cytometry to evaluate the constitutive expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), pSTAT5, pERK, pAKT, and IL-6 receptor epitope in cryopreserved BM samples with respect to the clinical significance of positivity. In contrast to our results, the authors found no significant difference in OS ...
5-HETE stimulated PC3 cells to phosphorylate ERK1/2 and Akt, as detected in Western blots probed with phospho-specific antibodies (Fig. 2) ⇓ . Because blots probed with antibody to total (i.e., phosphorylated plus unphosphorylated species) ERK1/2 or Akt had no such change (data not shown), and because phosphorylation at the antibody-defined sites raises the activity of these kinases, Fig. 2 ⇓ data imply that 5-HETE induces ERK and Akt activation. ERK and Akt phosphorylation responses developed within 1 min, peaked at 5-10 min, and tended to persist for ≥60 min (ERK) or returned to baseline by 40 min (Akt). 5-HETE was more potent than 5-oxoETE, whereas 5-oxo-15-OH-ETE, 15(S)-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-Z,Z,Z,E-ETE, 8(S),12(S)-dihydroxy-5,9,11,13-Z,E,Z,E-ETE, and LTB4 were inactive (Fig. 2) ⇓ . 5-HETE, 5-oxoETE, and 5-oxo-15-OH-ETE likewise stimulated PMNs to activate ERKs; responses began by 1 min, peaked at 5-10 min, and declined thereafter. However, PMNs showed 5-fold rises in ERK phosphorylation ...
Figure 1 Antiphospho-Pak1 antibody specifically recognizes activated Pak1. (A) Activation loop sequence of the phosphorylated peptide used for production of polyclonal antiphospho-Pak1 antisera. (B) Immunoblots (lanes 1-4) and radiolabeled kinase reaction products (lanes 5 and 6) of baculovirus-produced Pak1. Purified KD or CA Pak1 was incubated in protein kinase buffer in the presence of ATP, then immunoblotted using anti-Pak1 (lanes 1 and 2) and antiphospho-Pak antisera (lanes 3 and 4) autoradiographed to detect antibody-bound proteins. Although both forms of the protein were detected with anti-Pak1, only activated Pak1 was detected using the phospho-specific antibody, despite the large amount of recombinant protein used in this assay. Lanes 5 and 6 show autoradiographed PAGE gel of reaction products from a kinase assay performed in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP. Molecular mass in kilodaltons is shown to the right of the blot. (C) Comparison between immunoblot and radiolabeled kinase reaction ...
Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased cardiac contractility and ventricular remodeling, features which are partially reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). Since Rho kinase (ROCK) mediates cellular contraction through effects on the actin cytoskeleton and is an important regulator of cardiac fibrosis, we hypothesize that ACEi may improve heart function through inhibition of ROCK activity.. Methods and Results: We enrolled 30 consecutive HF subjects (average age: 52.7±8.2, 60% male in gender, NYHA class 3.2±1.1), with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 40% by echocardiography (average LVEF=32.1±8.2%), and age- and sex-matched 30 subjects with preserved LVEF function (average LVEF=65.4±9.4%) as the control group. ROCK activity was determined in peripheral leukocytes using a phospho-specific antibody for myosin binding subunit (MBS). Compared with the control group, the subjects with impaired LVEF have higher ROCK activity ...
A large body of work has implicated the activity of various kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of synaptic transmission by controlling the phosphorylation state of several synaptic proteins (for review, see Turner et al., 1999). To further understand the physiological significance of these modifications and to gain insights into their role in modulating synaptic strength and plasticity, we have generated a set of antibodies that specifically recognize synaptic proteins only in their phosphorylated form. In this study we report the biochemical characterization of the modulation of phosphorylation of rabphilin, a synaptic protein implicated in exocytosis, using phosphospecific antibodies directed against the two major phosphorylation sites of rabphilin, serine-234 and serine-274.. Our results show that the phosphorylation of rabphilin at serine-234 is greatly stimulated (about sevenfold over basal) by activation of PKA and high K+-induced membrane depolarization, a condition that mimics ...
Nucleases play important roles in DNA synthesis, recombination and repair. We have previously shown that human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is phosphorylated in response to agents stalling DNA replication and that hEXO1 consequently undergoes ubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In the present study, we have addressed the identity of the pathway transducing stalled-replication signals to hEXO1. Using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, ATM- and ATR-deficient cell lines we have concluded that hEXO1 phosphorylation is ATR-dependent. By means of mass spectrometry, we have identified the sites of phosphorylation in hEXO1 in undamaged cells and in cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU). hEXO1 is phosphorylated at nine basal sites and three additional sites are induced by HU treatment. Analysis of single- and multiple-point mutants revealed that mutation to Ala of the three HU-induced sites of phosphorylation partially rescued HU-dependent degradation of hEXO1 and additionally ...
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported to increase tumor antigen expression, and have been successfully tested as adjuvants for melanoma immunotherapy in mouse models. In this work, we tested the effects of a pan-HDACi on human lymphocytes and melanoma cell lines. Effects of the pan-HDACi panobinostat (LBH589) on cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from two healthy donor (HD), thirteen patients with metastatic melanoma (MD), two bone marrow samples from different malignances, and twelve human melanoma cell lines. Intracellular signaling in lymphocytes, with or without cytokine stimulation, was analyzed by phospho-flow cytometry in one of each type. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) in PBMC was ,20 nM compared to ,600 nM in melanoma cell lines; ,40% apoptotic cell death in PBMC versus ,10% in melanoma cell lines was seen at the same concentration. Phospho-histone variant H2A.X (pH2A.X) increased ...
In article ,31D7ED66.3535 at,, Stephane Ory ,Stephane.Ory at ens-, writes: , Does anyone know where antibody against phosphoserine and , phosphothreonine are available ? , , Thanks per advance Monoclonals are available from Sigma but when we tested them, they were not useful. Phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are about 100-1000X more abundant in proteins that phosphotyrosine so you need an additional level of specificity. A number of companies are selling antibodies to proteins that only detect those proteins if a particular ser/thr/tyr residue is phosphorylated. See NEB and UBI catalogues for example. Examples of phospho-specific antibodies to the following proteins: tau (microtubule-associated protein, various ser/thr) Jun (ser 63) STAT 3 (tyr 705) SEK1 ERK1/2 (tyr 204) p38 MAPK CREB (ser 133) Jim Woodgett Ontario Cancer Institute mailto:jwoodget at 610 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 phone (416) ...
Cd Markers Non-Cd Marker Anti-Bacteria Anti-Virus Immunoglobulin Acetyl-Specific Antibody Isotype Control Antibodies Monoclonal Polyclonal Antibody Sampler Kit Immunocytochemistry Kit Phospho-Specific Antibody Methyl-Specific Antibody Acetyl-Specific Antibody Cleaved-Specific Antibody Immunoglobulin Tag Antibody Second Step Ab Loading Control Antibody Flow Cytometry Kits Flow Cytometry Solutions Flow Cytometry Kit Monoclonal Ab Polyclonal Ab Cleavage-Specific Antibody Protein - Peptide Peptide …. Research Tools Read More ». ...
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is used for various biochemical applications including ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), high content screening assays, western blotting, FACS Buffer and immunohistochemistry. BSA as a blocking reagent is particularly useful with casein-sensitive antibodies, such as phospho-specific antibodies. Also used as a nutrient in cell and microbial culture. In restriction digests, BSA is used to stabilize some enzymes during digestion of DNA and to prevent adhesion of the enzyme to reaction tubes and other vessels. Bovine Serum Albumin can also be used to determine the quantity of other proteins, by comparing an unknown quantity of protein to known amounts of BSA.
Gang Zhang from the Nilsson group has been investigating the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells and how it controls the timing of chromosome segregation. In particularly he has focused on understanding how the checkpoint protein Mad1 localized to kinetochores, large protein structures on chromosomes that bind to microtubules. It is known that Mad1 localization is important for checkpoint function but the underlying protein-protein interactions and their regulation have not been uncovered.. In collaboration with the Nielsen lab at CPR the researchers used an in vivo proximity dependent biotinylation approach coupled with mass spectrometry to identify Mad1 interactors. This revealed a so far elusive interaction with the Bub1 checkpoint protein that the researchers further characterized. Interestingly the binding of Mad1 and Bub1 required the phosphorylation of Bub1 by mitotic kinases and a novel generated phospho-specific antibody revealed that Bub1 was specifically phosphorylated on ...
Use of quantitative proteomics to study signal transduction permits a comprehensive strategy to characterize protein networks and pathways. In this study, we obtained quantitative measurements on 462 proteins in Her2-transfected cells and, by simultaneously comparing three conditions, measured the effect of a Her2-targeted TKI. PD168393 is a preclinical compound used in the design of CI-1033, a TKI that is currently in clinical trials (30); therefore, this approach can be applied to drugs that are in clinical use or development to understand their effects on cellular networks. The identified phosphoproteins included many known Her2 and EGFR signaling proteins, as well as multiple previously unidentified Her2 signaling proteins, which should significantly advance the understanding of Her2. Evidence of Her2 activation loop phosphorylation at Y877 was obtained by MS and confirmed by phosphospecific antibody. Finally, two network modeling approaches were used to infer possible relationships between ...
Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
We and other groups have previously established that insulin phosphorylates human Foxo1-S256 by activation of Akt that promotes Foxo1 cytoplasmic sequestration or nuclear export and then suppresses expression of genes responsible for HGP (12,18,20,21,35). In this study, using in vitro kinase assay-coupled LC-MS, phosphospecific antibodies, and CRISPR/Cas9-based Foxo1 KI mutant mice, we were able to identify a novel molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanism by which Foxo1 mediates glucagon signaling via phosphorylation at Ser276 (human) or Ser273 (mouse) in control of hepatic gluconeogenesis and blood glucose.. Glucagon has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic hyperglycemia, largely by enhancing HGP, which is believed to be a key mechanism for pathogenesis of diabetes (36). In mice with type 2 diabetes, we recently demonstrated that hepatic Foxo1 deletion reduced HGP and blood glucose in db/db mice (16). Given that a high glucagon level is present in both types of diabetes (6), ...
The recognition of DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) using a phospho-specific antibody to the histone 2A variant has become the gold standard assay for DNA damage detection. Here we report on the development of the first monoclonal antibody to the phospho-specific form of Drosophila H2AV and characterize the specificity of this antibody to programmed DSBs in oocytes and rereplication sites in endocycling cells by immunofluorescence assays and to DSBs resulting from irradiation in both cell culture and whole tissue by Western blot assays. These studies show that the antibody derived in the study is highly specific for this modification that occurs at DSB sites, and therefore will be a new useful tool within the Drosophila community for the study of DNA damage response, DSB repair, meiotic recombination and chemical agents that cause DNA damage. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The properties of the chromosomal architectural HMGB proteins from plants are modulated by differential phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. AU - Stemmer, C.. AU - Bauw, G.. AU - Fojan, P.. AU - Grasser, K. D.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. M3 - Journal article. VL - 8. SP - 35. JO - Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes. JF - Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes. SN - 0944-6931. ER - ...
r/TheOCS is the unofficial sub dedicated to Ontario Cannabis Store and recreational cannabis in Ontario. You can post news, product reviews and...
A-Kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) is required for the phosphorylation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) by PKA or PKC in sensory neurons and, hence, affects TRPV1-dependent hyperalgesia under pathological conditions. Recently, we showed that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors sensitizes TRPV1 by enhancing serine phosphorylation through PKC in trigeminal nociceptors. In this study, we extended this observation by investigating whether AKAP150 mediates NMDA-induced phosphorylation of TRPV1 via PKC in native sensory neurons in the rat. By adopting a phospho-specific antibody combined with a surface biotinylation assay, we first assessed NMDA-induced changes in the phosphorylation level of serine 800 residues (S800) in TRPV1 delimited to cell surface membrane in cultured trigeminal ganglia (TG). The biotinylation assay yielded that the application of NMDA significantly increased the phosphorylation of S800 (p-S800) of TRPV1 at ...
Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones insulin and glucagon is central to glucose homeostasis. Recent work has proposed that amongst the salt inducible kinase isoforms (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SIK2 isoform may play a role as signalling mediator in the control of insulin- and glucagon-regulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the mechanisms of the hormonal-regulation of SIK2 in liver remain controversial, with much of the data based on the studies in non-hepatic tissues/cells. Therefore, the exact molecular regulation of SIK2 by these hormones in the liver required robust and intensive molecular/biochemical research coupled to physiological readout (e.g. gluconeogenesis). My studies with phosphopeptide mapping by mass spectrometry followed by verification with well-characterised phospho-specific antibodies revealed that SIK2 was phosphorylated on Ser343, Ser358, Thr484 and Ser587 in response to glucagon and fasting but not following insulin ...
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p-EGFR Antibody (11C2) is a monoclonal phospho-specific anti-EGFR antibody that detects Tyr 1045 phosphorylated EGFR by WB and IP. Cited in 6 publications
By using signaling pathway- and cell type-specific responses in a combinatorial manner, the immune system signaling network is able to generate a highly diverse set of functional responses despite a limited number of cytokines, cell types, and signaling proteins. In addition to receptors that are coupled to intricate intracellular pathways, specialized cell types express their own set of receptors, and the activation of the same receptor on two different cell types can result in disparate functional responses. This allows sophisticated network behavior despite a limited repertoire of conserved signaling proteins (primarily of the Jak-Stat pathway). Modulating both these levels of the network is the organization of the immune system into distinct compartments, further refining the immune response and ensuring that it is appropriate for the tissue in which the cells resides.. The analysis of immune cell signaling at the network level can be enhanced by approaches that allow cell activities to be ...
Such antibodies are called phospho-specific antibodies; hundreds of such antibodies are now available. They are becoming ... Antibodies can be used as powerful tool to detect whether a protein is phosphorylated at a particular site. Antibodies bind to ... In some very specific cases, the detection of the phosphorylation as a shift in the protein's electrophoretic mobility is ... The malfunctioning of specific chains of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatase has been linked to multiple ...
... the current and simplest methods to enrich phosphoproteins are affinity purification using phosphospecific antibodies, ... In one study design, cells are exposed to SILAC labelling and then stimulated by a specific growth factor. The cells are ... phosphopeptides are enriched using phosphospecific antibodies, immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide ( ... Antiphosphotyrosine antibodies have been proven very successful in purification, but fewer reports have been published using ...
... they are known as phospho-specific antibodies. Also, there are antibodies specific to other modifications. These may be used to ... Modified proteins may be studied by developing an antibody specific to that modification. For example, there are antibodies ... There are several specific techniques and protocols that use antibodies for protein detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... If a complex biological sample is analyzed, either a very specific antibody needs to be used in quantitative dot blot analysis ...
... phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 - antibodies, viral ... phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.254 - antibodies, viral ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ...
Such antibodies are called phospho-specific antibodies; hundreds of such antibodies are now available. They are becoming ... Antibodies can be used as powerful tool to detect whether a protein is phosphorylated at a particular site. Antibodies bind to ... The two enzymes have been identified as a specific glucokinase (ATP-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase) and non-specific hexokinase ... In some very specific cases, the detection of the phosphorylation as a shift in the protein's electrophoretic mobility is ...
In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies». J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17276-80. PMID 11278964. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Ye, Q; Hu Y F, Zhong H, Nye A C, Belmont A S, Li R (2001). «BRCA1-induced large-scale chromatin unfolding and allele-specific ... Zheng, L; Pan H, Li S, Flesken-Nikitin A, Chen P L, Boyer T G, Lee W H (2000). «Sequence-specific transcriptional corepressor ... Yu, Xiaochun; Chini Claudia Christiano Silva, He Miao, Mer Georges, Chen Junjie (2003). «The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein ...
... and an online antibody store, including phospho-specific and secondary antibodies. The company provides commercialization ... It also offers cell-type-specific marker antibodies for neuroscience; suites of products for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's ... CRP), based in Denver, Pennsylvania, offers antibody products and antibody-development services to the research community. CRP ... In May 2006 it acquired Signet Laboratories, Inc., a provider of monoclonal antibodies used in the research of cancer, ...
In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17276-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011681200. PMID ... There are a number of specific microRNAs, when overexpressed, that directly reduce expression of specific DNA repair proteins ( ... Yu X, Chini CC, He M, Mer G, Chen J (October 2003). "The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain". Science. 302 (5645 ... Their risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer is so high, and so specific to those cancers, that many mutation carriers ...
These targeting ligands could be monoclonal antibodies (making an immunoliposome), vitamins, or specific antigens, but must be ... They typically form after supplying enough energy to a dispersion of (phospho)lipids in a polar solvent, such as water, to ... Studies have also shown that PEGylated liposomes elicit anti-IgM antibodies, thus leading to an enhanced blood clearance of the ... "Specific targeting with poly (ethylene glycol)-modified liposomes: coupling of homing devices to the ends of the polymeric ...
Grossmann A, Benlasfer N, Birth P, Hegele A, Wachsmuth F, Apelt L, Stelzl U (March 2015). "Phospho-tyrosine dependent protein- ... Analyses of mouse brains show lack of region-specific expression throughout. In terms of protein regulation, TMEM128 contains ... TMEM128 is neighbored upstream by LYAR, Ly1 antibody reactive, and downstream by OTOP1, Otopetrin 1. TMEM128 Isoform 1 ... "TMEM128 Gene - GeneCards , TM128 Protein , TM128 Antibody". Retrieved February 7, 2020. "Homo sapiens ...
A specific experiment example of an application of native gel electrophoresis is to check for enzymatic activity to verify the ... These can be transferred onto a nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane to be probed with antibodies and corresponding markers, such as ... it starts with the de-phosphorylation of 3-phospho-2-naphthoic acid-2'-4'-dimethyl aniline by alkaline phosphatase (water is ... In most cases, the gel is a crosslinked polymer whose composition and porosity are chosen based on the specific weight and ...
In order to visualize the target cell death, both rapid and slow, scientists have used CFSE labelling with antibody staining of ... Most flow cytometers uses dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to select specific bands of the optical spectrum. Spectral ... phospho-proteins Scattering of light can be used to measure volume (by forward scatter) and morphological complexity (by side ... "Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies". Retrieved 2018-09-18. Loken, M.R. (1990). Immunofluorescence Techniques in ...
Streaker, Emily D.; Beckett, Dorothy (1998). "Coupling of Site-Specific DNA Binding to Protein Dimerization in Assembly of the ... Fukuoka, Y; Schwartz, LB (2006). "The B12 anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody disrupts the tetrameric structure of heparin- ... Mimicking the product/substrate of the phospho transfer reactions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (6): ... Barrientos, LG; Gronenborn, AM (2005). "The highly specific carbohydrate-binding protein cyanovirin-N: Structure, anti-HIV/ ...
New mTOR-specific inhibitors came forth from screening and drug discovery efforts. These compounds block activity of both mTOR ... However, the use of PTEN, PIK3CA mutations, and AKT-phospho status for predicting rapalog sensitivity has not been fully ... Specific protein activators regulate the PIKK kinases but binding of them to the kinase complex causes a conformational change ... which is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that belongs to the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) related ...
One example of a commonly used biomarker in medicine is prostate-specific antigen (PSA). This marker can be measured as a proxy ... It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ... Post-injury neurodegeneration/tauopathy such as Tau protein and phospho-tau protein. There are also autoantibodies as ... Previously used to identify the specific characteristics of the biomarker, this step is essential for doing an in situ ...
Custom Phospho-Specific Antibody (Poly) Custom Phospho-Specific Antibody (Poly). Custom Phospho-Specific Polyclonal Antibody ... Phospho-peptide antibody purification by 2-steps peptide affinity purification including phospho-peptide column and non-phospho ... Shipment of purified phosphospecific antibody which does not cross-react with. non-phosphospecific peptides (confirmed by ELISA ... Genemed Synthesis offers phosphospecific antibody affinity purification which includes: *Phosphospecific peptide synthesis (up ...
Phospho-specific antibodies from AMSBIO are affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that are monospecific ... AMSBIO has developed a custom phospho-specific antibody production service that is both reliable and produces highly specific ... The purified phospho-specific antibody is fully characterized using both dot-blot and ELISA techniques to ensure product of the ... Phospho-specific antibodies are widely accepted for use in defining regulatory mechanisms that control cell functions such as ...
We manufacture our GluR1 ser831 rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, affinity purified from pooled serum. Optimized in ... GluR1 (Ser831) Antibody. We are the original manufacturer of our GluR1 (Ser831) rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, ... Product Specific Protocols. Western Blotting. Click here to view our protocols page for Western blotting and lysate preparation ... GluA1 antibody. • GLUH1 antibody. • GluR K1 antibody. • GluR-1 antibody. • GluR-A antibody. • GluR-K1 antibody. • GLUR1 ...
Antibodies, Phospho-Specific: Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated Peptides corresponding to amino ...
GenScript provides customizable phospho-specific polyclonal and phosphor monoclonal antibody services with a success rate of ... Key Features of Phospho-Specific Antibody Services. (Highly Specific Antibodies for Protein Phosphorylation Detection). * ... Phospho-Specific Antibody Services. Guaranteed ELISA titer of ≥ 1:64,000 and , 10% cross reactivity with non-phospho peptide ... Our affinity-purified phospho-specific antibodies detect specific protein phosphorylation from complex cellular protein ...
Our phospho-specific antibodies validated for use in flow cytometry are designed for quick and effective assessment of ... Each phospho-specific antibody has been tested in three different flow cytometry buffer systems: IC Fixation and ... Phospho-specific antibody flow cytometric analysis of phosphorylated proteins allows researchers a quick and effective way to ... Testing antibodies in pathway- and cell type-specific experiments helps provide end-users with peace of mind regarding the ...
Home/ Forums/ Antibody Based Technologies: Monoclonal & Polyclonal Antibodies/ phospho specific antibodies. phospho specific ... phospho specific antibodies We are looking to purchase anti- phospho serine and phospho threonine antibodies. Just wondering if ... have you personally used these antibodies before? We are currently not looking at tyr but thanks for the info with ser ...
... phospho-specific Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody, 100 μl each, ECM Biosciences EB3 (SER-162) PAB 100UL ... ECM BIOSCIENCES LLC EB3 (Ser-162), phospho-specific Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody, 100 μl each, ECM Biosciences ... EB3 (Ser-162), phospho-specific Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody, 100 μl each, ECM Biosciences ...
Phospho -serine STAT specific antibodies. Is anyone aware of/has used any phospho-SERINE STAT (eg Stat6) specific antibodies. ... Home/ Forums/ Antibody Based Technologies: Monoclonal & Polyclonal Antibodies/ Phospho -serine STAT specific antibodies. ... Is anyone aware of/has used any phospho-SERINE STAT (eg Stat6) specific antibodies. Im NOT looking for the phospho-tyrosine ... i have used a phospho-ser. i have used a phospho-ser. stat3 antibody before...i dont remember right now who it was made by, ...
... serine and threonine in addition to 311 monoclonal antibodies and 1,223 polyclonal antibodies specific for phosphorylated ... Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers antibodies specific for phosphorylated amino acids tyrosine, ... Phospho-Specific Antibodies. Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers antibodies specific for phosphorylated amino acids tyrosine, ... whereas site specific phospho-specific antibodies provide information regarding activation of target proteins at specific ...
Using a new phosphospecific antibody directed to the phosphorylation consensus we found Protein Kinase A and Calcium/Calmodulin ... and describe a robust phosphospecific antibody to study it in future. ... Interestingly, status epilepticus induced by systemic kainate injection in mice led to specific upregulation of the CPEB3 ... and the isoform expression pattern to be cell type-specific. Here, focusing on the alternatively spliced region of CPEB3, we ...
ProSci offers primary antibodies for a range of research areas including innate immunity, apoptosis, and more! Order phospho- ... Broad Antibody Catalog , Extensive Antibody Services , In-house USA Labs & Animal Facilities , Established in 1998 ... CUSTOM ANTIBODY SERVICES. * Polyclonal Antibodies * Monoclonal Antibodies * Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody , ProSci Inc ...
Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies enable analysis of key targets in normal and disease states, including cardiovascular ... Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies enable the analysis of key targets in normal and disease states, including ... Invitrogen phosphospecific antibodies are designed to dependably detect the key phosphospecific targets. Each antibody is ... Invitrogen phosphospecific antibodies are designed to dependably detect phosphospecific targets in various applications. ...
Find antibodies and reagents all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Global antibody supplier and research reagent supplier to the ... Home » Protocol specific for H3 monomethyl K4/phospho T6 antibody (NB21-1037) ... Recommended controls include: No antibody negative control OR normal IgG negative control, positive control antibody. ... 8. Remove antibody and replace with wash solution, then wash for 10 minutes. Add Hoechst 33258 to wash solution at 1:25,0000 ...
Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies. ... Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies ... Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies ... Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies ...
Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies. ... Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies ... Anti-FLAG antibody was from Sigma, and anti-filamin-1 antibody was from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). ... Approach for Identification of Serine/Threonine-phosphorylated Proteins by Enrichment with Phospho-specific Antibodies ...
Anti-phospho-Tau antibodies are used to identify specific amino acids that are phosphorylated in Tau from normal brains and ... Rabbit anti-Phospho-Tau antibodies were raised against synthetic phosphopeptides. These antibodies were evaluated for ... This represents the industry s largest collection of anti-Tau antibodies - 17 phosphospecific and 9 non-phosphospecific ... Topic: AnaSpec Releases 4 New Phosphospecific Anti-Tau Antibodies anaspec. Member posted 11-21-2008 05:56 PM San Jose, CA ...
Characterization of a Phospho-Specific Antibody for Autophosphorylated GRK1 You will receive an email whenever this article is ... F. S. Chen, C.-K. Chen; Characterization of a Phospho-Specific Antibody for Autophosphorylated GRK1. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. ... We sought to develop a phospho-specific antibody for autophosphorylated GRK1 to probe its function under physiological and ... Phospho-specific immunoglobulin (A4102) against autophosphorylated GRK1 was pre-absorbed with nonphosphopeptide and purified ...
Polyclonal phospho-specific Rab protein antibodies. We first raised sheep polyclonal antibodies against phospho-peptides ... affinity-purified phospho-specific polyclonal antibodies (all at 1 µg/ml antibody - for only sheep polyclonal antibodies, we ... Sheep polyclonal antibodies. Table 1 summarises the sheep phospho-specific and total Rab polyclonal antibodies generated for ... will complement the selective Rab10 phospho-specific antibodies to assess LRRK2 in vivo activity. Furthermore, the phospho- ...
Product information "Anti-RNA Polymerase II, Phospho (S5)" Protein function: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the ...
TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the ... TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the ... TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the ... AA0041 TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies ...
... phospho S16) antibody [EPR1911] (ab92697). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication ... Specific References * Protocols Publishing research using ab92697? Please let us know so that we can cite the reference in this ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. ...
... antibody (ab77852). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication ... Specific References * Protocols Publishing research using ab77852? Please let us know so that we can cite the reference in this ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Custom antibody development. We offer world-leading antibody development platforms based on a proprietary RabMAb® rabbit ...
However, because antibodies specific to the phospho site will represent only a portion of antibodies against the phospho ... Phospho Purification Strategy:. To isolate antibodies specific to the phospho epitope, serum will first be affinity purified ... Purified Antibody Yields:. On average, 2-3 mg of peptide specific antibody will be isolated from affinity purification of 25 ml ... Our Custom Phosphospecific Antibody Production package includes everything needed to obtain affinity-purified antibodies that ...
... phospho-mTOR (S2448 and S2481), Akt, and phospho-Akt (S473) rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Phospho-S6K (T389) and mTOR (mTab1) ... WCLs were analyzed by immunoblotting for phospho-mTOR (S2481), phospho-Akt (S473), phospho-S6K (T389), total mTOR, and total ... and WCLs were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies that recognize either phospho-S2448 or phospho-S2481. In cells in ... 1B and C), it is possible that phospho-S2448 is not an mTORC1-specific phosphorylation site in all cell types under all ...
EB3 (Ser-176), phospho-specific Antibody. Rabbit Polyclonal. Application Dilution ELISA. 1:1000. ... This antibody was cross-absorbed to unphospho-EB3 (Ser-176), before affinity purification using phospho-EB3 (Ser-176) peptide ( ... Phospho-EB3 (Ser-176) synthetic peptide (coupled to KLH) corresponding to amino acid residues surrounding serine 176 in human ... Site specific phosphorylation may regulate EB activity. EB3 Ser-162 phosphorylation destabilizes EB3 dimer and reduces MT ...
eNOS (Ser-1177), phospho-specific Antibody. Rabbit Polyclonal. Application Dilution ELISA. 1:2000. ... The antibody detects a 140 kDa* band corresponding to eNOS on SDS-PAGE immunoblots of human umbilical vein endothelial cells ... Phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) synthetic peptide (coupled to carrier protein) corresponds to amino acids surrounding Ser-1177 in human ... Rabbit polyclonal, affinity-purified antibody is supplied in 100µl phosphate-buffered saline, 50% glycerol, 1 mg/ml BSA, and ...
Such antibodies are called phospho-specific antibodies; hundreds of such antibodies are now available. They are becoming ... Antibodies can be used as powerful tool to detect whether a protein is phosphorylated at a particular site. Antibodies bind to ... In some very specific cases, the detection of the phosphorylation as a shift in the proteins electrophoretic mobility is ... The malfunctioning of specific chains of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatase has been linked to multiple ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Phospho-Tyrosine Antibody (G104) [DyLight 350]. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Non ... FAQs for Phospho-Tyrosine Antibody (NBP1-47562UV) (0). There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our general ... Home » Phospho-Tyrosine » Phospho-Tyrosine Antibodies » Phospho-Tyrosine Antibody (G104) [DyLight 350] ... Reviews for Phospho-Tyrosine Antibody (NBP1-47562UV) (0) There are no reviews for Phospho-Tyrosine Antibody (NBP1-47562UV). By ...
c,d) Band 3, ankyrin and adducin in invasion labelled with specific antibodies. PVM, parasitophorous vacuole membrane; RBC, red ... Beta-spectrin phospho-sites identified through quantitative phospho-proteomics of invasion and their locations within the ... Median centered individual phospho-peptide fold-change values pooled across the four invasion proteomic experiments for two ... Quantitative phospho-proteomics reveals the Plasmodium merozoite triggers pre-invasion host kinase modification of the red cell ...
Western blotting shows reactivity specific for phospho mTOR detecting a band at approximately 250 kDa. Reactivity in other ... rabbit anti-mTOR pS2448 antibody, FKBP12 rapamycin complex associated protein antibody, Serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR, ... Anti-mTOR pS2448 antibody was prepared from whole rabbit serum produced by repeated immunizations with a phosphorylated ... Rocklands affinity purified anti-mTOR pS 2448 antibody was used at 5 g/ml to detect signal in a variety of tissues including ...
  • Aalto Bio Reagents its pleased to announce availability of its new mouse monoclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori flagellin for diagnostic test manufacturers, vaccine developers and researchers globally. (
  • The purified phospho-specific antibody is fully characterized using both dot-blot and ELISA techniques to ensure product of the highest consistency and quality. (
  • The antigen is a phosphopeptide corresponding to amino acid residues surrounding the phospho-Ser 831 of GluR1. (
  • We are the original manufacturer of our GluR1 (Ser 831 ) rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, affinity purified from pooled serum. (
  • The antibody is prepared from pooled rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho- and dephospho-peptide affinity columns. (
  • AMSBIO has developed a custom phospho-specific antibody production service that is both reliable and produces highly specific quality antisera. (
  • Hundreds of custom phospho specific antibodies have been successfully made by AMSBIO and supplied to leading international research groups. (
  • AMSBIO's custom phospho-specific polyclonal antibody service includes synthesis of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides, conjugation to a carrier protein, immunization and anti-sera production. (
  • Phospho-specific antibodies are widely accepted for use in defining regulatory mechanisms that control cell functions such as activation of enzymes and receptors, cellular transcription, signal transduction, and cell signalling networks. (
  • Our affinity-purified phospho-specific antibodies detect specific protein phosphorylation from complex cellular protein mixtures with high sensitivity. (
  • The high specificity and high sensitivity of our protein phosphorylation-specific antibodies is made possible by technological innovations including our advanced OptimumAntigen design tool , proprietary immunization adjuvant, optimized specificity screening and antibody purification. (
  • Read protein phosphorylation-specific package protocol details . (
  • First we verify that in a panel of cells in which different pathways have been induced, we see phosphorylation-specific staining only in the cells in which the specific pathway of interest has been activated. (
  • Second, we verify that phosphorylation-specific staining is observed only in cell types in which the protein is expressed, and not in cell types in which the protein is not expressed. (
  • Antibodies directed to phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are of value in determining whether various proteins become phosphorylated in response to different inducing agents, whereas site specific phospho-specific antibodies provide information regarding activation of target proteins at specific phosphorylation sites. (
  • Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies enable the analysis of key targets in normal and disease states, including cardiovascular disease, cancer , inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases , and diabetes. (
  • We demonstrate that the MJFF-pRAB10 antibodies can be deployed to assess enhanced Rab10 phosphorylation resulting from pathogenic (R1441C/G or G2019S) LRRK2 knock-in mutations as well as the impact of LRRK2 inhibitor treatment. (
  • We also identify rabbit monoclonal antibodies displaying broad specificity (MJFF-pRAB8) that can be utilised to assess LRRK2-controlled phosphorylation of a range of endogenous Rab proteins, including Rab8A, Rab10 and Rab35. (
  • Milligram quantities of highly purified Phospho-specific polyclonal antibodies are available from AMSBIO custom designed for optimal recognition of specific phosphorylation sites on the protein of interest to research scientists. (
  • Phosphorylation often results in functional changes in the activity of a protein, and having antibodies recognizing the phosphorylated state can be integral for studying protein pathways. (
  • Gentaur Molecular :Abno \ TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the TGF-Beta signaling pathway. (
  • antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of TGF-Beta Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 176 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the TGF-Beta signaling pathway. (
  • Site specific phosphorylation may regulate EB activity. (
  • Phosphorylation was considered a specific control mechanism for one metabolic pathway until the 1970s, when Lester Reed discovered that mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was inactivated by phosphorylation. (
  • Antibodies raised to phosphopeptides containing the sequences around these phosphorylation sites are frequently used to provide an indication of the activation state of GSK-3 in cell and tissue extracts. (
  • These antibodies have further been used to determine the subcellular localisation of active and inactive forms of GSK-3, and the results of those studies support roles for GSK-3 phosphorylation in diverse cellular processes. (
  • Combine the phospho-antibody with a "total protein" antibody that recognizes the target protein regardless of its phosphorylation status. (
  • Researcher D. G. Walker of the University of Birmingham determined the presence of two specific enzymes in adult guinea pig liver, both of which catalyze the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6 phosphate. (
  • Hepatic cell is freely permeable to glucose, and the initial rate of phosphorylation of glucose is the rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism by the liver (ATP-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase) and non-specific hexokinase (ATP-D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase). (
  • Cell Cycle Control Phospho-Specific Array includes 238 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the regulation of cell cycle. (
  • The Wnt Signaling Phospho Antibody Array features 227 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies. (
  • The non-phospho pairs of the phospho-specific antibodies are included in the array to allow comparison based on phosphorylation state. (
  • 4E-BP1 (Phospho-Thr45) antibody was raised against a peptide sequence around phosphorylation site of threonine 45 (S-T-T (p) -P-G) derived from Human 4E-BP1. (
  • A phosphorylation state‐specific antibody recognizes Hsp27, a novel substrate of protein kinase D. J. Biol. (
  • Antibodies are useful not only to detect specific biomolecules but also to measure changes in their level and specificity of modification by processes such as phosphorylation, methylation, or glycosylation. (
  • but the best way to check for phosphorylation at a very low level I have found is if you are able to label with 32-P ATP immunoprep with antibody of yr favorite protein run it on a gel and do a phosphoimaging. (
  • Some antibodies have also shown reactivity with bovine, chicken and zebrafish. (
  • The antibody detects a 140 kDa* band corresponding to eNOS on SDS-PAGE immunoblots of human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown normally or treated with calyculin A. This reactivity is not observed after lambda phosphatase treatment. (
  • Western blotting shows reactivity specific for phospho mTOR detecting a band at approximately 250 kDa. (
  • Consult the supplier page to verify the identity of the desired antibody target and learn more detailed product information, such as species reactivity, antibody features, and validated applications. (
  • Select appropriate NF κ B p50 antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (
  • Specific conditions for reactivity should be optimized by the end user. (
  • To locate any antibody of interest, either refer to the functional grouping listed below or go to our Search page to locate antibodies by product name, catalog number, keyword, gene, protein name or chromosome location. (
  • They are affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that are monospecific for a target protein that is phosphorylated on a specific tyrosine, threonine, or serine residue. (
  • In fact, detection of a protein by these antibodies generally constitutes proof that the protein is tyrosine-phosphorylated. (
  • AMSBIO's custom phospho-specific polyclonal antibody service includes synthesis of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides, conjugation to a carrier protein, immunization and anti-sera production. (
  • The antibody detects a 32 kDa* protein corresponding to the apparent molecular mass of phosphorylated EB3 on SDS-PAGE immunoblots of mouse brain. (
  • In addition, two antibodies raised to peptides containing the phosphorylated Tyr279/216 epitope recognise an unidentified protein at focal contacts, and a third antibody recognises a protein found in Ki-67-positive cell nuclei. (
  • After fixation and permeabilization in microplate wells, phospho-Akt (S473) and total Akt protein levels were detected. (
  • B) Levels of phospho-Akt, normalized to total Akt protein levels in the same well, were quantified by analysis of fluorescence intensities. (
  • It may be possible to use the target protein as its own internal control for detection of a phospho-protein. (
  • The phospho-specific antibodies bind to and detect the protein only when phosphorylated at the specific site. (
  • The activation state of the cell survival protein Akt can be analyzed in human prostate cancer by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue with a phospho-specific Akt (Ser473) antibody. (
  • The RyR2 channel comprises a large macromolecular signaling complex consisting of four RyR2 monomers, each binding one channel-stabilizing subunit calstabin2 [12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6)], as well as protein kinases (PKA and CaMKII), protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A), and a cAMP-specific type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4D3) ( 11 ) that are targeted to each RyR2 monomer via their respective anchoring proteins ( 12 ). (
  • This antibody is specific for human ROCK-2 protein phosphorylated at Y256. (
  • MAPKs phosphorylate specific serines and threonines on target protein substrates and function in signaling cascades that convey external stimuli from the cell surface to cellular targets such as translational machinery, cytoskeletal proteins, and transcription factors. (
  • Determination of the specific substrate sequence motifs of protein kinase C isozymes. (
  • This review will describe the development of a revolutionary immunochemical technique that produces antibodies that bind to target proteins only when the protein is in the phosphorylated state. (
  • These phospho-specific antibodies can thus be used to track the activity of a protein, not simply its level of expression. (
  • THC, the endogenous cannabinoid AEA and synthetic cannabinoids like HU-210 and Win55,212-2 interact with specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (
  • Phospho-c-Myc (T358) Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of c-Myc protein only when phosphorylated at T358. (
  • The antibody was supposed to be specific for the phosphorylated version of the protein. (
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.1 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho‑ERK1 (T202/Y204)/ERK2 (T185/Y187) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1018), followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF008 ). (
  • A specific band was detected for ERK1 (T202/Y204)/ERK2 (T185/Y187) at approximately 44 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho-ERK1 (T202/Y204)/ERK2 (T185/Y187) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1018). (
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human Phospho-Insulin R (Y1162/Y1163)/IGF-I R (Y1135/Y1136) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2507), followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF008 ). (
  • Insulin R phosphorylated at Y1162/1163 and IGF-I R phsophorylated at Y1135/1136 were detected in immersion fixed A431 human epithelial carcinoma cell line untreated (lower panel) or treated (upper panel) with pervanadate using Rabbit Anti-Human Phospho-Insulin R (Y1162/1163)/IGF-I R (Y1135/1136) Cross-reactive Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2507) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (
  • Active Motif's HeLa nuclear extract (Catalog No. 36010) can be used as a positive control for RNA Pol II CTD phospho Ser2 antibody. (
  • Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution. (
  • Quantitative phospho-proteomics reveals the Plasmodium merozoite triggers pre-invasion host kinase modification of the red cell cytoskeleton. (
  • Europium-labeled anti-phospho-(Ser) 14-3-3 motif antibody, for use in LANCE® TR-FRET kinase assays. (
  • In LANCE Ultra kinase assays, the binding of a Eu-labeled anti-phosphosubstrate antibody to the phosphorylated U Light -labeled substrate brings donor and acceptor molecules into close proximity. (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from NIH/3T3 cells, untreated or treated with PDGF, wortmannin, LY294002, rapamycin or PD98059, using Phospho-Akt (Ser473) Antibody. (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from NIH/3T3 cells, untreated or treated with PDGF for the indicated times, using Phospho-Akt (Ser473) Antibody (upper) or Akt Antibody #9272 (lower). (
  • Western blot analysis of immunoprecipitated Akt from 293 cells transiently transfected with HA-tagged Akt (WT), HA-tagged K179A mutant Akt and HA-tagged K179A/S473A mutant Akt, using Phospho-Akt (Ser473) Antibody (upper), Akt antibody (middle) or HA antibody (lower). (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs), 3 days post-confluence, untreated, H2O2-treated (0.3 mM for 30 minutes) or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP)-treated as indicated, using Phospho-eNOS (Thr495) Antibody (upper) or control eNOS antibody (lower). (
  • Phospho-Akt and total Akt were also detected by Western blot (inset). (
  • Detection of Human Phospho-ERK1 (T202/Y204) and ERK2 (T185/Y187) by Western Blot. (
  • Detection of Human Phospho‑Insulin R (Y1162/Y1163) and Phospho‑IGF‑I R (Y1135/1136) by Western Blot. (
  • Western blot analysis of lysed extracts from HeLa cells using 4E-BP1 (Phospho-Thr45). (
  • Specifically we argue that Western blot data should be used to provide a reliable initial indication of antibody quality, as well as a guide to distinguish between multiple offerings for antibodies to the same target. (
  • Hi, I am doing a western blot for the phosphorylated version of nuclear transcription factor ATF-2 (Alternative Transcription Factor-2), I am using an antibody from Cell Signalling Technologies ( http://www.cellsigna...ducts/9221.html ) fo anti-phospho-ATF-2. (
  • This product is a recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody. (
  • Also available as an AbFlex™ engineered recombinant antibody. (
  • Because methanol can destroy the epitope recognized by some antibodies, ideally surface staining would be performed at the beginning of the protocol with a methanol-resistant fluorochrome (like eFluor 450 , FITC , and eFluor 660 ). (
  • Our Custom Phosphospecific Antibody Production package includes everything needed to obtain affinity-purified antibodies that are specific to a phosphorylated epitope. (
  • We show that antibodies raised to peptides containing the phosphorylated Ser21/9 epitope crossreact with unidentified antigens that are highly expressed by mitotic cells and that mainly localise to spindle poles. (
  • Antibodies were purified by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific phosphopeptide. (
  • Purified from rabbit serum by sequential epitope-specific chromatography. (
  • Complementing one of the world s most comprehensive collections of b-amyloid peptides, the availability of these anti-Tau antibodies demonstrates AnaSpec s commitment to delivering integrated solutions for Alzheimer research. (
  • 50 phospho- and target-specific mAbs against 70% of target peptides. (
  • Can be blocked with GTX25354 NIH3T3 whole cell lysate, + / - PDGF stimulation (pair) , GTX25313 PC12 whole cell lysate, + / - Sorbitol treatment or GTX25255 ERK 1 + 2 phospho T185 / 202 + Y187 / 204 and non-phospho peptides (pair) Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user. (
  • Custom Phospho-Specific Antibody (Poly)-Genemed Synthesis Inc. (
  • AMSBIO has developed a custom phospho-specific antibody production service that is both reliable and produces highly specific quality antisera. (
  • Hundreds of custom phospho specific antibodies have been successfully made by AMSBIO and supplied to leading international research groups. (
  • Phospho-14-3-3 binding motif antibody is an affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody (supplied by Cell Signaling Technology). (
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of ERK1/2 (pTpY185/187) showing staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus of paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma tissue (right) compared to a negative control without primary antibody (left). (
  • Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. (
  • Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. (
  • ERK1/2 (pTpY185/187) polyclonal antibody (Cat. (
  • Detects human, mouse and rat Phospho-ERK1/ERK2 when dually phosphorylated at T202/Y204 and T185/Y187, respectively. (
  • Specific bands were detected for Phospho‑ERK1 (T202/Y204) and ERK2 (T185/Y187) at approximately 42 and 44 kDa (as indicated). (
  • Detection of Human Phospho-ERK1 (T202/Y204)/ERK2 (T185/Y187) by Simple Western TM . (
  • and ( b ) whether phospho-MAPK/Erk1/2 and phospho-Akt expression are altered in prostate cancer. (
  • To examine the activation status of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt, archival paraffin-embedded sections from 74 cases of resected prostate cancer were immunostained with antibodies to phospho-MAPK/Erk1/2 (Thr202/ Tyr204) and phospho-Akt (Ser473). (
  • In this paper, with phospho-specific antibodies we demonstrate by IHC that advanced prostate cancer is accompanied by the expression of the activated (phosphorylated) form of Akt and decreased expression of activated MAPK/Erk1/2. (
  • Goat Anti-Human Bcl-2, phospho (Thr74) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of NF κ B p50 antibodies. (
  • This antibody may replace item sc-166062 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. (
  • We identify rabbit monoclonal phospho-specific antibodies (MJFF-pRAB10) that are exquisitely selective for LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10, detecting endogenous phosphorylated Rab10 in all analysed cell lines and tissues, including human brain cingulate cortex. (
  • Phospho-specific antibodies are widely accepted for use in defining regulatory mechanisms that control cell functions such as activation of enzymes and receptors, cellular transcription, signal transduction, and cell signalling networks. (
  • Tau (phospho-Ser396) antibody detects endogenous levels of Tau only when phosphorylated at serine 396. (
  • U937 cells treated as indicated and intracellularly-stained with anti-phospho STAT6 (clone CHI2S4N) APC . (
  • Please refer to our table ( Antibody Clone Performance Following Fixation/Permeabilization ) to evaluate the performance of numerous clones in the methanol-based buffer system. (
  • The concept that Richard proposed is something that i tried once, using one of our products and the well known phos-tyr antibody (I forget the clone name, but Upstate carries it). (
  • Description This antibody needs to be stored at + 4°C in a fridge short term in a concentrated dilution. (
  • U2OS cells were stained with RNA Pol II pS2 antibody at a dilution of 1:500. (
  • This antibody recognizes STAT4 with a phosphorylated sites of Tyr693. (
  • The antibody also recognizes the motif containing phospho-serine surrounded by phenylalanine at the +1 position and arginine at the -3 position. (
  • Inspired by a natural phosphate-binding motif, we designed and selected mAb scaffolds with hot spots specific for phosphoserine, phosphothreonine or phosphotyrosine. (
  • Rabbit polyclonal, affinity-purified antibody is supplied in 100µl phosphate-buffered saline, 50% glycerol, 1 mg/ml BSA, and 0.05% sodium azide. (
  • Antibody supplied in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. (
  • Epitomics also offers custom Rabbit Monoclonal antibody services and would be happy to talk with you about your needs. (
  • What buffer format is "Histone H3 Antibody (Tri-Methyl-Lys27/Phospho-Ser28) (OADC00087)" provided in? (
  • Cells were then surface stained with anti-CD3 (T cells) and with anti-B220 (B cells) and intracellularly stained with anti-phospho-BTK/ITK (M4G3LN) PCP-eFluor 710 . (
  • Cells were then intracellularly-stained with anti-phospho-BTK/ITK (M4G3LN) APC (top row) or with competitor's pBTK/ITK Alexa Fluor 647 (bottom row) . (
  • Anti-phospho-Tau antibodies are used to identify specific amino acids that are phosphorylated in Tau from normal brains and Alzheimer s disease brains. (
  • Rabbit anti-Phospho-Tau antibodies were raised against synthetic phosphopeptides. (
  • For example, use mouse anti-total Akt and rabbit anti-phospho-Akt (Fig. 1). (
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and conjugated with Brilliant Violet 421™ under optimal conditions. (
  • Mouse splenocytes were left untreated or were activated with anti-mouse IgM, u chain specific, antibody or with sodium pervanadate. (
  • STAT1 (pTyr701) Mouse monoclonal antibody (ST1P-11A5) (Cat. (
  • Aalto Bio Reagents its pleased to announce availability of its new mouse monoclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori flagellin for diagnostic test manufacturers, vaccine developers and researchers globally. (
  • For researchers interested in no-hassle bulk quantities of biofunctional antibodies for mouse injection or human ex vivo studies, GoInVivo™ provides the best solution at exceptional prices. (
  • The whole tissue lysate derived from mouse kidney was immunoblotted by STAT4 (phospho Y693) polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB12755) at 1 : 500. (
  • Mouse Anti-Human IkBa / MAD-3 Antibody, Unconjugated from Raybiotech, Inc. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody labeled with the LANCE® Europium W-1024-ITC chelate. (
  • Nature-inspired design of motif-specific antibody scaffolds. (
  • Here we outline a general strategy for producing synthetic, PTM-specific mAbs by engineering a motif-specific 'hot spot' into an antibody scaffold. (
  • Our motif-specific scaffold strategy may provide a general solution for rapid, robust development of anti-PTM mAbs for signaling, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (
  • Our OptimumAntigen design tool and intelligent Antigen Strategy increase specificity and affinity of antibodies. (