Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)

Rapid and sensitive identification of epitope-containing peptides by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry of peptides affinity-bound to antibody beads. (1/86)

A method has been developed for rapid and sensitive identification of epitope-containing peptides, based on direct MALDI-MS/MS analysis of epitope-containing peptides affinity bound to affinity beads. This technique provides sequence information of the epitope that allows unambiguous identification of the epitope either by database searching or de novo sequencing. With MALDI-MS, affinity beads with bound peptides can be placed directly on the MALDI target and analyzed. Coupling a MALDI source to an orthogonal injection quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer allows direct sequencing of the bound peptides. In contrast to ESI-MS/MS, elution of the affinity-bound peptides followed by additional concentration and purification steps is not required, thus reducing the potential for sample loss. Direct mass spectrometric sequencing of affinity-bound peptides eliminates the need for chemical or enzymatic sequencing. Other advantages of this direct MALDI-MS/MS analysis of epitope-containing peptides bound to the affinity beads include its sensitivity (femtomole levels) and speed. In addition, direct analysis of peptides on affinity beads does not adversely affect the high mass accuracy of a QqTOF, and database searching can be performed on the MS/MS spectra obtained. In proof-of-principle experiments, this method has been demonstrated on beads containing immobilized antibodies against phosphotyrosine, the c-myc epitope tag, as well as immobilized avidin. Furthermore, de novo sequencing of epitope-containing peptides is demonstrated. The first application of this method was with anti-FLAG-tag affinity beads, where direct MALDI MS/MS was used to determine an unexpected enzymatic cleavage site on a growth factor protein.  (+info)

Phosphorylation state-specific antibodies: applications in investigative and diagnostic pathology. (2/86)

Until recently, the investigation of protein phosphorylation was limited to biochemical studies of enzyme activities in homogenized tissues. The availability of hundreds of phosphorylation state-specific antibodies (PSSAs) now makes possible the study of protein phosphorylation in situ, and is opening many exciting opportunities in investigative and diagnostic pathology. This review illustrates the power of PSSAs, especially in immunohistochemical applications to human disease and animal models. Technical considerations, including antibody specificity and lability of phosphoepitopes, are covered, along with potential pitfalls, illustrated by a case study. In the arena of oncology, PSSAs may prove especially valuable in directly demonstrating the efficacy of chemotherapies targeted at protein kinase cascades. Novel applications of PSSAs are also beginning to reveal molecular mechanisms of inflammatory, degenerative, and toxin-induced diseases.  (+info)

Differential phosphorylation and subcellular localization of La RNPs associated with precursor tRNAs and translation-related mRNAs. (3/86)

The La protein facilitates the production of tRNAs in the nucleus and the translation of specific mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We report that human La that is phosphorylated on serine 366 (pLa) is nucleoplasmic and associated with precursor tRNAs and other nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts while nonphosphorylated (np)La is cytoplasmic and associated with a subset of mRNAs that contain 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine (5'TOP) motifs known to control protein synthesis. Thus, La ribonucleoproteins (RNP) exist in distinct states that differ in subcellular localization, serine 366 phosphorylation, and associated RNAs. These results are consistent with a model in which the relative concentrations of the La S366 isoforms in different subcellular compartments in conjunction with the relative concentrations of specific RNA ligands in these compartments determine the differential association of npLa and pLa with their respective classes of associated RNAs.  (+info)

Replication protein A (RPA) phosphorylation prevents RPA association with replication centers. (4/86)

Mammalian replication protein A (RPA) undergoes DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation at numerous sites on the N terminus of the RPA2 subunit. To understand the functional significance of RPA phosphorylation, we expressed RPA2 variants in which the phosphorylation sites were converted to aspartate (RPA2(D)) or alanine (RPA2(A)). Although RPA2(D) was incorporated into RPA heterotrimers and supported simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro, the RPA2(D) mutant was selectively unable to associate with replication centers in vivo. In cells containing greatly reduced levels of endogenous RPA2, RPA2(D) again did not localize to replication sites, indicating that the defect in supporting chromosomal DNA replication is not due to competition with the wild-type protein. Use of phosphospecific antibodies demonstrated that endogenous hyperphosphorylated RPA behaves similarly to RPA2(D). In contrast, under DNA damage or replication stress conditions, RPA2(D), like RPA2(A) and wild-type RPA2, was competent to associate with DNA damage foci as determined by colocalization with gamma-H2AX. We conclude that RPA2 phosphorylation prevents RPA association with replication centers in vivo and potentially serves as a marker for sites of DNA damage.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila wingless signaling pathway based on RNA interference. (5/86)

Regulation of Armadillo (Arm) protein levels through ubiquitin-mediated degradation plays a central role in the Wingless (Wg) signaling. Although zeste-white3 (Zw3)-mediated Arm phosphorylation has been implicated in its degradation, we have recently shown that casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha) also phosphorylates Arm and induces its degradation. However, it remains unclear how CKIalpha and Zw3, as well as other components of the Arm degradation complex, regulate Arm phosphorylation in response to Wg. In particular, whether Wg signaling suppresses CKIalpha- or Zw3-mediated Arm phosphorylation in vivo is unknown. To clarify these issues, we performed a series of RNA interference (RNAi)-based analyses in Drosophila S2R+ cells by using antibodies that specifically recognize Arm phosphorylated at different serine residues. These analyses revealed that Arm phosphorylation at serine-56 and at threonine-52, serine-48, and serine-44, is mediated by CKIalpha and Zw3, respectively, and that Zw3-directed Arm phosphorylation requires CKIalpha-mediated priming phosphorylation. Daxin stimulates Zw3- but not CKIalpha-mediated Arm phosphorylation. Wg suppresses Zw3- but not CKIalpha-mediated Arm phosphorylation, indicating that a vital regulatory step in Wg signaling is Zw3-mediated Arm phosphorylation. In addition, further RNAi-based analyses of the other aspects of the Wg pathway clarified that Wg-induced Dishevelled phosphorylation is due to CKIalpha and that presenilin and protein kinase A play little part in the regulation of Arm protein levels in Drosophila tissue culture cells.  (+info)

Site-selective regulation of platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation by T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. (6/86)

The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor mediates mitogenic and chemotactic signals. Like other tyrosine kinase receptors, the PDGF beta receptor is negatively regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). To explore whether T-cell PTP (TC-PTP) negatively regulates the PDGF beta receptor, we compared PDGF beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in wild-type and TC-PTP knockout (ko) mouse embryos. PDGF beta receptors were hyperphosphorylated in TC-PTP ko embryos. Fivefold-higher ligand-induced receptor phosphorylation was observed in TC-PTP ko mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) as well. Reexpression of TC-PTP partly abolished this difference. As determined with site-specific phosphotyrosine antibodies, the extent of hyperphosphorylation varied among different autophosphorylation sites. The phospholipase Cgamma1 binding site Y1021, previously implicated in chemotaxis, displayed the largest increase in phosphorylation. The increase in Y1021 phosphorylation was accompanied by increased phospholipase Cgamma1 activity and migratory hyperresponsiveness to PDGF. PDGF beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in PTP-1B ko MEFs but not in PTPepsilon ko MEFs was also higher than that in control cells. This increase occurred with a site distribution different from that seen after TC-PTP depletion. PDGF-induced migration was not increased in PTP-1B ko cells. In summary, our findings identify TC-PTP as a previously unrecognized negative regulator of PDGF beta receptor signaling and support the general notion that PTPs display site selectivity in their action on tyrosine kinase receptors.  (+info)

ZIP kinase is responsible for the phosphorylation of myosin II and necessary for cell motility in mammalian fibroblasts. (7/86)

Reorganization of actomyosin is an essential process for cell migration and myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation plays a key role in this process. Here, we found that zipper-interacting protein (ZIP) kinase plays a predominant role in myosin II phosphorylation in mammalian fibroblasts. Using two phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the phosphorylated MLC20 is diphosphorylated and that the localization of mono- and diphosphorylated myosin is different from each other. The kinase responsible for the phosphorylation was ZIP kinase because (a) the kinase in the cell extracts phosphorylated Ser19 and Thr18 of MLC20 with similar potency; (b) immunodepletion of ZIP kinase from the cell extracts markedly diminished its myosin II kinase activity; and (c) disruption of ZIP kinase expression by RNA interference diminished myosin phosphorylation, and resulted in the defect of cell polarity and migration efficiency. These results suggest that ZIP kinase is critical for myosin phosphorylation and necessary for cell motile processes in mammalian fibroblasts.  (+info)

Molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PX-866, a novel inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling. (8/86)

We have developed biologically stable semisynthetic viridins as inhibitors of phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-3-kinases. The most active compound was PX-866 (acetic acid (1S,4E,10R,11R,13S,14R)-[4-diallylaminomethylene-6-hydroxy-1-methoxymethyl-10,13- dimethyl-3,7,17-trioxo-1,3,4,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-2-oxa-cyclopen ta[a]phenanthren-11-yl ester), which inhibited purified PtdIns-3-kinase with an IC50 of 0.1 nmol/L and PtdIns-3-kinase signaling measured by phospho-Ser473-Akt levels in HT-29 colon cancer cells with an IC50 of 20 nmol/L. PX-866 administered to mice at 10 mg/kg inhibited phospho-Ser473-Akt in HT-29 colon tumor xenografts up to 80% with recovery taking >48 hours after p.o. administration but more rapidly after i.v. or i.p. administration. PX-866 was eliminated from mouse plasma with a half-life of 18 minutes and a clearance of 360 mL/min/kg following i.v. administration and, when administered i.p. or p.o., showed first-pass metabolism with sequential N-deallylation. Synthetic standards of the N-deallylated metabolites of PX-866 inhibited PtdIns-3-kinase at low nanomolar per liter concentrations. PX-866 exhibited in vivo antitumor activity against s.c. OvCar-3 human ovarian cancer and A-549 human lung cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice with log cell kills up to 1.2. PX-866 also increased the antitumor activity of cisplatin against A-549 xenografts and radiation treatment against OvCar-3 xenografts. The results show that PX-866 is a biologically stable broad-spectrum PtdIns-3-kinase inhibitor with good pharmacokinetics that causes prolonged inhibition of PtdIns-3-kinase signaling in human tumor xenografts. PX-866 exhibits single agent in vivo antitumor activity and increases the antitumor effects of cisplatin and radiation treatment.  (+info)

Does anyone has experience with phospho-flow of peripheral blood samples? We would like to know how long after the blood draw the phosphorylation site remains stable. thanks in advance, kewal , Kewal Asosingh, Ph.D. , Department of Pathobiology/NC22 , Cleveland Clinic , 9500 Euclid Ave. , Cleveland, OH 44195 , , Phone: 216-444-0891 , Fax: 216-636-0104 =================================== P Please consider the environment before printing this e-mail Cleveland Clinic is ranked one of the top hospitals in America by U.S. News & World Report (2008). Visit us online at for a complete listing of our services, staff and locations. Confidentiality Note: This message is intended for use only by the individual or entity to which it is addressed and may contain information that is privileged, confidential, and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient or the employee or agent responsible for delivering the message ...
This service allows the production of antibodies that will specifically recognize the phosphorylated state of your target protein. The approach includes the synthesis and purification of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides, immunisation, fabrication of two affinity columns for successive purification. Extensive ELISA on phospho-specific antibodies as well as on the fraction specific to the non-phosphorylated state is performed. We have successfully utilized this method with other post-translational modifications including acetylation and methylation. ...
ProSci offers primary antibodies for a range of research areas including innate immunity, apoptosis, and more! Order phospho-specific antibodies today.
MI Bioresearch presented the following webinar Phospho-Flow Cytometry for the Screening of Intracellular Signaling Events in Cancer Cells and Immune Cells
Phosphospecific peptide synthesis (up to 15 amino acids) -- 10 mg used for phosphospecific epitope affinity purification, 10 mg used for antibody production, and 10 mg delivered to client ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
PPD® Laboratories biomarker lab has access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in both the bioanalytical lab and the central lab. The biomarker lab can accommodate research assays to fully validated assays with CAP/CLIA, GLP and GCLP compliance. The lab also provides training to clinical sites on proper sample processing for complex procedures, such as phospho-flow and activation assays. The biomarker lab has experience with various sample types including whole, frozen and lysed blood, as well as PBMCs. The test menu includes routine cell surface assays and intracellular assays.. Key Instrumentation: ...
HEXO Corp. (NYSE: HEXO) Q3 2020 Earnings Call Transcript source The post HEXO Corp. (HEXO) Q3 2020 Earnings Conference Call appeared first on Cannabis World.
Cellular phosphorylation is a reversible, covalent modification of a protein or lipid that results in the modification of the activity of the phosphorylated molecule by inducing small conformational changes within the molecule.1-2 -
T-Cell Receptor Signaling Phospho-Specific Array includes 188 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. (AA0040) - Products - Abnova
EGF Phospho-Specific Array includes 214 highly specific and well-characterized phosphorylation antibodies related to the EGF family of proteins. (AA0023) - Products - Abnova
SAB is a professional manufacturer of phospho-specific antibody products, committed to provide high-quality antibody research tools for the global life science researchers. Currently, SAB researches and develops more than 4000 kinds of antibody...
We manufacture our GluR1 ser831 rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, affinity purified from pooled serum. Optimized in WB.
p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) is a member of the PAK family of serine/threonine kinases. These kinases have a highly conserved amino-terminal Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain and a carboxyl-terminal kinase domain. PAK kinases are implicated in the regulation of a number of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton
Catenins have emerged as molecular sensors that integrate cell-cell junctions and cytoskeletal dynamics with signaling pathways that control morphogenesis and cell to cell communication. δ1-Catenin (p120 catenin) is a catenin family member which contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain, a regulatory domain containing
It seemed that the state of tyrosine phosphorylation was not altered by the expression of the caveolin-1 mutant. We next used a variety of phospho-specific antibodies (12) that have been generated against the activated forms of well-known signal transducers. Fig. 4d ⇓ shows that both intracellular MAPKs and p38-MAPK 4 were constitutively activated in the caveolin-1 mutant clones. On the other hand, the status of phosphorylation of AKT was not changed, although v-Src-transformed cells (SR3Y1) showed increased phosphorylation of AKT. Again, these experiments demonstrated the capacity for the mutant to drive cell transformation. These observations are compatible with previous reports showing that alteration of caveolin-1 function could be involved in the cellular transformation as a dominant negative effect of caveolin-1.. The mutation-positive cases of breast cancer were mostly involved in the pathologically invasive types such as scirrhous carcinomas (18) . Hence, we suspected that the ...
The Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway is an active focus of MM research. In mononuclear cells from the BM of patients with MM, constitutively activated STAT3 signaling contributes to disease pathogenesis by preventing apoptosis [14]. MM cells express constitutively active forms of nuclear factor-κB and STAT3, and the suppression of these transcription factors inhibits the survival of these malignant cells [15]. Apoptosis has been shown to be induced in diverse MM cells treated with agents that inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway [1617]. However, few studies have examined the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with BM tissue expression of PY-STAT3. Brown et al. [18] used phospho-flow cytometry to evaluate the constitutive expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), pSTAT5, pERK, pAKT, and IL-6 receptor epitope in cryopreserved BM samples with respect to the clinical significance of positivity. In contrast to our results, the authors found no significant difference in OS ...
5-HETE stimulated PC3 cells to phosphorylate ERK1/2 and Akt, as detected in Western blots probed with phospho-specific antibodies (Fig. 2) ⇓ . Because blots probed with antibody to total (i.e., phosphorylated plus unphosphorylated species) ERK1/2 or Akt had no such change (data not shown), and because phosphorylation at the antibody-defined sites raises the activity of these kinases, Fig. 2 ⇓ data imply that 5-HETE induces ERK and Akt activation. ERK and Akt phosphorylation responses developed within 1 min, peaked at 5-10 min, and tended to persist for ≥60 min (ERK) or returned to baseline by 40 min (Akt). 5-HETE was more potent than 5-oxoETE, whereas 5-oxo-15-OH-ETE, 15(S)-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-Z,Z,Z,E-ETE, 8(S),12(S)-dihydroxy-5,9,11,13-Z,E,Z,E-ETE, and LTB4 were inactive (Fig. 2) ⇓ . 5-HETE, 5-oxoETE, and 5-oxo-15-OH-ETE likewise stimulated PMNs to activate ERKs; responses began by 1 min, peaked at 5-10 min, and declined thereafter. However, PMNs showed 5-fold rises in ERK phosphorylation ...
Figure 1 Antiphospho-Pak1 antibody specifically recognizes activated Pak1. (A) Activation loop sequence of the phosphorylated peptide used for production of polyclonal antiphospho-Pak1 antisera. (B) Immunoblots (lanes 1-4) and radiolabeled kinase reaction products (lanes 5 and 6) of baculovirus-produced Pak1. Purified KD or CA Pak1 was incubated in protein kinase buffer in the presence of ATP, then immunoblotted using anti-Pak1 (lanes 1 and 2) and antiphospho-Pak antisera (lanes 3 and 4) autoradiographed to detect antibody-bound proteins. Although both forms of the protein were detected with anti-Pak1, only activated Pak1 was detected using the phospho-specific antibody, despite the large amount of recombinant protein used in this assay. Lanes 5 and 6 show autoradiographed PAGE gel of reaction products from a kinase assay performed in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP. Molecular mass in kilodaltons is shown to the right of the blot. (C) Comparison between immunoblot and radiolabeled kinase reaction ...
Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased cardiac contractility and ventricular remodeling, features which are partially reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). Since Rho kinase (ROCK) mediates cellular contraction through effects on the actin cytoskeleton and is an important regulator of cardiac fibrosis, we hypothesize that ACEi may improve heart function through inhibition of ROCK activity.. Methods and Results: We enrolled 30 consecutive HF subjects (average age: 52.7±8.2, 60% male in gender, NYHA class 3.2±1.1), with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 40% by echocardiography (average LVEF=32.1±8.2%), and age- and sex-matched 30 subjects with preserved LVEF function (average LVEF=65.4±9.4%) as the control group. ROCK activity was determined in peripheral leukocytes using a phospho-specific antibody for myosin binding subunit (MBS). Compared with the control group, the subjects with impaired LVEF have higher ROCK activity ...
A large body of work has implicated the activity of various kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of synaptic transmission by controlling the phosphorylation state of several synaptic proteins (for review, see Turner et al., 1999). To further understand the physiological significance of these modifications and to gain insights into their role in modulating synaptic strength and plasticity, we have generated a set of antibodies that specifically recognize synaptic proteins only in their phosphorylated form. In this study we report the biochemical characterization of the modulation of phosphorylation of rabphilin, a synaptic protein implicated in exocytosis, using phosphospecific antibodies directed against the two major phosphorylation sites of rabphilin, serine-234 and serine-274.. Our results show that the phosphorylation of rabphilin at serine-234 is greatly stimulated (about sevenfold over basal) by activation of PKA and high K+-induced membrane depolarization, a condition that mimics ...
Nucleases play important roles in DNA synthesis, recombination and repair. We have previously shown that human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is phosphorylated in response to agents stalling DNA replication and that hEXO1 consequently undergoes ubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In the present study, we have addressed the identity of the pathway transducing stalled-replication signals to hEXO1. Using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, ATM- and ATR-deficient cell lines we have concluded that hEXO1 phosphorylation is ATR-dependent. By means of mass spectrometry, we have identified the sites of phosphorylation in hEXO1 in undamaged cells and in cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU). hEXO1 is phosphorylated at nine basal sites and three additional sites are induced by HU treatment. Analysis of single- and multiple-point mutants revealed that mutation to Ala of the three HU-induced sites of phosphorylation partially rescued HU-dependent degradation of hEXO1 and additionally ...
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported to increase tumor antigen expression, and have been successfully tested as adjuvants for melanoma immunotherapy in mouse models. In this work, we tested the effects of a pan-HDACi on human lymphocytes and melanoma cell lines. Effects of the pan-HDACi panobinostat (LBH589) on cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from two healthy donor (HD), thirteen patients with metastatic melanoma (MD), two bone marrow samples from different malignances, and twelve human melanoma cell lines. Intracellular signaling in lymphocytes, with or without cytokine stimulation, was analyzed by phospho-flow cytometry in one of each type. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) in PBMC was ,20 nM compared to ,600 nM in melanoma cell lines; ,40% apoptotic cell death in PBMC versus ,10% in melanoma cell lines was seen at the same concentration. Phospho-histone variant H2A.X (pH2A.X) increased ...
In article ,31D7ED66.3535 at,, Stephane Ory ,Stephane.Ory at ens-, writes: , Does anyone know where antibody against phosphoserine and , phosphothreonine are available ? , , Thanks per advance Monoclonals are available from Sigma but when we tested them, they were not useful. Phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are about 100-1000X more abundant in proteins that phosphotyrosine so you need an additional level of specificity. A number of companies are selling antibodies to proteins that only detect those proteins if a particular ser/thr/tyr residue is phosphorylated. See NEB and UBI catalogues for example. Examples of phospho-specific antibodies to the following proteins: tau (microtubule-associated protein, various ser/thr) Jun (ser 63) STAT 3 (tyr 705) SEK1 ERK1/2 (tyr 204) p38 MAPK CREB (ser 133) Jim Woodgett Ontario Cancer Institute mailto:jwoodget at 610 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 phone (416) ...
Cd Markers Non-Cd Marker Anti-Bacteria Anti-Virus Immunoglobulin Acetyl-Specific Antibody Isotype Control Antibodies Monoclonal Polyclonal Antibody Sampler Kit Immunocytochemistry Kit Phospho-Specific Antibody Methyl-Specific Antibody Acetyl-Specific Antibody Cleaved-Specific Antibody Immunoglobulin Tag Antibody Second Step Ab Loading Control Antibody Flow Cytometry Kits Flow Cytometry Solutions Flow Cytometry Kit Monoclonal Ab Polyclonal Ab Cleavage-Specific Antibody Protein - Peptide Peptide …. Research Tools Read More ». ...
Glycogen content and contraction strongly regulate glycogen synthase (GS) activity, and the aim of the present study was to explore their effects and interaction on GS phosphorylation and kinetic properties. Glycogen content in rat epitrochlearis muscles was manipulated in vivo. After manipulation, incubated muscles with normal glycogen [NG; 210.9 ± 7.1 mmol/kg dry weight (dw)], low glycogen (LG; 108.1 ± 4.5 mmol/ kg dw), and high glycogen (HG; 482.7 ± 42.1 mmol/kg dw) were contracted or rested before the studies of GS kinetic properties and GS phosphorylation (using phospho-specific antibodies). LG decreased and HG increased GS Km for UDP-glucose (LG: 0.27 ± 0.02 , NG: 0.71 ± 0.06 , HG: 1.11 ± 0.12 mM; P , 0.001). In addition, GS fractional activity inversely correlated with glycogen content (R = -0.70; P , 0.001; n = 44). Contraction decreased Km for UDP-glucose (LG: 0.14 ± 0.01 = NG: 0.16 ± 0.01 , HG: 0.33 ± 0.03 mM; P , 0.001) and increased GS fractional activity, and these effects ...
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is used for various biochemical applications including ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), high content screening assays, western blotting, FACS Buffer and immunohistochemistry. BSA as a blocking reagent is particularly useful with casein-sensitive antibodies, such as phospho-specific antibodies. Also used as a nutrient in cell and microbial culture. In restriction digests, BSA is used to stabilize some enzymes during digestion of DNA and to prevent adhesion of the enzyme to reaction tubes and other vessels. Bovine Serum Albumin can also be used to determine the quantity of other proteins, by comparing an unknown quantity of protein to known amounts of BSA.
A large body of work has implicated the activity of various kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of synaptic transmission by controlling the phosphorylation state of several synaptic proteins (for review, see Turner et al., 1999). To further understand the physiological significance of these modifications and to gain insights into their role in modulating synaptic strength and plasticity, we have generated a set of antibodies that specifically recognize synaptic proteins only in their phosphorylated form. In this study we report the biochemical characterization of the modulation of phosphorylation of rabphilin, a synaptic protein implicated in exocytosis, using phosphospecific antibodies directed against the two major phosphorylation sites of rabphilin, serine-234 and serine-274.. Our results show that the phosphorylation of rabphilin at serine-234 is greatly stimulated (about sevenfold over basal) by activation of PKA and high K+-induced membrane depolarization, a condition that mimics ...
Gang Zhang from the Nilsson group has been investigating the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells and how it controls the timing of chromosome segregation. In particularly he has focused on understanding how the checkpoint protein Mad1 localized to kinetochores, large protein structures on chromosomes that bind to microtubules. It is known that Mad1 localization is important for checkpoint function but the underlying protein-protein interactions and their regulation have not been uncovered.. In collaboration with the Nielsen lab at CPR the researchers used an in vivo proximity dependent biotinylation approach coupled with mass spectrometry to identify Mad1 interactors. This revealed a so far elusive interaction with the Bub1 checkpoint protein that the researchers further characterized. Interestingly the binding of Mad1 and Bub1 required the phosphorylation of Bub1 by mitotic kinases and a novel generated phospho-specific antibody revealed that Bub1 was specifically phosphorylated on ...
Use of quantitative proteomics to study signal transduction permits a comprehensive strategy to characterize protein networks and pathways. In this study, we obtained quantitative measurements on 462 proteins in Her2-transfected cells and, by simultaneously comparing three conditions, measured the effect of a Her2-targeted TKI. PD168393 is a preclinical compound used in the design of CI-1033, a TKI that is currently in clinical trials (30); therefore, this approach can be applied to drugs that are in clinical use or development to understand their effects on cellular networks. The identified phosphoproteins included many known Her2 and EGFR signaling proteins, as well as multiple previously unidentified Her2 signaling proteins, which should significantly advance the understanding of Her2. Evidence of Her2 activation loop phosphorylation at Y877 was obtained by MS and confirmed by phosphospecific antibody. Finally, two network modeling approaches were used to infer possible relationships between ...
We are the original manufacturer of our alpha Synuclein (Ser129) rabbit polyclonal phosphospecific antibody, affinity purified from pooled serum. Optimized in IHC and WB.
Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
STAT3 phosphorylation is associated with the neoplastic state in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. We investigated the role of IL-6 signaling and phosphorylation of STAT3 in 2 rat prostatic epithelial lines. NRP-152 and NRP-154 cells were derived from the same rat prostate, yet the NRP-152 cells are not tumorigenic while the NRP-154 cells are tumorigenic. These lines are believed to represent 2 of the stages in the development of prostate cancer, hyperplasia and neoplasia. Differences in signaling pathways should play a role in the 2 phenotypes, hyperplastic and neoplastic. We looked at the phosphorylation state of STAT3 by intracellular flow cytometry, using phospho-specific antibodies to STAT3. We used the same method to examine IL-6 production by the cell lines. We also measured apoptosis by binding of fluorescent annexin V to the cells. Although both cells lines made IL-6 constitutively, phosphorylated-STAT3 was present in untreated NRP-154 cells, but not in NRP-152 cells. Treatment
We and other groups have previously established that insulin phosphorylates human Foxo1-S256 by activation of Akt that promotes Foxo1 cytoplasmic sequestration or nuclear export and then suppresses expression of genes responsible for HGP (12,18,20,21,35). In this study, using in vitro kinase assay-coupled LC-MS, phosphospecific antibodies, and CRISPR/Cas9-based Foxo1 KI mutant mice, we were able to identify a novel molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanism by which Foxo1 mediates glucagon signaling via phosphorylation at Ser276 (human) or Ser273 (mouse) in control of hepatic gluconeogenesis and blood glucose.. Glucagon has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic hyperglycemia, largely by enhancing HGP, which is believed to be a key mechanism for pathogenesis of diabetes (36). In mice with type 2 diabetes, we recently demonstrated that hepatic Foxo1 deletion reduced HGP and blood glucose in db/db mice (16). Given that a high glucagon level is present in both types of diabetes (6), ...
The recognition of DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) using a phospho-specific antibody to the histone 2A variant has become the gold standard assay for DNA damage detection. Here we report on the development of the first monoclonal antibody to the phospho-specific form of Drosophila H2AV and characterize the specificity of this antibody to programmed DSBs in oocytes and rereplication sites in endocycling cells by immunofluorescence assays and to DSBs resulting from irradiation in both cell culture and whole tissue by Western blot assays. These studies show that the antibody derived in the study is highly specific for this modification that occurs at DSB sites, and therefore will be a new useful tool within the Drosophila community for the study of DNA damage response, DSB repair, meiotic recombination and chemical agents that cause DNA damage. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The properties of the chromosomal architectural HMGB proteins from plants are modulated by differential phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. AU - Stemmer, C.. AU - Bauw, G.. AU - Fojan, P.. AU - Grasser, K. D.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. M3 - Journal article. VL - 8. SP - 35. JO - Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes. JF - Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes. SN - 0944-6931. ER - ...
r/TheOCS is the unofficial sub dedicated to Ontario Cannabis Store and recreational cannabis in Ontario. You can post news, product reviews and...
A-Kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) is required for the phosphorylation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) by PKA or PKC in sensory neurons and, hence, affects TRPV1-dependent hyperalgesia under pathological conditions. Recently, we showed that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors sensitizes TRPV1 by enhancing serine phosphorylation through PKC in trigeminal nociceptors. In this study, we extended this observation by investigating whether AKAP150 mediates NMDA-induced phosphorylation of TRPV1 via PKC in native sensory neurons in the rat. By adopting a phospho-specific antibody combined with a surface biotinylation assay, we first assessed NMDA-induced changes in the phosphorylation level of serine 800 residues (S800) in TRPV1 delimited to cell surface membrane in cultured trigeminal ganglia (TG). The biotinylation assay yielded that the application of NMDA significantly increased the phosphorylation of S800 (p-S800) of TRPV1 at ...
Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones insulin and glucagon is central to glucose homeostasis. Recent work has proposed that amongst the salt inducible kinase isoforms (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SIK2 isoform may play a role as signalling mediator in the control of insulin- and glucagon-regulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the mechanisms of the hormonal-regulation of SIK2 in liver remain controversial, with much of the data based on the studies in non-hepatic tissues/cells. Therefore, the exact molecular regulation of SIK2 by these hormones in the liver required robust and intensive molecular/biochemical research coupled to physiological readout (e.g. gluconeogenesis). My studies with phosphopeptide mapping by mass spectrometry followed by verification with well-characterised phospho-specific antibodies revealed that SIK2 was phosphorylated on Ser343, Ser358, Thr484 and Ser587 in response to glucagon and fasting but not following insulin ...
Stay current on how Canada and the United States are working together to manage the health and flow of the waters shared by our two countries.. ...
p-EGFR Antibody (11C2) is a monoclonal phospho-specific anti-EGFR antibody that detects Tyr 1045 phosphorylated EGFR by WB and IP. Cited in 6 publications
By using signaling pathway- and cell type-specific responses in a combinatorial manner, the immune system signaling network is able to generate a highly diverse set of functional responses despite a limited number of cytokines, cell types, and signaling proteins. In addition to receptors that are coupled to intricate intracellular pathways, specialized cell types express their own set of receptors, and the activation of the same receptor on two different cell types can result in disparate functional responses. This allows sophisticated network behavior despite a limited repertoire of conserved signaling proteins (primarily of the Jak-Stat pathway). Modulating both these levels of the network is the organization of the immune system into distinct compartments, further refining the immune response and ensuring that it is appropriate for the tissue in which the cells resides.. The analysis of immune cell signaling at the network level can be enhanced by approaches that allow cell activities to be ...
In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17276-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011681200. PMID ... There are a number of specific microRNAs, when overexpressed, that directly reduce expression of specific DNA repair proteins ( ... Yu X, Chini CC, He M, Mer G, Chen J (October 2003). "The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain". Science. 302 (5645 ... Their risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer is so high, and so specific to those cancers, that many mutation carriers ...
In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (20): 17276-17280. doi:10.1074/ ... The 9-1-1 complex, a ring-shaped molecule related to PCNA, allows the accumulation of ATR in a damage specific way. For ... ATR is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is involved in sensing DNA damage and activating the DNA damage ... Furthermore, there are dramatic reductions with age in tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, and exhaustion of tissue ...
Such antibodies are called phospho-specific antibodies; hundreds of such antibodies are now available. They are becoming ... Antibodies can be used as powerful tool to detect whether a protein is phosphorylated at a particular site. Antibodies bind to ... In some very specific cases, the detection of the phosphorylation as a shift in the protein's electrophoretic mobility is ... The malfunctioning of specific chains of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatase has been linked to multiple ...
Anti-XRCC4 antibodies including phosphospecific antibodies to pS260 and pS318 in XRCC4 have been developed. Antibodies to XRCC4 ... As a result, this specific region of the genome is permanently lost and the deletion can lead to cancer and premature aging. ... "Anti-XRCC4 antibody - ChIP Grade (ab145) , Abcam". Abcam.; "XRCC4 antibody , Western , SAB2102728". Sigma-Aldrich. Massip L, ... Antibodies are composed of two light and two heavy chains. The antigen binding site consists of two variable regions, VL and VH ...
... the current and simplest methods to enrich phosphoproteins are affinity purification using phosphospecific antibodies, ... In one study design, cells are exposed to SILAC labelling and then stimulated by a specific growth factor. The cells are ... phosphopeptides are enriched using phosphospecific antibodies, immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide ( ... Antiphosphotyrosine antibodies have been proven very successful in purification, but fewer reports have been published using ...
P sites detected by phospho-specific antibodies". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (43): 33836-33843. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006005200. PMID ... Pro motif and is activated by antibodies to a region near its COOH terminus". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (51): 32547-32550. doi:10.1074 ...
... they are known as phospho-specific antibodies. Also, there are antibodies specific to other modifications. These may be used to ... Modified proteins may be studied by developing an antibody specific to that modification. For example, there are antibodies ... There are several specific techniques and protocols that use antibodies for protein detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... Affinity proteomics uses antibodies or other affinity reagents (such as oligonucleotide-based aptamers) as protein-specific ...
Antibodies, especially phospho-specific reagents, often detect linear peptide sequences that may be masked due to the three- ... Strips with single band indicate specific antibodies that are suitable for RPMA use. Antibody performance should be also ... In addition, finding the appropriate antibody could require extensive screening of many antibodies by western blotting prior to ... both phospho-specific and total protein levels to be measured and analyzed at once. Once immunostaining has been performed ...
... approach for identification of serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins by enrichment with phospho-specific antibodies: ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ...
... phosphospecific antibodies, key signal transduction enzymes, and assay kits for cell signaling. ISOTEC provides isotopically ... SAGE also announced its first successful effort in creating a "knockout rabbit". Its facilities include a specific pathogen ...
... phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 - antibodies, viral ... phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.254 - antibodies, viral ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ...
Several notable antibody technologies have also been developed including site specific methionine conjugation using redox- ... split-kinases and new phosphospecific antibodies for probing protein phosphorylation pathways. In 2012, Wells founded the ... "Recombinant Antibody Network". Retrieved 15 November 2022. Martinko, Alexander J.; Truillet, ... and site-specific antibody bioconjugation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
... phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254 - antibodies, viral ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ...
The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens presented on ... However, Aβ concentration did not significantly change, along with other AD biomarkers, including phospho-tau expression, and ... The first FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal antibody was a murine IgG2a CD3 specific transplant rejection drug, OKT3 (also ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ...
By installing phospho-serine, phospho-threonine or analogous phosphonate mimics into native proteins, researchers are able to ... Functional metagenomic studies are designed to search for specific phenotypes that are associated with molecules with specific ... Both organic dyes and quantum dyes do not have the ability to recognize the protein of interest without the aid of antibodies, ... ISBN 978-3-527-68303-1. Noren CJ, Anthony-Cahill SJ, Griffith MC, Schultz PG (1989). "A general method for site-specific ...
These targeting ligands could be monoclonal antibodies (making an immunoliposome), vitamins, or specific antigens, but must be ... They typically form after supplying enough energy to a dispersion of (phospho)lipids in a polar solvent, such as water, to ... Many bacterial toxins evolved to target specific lipids of the host cells membrane and can be baited and neutralized by ... Studies have also shown that PEGylated liposomes elicit anti-IgM antibodies, thus leading to an enhanced blood clearance of the ...
Grossmann A, Benlasfer N, Birth P, Hegele A, Wachsmuth F, Apelt L, Stelzl U (March 2015). "Phospho-tyrosine dependent protein- ... Analyses of mouse brains show lack of region-specific expression throughout. In terms of protein regulation, TMEM128 contains ... TMEM128 is neighbored upstream by LYAR, Ly1 antibody reactive, and downstream by OTOP1, Otopetrin 1. TMEM128 Isoform 1 ... "TMEM128 Gene - GeneCards , TM128 Protein , TM128 Antibody". Retrieved February 7, 2020. "Homo sapiens ...
... is captured by a sequence-specific anti-peptide antibody. The antibody, together with the captured target peptide, is then ... quantitative pharmacodynamic studies of phospho-signaling. 2015 May 18;:mcp.O115.050351. Anderson NL, Anderson NG, Pearson TW, ... A limitation of the specific peptide capture approach is the requirement for a specially-developed antibody against the ... Antibody-Coupled Magnetic Beads Can Be Reused in Immuno-MRM Assays To Reduce Cost and Extend Antibody Supply. J Proteome Res. ...
... some patients can evolve antibodies to recognise the HIV glycans and almost all so-called 'broadly neutralising antibodies ( ... or phospho-substituted). One, a few, or many carbohydrate units may be present. Proteoglycans are a subclass of glycoproteins ... These glycans link themselves to specific areas of the protein amino acid chain. The two most common linkages in glycoproteins ... They are very broad in their applications and can function as a variety of chemicals from antibodies to hormones. Glycomics is ...
Phospho-caveolin-2 (Tyr(P)19) is localized near focal adhesions, remains associated with lipid rafts/caveolae, but no longer ... 1997). "Cell-type and tissue-specific expression of caveolin-2. Caveolins 1 and 2 co-localize and form a stable hetero- ... Characterization and epitope-mapping of a novel flotillin-1 monoclonal antibody probe". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (18): 12702-9. doi: ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ...
Specific modification patterns of RELA have also been observed in many cancer types. RELA may have a potential role as ... It is shown that ERα interacts with both p50 and RELA in vitro and in vivo, and RELA antibody can reduce ERα:ERE complex ... Phosphorylation at serine 276 in RELA allows its interaction with P-TEFb containing CDK9 and cyclin T1 subunits, and phospho- ... Cell-type-specific phosphorylation is also observed for RELA. Multiple-site phosphorylation is common in endothelial cells, and ...
"Covalent Capture of Phospho-Dependent Protein Oligomerization by Site-Specific Incorporation of a Diazirine Photo-Cross-Linker ... meaning Myc antibody was immunoprecipitated then followed by blotting with the HA antibody. So, the method had proven to work ... That also means not one specific methionine would be replaced so that results in a heterogeneous population of mPGES-1 ... The cross-linking was detected by immunoprecipitating detergent-extracts with an antibody to HA then the precipitant was tested ...
In order to visualize the target cell death, both rapid and slow, scientists have used CFSE labelling with antibody staining of ... Most flow cytometers uses dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to select specific bands of the optical spectrum. Spectral ... phospho-proteins Scattering of light can be used to measure volume (by forward scatter) and morphological complexity (by side ... "Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies". Retrieved 2018-09-18. Loken MR (1990). Immunofluorescence Techniques in ...
"Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma". Journal of the National Cancer ... The agnoprotein is a small multifunctional phospho-protein found in the late coding part of the genome of some polyomaviruses, ... Antibody assays are commonly used to detect presence of antibodies against individual viruses. Competition assays are ... Antibodies to the monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus have been detected in humans suggesting that this virus - or a closely ...
A specific experiment example of an application of native gel electrophoresis is to check for enzymatic activity to verify the ... These can be transferred onto a nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane to be probed with antibodies and corresponding markers, such as ... it starts with the de-phosphorylation of 3-phospho-2-naphthoic acid-2'-4'-dimethyl aniline by alkaline phosphatase (water is ... In most cases, the gel is a crosslinked polymer whose composition and porosity are chosen based on the specific weight and ...
October 2008). "Antibodies to citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 are specific for rheumatoid arthritis and cross-react with ... The systematic name of this enzyme is 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase (phosphoenolpyruvate-forming). The reaction is ... ββ or muscle-specific enolase (MSE). Also known as enolase 3. This enzyme is largely restricted to muscle where it is present ... γγ or neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Also known as enolase 2. Expressed at very high levels in neurons and neural tissues, ...
... are very sequence-specific. Other DNases cleave only double-stranded DNA, others are specific for single-stranded molecules, ... DNase I cleaves DNA to form two oligonucleotide-end products with 5'-phospho and 3'-hydroxy ends and is produced mainly by ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that results in auto-antibody generation causing inflammation that ... phospho ends. This type of DNAase is more widely expressed in tissues due to high expression in macrophages but limited cell- ...
Furthermore, it contains nucleotide motifs as a way to orient the nucleotide for phospho-transfer. On the other hand, the large ... Even though Cdk5 has a similar structure to other cyclin-dependent kinases, its activators are highly specific (CDK5R1 and ... "GSTP1 Gene - GeneCards , GSTP1 Protein , GSTP1 Antibody". Retrieved 2020-11-01. Kim D, Frank CL, Dobbin MM, ... "CRY1 Gene - GeneCards , CRY1 Protein , CRY1 Antibody". Retrieved 2020-10-31. Shupp A, Casimiro MC, Pestell ...
Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (Nov 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific ... autophosphorylation of Thr-348 leads to a conformational change in the kinase likely supported by the binding of phospho-Thr- ... antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 293 (3): 1073-6 ...
Wulf G, Finn G, Suizu F, Lu KP (May 2005). "Phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerization: is there an underlying theme?". ... Pin 1, or peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), isomerizes only phospho-Serine/Threonine-Proline motifs. The enzyme ... "A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of the phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 and ... "The essential mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds and regulates mitosis-specific phosphoproteins". Genes & Development ...
Haeusler RA, Pratt-Hyatt M, Good PD, Gipson TA, Engelke DR (2008). "Clustering of yeast tRNA genes is mediated by specific ... In mice, requirements for condensin subunits in meiosis have been addressed by antibody-mediated blocking experiments and ... "A high-sensitivity phospho-switch triggered by Cdk1 governs chromosome morphogenesis during cell division". Genes Dev. 29 (4): ... In mice, hypomorphic mutations in condensin II subunits cause specific defects in T cell development, leading to T cell ...
Streaker, Emily D.; Beckett, Dorothy (1998). "Coupling of Site-Specific DNA Binding to Protein Dimerization in Assembly of the ... Fukuoka, Y; Schwartz, LB (2006). "The B12 anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody disrupts the tetrameric structure of heparin- ... Mimicking the product/substrate of the phospho transfer reactions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (6): ... Barrientos, LG; Gronenborn, AM (2005). "The highly specific carbohydrate-binding protein cyanovirin-N: Structure, anti-HIV/ ...
Use these Phospho Specific Antibodies to detect phosphorylated forms of proteins in a complex protein cell mixture. Find more ... Phospho-Specific Antibodies. Protein Phosphorylation involves the addition of phosphate groups to proteins, most commonly ... These phospho-specific antibodies can be used in Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence ... Our catalog offers a large and diverse set of phospho specific antibodies that detect phosphorylated targets with great ...
... phospho T58) antibody [EPR17923] used in Western blot. Abcam provides excellent in-house scientific support ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Western blot abreview for Anti-c-Myc (phospho T58) antibody [EPR17923]. Good ... Specific: 56 kDa Non-specific: 70 kDa. Additional data. Additional Notes. 5TGM1 cell line treated for 48h with cMYC inhibitor ( ...
Checkout our database and order custom phosphospecific antibodies online at ease. ... Affinity Biosciences is a renowned phospho antibody production company. ... Phospho antibodies - Custom Phospho Specific Antibody. Phosphorylation is the addition of phosphate groups to proteins. ... A superior strategy for validation of antibody: Blocking peptide validation Independent Antibody Verification phospho-antibody ...
MeCP2 (Ser-80), phospho-specific Antibody. Rabbit Polyclonal. Application / Dilution ELISA. 1:2000. ... This antibody was affinity purified using phospho-MeCP2 (Ser-80) peptide (without carrier). The antibody detects a 75 kDa* ... The antibody was detected using appropriate secondary antibody conjugated to DyLight® 594. ... phospho-MeCP2 (Ser-80) synthetic peptide (coupled to KLH) corresponding to amino acid residues surrounding serine 80 in mouse ...
Compare Anti-CORO1B Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Coronin-1B (Ser-2), phospho-specific Antibody *. Applications: WB, ELISA, ICC. *. Reactivity: Hu, Ms, Rt ... Effective PerCP/Cyanine5.5 Anti-Mouse CD11b Antibody I used this antibody in combination with anti-CD27 antibody for FACS ... Anti-CORO1B Antibody Products. Anti-CORO1B antibodies are offered by a number of suppliers. This target gene encodes the ...
... antibody to their growing line of EpiPlusTM histone modification antibodies. Over the past... ... This highly specific antibody is expected to accelerate research on a poorly understood antigen and progress epigenetics ... Novus Biologicals provides primary antibodies, secondary antibodies, conjugated antibodies, proteins, peptides, isotype and ... New Histone H3 [dimethyl Lys9/phospho Thr6] Antibody Released. * Get Email Alert ...
Polyclonal Antibody from Gentaur Antibodies. Cat Number: G-AB-12540. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Immunogen: A phospho specific peptide corresponding to residues surrounding S9 of human SYN1 ... Phospho-SYN1 (S9) Polyclonal Antibody , G-AB-12540 , Gentaur Antibodies. Overview: This gene is a member of the synapsin gene ... Gentaur Antibodies. Phospho-SYN1 (S9) Polyclonal Antibody , G-AB-12540. Rating * Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 ...
Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) antibody for WB, ELISA and reacts with Human. ... Product Specific Protocols. WB protocol for Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) antibody 80115-1-RR. Download protocol. ... Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) Recombinant antibody. Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) Recombinant Antibody for WB, ELISA. ... "Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) antibodies" comparison. At Proteintech, we pride ourselves on our antibody quality, customer service ...
... antibody [GT1196]. Validated in WB. Tested in Human. ... Please refer to the vial label for the specific concentration ... phospho Tyr1068) antibody [GT1196] (GTX00958) diluted at 1:1000. The HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody (GTX213110-01) was ... There are currently no reviews for EGFR (phospho Tyr1068) antibody [GT1196] (GTX00958). Be the first to share your experience ... There are currently no references for EGFR (phospho Tyr1068) antibody [GT1196] (GTX00958). Be the first to share your ...
... examined the effects of coffee extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 using each phospho-specific antibody; ... Whole cell lysates were immunoblotted with antibodies against phospho-JNK, JNK, phospho-p38, and p38. The relative ... Immunoblotting was performed using an anti-phospho-IκBα or anti-GST antibody. The relative IKK activity was shown in the graph ... Reagents and antibodies. LPS (Escherichia coli 055: B5) and an anti-GST antibody were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, ...
Anti-STAT5A (phospho-Tyr694) Antibody quantity. Add to cart. SKU: 43048 Categories: Antibody Products, Phospho-specific ... Product Name Anti-STAT5A (phospho-Tyr694) Antibody (43048). Description Anti-STAT5A (phospho-Tyr694) Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody ... Research Areas Phosphospecific Antibodies. Background Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are ... Specificity This antibody detects endogenous human, mouse, and rat STAT5A only when phosphorylated at tyrosine 694. ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody (CST #65060) is ready to ship. ... Polyclonal Antibody for studying BLNK (Tyr84) phosphate. Validated for Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation. ... and lane 3 is Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody. Western blot analysis was performed using Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody.. Show ... and lane 3 is Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody. Western blot analysis was performed using Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody.. ...
Antibodies for broad research areas, diverse formats, unique targets & species. ... Highly validated research-use-only primary antibodies available for researchers worldwide. ... ProSci is the Primary Antibody Specialist - We Offer Polyclonal Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies & Recombinant Antibodies for ... ProScis Primary antibodies are used to detect, analyze and purify specific antigens helping to accelerate discoveries in ...
... phosphorylation status of CSE1L in vemurafenib and sorafenib treated tumor cells were assayed by immunoblotting with antibody ... Serum phospho-CSE1L may be a marker for monitoring the efficacy of targeted therapy. We used mice tumor xenograft model to ... Ras activation increased phospho-CSE1L expression in B16F10 melanoma cells. Vemurafenib and sorafenib treatment did not ... Our results indicated that serum phospho-CSE1L is useful for early detecting the efficacy of targeted therapy in initial ...
Antibody - STAT6 is a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family, activating gene expression ... Lot-specific (to obtain lot-specific concentration, please enter the lot number in our Concentration and Expiration Lookup or ... This antibody recognizes STAT6 Phospho (Tyr641) in all three isoforms. The predominant band detected is at 94 kD.. Clone ... Antibody Type Monoclonal Host Species Mouse Immunogen Human STAT6 peptide phosphorylated at Tyr 641 Formulation Phosphate- ...
Phospho-Specific Antibody Services. Guaranteed ELISA titer of ≥ 1:64,000 and < 10% cross reactivity with non-phospho peptide. ... Large-scale Antibody Manufacturing. Our large-scale antibody manufacturing services offer polyclonal and monoclonal antibody ... Antibody Production Services. Comprehensive custom antibody production services including monoclonal and polyclonal antibody ... Polyclonal Antibody Services. The fastest custom polyclonal antibody production services in the industry with unmatched ...
Primary antibodies: rabbit anti-phospho ERK1/2 (Biosource, Camarillo, CA, USA); mouse anti-phospho P38 (BD Biosciences, San ... Specific binding of primary antibodies was visualized with FITC anti-mouse (Ancell Bayport, MN, USA., 1:250 in HBA) and Cy5 ... ERK1/2, p38, and JNK levels were measured by flow cytometry after intracellular staining with specific antibodies. Due to ... Expression of pERK1/2 was assessed by flow cytometry after intracellular staining with p-ERK-specific antibody. Results shown ...
Rabbit (polyclonal) anti-FAK (pY397) phosphospecific antibody, unconjugated, was obtained from Biosource International Inc. ... The ADRB1-specific inhibitor atenolol had minimal effects on norepinephrine-induced pFAKY397, whereas the ADRB2-specific ... Protein-antibody complexes were precipitated for 1 hour using agarose-conjugated mouse secondary antibody. Immune complexes ... Protein-antibody complexes were incubated for at 4°C for 1 hour with protein A/G plus-agarose-conjugated beads (Upstate). ...
sc-24953) and specific antibodies against phosphorylated (phospho)-Akt (cat. no. sc-7985-R; anti-rabbit), Akt (cat. no. sc-8312 ... Reagents and antibodies. Primers for Axl, Tyro3, Mer and GAPDH were synthesized from Bioneer, Inc. (Daejoun, Korea). TRIzol ... Tyro3 specific siRNA transfection into taxol-resistant cells suppresses cell proliferation. The present study also examined the ... Using specific primers, the obtained cDNAs were amplified using a TGradient Thermal Cycler (Biometra, Goettingen, Germany) and ...
We examined the phosphorylation of these signal kinases using immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies (Figure 4B). In ... Cell lysates were collected and immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies was used to analyze the various signaling ... The blots were then incubated overnight with specific primary antibodies (Table 1). The membranes were washed with Tris- ... Slides were incubated overnight with a primary antibody (Table 1) diluted 1:100 in 1.5% (v/v) normal serum, were washed three ...
Western blot was performed by using the following antibodies: phospho-specific p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) (Cell Signaling ... anti-F4/80 antibody (Abcam, ab6640) for detecting macrophage, anti-S100A4 (Fibroblast-specific protein 1, FSP1) antibody (Abcam ... anti-CD31 antibody (Abcam, ab28364) for detecting endothelial cells. To identify senescent cells, the primary antibody p21 ( ... Primers for specific genes of mouse. Gene Forward Primer (5′ to 3′) Reverse Primer (5′ to 3′) ...
... approach for identification of serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins by enrichment with phospho-specific antibodies: ... A Novel Proteomic Approach for Specific Identification of Tyrosine Kinase Substrates Using [13C]Tyrosine. Ibarrola, N., Molina ... Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in signaling molecules by a phosphotyrosine-specific immonium ion scanning method.. ...
... is a monoclonal Annexin II antibody that detects m, r, and h Annexin II by WB, IP and IF. Cited in 16 publications ... Phospho-enriched whole cell lysates and tissue extracts are available for phospho-specific antibody positive controls.. ... Rated 5 out of 5 by sticky from Specific staining (cell membranes) Specific staining (cell membranes). Excellent antibody for ... This antibody is specific for Annexin II and should not pick up Annexin 1 and Annexin III. If you have any further questions, ...
... said antibody comprising a modified hinge region. A composition comprising such an antibody antagonist to c-Met and its use as ... Antibody capable of binding specifically to the human c-Met receptor and/or capable of specifically inhibiting the tyrosine ... EXAMPLE 5 Evaluation of c-Met Phosphorylation Status by a Phospho-c-Met-specific ELISA Assay This functional assay allows to ... polyclonal antibodies, multivalent antibodies or multispecific antibodies (e.g., bispecific antibodies so long as they exhibit ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity pathways ... Phospho-ERK1/ERK2 (Thr185, Tyr187) Polyclonal Antibody. Advanced Verification 64 References Advanced Verification 64 References ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
Then, membranes were incubated with one of the following primary antibodies diluted in TBS-T: anti-phospho-Chk1 Ser345 (Cat. ... Membranes were incubated with appropriate species-specific IRDye (Infrared Dye) secondary antibodies (680 or 800 nm, diluted to ... number 2661), or anti-phospho-H2AX Ser139 (Cat. number 9718) polyclonal/monoclonal antibodies from Cell Signaling (Danvers, MA ... To investigate the effect of C3 toxin-mediated RhoA inhibition on the activity of specific DNA repair pathways, we generated ...
Together these data show that a gene- protein- and phospho-specific antibody "arrays" can reveal novel mechanisms potentially ... The generality of the glial reaction, despite the target selectivity of specific neurotoxic insults, implies that there are ... These results were indicative of effects specific to the neurotoxic condition and implicated potential upstream effectors in ... TOF/MS analysis revealed a striatal-specific induction of 18 kD proteins consistent with induction of TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha ...
Order anti-Smad3 Phospho-Ser204 Antibody 01010098498 at Gentaur Smad3 (Phospho-Ser204) ... Phospho-specific. Reactivity. human:S204, mouse:S204, rat:S204,. Related products. Smad3 (Phospho-Ser204) rabbit polyclonal ... If you buy Antibodies supplied by Bluegen antibodies they should be stored frozen at - 24°C for long term storage and for short ... This antibody needs to be stored at + 4°C in a fridge short term in a concentrated dilution. Freeze thaw will destroy a ...
Antibodies used were phospho-Akt (Ser473-specific), Akt antibody, phospho-MAPkinase p42/p44, and nonphosphorylated MAPkinase ... Neurofilament phosphorylation, as identified by the antibody SMI312, which is specific for phospho-epitopes in neurofilaments, ... Cultures were exposed to test condition for 30 min before lysis and immunoblotting with an antibody specific for the ... before exposure to OCM4 or OCM4 plus neutralizing antibodies to GDNF. Anti-GDNF antibodies had no significant effect on OCM4- ...
Phospho-Specific Antibody Services. Guaranteed ELISA titer of ≥ 1:64,000 and < 10% cross reactivity with non-phospho peptide. ... Antibody. B cell conjugate mass spectrographic immunoassay (MSIA) humoral immunity monoclonal antibody blocking antibody ... Large-scale Antibody Manufacturing. Our large-scale antibody manufacturing services offer polyclonal and monoclonal antibody ... Antibody Production Services. Comprehensive custom antibody production services including monoclonal and polyclonal antibody ...
  • Phosphospecific antibodies are affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that are monospecific for a target protein that is phosphorylated. (
  • 21st Century Biochemicals provides solutions for biomedical researchers worldwide ranging from the manufacture of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to custom and bioactive peptides, arrays, libraries and peptidomimetics. (
  • ProSci is the Primary Antibody Specialist - We Offer Polyclonal Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies & Recombinant Antibodies for research applications. (
  • Developing custom monoclonal antibodies with standard or fully custom protocols including everything from antigen synthesis to antibody scale-up options. (
  • The cells were probed with MeCP2 (Ser-80) rabbit polyclonal antibody (MP4601) in the absence (left) or presence (right) of blocking peptide (MX4605). (
  • Rabbit polyclonal, affinity-purified antibody is supplied in 100µl phosphate-buffered saline, 50% glycerol, 1 mg/ml BSA, and 0.05% sodium azide. (
  • The HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody (GTX213110-01) was used to detect the primary antibody. (
  • Lane 1 is 10% input, lane 2 is Normal Rabbit IgG #2729, and lane 3 is Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody. (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from Ramos cells, untreated (-) or treated with anti-human IgM (12μg/ml, 10 min), using Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) Antibody (upper) or BLNK (D3P2H) XP ® Rabbit mAb #36438 (lower). (
  • Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody ( #7074 ). (
  • Histone H3 [p Ser10] affinity purified antibody was prepared from whole rabbit serum produced by repeated immunizations with a synthetic phosphorylated peptide surrounding Serine 10 of human Histone H3.2. (
  • Specificity This antibody detects endogenous human, mouse, and rat STAT5A only when phosphorylated at tyrosine 694. (
  • Specificity This is a highly specific antibody against NCF1/p47 phox Ser359. (
  • Gene array analysis revealed enhanced expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and the Ciphergen Protein Chips(trade name) platform of SELDI- TOF/MS analysis revealed a striatal-specific induction of 18 kD proteins consistent with induction of TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha receptor deficient mice showed complete neuroprotection against the neurotoxic effects of MPTP. (
  • Project 4 will develop aptamers to target proteins and will work with Project 5 to develop antibodies to target proteins that will go to Projects 1 and 2 for ex vivo nanosenor development. (
  • Based on magneto-nanosensors, nanotube/nanowire sensors, and Raman nanosensors, our unique nanotechnology platforms will allow the investigation of proteins from tissue and blood from pre- and posttreatment cancer patients to predict which patients will most likely respond or are responding to specific anti-cancer therapies. (
  • Want to preserve phospho-proteins for Western blot and Antibody array protocols? (
  • Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to the blotting membrane, which was incubated with anti-CREB-P antibody. (
  • Phospho-CREB and other phospho-proteins: improved recovery from brain tissue" (2006) Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Vol. 150 n° 2, 238-41. (
  • Antibodies - Antibodies directed against protein kinases and phospho-specific antibodies directed against phosphorylated proteins and peptides. (
  • Following administration, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and other viral surface antigens, stimulate both neutralizing and other functional binding antibodies, as well as cellular immune responses (Th1) directed against the spike and other surface proteins, all of which are thought to contribute to protection against COVID-19. (
  • 80115-1-RR targets Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) in WB, ELISA applications and shows reactivity with Human samples. (
  • With decades of experience developing and producing research antibodies, ProSci has created an impressive catalog of primary antibod ies that are research-ready for a wide range of applications including western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and immuno-precipitation. (
  • Non-treated TF-1 and GM-CSF (HZ-1002) treated TF-1 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 80115-1-RR (Phospho-STAT5A (Tyr694) antibody) at dilution of 1:5000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (
  • Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution. (
  • This antibody needs to be stored at + 4°C in a fridge short term in a concentrated dilution. (
  • Over the past several months, Novus has collaborated with 21st Century Biochemicals, a leading manufacturer of custom antibodies and peptides, to generate the most well validated antibodies for modified histones and other epigenetic targets. (
  • 100% of the peptides and antibodies provided by 21st Century Biochemicals are manufactured in their facility outside of Boston, MA, providing unmatched product quality and consistency. (
  • Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. (
  • Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. (
  • Specific conditions for reactivity should be optimized by the end user. (
  • These phospho-specific antibodies can be used in Western blot , flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy. (
  • Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by intracellular flow cytometry using our True-Phos™ Perm Buffer in Cell Suspensions Protocol . (
  • The antibody detects a 75 kDa* protein corresponding to the molecular mass of MeCP2 on SDS-PAGE immunoblots of human PC3 cells treated with calyculin A and in mouse brain tissue. (
  • Together these data show that a gene- protein- and phospho-specific antibody "arrays" can reveal novel mechanisms potentially underlying the glial response to neurotoxic insult. (
  • Our recent studies have demonstrated that targeting R1 and R4 epitopes of tau protein by anti-tau antibodies modulates aggregation and promotes disaggregation. (
  • First, we will use mass spectrometry to characterize tumors/serum for protein profiles, and then we will develop corresponding antibodies/aptamers that will be linked to nanosensors for high sensitivity target cell surface antigens and potentially intracellular targets. (
  • Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. (
  • Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have lately been implicated as a adverse prognostic consider a mess of most cancers sorts by means of the derepression of targets downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, similar to oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription components. (
  • The phosphorylation status of CSE1L in vemurafenib and sorafenib treated tumor cells were assayed by immunoblotting with antibody against phosphorylated CSE1L. (
  • We also reported on inhibition of phosphorylation at Ser199 of tau by anti-phospho antibodies to pThr231. (
  • Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that by targeting specific tau epitopes, the aggregation, phosphorylation, and microtubule stability will be modulated. (
  • To test our hypothesis, we aim to (1) Determine the inhibitory effects of anti-tau antibodies to R1-R4 repeats on aggregation of 6 isoforms of tau, (2) Evaluate the inhibitory effects of anti-tau and anti- phosphotau antibodies on phosphorylation of tau441 and its aggregation, (3) Evaluate stability of microtubules as a function of phosphotau and anti-tau antibodies. (
  • The research design involves systematically determining which tau epitope when targeted by anti-tau antibodies modulates tau aggregation, phosphorylation, and microtubule stability. (
  • Or results will provide mechanistic details of how anti-tau antibodies mediate aggregation, phosphorylation, and microtubule stability. (
  • SMC1 (Phospho-Ser957) antibody was made against a peptide sequence around phosphorylation site of serine 957 (G-S-S (p) -Q-G) derived from Human SMC1. (
  • Perturbations in phosphorylation-based signaling networks are typically studied in a hypothesis-driven approach, using phospho-specific antibodies. (
  • Our catalog offers a large and diverse set of phospho specific antibodies that detect phosphorylated targets with great precision. (
  • This antibody detects endogenous level of SMC1 only when phosphorylated at serine 957. (
  • MSH3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total MSH3. (
  • Epi-Plus™ antibody production in collaboration with Novus Biologicals. (
  • Our large-scale antibody manufacturing services offer polyclonal and monoclonal antibody production of gram quantities for industrial antibody yields. (
  • The Proteintech guarantee covers Proteintech antibodies in any species and any application, including those not listed on the datasheet. (
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and conjugated with PE under optimal conditions. (
  • Antibodies were purified by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific phosphopeptide. (
  • Consisting of a core of PhD scientists with decades of experience, 21st Century Biochemicals provides peptide and antibody solutions with the most rigorous peptide QC in the industry: nanospray MS and HPLC analysis as well as CID MS/MS peptide sequence confirmation. (
  • ProSci's Primary antibodies are used to detect, analyze and purify specific antigens helping to accelerate discoveries in cancer, infectious disease, neuroscience, cell biology, and immunology research. (
  • This highly specific antibody is expected to accelerate research on a poorly understood antigen and progress epigenetics research on this target. (
  • All Epi-PlusTM antibodies have been extensively characterized and validated, and are of the highest quality compared to other similarly commercially available products. (
  • The invention finally comprises products and/or compositions comprising such an antibody in combination with other antibodies and/or chemical compounds directed against other growth factors involved in tumor progression or metastasis and/or compounds and/or anti-cancer agents or agents conjugated with toxins and their use for the prevention and/or the treatment of certain cancers. (
  • If this process is unsuccessful, G-Biosciences will provide you a free replacement or a 100% refund for the phospho antibodies. (
  • Antibody supplied in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant ZYX. (
  • The membrane was stripped and re-blotted with Beta Tubulin antibody as loading control. (
  • Untreated (-) and treated (+) A431 whole cell extracts (30 μg) were separated by 5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with EGFR (phospho Tyr1068) antibody [GT1196] (GTX00958) diluted at 1:1000. (
  • For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween ® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight. (
  • Using antibodies specific to phospho-amino acids and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that SpvC has phosphothreonine lyase activity on full-length phospho-Erk (pErk) and a synthetic 13-amino-acid phospho-peptide containing the TXY motif. (
  • m-IgG Fc BP-HRP is the preferred secondary detection reagent for Annexin-2/ANXA2 Antibody (3D5) for WB applications. (
  • The immediate response to an antigen which triggers antibody production. (
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with (filled histogram) or without (open histogram) IL-4 for 15 minutes, fixed with Fixation Buffer, permeabilized with True-Phos™ Perm Buffer, and intracellularly stained with STAT6 Phospho (Tyr 641) (clone A15137E) PE. (
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 2 μg/ml and an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) followed by QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) titrated to the given concentrations in PBST followed by an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (
  • A microtiter plate was coated overnight with Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. (
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, a pre-incubated mixture of nivolumab (0.3 µg/ml), spiked with increasing concentrations of Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) was added. (
  • As it was described for human cell lines, this inhibitor decreses phospho-T58 MYC (han et al. (
  • The new Histone H3 [dimethyl Lys9/phospho Thr6] Antibody (NB21-1053) has been validated for Western blot, ChIP, dot blot, and immunofluorescent staining on human, mouse and rat cell cultures. (
  • A synthesized peptide derived from human Phospho-EGFR (Y1068). (
  • Immunoprecipitation of Phospho-BLNK (Tyr84) from Ramos cell extracts treated with anti-human IgM (12 μg/ml, 5 min). (
  • Antibody capable of binding specifically to the human c-Met receptor and/or capable of specifically inhibiting the tyrosine kinase activity of said receptor, with an improved antagonistic activity, said antibody comprising a modified hinge region. (
  • The present invention relates to a novel divalent antibody capable of binding specifically to the human c-Met receptor and/or capable of specifically inhibiting the tyrosine kinase activity of said receptor, as well as the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences coding for said antibody. (
  • This antibody reacts with human Histone H3.2. (
  • Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody, Chimeric mAb, Human IgG1 (AM110) (Delta. (
  • SUMO-deficient (phospho-Ser294) PR gene signatures are significantly associated with human epidermal growth factor 2 (ERBB2)-positive luminal breast tumors and predictive of early metastasis and shortened survival. (
  • Detection was performed using HRP conjugated Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody ( HCA301 ) at a concentration of 2 µg/ml in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (
  • Littleton, CO, September 21, 2011 --( )-- Today, Novus added a new Histone H3 [dimethyl Lys9/phospho Thr6] antibody to their growing line of EpiPlusTM histone modification antibodies. (
  • Although dimethyl K9, phospho-T6 histone H3 is known to exist, very little comprehensive information about the importance of this modification and its mechanism has been published. (
  • Increased phospho-histone H3, a pharmacodynamic biomarker of response, was observed in tumor cells distal to the target site of tumor ECM after EDB-ADC treatment. (
  • Anti-Histone H3 [p Ser10] antibody is tested by Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, and Dot Blot. (
  • Batch dependent (Please refer to the vial label for the specific concentration. (
  • Lot-specific (to obtain lot-specific concentration, please enter the lot number in our Concentration and Expiration Lookup or Certificate of Analysis online tools. (
  • This antibody recognizes STAT6 Phospho (Tyr641) in all three isoforms. (
  • Non-phospho specific antibodies were removed by chromatogramphy using non-phosphopeptide. (
  • The antibody was detected using appropriate secondary antibody conjugated to DyLight® 594. (
  • Our results indicated that serum phospho-CSE1L is useful for early detecting the efficacy of targeted therapy in initial treatment and for monitoring emerging secondary drug resistance to facilitate timely therapeutic decision making. (
  • Our antibodies are guaranteed to work in the application and species listed on our website and in our datasheets. (
  • Bioss Primary Conjugated Antibodies. (
  • Properties For facs or microscopy Alexa 1 conjugate.Very high photo stable ALEXA conjugate.If you buy Antibodies supplied by Bioss Primary Conjugated Antibodies. (
  • These results were indicative of effects specific to the neurotoxic condition and implicated potential upstream effectors in the JAK/MAP kinase modules, such as cytokines and trophic factors acting through the gp 130/Ras pathways. (
  • Such ready-to-dilute (RTD) buffers, like the BioSensis' Phospho-Sure™ Buffer, extract the phosphoproteins in a native state without the use of harsh detergents or oxidizers. (
  • Phospho-Sure™ RTD is designed as both an isolation and extraction buffer. (
  • For best results, the intact tissue should be also bathed in ice-cold Phospho-Sure™ buffer during excision of the tissue. (
  • Phospho-Sure™ RTD™ Neuronal Cell & Soft Tissue Extraction Buffer is very convenient to use. (
  • Western blots of CREB-P, SAP/JNK-P, ERK1/2-P and ERK1/2 from adult guinea pig central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc)/ Samples were homogenized in Phospho-Sure™ RTD™ or traditional Tris-HCL triton X-100 lysis buffer and kept on ice for up to 120 min. (
  • These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. (
  • Your search returned 193 Antibodies across 23 suppliers. (