Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

Post-infection immunodeficiency virus control by neutralizing antibodies. (1/2207)

BACKGROUND: Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The inoculums for passive immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239)-specific neutralizing activity were prepared by purifying polyclonal immunoglobulin G from pooled plasma of six SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques with NAb induction in the chronic phase. Passive immunization of rhesus macaques with the NAbs at day 7 after SIVmac239 challenge resulted in significant reduction of set-point plasma viral loads and preservation of central memory CD4 T lymphocyte counts, despite the limited detection period of the administered NAb responses. Peripheral lymph node dendritic cell (DC)-associated viral RNA loads showed a remarkable peak with the NAb administration, and DCs stimulated in vitro with NAb-preincubated SIV activated virus-specific CD4 T lymphocytes in an Fc-dependent manner, implying antibody-mediated virion uptake by DCs and enhanced T cell priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence indicating that potent antibody induction post-infection can result in primary immunodeficiency virus control and suggest direct and indirect contribution of its absence to initial control failure in HIV infections. Although difficulty in achieving requisite neutralizing titers for sterile HIV protection by prophylactic vaccination has been suggested, this study points out a possibility of non-sterile HIV control by prophylactic vaccine-induced, sub-sterile titers of NAbs post-infection, providing a rationale of vaccine-based NAb induction for primary HIV control.  (+info)

IgG fc receptors provide an alternative infection route for murine gamma-herpesvirus-68. (2/2207)

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses can be neutralized in vitro but remain infectious in immune hosts. One difference between these settings is the availability of immunoglobulin Fc receptors. The question therefore arises whether a herpesvirus exposed to apparently neutralizing antibody can still infect Fc receptor(+) cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immune sera blocked murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but failed to block and even enhanced its infection of macrophages and dendritic cells. Viral glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies also enhanced infection. MHV-68 appeared to be predominantly latent in macrophages regardless of whether Fc receptors were engaged, but the infection was not abortive and new virus production soon overwhelmed infected cultures. Lytically infected macrophages down-regulated MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation, endocytosis and their response to LPS. CONCLUSIONS: IgG Fc receptors limit the neutralization of gamma-herpesviruses such as MHV-68.  (+info)

The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 acts as an immunogenic decoy to limit virion neutralization. (3/2207)

Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but fail to block and even enhance its infection of IgG Fc receptor-bearing cells, suggesting that the antibody response to infection is actually poor at ablating virion infectivity completely. Here we analyzed this effect further by quantitating the glycoprotein-specific antibody response of MHV-68 carrier mice. Gp150 was much the commonest glycoprotein target and played a predominant role in driving Fc receptor-dependent infection: when gp150-specific antibodies were boosted, Fc receptor-dependent infection increased; and when gp150-specific antibodies were removed, Fc receptor-dependent infection was largely lost. Neither gp150-specific monoclonal antibodies nor gp150-specific polyclonal sera gave significant virion neutralization. Gp150 therefore acts as an immunogenic decoy, distorting the MHV-68-specific antibody response to promote Fc receptor-dependent infection and so compromise virion neutralization. This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins.  (+info)

Post-exposure vaccination improves gammaherpesvirus neutralization. (4/2207)

Herpesvirus carriers transmit infection despite making virus-specific antibodies. Thus, their antibody responses are not necessarily optimal. An important question for infection control is whether vaccinating carriers might improve virus neutralization. The antibody response to murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) blocks cell binding, but fails to block and even enhances an IgG Fc receptor-dependent infection of myeloid cells. Viral membrane fusion therefore remains intact. Although gH/gL-specific monoclonal antibodies can block infection at a post-binding step close to membrane fusion, gH/gL is a relatively minor antibody target in virus carriers. We show here that gH/gL-specific antibodies can block both Fc receptor-independent and Fc receptor-dependent infections, and that vaccinating virus carriers with a gH/gL fusion protein improves their capacity for virus neutralization both in vitro and in vivo. This approach has the potential to reduce herpesvirus transmission.  (+info)

Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue antigen induces durable serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus. (5/2207)

Dengue disease is an increasing global health problem that threatens one-third of the world's population. Despite decades of efforts, no licensed vaccine against dengue is available. With the aim to develop an affordable vaccine that could be used in young populations living in tropical areas, we evaluated a new strategy based on the expression of a minimal dengue antigen by a vector derived from pediatric live-attenuated Schwarz measles vaccine (MV). As a proof-of-concept, we inserted into the MV vector a sequence encoding a minimal combined dengue antigen composed of the envelope domain III (EDIII) fused to the ectodomain of the membrane protein (ectoM) from DV serotype-1. Immunization of mice susceptible to MV resulted in a long-term production of DV1 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. The presence of ectoM was critical to the immunogenicity of inserted EDIII. The adjuvant capacity of ectoM correlated with its ability to promote the maturation of dendritic cells and the secretion of proinflammatory and antiviral cytokines and chemokines involved in adaptive immunity. The protective efficacy of this vaccine should be studied in non-human primates. A combined measles-dengue vaccine might provide a one-shot approach to immunize children against both diseases where they co-exist.  (+info)

Autocrine semaphorin3A stimulates alpha2 beta1 integrin expression/function in breast tumor cells. (6/2207)

 (+info)

The neutralization of interferons by antibody III. The constant antibody bioassay, a highly sensitive quantitative detector of low antibody levels. (7/2207)

 (+info)

VEGF neutralizing antibody increases the therapeutic efficacy of vinorelbine for renal cell carcinoma. (8/2207)

 (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers. AU - Chou, Ai Hsiang. AU - Liu, Chia Chyi. AU - Chang, Jui Yuan. AU - Jiang, Renee. AU - Hsieh, Yi Chin. AU - Tsao, Amanda. AU - Wu, Chien Long. AU - Huang, Ju Lan. AU - Fung, Chang Phone. AU - Hsieh, Szu Min. AU - Wang, Ya Fang. AU - Wang, Jen Ren. AU - Hu, Mei Hua. AU - Chiang, Jen Ron. AU - Su, Ih Jen. AU - Chong, Pele Choi Sing. PY - 2013/11/21. Y1 - 2013/11/21. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac) at 5- and 10-μg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each ...
Seth, Ankit, Santosh K. Maurya, Ashish Srivastava (2014) Formulation development, characterization and estimation of acid neutralization capacity of shankha bhasma tablets for the treatment of dyspepsia. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
In this study, we established that after 3 years of infection, the frequency of individuals with neutralization breadth in the CAPRISA cohort was 17.5% (7/40 participants). In some individuals, cross-neutralizing antibodies appeared to target subtype-specific determinants, while in others these antibodies were aimed at more universal epitopes. Heterologous neutralizing antibodies first appeared in some individuals as early as 1 year postinfection but peaked at 4 years, with no increases thereafter. The number of viruses neutralized was associated with the viral load and CD4+ T cell count at set point (6 months postinfection) as well as with the drop in CD4+ T cell count between preinfection and 6 months, suggesting that early events in HIV infection set the stage for the development of breadth.. Broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies were produced in a small proportion of individuals within the CAPRISA cohort after 3 years of follow-up. The frequency and extent of neutralization breadth found in ...
In this study, we established that after 3 years of infection, the frequency of individuals with neutralization breadth in the CAPRISA cohort was 17.5% (7/40 participants). In some individuals, cross-neutralizing antibodies appeared to target subtype-specific determinants, while in others these antibodies were aimed at more universal epitopes. Heterologous neutralizing antibodies first appeared in some individuals as early as 1 year postinfection but peaked at 4 years, with no increases thereafter. The number of viruses neutralized was associated with the viral load and CD4+ T cell count at set point (6 months postinfection) as well as with the drop in CD4+ T cell count between preinfection and 6 months, suggesting that early events in HIV infection set the stage for the development of breadth.. Broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies were produced in a small proportion of individuals within the CAPRISA cohort after 3 years of follow-up. The frequency and extent of neutralization breadth found in ...
4LSS: Crystal structure of broadly and potently neutralizing antibody VRC01 in complex with HIV-1 clade A strain KER_2018_11 gp120
4LSS: Crystal structure of broadly and potently neutralizing antibody VRC01 in complex with HIV-1 clade A strain KER_2018_11 gp120
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. We hypothesize that consistent bnAb elicitation will require germline-targeting priming immunogens, to activate bnAb precursor B cells, and structure-guided, or reductionist, boosting immunogens, to shepherd antibody maturation toward bnAb development. To test this hypothesis, we have focused our initial immunogen design work on VRC01- and PGT121-class bnAbs, but we are addressing other bnAb classes as well, because an effective vaccine will likely need to induce multiple bnAbs of complementary specificities. Our efforts to design, evaluate and optimize the immunogens and immunization regimens are iterative, collaborative and multi-disciplinary. Overall, the work in progress represents an attempt to introduce a new way to design vaccines.. ...
Interventions to prevent HIV-1 infection and alternative tools in HIV cure therapy remain pressing goals. Recently, numerous broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have been developed that possess the characteristics necessary for potential prophylactic or therapeutic approaches. However, formulation complexities, especially for multiantibody deliveries, long infusion times, and production issues could limit the use of these bNAbs when deployed, globally affecting their potential application. Here, we describe an approach utilizing synthetic DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (dmAbs) for direct in vivo production of prespecified neutralizing activity. We designed 16 different bNAbs as dmAb cassettes and studied their activity in small and large animals. Sera from animals administered dmAbs neutralized multiple HIV-1 isolates with activity similar to that of their parental recombinant mAbs. Delivery of multiple dmAbs to a single animal led to increased neutralization breadth. Two ...
A family of broadly neutralizing antibodies from a chronically infected donor provides a schematic for designing vaccines and treatments that target multiple strains of the virus.. 0 Comments. ...
A family of broadly neutralizing antibodies from a chronically infected donor provides a schematic for designing vaccines and treatments that target multiple strains of the virus.. 0 Comments. ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Mouse (Murine) Neural Precursor Cell Expressed, Developmentally Down-Regulated 4-Like antibody for Western Blotting (WB).
Projects:. 1. Nussenzweig. Obtain new human antibodies that neutralize HIV strains resistant to current bNAbs and produce mouse models to examine how B cells producing bNAbs develop from their progenitors in vivo.. 2. Ravetch. Investigate the contributions of Fc effector function to the newly-isolated HIV bNAbs in vitro and in a new in vivo mouse model for HIV entry.. 3. Bjorkman. Determine the structural correlates of broad and potent neutralization and improved effector functions. ...
An antibody with high neutralising potency against SARS-CoV-2 that binds to the NTD of the Spike protein has been identified by a team researching COVID-19.
Atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 (blue and green) binding to HIV (grey and red). The precise site of VRC01-HIV binding (red) is a subset of the area ...
Rabbit polyclonal Bid Cleavage Site antibody validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2 publications and 1 independent review. Immunogen…
The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains determinants for broadly neutralizing antibodies and has remained an important focus of vaccine design. However, creating an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies to this region has proven difficult in part due to the relative inaccessibility of the MPER in the native conformation of Env. Here, we describe the antigenicity and immunogenicity of a panel of oligomeric gp41 immunogens designed to model a fusion-intermediate conformation of Env in order to enhance MPER exposure in a relevant conformation. The immunogens contain segments of the gp41 N- and C-heptad repeats to mimic a trapped intermediate, followed by the MPER, with variations that include different N-heptad lengths, insertion of extra epitopes, and varying C-termini. These well-characterized immunogens were evaluated in two different immunization protocols involving gp41 and gp140 proteins, gp41 and gp160 DNA
Failure to elicit broadly neutralizing (bNt) antibodies (Abs) against the membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41 (MPER) reflects the difficulty of mimicking its neutralization-competent structure (NCS). Here, we analyzed MPER antigenicity in the context of the plasma membrane and identified a role for the gp41 transmembrane domain (TM) in exposing the epitopes of three bNt monoclonal Abs (MAbs) (2F5, 4E10, and Z13e1). We transiently expressed DNA constructs encoding gp41 ectodomain fragments fused to either the TM of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) or the gp41 TM and cytoplasmic tail domain (CT). Constructs encoding the MPER tethered to the gp41 TM followed by a 27-residue CT fragment (MPER-TM1) produced optimal MAb binding. Critical binding residues for the three Nt MAbs were identified using a panel of 24 MPER-TM1 mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions in the MPER; many were previously shown to affect MAb-mediated viral neutralization. Moreover, non-Nt ...
An understanding of how broadly neutralizing activity develops in HIV-1-infected individuals is needed to guide vaccine design and immunization strategies. Here we used a large panel of 44 HIV-1 envelope variants (subtypes A, B, and C) to evaluate the presence of broadly neutralizing antibodies in serum samples obtained 3 years after seroconversion from 40 women enrolled in the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort. Seven of 40 participants had serum antibodies that neutralized more than 40% of viruses tested and were considered to have neutralization breadth. Among the samples with breadth, CAP257 serum neutralized 82% (36/44 variants) of the panel, while CAP256 serum neutralized 77% (33/43 variants) of the panel. Analysis of longitudinal samples showed that breadth developed gradually starting from year 2, with the number of viruses neutralized as well as the antibody titer increasing over time. Interestingly, neutralization breadth peaked at 4 years postinfection, with no increase thereafter. ...
1] In Their Own Words: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years of AIDS. NIH History. NIH. Web. 09 Nov. 2014. [2] Sanjuan R. et al. Viral Mutation Rates Journal of Virology 2010. [3] Stowell, Dan. gp41 2006. Web 09 Nov. 2014. http://www.mcld.co.uk/hiv/?q=gp41. [4] Burton B.R. et al. A Blueprint For HIV Vaccine Discovery. Cell Host Microbe. 2012. [5] Pancera M. et al. Structural basis for diverse N-glycan recognition by HIV-1-neutralizing V1-V2 directed antibody PG16. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 2013. [6] Hepler NL. et al. IDEPIL Rapid Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes and Other Phenotypic Features from Sequence Data Using a Flexible Machine Learning Platform. PLOS Computational Biology 2014. [7] Montero M. et al. The Membrane-Proximal External Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope: Dominant Site of Antibody Neutralization and Target for Vaccine Design. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 2008. [8] Huang J. et al. Broad and Potent Neutralization of ...
1] In Their Own Words: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years of AIDS. NIH History. NIH. Web. 09 Nov. 2014. [2] Sanjuan R. et al. Viral Mutation Rates Journal of Virology 2010. [3] Stowell, Dan. gp41 2006. Web 09 Nov. 2014. http://www.mcld.co.uk/hiv/?q=gp41. [4] Burton B.R. et al. A Blueprint For HIV Vaccine Discovery. Cell Host Microbe. 2012. [5] Pancera M. et al. Structural basis for diverse N-glycan recognition by HIV-1-neutralizing V1-V2 directed antibody PG16. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 2013. [6] Hepler NL. et al. IDEPIL Rapid Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes and Other Phenotypic Features from Sequence Data Using a Flexible Machine Learning Platform. PLOS Computational Biology 2014. [7] Montero M. et al. The Membrane-Proximal External Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope: Dominant Site of Antibody Neutralization and Target for Vaccine Design. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 2008. [8] Huang J. et al. Broad and Potent Neutralization of ...
Rational immunogen design is an increasingly promising approach for development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccine. The recent discovery of many new and potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has helped define conserved sites of vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein (gp) complex that mediates viral entry into cells (refs. 1⇓⇓⇓⇓-6 and reviewed in refs. 7⇓⇓⇓-11). Passive immunization studies show that sterilizing immunity can be achieved if sufficient amounts of bnAbs are present before virus challenge in macaques (12⇓⇓⇓-16). Hence, intensive efforts are ongoing to design immunogens capable of re-eliciting these types of bnAbs by vaccination.. The major difficulty in mounting an effective antibody response against HIV-1 resides in the multiple evasion strategies that have evolved in Env. An error-prone reverse transcriptase drives a high degree of Env sequence diversity (17⇓-19). The few conserved regions of Env are ...
Here, we investigate how VH1-69 bNAbs achieve cross-genotype recognition of the E2 neutralizing face and the genetic requirements for the immune system to generate such bNAbs. To overcome the inherent flexibility of E2 (28), we designed an E2 core domain construct (29) of the prototypic genotype 1a isolate, H77, and determined its crystal structure with bNAb AR3C (Fig. 1B and fig. S1A) (29). In parallel, Khan et al. (30) reported the crystal structure of a different E2 core construct derived from a genotype 2a isolate, J6, with nonneutralizing mAb 2A12. Structural analysis of H77 E2c in complex with AR3C Fab and alanine scanning mutagenesis (16, 29, 31) mapped AR3 to the E2 front layer and part of the CD81 binding loop (amino acids 426 to 443 and 529 to 531; Fig. 1A and fig. S1). Most residues in AR3 are highly conserved among HCV genotypes (fig. S1C and table S1). Negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that in soluble E2, AR3 is exposed on the surface and not masked by the glycan shield or ...
A new kind of antibody targets a feature shared by proteins thought to cause the most damage in Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and related conditions
In the past few years, several highly potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) specific for the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 have been discovered. The goal of this work is to use this information to inform the design of vaccines that are able to induce such antibodies (see the Perspective by Crowe). However, because of extensive somatic hypermutation, the epitope bound by these antibodies often does not bind to the germline sequence. Jardine et al. (p. 711, published online 28 March; see the cover) used computational analysis and in vitro screening to design an immunogen that could bind to VRC01-class bNAbs and to their germline precursors. Georgiev et al. (p. 751) took advantage of the fact that only four sites on the HIV viral envelope protein seem to bind bNAbs, and sera that contain particular bNAbs show characteristic patterns of neutralization. An algorithm was developed that could successfully delineate the neutralization specificity of antibodies present in polyclonal sera from ...
Although infrequently elicited during the course of natural infection and rarely, if at all, upon conventional vaccination, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 glycoprotein of Mr 41,000 (gp41) envelope protein subunit is the target of several human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs): 4E10, 2F5, Z13e1 and more recently, 10E8. How these bNAbs bind to their lipid-embedded epitopes and mediate antiviral activity is unclear, but this information may offer important insight into a worldwide health imperative. The Reinherz research team, including Gerhard Wagner, Jim Sun, Likai Song and Mikyung Kim, has utilized EPR and NMR techniques to define the manner in which these bNAbs differentially recognize viral membrane-encrypted residues configured within the L-shaped helix-hinge-helix MPER segment. Two distinct modes of antibody-mediated interference of viral infection were identified. 2F5, like 4E10, induces large conformational changes in the MPER relative to the membrane. ...
HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies powerpoint presentation slides is available for free download uploaded in belonging ppt presentation Health & Wellness category, Download and Use!
In this animation, professor Cameron Abrams describes a new molecule that hes developed here at Drexel, called DAVEI. DAVEI essentially neutralizes HIV, by tricking the virus into think that its attached to a cell. The virus then spews out its contents, which float off into oblivion, rendering he virus inert.. We hypothesized that an important role of the fusion machinery is to open the viral membrane when triggered, and it follows that a trigger didnt necessarily have to be a doomed cell, Abrams said. So we envisioned particular ways the components of the viral fusion machinery work and designed a molecule that would trigger it prematurely, Abrams said.. The team designed DAVEI from two main ingredients. One piece, called the Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER), is itself a small piece of the fusion machinery and interacts strongly with viral membranes. The other piece, called cyanovirin, binds to the sugar coating of the protein spike. Working together, the MPER and cyanovirin in ...
With ,36 million people infected and almost 2 million new infections in 2016, the need for a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is as urgent as ever. Approximately 20-30% of HIV-1 infected individuals generate antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse heterologous viral strains (broadly neutralizing antibodies or bNAbs). Because they protect from experimental infection, it is thought that bNAbs will be an important part of an HIV-1 vaccine. Yet immunization of humans with recombinant Env leads to the production of antibodies with very narrow breadth of neutralization which fail to block infection of diverse circulating viral isolates. The isolation of monoclonal bNAbs from HIV-1+ individuals has provided valuable information on how bNAbs develop during infection, and on the epitope specificities on the HIV-1 Envelope protein (Env) that an effective vaccine should aim to elicit.. One of the first critical steps in an effective antibody response is the recognition of a foreign antigen by a membrane ...
With ,36 million people infected and almost 2 million new infections in 2016, the need for a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is as urgent as ever. Approximately 20-30% of HIV-1 infected individuals generate antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse heterologous viral strains (broadly neutralizing antibodies or bNAbs). Because they protect from experimental infection, it is thought that bNAbs will be an important part of an HIV-1 vaccine. Yet immunization of humans with recombinant Env leads to the production of antibodies with very narrow breadth of neutralization which fail to block infection of diverse circulating viral isolates. The isolation of monoclonal bNAbs from HIV-1+ individuals has provided valuable information on how bNAbs develop during infection, and on the epitope specificities on the HIV-1 Envelope protein (Env) that an effective vaccine should aim to elicit.. One of the first critical steps in an effective antibody response is the recognition of a foreign antigen by a membrane ...
With ,36 million people infected and almost 2 million new infections in 2016, the need for a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is as urgent as ever. Approximately 20-30% of HIV-1 infected individuals generate antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse heterologous viral strains (broadly neutralizing antibodies or bNAbs). Because they protect from experimental infection, it is thought that bNAbs will be an important part of an HIV-1 vaccine. Yet immunization of humans with recombinant Env leads to the production of antibodies with very narrow breadth of neutralization which fail to block infection of diverse circulating viral isolates. The isolation of monoclonal bNAbs from HIV-1+ individuals has provided valuable information on how bNAbs develop during infection, and on the epitope specificities on the HIV-1 Envelope protein (Env) that an effective vaccine should aim to elicit.. One of the first critical steps in an effective antibody response is the recognition of a foreign antigen by a membrane ...
Failure of immunization with the HIV-1 envelope to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes is a major barrier to producing a preventive HIV-1 vaccine. Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (BnAbs) from those subjects who do produce them after years of chronic HIV-1 inf …
Rusert, P; Krarup, A; Magnus, C; Brandenberg, O F; Weber, J; Ehlert, A K; Regoes, R R; Günthard, H F; Trkola, A (2011). Interaction of the gp120 V1V2 loop with a neighboring gp120 unit shields the HIV envelope trimer against cross-neutralizing antibodies. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 208(7):1419-1433.. Ruprecht, C R; Krarup, A; Reynell, L; Mann, A M; Brandenberg, O F; Berlinger, L; Abela, I A; Regoes, R R; Günthard, H F; Rusert, P; Trkola, A (2011). MPER-specific antibodies induce gp120 shedding and irreversibly neutralize HIV-1. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 208(3):439-454.. Pugach, P; Krarup, A; Gettie, A; Kuroda, M; Blanchard, J; Piatak Jr, M; Lifson, J D; Trkola, A; Robbiani, M (2010). In vivo binding and retention of CD4-specific DARPin 57.2 in macaques. PLoS ONE, 5(8):e12455.. ...
Many degenerative diseases are fundamentally associated with aging and the accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid fibrils. Although such diseases are ass
Researchers have traced in detail how certain powerful HIV neutralizing antibodies evolve, a finding that generates vital clues to guide the design of a preventive HIV vaccine, according
The Holy Grail in the HIV field is a protective vaccine. However, because HIV mutates rapidly, it can escape from vaccine-elicited antibodies. Nevertheless, some HIV-positive individuals harbor antibodies that HIV cannot escape from very easily, so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). McGuire et al. asked why these bNAbs dont win out over their more narrow brethren (nNAbs) early after infection (see the Perspective by Ofek and Diskin). They compared the responses of B cells carrying germline versions of nNAbs and bNAbs-that is, versions of these Abs that HIV would initially encounter-to HIVs envelope glycoprotein (Env). The nNAbs could recognize Env from a more diverse array of viruses compared to bNAbs, which puts them at a competitive advantage.. Science, this issue p. 1380; see also p. 1290 ...
M. Pancera, S. Shahzad-ul-Hussan, N. A. Doria-Rose, K. Dai, J. S. McLellan, R. P. Staupe, Y. Yang, B. Zhang, S. Loesgen, M. N. Amin, L.-X. Wang, D. R. Burton, W. C. Koff, G. J. Nabel, J. R. Mascola, C. A. Bewley, P. D. Kwong: Structure of broadly neutralizing antibody PG16 in complex with HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain reveals complex-type N-glycan recognition. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2013, 20, 804-813 ...
News, Local, Provincial, Canada, World, Sports, High School Sports, Local Hockey, Hockey, Basketball, Baseball, Football, Soccer, Lacrosse, Curling, Other Sports, Entertainment, Local, Movies, Music, Television, Celebrities, Life, Health, Food, Travel, Money, Opinion, Editorial, Letters, Column, Your Newspaper, Social medias, Events, UR, News, Sports, Life, Entertainment, Money, Opinion, Marketplace, Photos, Videos, Contests, Polls, Weather, Sitemap, Event Submission
https://cvvr.hms.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/cvvr-header-banner-long-white-bg.png 0 0 Academic Web Pages https://cvvr.hms.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/cvvr-header-banner-long-white-bg.png Academic Web Pages2016-05-01 00:00:002016-05-01 00:00:00Distinct HIV-1 Neutralization Potency Profiles of Ibalizumab-Based Bispecific Antibodies. ...
PG9 and PG16 are two recently isolated quaternary-specific human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. and targeted to lipid rafts of plasma walls through a GPI core. Furthermore, GPI-CDR L3(PG16, PG9, and Y51), but not really GPI-CDR L3(c12 and AVF), particularly neutralized multiple clades of HIV-1 isolates with a great level of efficiency when portrayed on the surface area of transduced TZM-bl cells. Furthermore, GPI-anchored CDR L3(PG16), but not really GPI-anchored CDR L3(AVF), particularly confers level of resistance to HIV-1 an infection when portrayed on the surface area of transduced individual Compact disc4+ Testosterone levels cells. Finally, the CDR L3 mutations (Y100HY, Chemical100IA, and G7) that had been previously proven to give up the neutralization activity of antibody PG16 also removed the neutralization activity of GPI-CDR L3(PG16). Hence, we conclude that the CDR L3 subdomain of PG16 neutralizes HIV-1 when targeted to the lipid number ...
Neutralization of virus infectivity by antibodies is an important component of immunity to several virus infections. Here, the immunochemical basis for the action of neutralizing antibodies, and what role their induction of conformational changes in the antigen might play, is reviewed. Theories of the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize virus infectivity in vitro are also presented. The theoretical and empirical foundation of the hypothesis that viruses are neutralized by a single antibody per virion is critically reviewed. The relationship between antibody occupancy on virions and the mechanism of neutralization is explored. Examples of neutralization mediated through antibody interference with virus attachment and entry are discussed and test implications of refined theories of neutralization by antibody coating of virions are formulated.
Author Summary Understanding how HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop during natural infection is essential to the design of an efficient HIV vaccine. We studied kinetics and correlates of neutralization breadth in a large sub-Saharan African longitudinal cohort of 439 participants with primary HIV-1 infection. Broadly nAb responses developed in 15% of individuals, on average three years after infection. Broad neutralization was associated with high viral load, low CD4+ T cell counts, virus subtype C infection and HLA*A3(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env binding titers was also found. Specificity mapping of the bnAb responses showed that glycan-dependent epitopes, in particular the N332 region, were most commonly targeted, in contrast to other bnAb epitopes, suggesting that the HIV Env N332-glycan epitope region may be a favorable target for vaccine design.
Membrane fusion induced by the envelope glycoprotein enables the intracellular replication of HIV-1; hence, this process constitutes a major target for antiretroviral compounds. It has been proposed that peptides having propensity to interact with membrane interfaces might exert broad antiviral activity against enveloped viruses. To test this hypothesis, in this contribution we have analyzed the antiviral effects of peptides derived from the membrane-proximal external region and the transmembrane domain of the envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41, which display different degrees of interfacial hydrophobicity. Our data support the virucidal activity of a region that combines hydrophobic-at-interface membrane-proximal external region aromatics with hydrophobic residues of the transmembrane domain, and contains the absolutely conserved 679LWYIK/R683 sequence, proposed to embody a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus motif. We further sought to correlate the antiviral activity ...
The isolation of J3 represents a significant improvement on previous nAbs derived from immunized animals as in single-domain VHH form it has a comparable breadth and potency to the best nAbs obtained from a limited number of natural human infections. In contrast, previous nAb clones characterized from immunized animals have only exhibited limited breadth (Forsman et al., 2008; Sundling et al., 2010). A caveat to this is the observation that sera with 17b-like binding specificity can be induced after immunization of humans (Vaine et al., 2010), and it should be noted that 17b and other Abs to CD4-induced epitopes are less broadly neutralizing as full-length mAbs than in Fab form (Labrijn et al., 2003). However, given the previously reported decrease in neutralization ability seen with the Fab of b12 (Labrijn et al., 2003), it appears the CD4-binding site of Env is not per se more easily targeted for neutralization by small Ab fragments as is the CD4-induced binding site, presumably because of the ...
In this paper, we consider the evolutionary competition between budding and lytic viral release strategies, using a delay differential equation model with distributed delay. When antibody is not established, the dynamics of competition depends on the respective basic reproductive ratios of the two viruses. If the basic reproductive ratio of budding virus is greater than that of lytic virus and one, budding virus can survive. When antibody is established for both strains but the neutralization capacities are the same for both strains, consequence of the competition also depends only on the basic reproductive ratios of the budding and lytic viruses. Using two concrete forms of the viral production functions, we are also able to conclude that budding virus will outcompete if the rates of viral production, death rates of infected cells and neutralizing capacities of the antibodies are the same for budding and lytic viruses. In this case, budding strategy would have an evolutionary advantage. However, if
The development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine is the final missing piece in the complex puzzle of how to attain affordable, durable control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. At present there are promising leads, but no clear and unequivocal path, to the development of an HIV vaccine. It is likely that the field will have to overcome the key challenge of eliciting a broad neutralizing antibody response in the majority of vaccinated individuals, but so far, candidate HIV vaccines have not elicited any significant levels of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). This grant directly addresses the neutralizing antibody problem using innovative technology that may be transformative in the quest for an HIV vaccine. By stepping back from the problem and taking a comprehensive and unbiased look at how broad neutralizing activity arises in the approximately 25% of HIV-infected individuals who do develop it, this grant proposes to efficiently learn the circumstances under which bNAbs are elicited, and, ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The HIV-1 epidemic has resulted in ~2.7 million new infections in 2007 for a total of ~33 million people living with HIV/AIDS. Clinical trials have shown that HIV-1 infection cannot be prevented by immunization with monomeric recombinant forms of viral envelope (Env) proteins. However, it is clear that the HIV-1 Env contains epitopes that can induce neutralizing antibodies and that such antibodies can protect primates from infection. The HIV-1 Env is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Both the external subunit (gp120) and the membrane- proximal external region of Env (located within the gp41 subunit) contain epitopes that are the target of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from infected patients. Considerable effort has been devoted to creating soluble forms of the Env trimer. The improvements in immunogenicity of these molecules relative to monomeric gp120 are limited at best. Another approach to creating improved Env-based immunogens is ...
Antibodies against the Membrane-Proximal External Region (MPER) of the Env gp41 subunit neutralize HIV-1 with exceptional breadth and potency. Due to the lack of knowledge on the MPER native structure and accessibility, different and exclusive models have been proposed for the molecular mechanism of MPER recognition by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here, accessibility of antibodies to the native Env MPER on single virions has been addressed through STED microscopy. STED imaging of fluorescently labeled Fabs reveals a common pattern of native Env recognition for HIV-1 antibodies targeting MPER or the surface subunit gp120. In the case of anti-MPER antibodies, the process evolves with extra contribution of interactions with the viral lipid membrane to binding specificity. Our data provide biophysical insights into the recognition of the potent and broadly neutralizing MPER epitope on HIV virions, and as such is of importance for the design of therapeutic interventions. The Membrane-Proximal External
A protective vaccine against HIV will likely require elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies that neutralize a diverse array of HIV strains. Four broadly-neutralizing antibodies are known at present, each targeting a different conserved epitope on the virus. In this project, we focus on the broadly-neutralizing antibody 2F5 that targets an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region of HIV gp41. The project focuses on design of immunogens to re-elicit 2F5-like neutralizing responses, and on redesign of 2F5 itself to improve our understanding of its mechanism of neutralization. Both aims will employ a combination of computational design and directed evolution.. Aim 1: Develop novel membrane-protein based immunogens that conformationally stabilize the 2F5 epitope in the context of a lipid membrane to best approximate the epitope environment on the virion.. Aim 2: Design and characterize variants of the 2F5 antibody to determine the importance of the length and composition of the ...
Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans. We selectively deleted potential N-glycan sites (PNGS) proximal to the CD4bs on well-ordered clade C 16055 native flexibly linked (NFL) trimers to potentially increase recognition by naïve B cells in vivo. We generated glycan-deleted trimer variants that maintained native-like conformation and stability. Using a panel of CD4bs-directed bNAbs, we ...
A new study has shown that infusion of a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in virally suppressed, early treated volunteers was associated with a modestly delayed rebound of HIV after interruption of antiretroviral therapy.
Significant efforts have been made to identify HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies because they are considered to be critical to the design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. proteins. Keywords: HIV-1, Surface-expressed envelope trimer, Single B cell sort, HIV-1 neutralizing Antibodies 1 Introduction Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting HIV-1 can prevent infection in non-human primates, and control HIV-1 replication in humanized mice (Mascola et al., 2000; Hessell et al., 2009; Klein et al., 2012b). These antibodies are therefore of significant interest for vaccine design and as agents for novel therapeutic approaches (McCoy and Weiss, 2013). Given their potential importance, substantial efforts have been made to dissect the human anti-HIV-1 antibody response in individuals who display broad and potent HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity (McCoy and Weiss, 2013). An essential component to this effort has been the development of new methods for antibody cloning from single B cells (Wardemann et ...
Significant efforts have been made to identify HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies because they are considered to be critical to the design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. proteins. Keywords: HIV-1, Surface-expressed envelope trimer, Single B cell sort, HIV-1 neutralizing Antibodies 1 Introduction Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting HIV-1 can prevent infection in non-human primates, and control HIV-1 replication in humanized mice (Mascola et al., 2000; Hessell et al., 2009; Klein et al., 2012b). These antibodies are therefore of significant interest for vaccine design and as agents for novel therapeutic approaches (McCoy and Weiss, 2013). Given their potential importance, substantial efforts have been made to dissect the human anti-HIV-1 antibody response in individuals who display broad and potent HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity (McCoy and Weiss, 2013). An essential component to this effort has been the development of new methods for antibody cloning from single B cells (Wardemann et ...
Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute have uncovered the surprising details of how a powerful anti-HIV antibody grabs hold of the virus.
The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Here, in this mini review, we review the progress in development of HIV vaccine in eliciting broad immune response, especially production of bNAbs, discuss possible strategies, such as polyvalent sequential vaccination, that facilitates B cell maturation leading to bNAb response.
Regardless of whether you are developing consumable or industrial products, ensuring product quality, efficacy, and safety is of the utmost importance. In vitro screening and routine quality control testing combined with authenticated models and controls can help ensure product integrity and brand reputation.. Explore our featured content below to learn more about the importance of authenticated in vitro models and control strains for toxicity screening, infectivity studies, virus neutralization assays, microbial analysis, industry-guided quality control testing, and more.. .authentication-wrapper .AFSImage{ margin-bottom:1em; } .Card__main{ display:block !important; } .Card.--expand .Card__header:after{ display:none !important; } @media only screen and (min-width: 47em) { .authentication-wrapper{ margin-bottom:1.5em; } .authentication-wrapper h4{ text-align:center; font-weight:bold; margin:1.25em 0 1em; } .authentication-wrapper h4:hover{ text-decoration:underline; } .authentication-wrapper p{ ...
The global diversity of HIV-1 symbolizes a crucial challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. and adenovirus/adenovirus vector-based vaccines expressing HIV-1 mosaic Env Gag and Pol afforded a substantial decrease in the per-exposure acquisition risk pursuing recurring intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 issues. Security against acquisition of infections was correlated with vaccine-elicited binding functional and neutralizing non-neutralizing antibodies. These data show the defensive efficiency of HIV-1 mosaic antigens and recommend a potential Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) technique towards the advancement of a worldwide HIV-1 vaccine. Furthermore our findings claim that the coordinated activity of multiple antibody functions might donate to protection against difficult-to-neutralize viruses. INTRODUCTION The. ...
Results IgGs from 10 (19%) patients were able to neutralise HCVpp from ,4/6 subgenotypes tested (bNAb group). Heat-map analysis of competition with antibodies to known domains showed that IgGs from the bNAb group competed with multiple epitopes of E2 (rather than a single region).. HCV viral load was significantly lower in those with broad ELISA binding (p = 0.036). The bNAb group had significantly lower median liver fibrosis (Fibroscan®) readings than those neutralising ,3 subgenotypes (p = 0.046). In the subgroup of 21 patients tested for neutralising ability against a gt 1 panel, individuals clustered into 9 broad, 7 moderate and 5 weak neutralisers on heat-map analysis. Broad neutralising profile was associated with lower levels of liver cirrhosis (p = 0.007). Broad intragenotypic neutralisation status was also associated with AA/AG at SNP rs9275224 in the HLA-DQB1 gene but there was no association with IL28B genotype. ...
PositivelyPositive.ca is designed to create awareness around the many HIV and AIDS issues and promotes messages of positive living with HIV
a, The predicted relationship between efficacy against any symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the efficacy against severe infection. The black line indicates the best fit model for the relationship between protection against any versus severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The shaded areas indicate the 95% CIs. Efficacy against severe infection was calculated using a threshold that was 0.15 times lower than that for mild infection (95% CI = 0.036 0.65) (see Methods and Supplementary Table 5). b, Extrapolation of the decay of neutralization titers over time. This model uses the estimated half-life of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titer in convalescent subjects of 108 d over the first 250 d5, after which the decay decreases linearly until it achieves a 10-year half-life (consistent with the long-term stability of antibody responses seen after other vaccines47,48). We simulate three scenarios, with decay of neutralization taking 1 year (blue dashed line), 1.5 years (purple dashed line) or 2 years (red dashed ...
Julien J-P, Lee J H, Cupo A, Murin CD, Derking R, Hoffenberg S, Caulfield MJ, King RC, Marozsan AJ, Klasse P J et al.. 2013. Asymmetric recognition of the HIV-1 trimer by broadly neutralizing antibody PG9.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(11):4351-6. ...
2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Received 31 December 2020, Accepted 6 March 2021, Available online 10 March 2021. We thank N.J. Huang, N. Pishesha, and H.F. Lodish for helpful discussion, advice, and reagents; P.N.P. Gnanapragasam and L.M. Kakutani for producing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and setting up the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay in our laboratory; G.L. Chadwick, R. Galimidi, and A. Moradian (formerly Caltech Proteome Exploration Laboratory) for helpful discussions and reagents; G. Spigolon for guidance with light microscopy performed at the Beckman Institute Biological Imaging Facility; Z. Romero-Garcia and D.B. Kohn for the pCCL-AS3-FB plasmid; J. Voetteler and W.I. Sundquist for the CCF2-AM reagent; J.D. Bloom for 293T-ACE2 cells and plasmids for generating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus; and the NIH AIDS Reagent Program for reagents. BEL-A2 cell lines were created by Professor Jan Frayne, ...
While waiting for an efficient vaccine to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, alternative approaches to treat or prevent acute COVID-19 are urgently needed. Transfusion of convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19 patients is currently being explored; neutralizing activity in convalescent plasma is thought to play a central role in the efficacy of this treatment. Here, we observed that plasma neutralization activity decreased a few weeks... ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, heart attack can occur.. The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina, or chest pain. Angina can be described as a discomfort, heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, fullness, squeezing, or painful feeling in your chest. It can be mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. Angina may also be felt in the shoulders, arms, neck, throat, jaw, or back. Other symptoms of coronary artery disease include:. ...
As this evolution poses a challenge to herd immunity, broadly neutralizing antibodies and "universal" vaccines that can provide ... Corti, D; Lanzavecchia, A (2013). "Broadly neutralizing antiviral antibodies". Annual Review of Immunology. 31: 705-42. doi: ... This can occur naturally, whereby maternal antibodies, primarily immunoglobulin G antibodies, are transferred across the ... Passive immunity can also be gained artificially, when a susceptible person is injected with antibodies from the serum or ...
"IAVIs Neutralizing Antibody Center". scripps.edu. 6 March 2015.. *^ "Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research". ... including the development of an antibody engineering platform aimed at improving treatments for chronic diseases such as ...
The variant moderately resists neutralizing antibodies. After strict quarantines, a ban on mink farming, and a mink euthanasia ... May 2020). "Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during ...
... the isolation of rare broad neutralizing HIV antibodies and their ancestor antibodies; and 8) the development of a new strategy ... He led the group that deciphered the maturation pathways of several types of broadly neutralizing antibodies that point the way ... Host controls of HIV neutralizing antibodies". Science. 344 (6184): 588-589. doi:10.1126/science.1254990. PMC 4162091. PMID ... the discovery of host tolerance mechanisms that limit the induction of broad neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection; 3) the ...
"Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VEGF-neutralizing antibodies". BMC Systems Biology. 5 (1): 193. doi:10.1186/1752-0509- ...
"Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot ... Many neutralizing antibodies bind to sites located in variable regions of gp120, so mutations in these regions will be selected ... While the transmitting host has developed a neutralizing antibody response to gp120, the newly infected host lacks immune ... Unless a gp120-based vaccine can be designed to elicit antibodies with strongly neutralizing antiviral properties, there is ...
"IAVIs Neutralizing Antibody Center". scripps.edu. 6 March 2015. "Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research". ... Immunogen Discovery Center for Metabolomics Dorris Neuroscience Center IAVI's Neutralizing Antibody Center at Scripps Research ... including the development of an antibody engineering platform aimed at improving treatments for chronic diseases such as ...
The fusion peptide on the N-terminus of the gp41 is also a potential target because it contains neutralizing antibody epitopes ... Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn (2015). "HIV broadly neutralizing antibody targets". Current Opinion ... "Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody". Science. 352 (6287): 828-833. Bibcode:2016Sci... ... The structure is cage-like with a hollow center that inhibits antibody access. While gp120 sits on the surface of the viral ...
These antibodies are called Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies (RVNA). Pasteur Institute of India, Coonoor also offer Ph.D. ... It is a serum neutralization (inhibition) test, which means it measures the ability of rabies specific antibodies to neutralize ...
Both vaccines have been shown[who?] to induce strong neutralizing antibodies in different laboratory animals. Trials began in ... On 26 July 2011 a dog living on the Mt Alford property was reported to have HeV antibodies, the first time an animal other than ... Following the confirmation of a dog with HeV antibodies, on 27 July 2011, the Queensland and NSW governments will boost ... Although the research on the Hendra virus detection is ongoing, a promising result has found using antibody-conjugated magnetic ...
Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 envelope protect more effectively in vivo than those to the CD4 receptor. Sci. Transl. Med. 6( ... Induction of broadly neutralizing H1N1 influenza antibodies by vaccination. Science 329(5995):1060-1064. Kanekiyo M, Wei CJ, ... Trispecific broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies mediate potent SHIV protection in macaques. Science. 2017 Oct 6;358(6359):85-90 ... At NIH's Vaccine Research Center, he also contributed seminal advances to vaccine science neutralizing antibodies against HIV, ...
"Human trial proves ricin vaccine safe, induces neutralizing antibodies; further tests planned". University of Texas ... Because ricin is a protein, it can be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target cancerous cells recognized by the antibody. The ... Another antidote developed by the US military has been shown to be safe and effective in lab mice injected with antibody-rich ... probably due to his body's production of antibodies. When a ricin-laced pellet was removed from the small of his back it was ...
The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... A test for IgM antibodies has seen to be effective over longer periods of time, as these antibodies can be present starting 4 ... The methods currently available to test for Zika antibodies cross-react with dengue antibodies. An IgM-positive result in a ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...
Neutralizing antibody to myostatin should not be pursued. In terms of the prognosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in its ...
Of 99 human blood samples tested, 6.1% had neutralizing antibodies. As part of a 1954 outbreak investigation of jaundice ... Rathore AP, Saron WA, Lim T, Jahan N, St John AL (February 2019). "Maternal immunity and antibodies to dengue virus promote ... May 2016). "Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody". Cell ... West Africa for the last two decades when blood samples collected between 1992 and 2016 were tested for the ZIKV IgM antibodies ...
... research shows that immunization with adenylate cyclase toxin elicits neutralizing antibodies. Neutralizing antibodies can ... Adenylate cyclase toxin based constructs have been proven to elicit the production of neutralizing antibodies, but lack the ...
"Glycan recognition on HIV env by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)". Science-Business EXchange. 7 (40): 1192. 2014. doi: ...
Individuals with psoriasis may develop neutralizing antibodies against monoclonal antibodies. Neutralization occurs when an ... The lack of neutralizing antibodies against etanercept is probably secondary to the innate presence of the TNF-α receptor, and ... Neutralizing antibodies have not been reported against etanercept, a biologic medication that is a fusion protein composed of ... Several monoclonal antibodies target cytokines, the molecules that cells use to send inflammatory signals to each other. TNF-α ...
These mannose residues are the target for broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be ... "Glycan clustering stabilizes the mannose patch of HIV-1 and preserves vulnerability to broadly neutralizing antibodies". Nature ... Crispin, Max; Doores, Katie J (2015-04-01). "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine ... "Mannose addition by yeast Pichia pastoris on recombinant HER-2 protein inhibits recognition by the monoclonal antibody ...
"Lilly provides comprehensive update on progress of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody programs". Eli Lilly and Company. 7 October ... "Lilly announces agreement with U.S. government to supply 300,000 vials of investigational neutralizing antibody bamlanivimab ( ... 2020). "Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: clinical pipeline". mAbs. 12 (1): 1854149. doi:10.1080/ ... August 2020). "Antibody cocktail to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prevents rapid mutational escape seen with individual antibodies ...
Human cytomegalovirus neutralizing antibodies and use thereof (WO2008084410) Neutralizing anti-influenza virus antibodies and ... 2011). "A neutralizing antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A hemagglutinins". ... 2016). "Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody". Science. 351 (6279): ... 2014). "Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations". Nature. 516 (7531): 418- ...
... have been shown to be unable to elicit production of virus neutralizing antibodies. The epitopes which bind neutralizing ... Additionally, a monoclonal antibody with neutralizing functionality has been demonstrated to target antigenic site I. Other ... Upon viral entry into the body and also after vaccination, the body produces virus neutralizing antibodies which bind and ... Apr 2005). "Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant ...
However, these antibodies are incapable of neutralizing other serotypes upon reinfection and actually increase viral ... Unfortunately, D7 proteins provoke immune responses, which raise anti-D7 antibody levels. These antibodies inhibit the function ... "Binding of a neutralizing antibody to dengue virus alters the arrangement of surface glycoproteins". Nature Structural & ... "Direct and indirect interactions in the recognition between a cross-neutralizing antibody and the four serotypes of dengue ...
"Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles". Viruses. 8 (9): ... When the blood drawn from the animal is mixed with the pseudovirus, the protective antibodies bind and neutralize the ...
Smyth, M. S.; Trudgett, A.; Hoey, E. M.; Martin, S. J.; Brown, F. (1992). "Characterization of neutralizing antibodies to ... "Chemically synthesized peptides elicit neutralizing antibody to bovine enterovirus". The Journal of General Virology. 71 (1): ... Electron microscopy, PCR, complement fixation, antibody fluorescence, neutralization test, and haemagglutination can be used to ...
Tomori O, Fabiyi A (Sep 1976). "Neutralizing antibodies to Orungo virus in man and animals in Nigeria". Tropical and ... Antibodies to the virus have been found in humans, monkeys, sheep, and cattle. "Virus Taxonomy: 2011 Release". International ...
"Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants". eLife. 9. doi:10.7554/eLife.61312. PMC 7723407. PMID ... from a monoclonal antibody with the capability of neutralizing the spike protein variants of SARS-CoV-2. This suggests that ... "associated with escape from neutralising antibodies" which could adversely affect the efficacy of spike protein-dependent COVID ... In February, Moderna reported that the current vaccine produced only one sixth of the antibodies in response to the South ...
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein contains at least four sites for neutralizing antibodies. Among these sites, the membrane-proximal ... These antibodies are usually picked up in young women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. In anti-cardiolipin-mediated ... Hokama Y, Campora CE, Hara C, Kuribayashi T, Le Huynh D, Yabusaki K. Anticardiolipin antibodies in the sera of patients with ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can also be increased in numerous other conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus, malaria ...
The neutralizing antibodies play a role in protection of the virus, and it has been noted that patients who had antibodies ... Those proteins are the targets for the neutralizing antibodies in the viruses. Due to those similar areas being the ... neutralizing targets within the two viruses, there is cross-neutralization between the two viruses. ...
... beta-variant antibodies were over 10-fold less effective at neutralizing the delta variant as they were at neutralizing the ... TLDR: antibodies in convalescent serum are about 4-fold less neutralizing against delta than against other variants - but we ... at neutralizing the delta variant, and this was compared to the serum's strength at neutralizing a very early sample (from ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ...
... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
"The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ...
Neutralizing antibody. *Original antigenic sin. *Paul Ehrlich: Magic Bullet. *Polyclonal B cell response ... In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
Such antagonists include (but are not limited to) specific antibodies that target the molecule of interest, which act only in a ... neutralizing manner.[31] The "c-Sis" oncogene is derived from PDGF.[26][32] ... "An antibody reactive with domain 4 of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor allows BB binding while inhibiting ...
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. *Budapest Reference Connectome. C. *Chemistry Development Kit ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... "A highly conserved neutralizing epitope on group 2 influenza A viruses". Science. 333 (6044): 843-50. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.. ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ... There has been some research success towards a "universal flu vaccine" that produces antibodies against proteins on the viral ...
A neutralizing antibody for HGF, but not for IGF-1 or EGF, was found to attenuate the proliferation of breast epithelial tissue ...
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody LY-CoV555 in Outpatients with Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 2020-10-28, roč. 0, ... Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19 [online]. science.sciencemag.org, [cit. 2020-09- ... COVID-19 Antibodies Decline Over Time, English Study Shows [online]. Medscape, 29.10.2020, [cit. 2020-11-03]. Dostupné online. ... Regeneron's COVID-19 Outpatient Trial Prospectively Demonstrates that REGN-COV2 Antibody Cocktail Significantly Reduced Virus ...
Idiotype Network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, any antibody ...
Neutralizing antibodies are detectable 10 days after first-time vaccination, and seven days after revaccination. Historically, ... This form was marked by a fever that occurred after the usual incubation period and could be confirmed only by antibody studies ... The antibodies induced by vaccinia vaccine are cross-protective for other orthopoxviruses, such as monkeypox, cowpox, and ... "Prevalence of antibodies to Vaccinia virus after smallpox vaccination in Italy". J. Gen. Virol. 86 (Pt 11): 2955-60. doi ...
Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies, each of which recognize a unique antigen, and neutralizing specific pathogens.[2] ... Opsonization: Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis. *Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Antibodies ... Passive - Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or infant via the mother's milk.. Passive - Preformed antibodies in ... An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its ...
The main categories of antibody action include the following:. *Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of ... Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens. They are ... Asymmetrical antibodies[edit]. Heterodimeric antibodies, which are also asymmetrical and antibodies, allow for greater ... How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ...
Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody.. „Nature". ... Separation of functional subsets of human T cells by a monoclonal antibody.. „Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A". 76 (8), s. 4061-5, Aug ...
Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Binding Multiple Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxin' by Garcia-Rodriguez Et Al., PEDS, ...
Utilizing immunoglobulins is a logical solution for treatment as neutralizing antibodies because a majority of adults have been ... When antibodies and parvovirus samples were added at the same time to human cells and HeLa cells it was found that no infection ... and identification of the virus by the host's antibody cells.[15] ...
DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In ... Antibodies: Emapalumab. *Fontolizumab. IFNLR (λ, III). *See IL-28R (IFNLR) here instead. ...
... they are in the form of naturally occurring antibodies), and are capable of neutralizing all forms (extracellular-, ... Other monoclonal antibodies targeting TNF-α are golimumab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol. Etanercept also binds and ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ... They are monoclonal antibodies and have identical structures and affinities to the target. Because they are a combination of ...
Palese, P., Mullarkey, C. E. (2016). "Broadly Neutralizing Hemagglutinin Stalk-Specific Antibodies Induce Potent Phagocytosis ... "Virus-specific antibody activity of different subclasses of immunoglobulins G and A in cytomegalovirus infections". Infect ... "Isotypes and opsonophagocytosis of pneumococcus type 6B antibodies elicited in infants and adults by an experimental ...
Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Binding Multiple Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxin' by Garcia-Rodriguez Et Al., PEDS, ...
Stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody ... Antibodies do not play a direct role in this allergy type. T cells play an important role in this hypersensitivity, as they ... They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing ... Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to ...
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Antitoxins are made ...
"The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ... who found a way to attach HIV-fighting antibodies to immune cells, creating a HIV-resistant cell population. ... "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and potential clinical utility". Autoimmun Rev. 7 (6): 473-9. doi:10.1016/j. ...
His specialty is poison: he has developed immunity to over 500 different kinds, and with newer poisons, generates antibodies to ... killing the biological components and neutralizing the disease or poison. This disinfection is even capable to get rid of ...
"Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study ... MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody ...
Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus ...
April 1999). "Neutralizing antibodies have limited effects on the control of established HIV-1 infection in vivo". Immunity. 10 ... However, the well-proven route of trying to induce neutralizing antibodies by vaccination has stalled because of the great ... Specifically, candidate vaccines that induce one or more of the following are being sought: neutralizing antibodies active ... Overall, they have been safe and immunogenic in diverse populations, have induced neutralizing antibody in nearly 100% ...
Before the introduction of eculizumab (INN and USAN, trade name Soliris), a monoclonal antibody that is a first-in-class ... or is occasionally due to acquired neutralizing autoantibody inhibitors of these complement system components, for example anti ... H antibodies. Despite the use of supportive care, historically an estimated 33-40% of patients died or developed end-stage ...
Additionally, the studies aim to clarify what level of broadly neutralizing antibodies a vaccine, or other long-acting HIV ... Many scientists believe that a vaccine developed using broadly neutralizing antibodies could protect healthy people from HIV ... Large Clinical Trial of Broadly Neutralizing, HIV Prevention Antibodies Launched. ... In the AMP Study, participants receive the antibody directly by IV infusion. Laboratory studies have shown that the antibody ...
Neutralizing antibody definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... neutralizing antibody. neutrality, neutralization, neutralization plate, neutralization test, neutralize, neutralizing antibody ... An antibody that reacts with an infectious agent, usually a virus, and destroys or inhibits its infectiveness and virulence. ...
... for a blood test that can detect neutralizing antibodies from a past coronavirus infection. ... FDA issues first test that detects neutralizing antibodies from Covid-19. From CNN Healths Jamie Gumbrecht ... The agency noted it has issued EUAs to more than 50 antibody tests, but those tests dont specifically detect antibodies that ... for a blood test that can detect neutralizing antibodies from a past coronavirus infection. ...
... Cell-based anti-drug neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays for safety and efficacy ... Experienced cell-based neutralizing antibody assay capabilities. Our experts, based in Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) compliant ... Cell-based neutralizing antibody assays can be difficult to develop as the selection of the most suitable assay type (indirect ... Cell-based assays mimic the mechanism by which the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) exert their effect in vivo and are the ...
... glycoprotein is a major target of neutralizing antibodies arising from natural infection, and antibodies that specifically bind ... glycoprotein is a major target of neutralizing antibodies arising from natural infection, and antibodies that specifically bind ... by determining crystal structures of prefusion RSV F bound to neutralizing human-derived antibodies AM22 and RSD5. Both ... These data suggest that antigenic site Ø exists as an ensemble of conformations, with individual antibodies recognizing ...
... anti-receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels compared to survivors. Delayed seroconversion kinetics ... These data indicate that COVID-19 mortality does not correlate with the cross-sectional antiviral antibody levels per se but, ... moderate and severe COVID-19 over time to probe the nature of antibody responses in disease severity and mortality. We observed ... the exact features of antibody responses that govern COVID-19 disease outcomes remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed ...
Vaccines against viral diseases typically work because they elicit antibodies against the virus that prevent infection. Given ... Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Vaccines against viral diseases typically work because they elicit antibodies against the virus ... referred to as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). These antibodies are effective against the majority of HIV isolates ... Antibodies for other diseases. Opportunities for novel approaches to developing antibody products exist across the spectrum of ...
Loberg RD, Ying C, Craig M et al (2007) Targeting CCL2 with systemic delivery of neutralizing antibodies induces prostate ... Scholl SM, Pallud C, Beuvon F et al (1994) Anti-colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody staining in primary breast adenocarcinomas ... Carton JM, Sauerwald T, Hawley-Nelson P et al (2007) Codon engineering for improved antibody expression in mammalian cells. ... specific antibodies. Hum Antibodies 16:117-125PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Role of neutralizing antibodies in HIV infection.. Haigwood NL1, Stamatatos L. ...
Antibody-mediated resistance to viral disease is often attributed solely to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) despite a body of ... Protective Antiviral Antibodies that Lack Neutralizing Activity: Precedents and Evolution of Concepts ... protective non-neutralizing antibodies, PnNAbs) can also contribute and are sometimes pivotal in host resistance to viruses. ... Foremost among suspected mechanisms of protection by PnNAbs is antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicty (ADCC), but additional ...
In a phase-I/II trial in healthy adults, the BNT162b2 vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and poly-specific T cells against ... BNT162b2 elicited strong antibody responses: at one week after the boost, SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean 50% neutralizing ... In addition to reporting neutralizing-antibody GMTs up to day 85 after dose 1 and cross-neutralizing-antibody GMTs against ... BNT162b2 vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and poly-specific T cells in humans. *Ugur Sahin. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003- ...
Home › Life Sciences › Clinical Research Services › Bioanalytical Services › Immunogenicity and Neutralizing Antibody ... Life Sciences Immunogenicity and Neutralizing Antibody. SGS has been working in the immunoanalysis and immunogenicity testing ... Immunogenicity screening assays (peptide/protein drugs and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies): *Detection of anti-drug antibody ...
Overview of the combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) under investigation in early clinical studies for HIV ... Overview of the combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) under investigation in early clinical studies for HIV ...
The IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center is a principal source of innovation worldwide in the study of bnAbs and the design of ... The IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center is a principal source of innovation worldwide in the study of bnAbs and the design of ... IAVIs Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC) was established in 2002, and today, is a leading source of innovation in the study of ... Rapid isolation of potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and protection in a small animal model, bioRxiv: 2020.2005. ...
... passive immunization of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention may require two or more bNAbs that target different ... As with antiretroviral combinations used in treatment, passive immunization of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention ...
Diagnostic Applicability of Neutralizing Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi Trans-sialidase.. Leguizamón MS1,2. ... The method described here, termed trans-sialidase inhibition assay (TIA), enables the detection of TS-neutralizing antibodies ... TIA; Trans-sialidase; Trans-sialidase-neutralizing antibodies; Trypanosoma cruzi human diagnosis; Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs ... cruzi infection correlates with the elicitation of antibodies directed to the TS catalytic domain, which inhibit the sialyl ...
Neutralizing Activity of Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies against Clade B Clinical Isolates Produced in Peripheral ... To better understand the neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 and the epitope targeted by PGT antibodies, we isolated ... 2007) Dissecting the neutralizing antibody specificities of broadly neutralizing sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1- ... Coexistence of potent HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-sensitive viruses in a viremic controller ...
Several HIV envelope-targeting (Env-targeting) antibodies with broad and potent neutralizing activity have been identified and ... Here, we used the Rosetta software suite to design variants of the PG9 antibody HCDR3 loop with the goal of identifying ... Of these, the PG9 antibody has a long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) and possesses unique structural ... at stabilizing this region in other HIV antibodies could become an important approach to in silico optimization of antibodies. ...
... you want to see if theres a neutralizing antibody. From those ELISA-positive antibody-binding antibodies, we got to a dozen ... Using a vaccine, you have an ELISA test of your blood, you have antibody in it. But most of the antibodies are not neutralizing ... The next step by Sorrento was from 500 to 600 antibodies, they screened for neutralizing antibodies, testing for their blocking ... Sorrento Responds to Criticism of COVID-19 Neutralizing Antibodies. Published: May 22, 2020 By Mark Terry ...
A new study reports the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ... antibodies), and importantly, to produce neutralizing antibodies at high concentrations in a primate species other than humans ... Recombinant protein produces neutralizing COVID-19 antibodies in primate model. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Antibodies, Antibody, Antigen, Assay, Cell, Cell Line, Cell Membrane, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease COVID-19, DNA, ...
These are referred to as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Such antibodies can be detected in about 25% of persons with ... Studies show the potential of synthetic and combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies ... Studies show the potential of synthetic and combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies ... Advances in technology-especially single-cell antibody cloning techniques-have led to the isolation and characterization of ...
A single gene controls the ability of mice to make neutralizing antibodies against this retrovirus and to recover from the ... "This research delineates a potential genetic mechanism behind the production of neutralizing antibodies to HIV, which are ... Given that Apobec3 seems to help the immune system make neutralizing antibodies against retroviruses, the destruction of ... Antibodies are key to warding off viral infections, and most vaccines against viral diseases stimulate the body to make ...
20 in the journal Nature Communications, showed how a newly identified antibody 5J7, is highly effective in killing dengue ... virus whereby only 10-9 g of antibody is needed to stop the infection of dengue serotype 3 virus (DENV-3). This new finding ... A new Duke-NUS-led study has identified a super-potent antibody which requires a minute amount to neutralize the dengue virus. ... By examining the virus-antibody complex structure at very high magnification, they showed that each arm of the antibody is ...
2009) Neutralizing antibodies generated during natural HIV-1 infection: Good news for an HIV-1 vaccine? Nat Med 15(8):866-870. ... 2010) Variable loop glycan dependency of the broad and potent HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies PG9 and PG16. J Virol 84(20):10510- ... 2012) A short segment of the HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 region is a major determinant of resistance to V1/V2 neutralizing antibodies. J ... 2009) Mining the B cell repertoire for broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe 6(4):292-294. ...
... has identified multiple highly potent neutralizing antibodies against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of ... The active component of plasma therapy is the target-specific neutralizing antibody. Antibody drugs as a kind of biologics have ... The potent neutralizing antibody could be used to develop drugs for both therapeutic intervention and prophylactic protection ... New results from animal studies showed that their neutralizing antibody provides a potential cure for COVID-19 as well as means ...
The effector activity of antibodies is dependent on engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and activation of the associated ... engaging activating FcγRs substantially enhanced the in vitro and in vivo activity of anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibodies. ... These findings indicate that the application of Fc domain engineering is a feasible strategy to enhance toxin-neutralizing ... we used mice expressing only human FcγRs to evaluate the contribution of FcγR-mediated pathways to the neutralizing activity of ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Antibodies, Antibody, Antigen, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease COVID-19, Efficacy, Immune Response, Manufacturing, ... Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine shows promise - virus neutralizing antibodies achieved. News-Medical. 09 August 2020. ,https ... Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine shows promise - virus neutralizing antibodies achieved. News-Medical, viewed 09 August 2020, ...
Neutralizing antibodies are key to preventing future infection, and could lead to therapies and vaccines for the COVID-19 ... which includes producing neutralizing antibodies. Doctors say those neutralizing antibodies are key to preventing future ... Mayo Clinic unveils new antibody test for COVID-19. Neutralizing antibodies are key to preventing future infection, and could ... According to Mayo Clinic, "neutralizing antibodies are a subset of antibodies able to independently inactivate viruses, and are ...
  • Enrollment of the intravenously (IV) delivered antibody in adults at risk for HIV infection began in January 2017 when 600 women were initially pre-screened. (cdc.gov)
  • Many scientists believe that a vaccine developed using broadly neutralizing antibodies could protect healthy people from HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced Friday it issued the first emergency use authorization (EUA) for a blood test that can detect neutralizing antibodies from a past coronavirus infection. (cnn.com)
  • The agency said the cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit made by GenScript USA Inc. specifically detects this type of antibody, which has been shown in labs to decrease the coronavirus' infection of cells. (cnn.com)
  • The agency noted it has issued EUAs to more than 50 antibody tests, but those tests don't specifically detect antibodies that decrease the infection of cells. (cnn.com)
  • Antibody tests should not be used to diagnose an active coronavirus infection, since they don't detect the virus itself, the agency said. (cnn.com)
  • Vaccines against viral diseases typically work because they elicit antibodies against the virus that prevent infection. (iavi.org)
  • This suggests that a vaccine that could induce similar antibodies in people might protect them against HIV infection. (iavi.org)
  • An illustration of the principles of using a monoclonal antibody as passive immunization to prevent HIV infection, as compared with the more traditional vaccine approach of active immunization. (iavi.org)
  • Role of neutralizing antibodies in HIV infection. (nih.gov)
  • In humans and most tested mammals, the onset of the chronic phase of T. cruzi infection correlates with the elicitation of antibodies directed to the TS catalytic domain, which inhibit the sialyl residues transfer reaction in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • The partnership is aimed at creating antibody products that could act as a "protective shield" against infection by the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. (biospace.com)
  • One of the antibodies is so powerful that at a very low concentration it is able to 100% completely prevent infection or inhibit the infection. (biospace.com)
  • A virus neutralization assay detects antibodies that are capable of inhibiting virus replication (or, in other words, antibodies that can neutralize virus infection). (news-medical.net)
  • In what researchers say is the most important finding, two monkeys developed higher concentrations of the antibody neutralizing the virus than those in the samples of a recovered COVID-19 patient in a live SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. (news-medical.net)
  • Advances in technology-especially single-cell antibody cloning techniques-have led to the isolation and characterization of antibodies from people with HIV infection that can neutralize many variants ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Such antibodies can be detected in about 25% of persons with untreated HIV-1 infection ( 2 ), reflecting a host immune response to unremitting viral replication, generation of large numbers of viral variants, and shifting antigen exposure ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A single gene controls the ability of mice to make neutralizing antibodies against this retrovirus and to recover from the viral infection. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This research delineates a potential genetic mechanism behind the production of neutralizing antibodies to HIV, which are critical to preventing HIV infection," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Further research on the function of human Apobec3 could yield promising insights that inform the discovery of HIV drugs and vaccines. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The researchers demonstrated that Apobec3, like Rfv3, contributes to the early control of retroviral infection in mice and also influences specific retroviral antibody responses. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The idea that Apobec3 can influence not only the ability of HIV to cause infection but also antibody responses to the virus is supported by a previous study demonstrating that the human chromosomal region containing several Apobec3 genes is linked to anti-HIV antibody responses in a group of Italian subjects who were repeatedly exposed to the virus by their HIV-infected partners but remained uninfected. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Our mouse studies suggest that neutralization of Vif could provide the unexpected benefit of better antibody responses to HIV and therefore better control of HIV infection," says Dr. Kim Hasenkrug, chief of the retroviral immunology section at NIAID's Rocky Mountain Laboratories and the study's lead NIAID investigator. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The study, published online on Feb. 20 in the journal Nature Communications, showed how a newly identified antibody 5J7, is highly effective in killing dengue virus whereby only 10-9 g of antibody is needed to stop the infection of dengue serotype 3 virus (DENV-3). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Her strategy to develop a safe therapeutic is to combine four antibodies that each bind and potently inhibit infection of each of the dengue virus serotypes. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are key to preventing future infection, and could lead to therapies and vaccines for COVID-19. (kare11.com)
  • According to Mayo Clinic , "neutralizing antibodies are a subset of antibodies able to independently inactivate viruses, and are associated with protective immunity against re-infection. (kare11.com)
  • According to Mayo Clinic, most coronavirus patients develop an immune response after infection with COVID-19, which includes producing neutralizing antibodies. (kare11.com)
  • Doctors say those neutralizing antibodies are key to preventing future infection, but it's still unclear how long those neutralizing antibodies remain in a person's body after infection, and how many neutralizing antibodies are needed to give a person immunity from getting COVID-19 again. (kare11.com)
  • it also differs from serology testing, which can show a previous infection by detecting antibodies for the coronavirus. (kare11.com)
  • Researchers identify aspects of the patient, the virus, and the infection itself that influence whether a person with HIV will produce broadly neutralizing antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • Examining some 4,500 HIV+ participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the Zurich Primary HIV Infection Study, the researchers found that 239 of them had formed broadly neutralizing antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • A synthetic antibody prevents infection in four monkeys injected with heavy doses of the virus. (the-scientist.com)
  • Novel broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 hold promise for their use in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. (natap.org)
  • A single injection of crystallizable fragment domain-modified antibodies elicits durable protection from SHIV infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the test itself will not give conclusive proof for an 'immunity passport' amid the coronavirus pandemic, it is the first commercially available test that will help identify the level of neutralizing antibodies in the blood stream and may be useful in answering the scientific question of the level of antibodies required to provide protection from infection, according to the report. (newsmax.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19 are the proteins produced after infection, potentially providing protection from reinfection. (newsmax.com)
  • They individually probed 30,000 of one woman's antibody-producing B cells and isolated two that were able to stop more than 70% of 162 divergent HIV strains from establishing an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is designed to determine whether giving people antibodies in the lab can block the virus from infecting cells (and) will prevent them from getting the infection," said Dr. Micahel Donnenberg. (nbc12.com)
  • This study will continue with a 28-day window where we'll see if it works to prevent the infection and then there is a followup for a total of five months to see how long the antibodies will persist in the body," said Donneberg. (nbc12.com)
  • That's something to keep in mind - there are a lot of steps involve in viral infection, and several ways to interrupt it with an antibody. (sciencemag.org)
  • HIV-1 infection and vaccination induce multiple types of antibodies, including antibodies to envelope variable loops, the CD4 binding site, and the chemokine receptor binding site. (sciencemag.org)
  • 3BNC117, a novel broad-spectrum HIV neutralizing antibody, with albuvirtide for the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS. (medindia.net)
  • Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Neutralization assays are complex biological lab tests, the only method to functionally test antibodies for their ability to prevent cell infection by SARS-CoV-2. (financialexpress.com)
  • 1. Neutralizing Antibodies (or Late arriving IgG) are key to reducing infection. (financialexpress.com)
  • To increase the number of biomedical HIV prevention tools available, scientists have begun to test whether giving people periodic infusions of powerful anti-HIV antibodies can prevent HIV infection, a strategy called passive immunization. (nih.gov)
  • Further, while bNAbs isolated from people with HIV infection have demonstrated promise in primate studies and have entered human studies for HIV prevention and treatment, questions remain about whether effective antibodies could be produced rapidly and at a scale suitable for widespread distribution. (nih.gov)
  • A minority of people living with HIV produce bNAbs, but only after a significant period of infection, at which point virus in their body has already evolved to resist these defenses," said Dennis R. Burton, Ph.D., a lead author on the study, director of the NIH's Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery and scientific director of the IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Consortium at TSRI. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits robust neutralizing antibody titres in most individuals. (las.ac.cn)
  • A genetic modification in the 'coat' of a brain infection-causing virus may allow it to escape antibodies, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. (brightsurf.com)
  • Genetic mutations in the capsid of JCPyV are common in PML patients and scientists have struggled to understand whether they allow the virus to infect brain cells or whether the resulting changes allow the virus to evade elimination by antiviral antibodies and then cause brain infection. (brightsurf.com)
  • Furthermore, these data suggest a lack of genetic bias in broadly neutralizing Ab development in HIV-1 infection, with positive implications for HIV vaccine design. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies abrogate established hepatitis C virus infection. (natap.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can prevent HCV infection in vitro and in animal models. (natap.org)
  • Although an essential function for T cells is widely accepted in HCV clearance, the role of antibodies in controlling HCV infection remains elusive. (natap.org)
  • Individuals almost universally seroconvert 2 to 10 months after infection (2), but it remains controversial whether early development of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) predicts viral clearance (3-6). (natap.org)
  • In vitro experiments in human hepatoma cell lines suggest that the effect of antibodies on ongoing infection may be further diminished by HCV's ability to spread directly from cell to cell via routes that are inaccessible to nAbs (10-12). (natap.org)
  • It is possible that the expression of inhibitory receptors on the surface of TLM B cells during HIV infection may engage specific pathway leading to inhibition of B cell proliferation and antibody production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies may specifically block the interaction between the receptor binding protein on SARS-CoV-2, and the host cell's membrane receptor protein, thereby preventing infection of the cell by the virus. (businesswire.com)
  • The test is the first and only surrogate neutralizing antibody test with FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and uses ELISA technology to qualitatively detect circulating neutralizing antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 that are produced in response to vaccination or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. (businesswire.com)
  • This study presents a new strategy for developing neutralizing antibodies against JUNV and provides therapeutic candidates for protection against JUNV infection. (ovid.com)
  • Here we analyzed the cross-neutralizing antibody responses in longitudinal plasmas collected soon after and up to seven years after HIV-1 infection. (harvard.edu)
  • We find that anti-HIV-1 cross-neutralizing antibody responses first become evident on average at 2.5 years and, in rare cases, as early as 1 year following infection. (harvard.edu)
  • If cross-neutralizing antibody responses do not develop during the first 2-3 years of infection, they most likely will not do so subsequently. (harvard.edu)
  • People who are infected with HIV sometimes produce bnAbs as part of their antibody response, but infrequently and usually after infection has been long established. (brightsurf.com)
  • Located at The Scripps Research Institute and linked to a network of research institutions in Africa, Asia, Europe and the United States, the center will develop vaccine candidates devised to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV, which are almost certainly essential to preventing infection by the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • Under a five-year supplemental agreement extending the existing collaboration between IAVI and Scripps Research, IAVI will invest $30 million to support the creation of the world's only HIV Neutralizing Antibody Center comprised of multidisciplinary scientific teams, including IAVI scientists, focused on designing vaccines to prevent HIV infection. (scripps.edu)
  • They are now applying what they have learned to develop immunogens that, when delivered as vaccines, will reliably induce these antibodies in all people-with the goal of preventing HIV infection. (scripps.edu)
  • The vaccine candidate is designed to mimic a natural infection to activate both antibody (B-cell) and cellular (T-cell) arms of the immune system to generate protective neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells against SARS-CoV-2. (biospace.com)
  • These results indicate that gp120 elicits neutralizing antibodies in the course of natural infection with HTLV-III. (jimmunol.org)
  • Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection is conducted using both molecular and serologic methods, which include testing for viral RNA and IgM and neutralizing antibodies (3-5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For secondary infections, it remains uncertain whether the infecting flavivirus neutralizing antibody response is significantly greater than the cross-reacting neutralizing response, allowing for differentiation, and whether cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies are maintained for months to years after infection (16-19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We collected serum specimens from patients with Zika virus infection confirmed by molecular testing to determine the proportion of patients with detectable Zika virus IgM and the ratio of Zika virus and dengue virus neutralizing antibodies at 12-19 months after their acute illness. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The immune system responds to influenza infection by producing neutralizing antibodies to the viral surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA), which regularly changes its antigenic structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) elicited by vaccination or infection are directed to the head region of HA, which mediates the attachment of influenza virus to the cellular receptors on the target cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now, biologists at Caltech led by Nobel Laureate David Baltimore, president emeritus and Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology, have taken one step closer to that goal: they have developed a way to deliver these antibodies to mice and, in so doing, have effectively protected them from HIV infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • Traditional efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV have been centered on designing substances that provoke an effective immune response-either in the form of antibodies to block infection or T cells that attack infected cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Remarkably, these antibodies protected the mice from infection when the researchers exposed them to HIV intravenously. (healthcanal.com)
  • Still, the researchers believe that the large amounts of antibodies that the mice were able to produce-coupled with the finding that a relatively small amount of antibody has proved protective in the mice-may translate into human protection against HIV infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • These antibodies could be produced in large quantities by pharmaceutical companies to treat patients, especially early in the course of infection, and to prevent infection, particularly in the elderly. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers have confirmed that their purified, strongly neutralizing antibodies provide significant protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters, and they are planning further studies in other animals and people. (medicalxpress.com)
  • One of the human body's major responses to an infection is to produce antibodies-proteins that bind to the invading pathogen to neutralize it and mark it for destruction by cells of the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the interim, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies produced by COVID-19 patients could be used to treat other patients or even prevent infection in people exposed to the virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV-1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • As Sorrento previously announced, in preclinical studies, STI-1499 demonstrated 100% in vitro neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2, preventing infection of healthy cells in such preclinical in vitro studies. (tmcnet.com)
  • Evaluating the prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their antibody response profile is a vital part of efforts to contain the outbreak and shed light on how the virus is spreading. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using gain- and loss-of-function E proteins and wild-type and variant WNV reporter virus particles, we evaluated the expression pattern and activity of antibodies against the DIII-lr and DII-fl epitopes in mouse and human serum after WNV infection. (asm.org)
  • In mice, immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the DIII-lr epitope were detected at low levels at day 6 after infection. (asm.org)
  • Our experiments suggest that the highly neutralizing DIII-lr IgG antibodies have little significant role in primary infection and that the antibody response of humans may be skewed toward the induction of cross-reactive, less-neutralizing antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are essential for the control of WNV infection in vivo ( 6 , 16 - 18 , 20 , 44 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • EBV gp350 is thought to be a key target for antibodies capable of preventing virus infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • And only one antiviral monoclonal antibody is licensed in the U.S. It is administered for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus in premature infants. (iavi.org)
  • Antigen-Specific Single B Cell Sorting and Monoclonal Antibody Cloning in Guinea Pigs , Frontiers in Microbiology. (iavi.org)
  • This of course has bearing both on the idea of monoclonal antibody therapies and for the vaccines that are in development, so let's have a look at the new data. (sciencemag.org)
  • A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • DKK1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DKN-01 binds to and inhibits DKK1, which restores Wnt pathway signaling. (cancer.gov)
  • Safety and pharmacokinetics of the Fc-modified HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody VRC01LS: A Phase 1 open-label clinical trial in healthy adults. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV) in cell culture. (las.ac.cn)
  • They found that the capsid mutation prevents the monoclonal antibody from being able to interact with the virus, increasing the chances that the virus can infect the brain when patients become immune-suppressed. (brightsurf.com)
  • Adhesion elicited by Recombinant Human Osteopontin/OPN (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rabbit Anti-Human Osteopontin/OPN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB14334) . (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 (0.05 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB8012) . (rndsystems.com)
  • Anti-hIL-29-IgG is a monoclonal antibody against human interleukin 29 (hIL-29). (invivogen.com)
  • This is the first-in-human phase 1/2a trial of the inhaled administration of the SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DZIF- 10c in healthy volunteers and SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • COE is the antigen epitope motif that was identified by the monoclonal antibody 2C10 at the C-terminal end of the S protein ( 13 ) and the S1D domain ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The National Institutes of Health's antibody-mediated prevention (AMP) study, External also known as HIV Vaccine Trials Network External (HVTN) 703 / HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN External ) 081, could impact the future of HIV prevention and inform vaccine research. (cdc.gov)
  • In traditional vaccine studies, people get a vaccine and researchers wait to see if they produce antibodies in response. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, the studies aim to clarify what level of broadly neutralizing antibodies a vaccine, or other long-acting HIV prevention method, needs to achieve and maintain for long-term protection from HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the global variability of HIV, which results from the virus's rapid replication and mutation rate, researchers widely agree that an optimal vaccine would stimulate the human immune system to make a specific type of antibodies, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). (iavi.org)
  • While a vaccine "trains" the immune system to generate antibodies and other immune responses, passive immunization requires that the antibodies be delivered directly into the body through infusions or injections. (iavi.org)
  • Antibody preventives, if effective, could augment existing HIV prevention strategies and help limit the spread of the virus until a vaccine is developed. (iavi.org)
  • Structural basis of broad HIV neutralization by a vaccine-induced cow antibody , Sci Adv 6(22): eaba0468. (iavi.org)
  • A generalized HIV vaccine design strategy for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody responses , Science. (iavi.org)
  • Vaccine-Induced Protection from Homologous Tier 2 SHIV Challenge in Nonhuman Primates Depends on Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Titers , Immunity. (iavi.org)
  • Using a vaccine, you have an ELISA test of your blood, you have antibody in it. (biospace.com)
  • Yet no one knows how to make a vaccine that artificially stimulates the production of antibodies that can readily neutralize HIV, largely because so few HIV-infected people naturally exhibit this immune activity. (emaxhealth.com)
  • More specifically, the BNT162b1 vaccine candidate in current trials clinically incorporates nucleoside modified RNA and encodes the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein - a key target for virus- neutralizing antibodies . (news-medical.net)
  • WIKIMEDIA, BRUCEBLAUSE Only about 1 percent of HIV-infected people will generate the broadly neutralizing antibodies that target conserved spiked viral structures and can thus recognize multiple strains, and could one day serve as the basis for an effective vaccine. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here is 2nd report on the use and new developments in broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV for treatment, prevention, vaccine & cure. (natap.org)
  • Potent broadly neutralizing antibodies may be used to treat or prevent HIV and to help guide HIV vaccine design. (natap.org)
  • RICHMOND, Va. (WWBT) - As the country waits for a viable vaccine to emerge, which could put an end to the COVIC-19 pandemic, VCU Medical Center is beginning a new clinical trial that aims to use laboratory-created antibodies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among people who test positive and their household contacts. (nbc12.com)
  • While not a vaccine, they hope that by using a laboratory-created antibody they can slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 among people who are unable to isolate from each other. (nbc12.com)
  • He says that lab-created antibodies are temporary and typically don't last as long as antibodies your body creates from a vaccine. (nbc12.com)
  • In this case, these antibodies are ready to go as soon as you take the shot, but on the other hand, immunity can be life long or at least for a year, so when you get a vaccine it can last for a very long time, while these antibodies will fade over time," he said. (nbc12.com)
  • What's unexpected and unique about this antibody is that it not only attaches to the sugar coating of the virus but also reaches through to grab part of the virus's envelope protein," said the report's co-senior author Dennis Burton, a professor at The Scripps Research Institute and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, based on the Scripps Research La Jolla campus. (medindia.net)
  • Exceptionally broad HIV-1 neutralization can be achieved with individual antibodies targeted to the functionally conserved CD4bs of glycoprotein 120, an important insight for future HIV-1 vaccine design. (nih.gov)
  • The new knowledge of the evolution and key traits of anti-HIV antibodies could help researchers design a vaccine to prevent AIDS. (scripps.edu)
  • Instead, Zhu explained, they have to "reverse engineer" the right vaccine candidates using rare effective antibodies from HIV-positive patients as guides. (scripps.edu)
  • Each sample showed the antibody in a different stage of development, giving researchers a possible guide for how to elicit these antibodies with a vaccine. (scripps.edu)
  • Zhu said this discovery is encouraging, since an HIV vaccine will also need to prompt the body to make antibodies quickly. (scripps.edu)
  • The design of a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) immunogen that can induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. (sciencemag.org)
  • A major obstacle to generating a successful human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccine is the inability to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies after immunization with HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • US Centre for Disease Control has recommended a 3rd dose of the Pfizer and Moderna Covid-19 vaccine for developing adequate antibodies amongst immunocompromised people. (financialexpress.com)
  • Research on broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is taking the field of HIV prevention science in new directions, with implications for new prevention interventions and vaccine development. (eatg.org)
  • The findings offer insights for HIV vaccine design, and support further study of modified bovine antibodies as HIV therapeutics or prevention tools in humans, scientists reported in a paper published online today in Nature . (nih.gov)
  • Here, we showed that mimicking AAR with halofuginone (HF) enhanced the magnitude and affinity of neutralizing, antigen-specific antibody responses in mice immunized with dengue virus envelope domain III protein (DENVrEDIII), a potent vaccine candidate against DENV. (sciencemag.org)
  • Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) that are spreading into new territories is an important goal of vaccine design. (medworm.com)
  • A vaccine that can elicit a broadly neutralizing effect is needed for a vaccine to be fully effecive for everyone. (aumag.org)
  • We just need to find a way to elicit the production of these antibodies through a successful vaccine. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • Lessons from Cuba: mass campaign administration of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and seroprevalence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. (who.int)
  • Integrated knowledge from vaccine design for other pathogens may accelerate the design of preventive or therapeutic HIV-1 vaccines with the property of inducing potent neutralizing antibody. (frontiersin.org)
  • The webinar entitled "SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Testing for Vaccine Efficacy Assessment" will be presented by Dr. Laura Peek from Biodesix, and Dr. Sean Taylor from GenScript®, and is scheduled for 1:00 pm ET on Wednesday May 5, 2021. (businesswire.com)
  • The webinar will also describe how the cPass test is distinguished from IgG binding antibody assays in delineating between vaccinated individuals and how these data compare with published vaccine efficacy data. (businesswire.com)
  • In addition to performing onsite rapid antigen testing for schools, athletics, and employers to quickly identify potential cases and utilizing our highly sensitive PCR testing for confirmation and validation, we are excited to add the cPass neutralizing antibody test to our portfolio to help assess vaccine responses and potentially the timing of doses or boosters. (businesswire.com)
  • The VH1-2 restricted VRC01-class of antibodies targeting the HIV Envelope CD4 binding site (CD4bs) are a major focus of HIV vaccine strategies. (ssrn.com)
  • This first longitudinal study of broadly neutralizing VRC01-class antibody lineage reveals early binding to the N276-glycan during affinity maturation, which may have implications for vaccine design. (ssrn.com)
  • They have provided us with novel types on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that will advance vaccine design to elicit protective immunity to HIV-1. (cavd.org)
  • The consortium on "Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies" led by Robin Weiss at University College London (UCL) has drawn Europe's leading B-cell immunologists into AIDS vaccine discovery. (cavd.org)
  • Using these mAbs, we can identify the epitopes on HIV that elicit these antibodies and exploit this knowledge in the design of novel vaccine candidates. (cavd.org)
  • Demonstrate the ability of these novel vaccine candidates to elicit anti-HIV-1 antibodies in animals and protection from SHIV challenge. (cavd.org)
  • LA JOLLA, CA - An experimental HIV vaccine developed by scientists at Scripps Research and the nonprofit vaccine research organization IAVI has reached an important milestone by eliciting antibodies that can neutralize a wide variety of HIV strains. (brightsurf.com)
  • They found that their vaccine strategy had a much better response, with five of the rabbits developing antibodies that could neutralize multiple HIV isolates. (brightsurf.com)
  • In the latest issue of JCI Insight, James Crowe of Vanderbilt University and colleagues describe the isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies with H3N2v-neutralizing capacity from human subjects given an H3N2v candidate vaccine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Finding a way to elicit neutralizing antibodies against HIV is the biggest challenge facing AIDS vaccine researchers today. (scripps.edu)
  • Our existing partnership with IAVI, and this additional funding, will allow us to expand our own efforts and to take a more focused approach to the extremely difficult but vital task of finding an effective antibody-inducing component for an AIDS vaccine,' said Burton, who is renowned for his work on antibodies and antibody responses to HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • This study, which evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of UB-612, showed that the vaccine was generally well-tolerated and elicited robust antibody responses comparable to those seen in human convalescent sera. (biospace.com)
  • All subjects developed neutralizing antibodies after two doses of the vaccine. (biospace.com)
  • The company is a scientific trailblazer creating technological firsts, including the manufacture and commercialization of more than 100 million antibody blood tests, and 5 billion vaccine doses against infectious diseases in animal health. (biospace.com)
  • With proprietary access to UBI's core technology platforms, COVAXX can develop and commercialize high precision antibody tests and a promising COVID-19 vaccine that together would form a unique Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Individuals (DIVI) system. (biospace.com)
  • Notably, a virus-neutralizing antibody assay indicated that the neutralization activities of sera of mice vaccinated with the crude extract containing COE-GCN4pII were similar to those of mice vaccinated with a commercial vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • HA stem-directed antibodies were elicited in mice primed with a DNA vaccine and boosted with inactivated vaccine from H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (1999 NC) HA regardless of preexposure. (sciencemag.org)
  • their hope is that they may learn how to create a vaccine that makes antibodies with similar properties. (healthcanal.com)
  • Antibodies may also be useful even after a vaccine is available. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens would be a major advance toward an effective vaccine. (osti.gov)
  • In their testing, the experimental vaccine induced potent neutralizing antibodies in both mice and nonhuman primates. (healthcanal.com)
  • Further, the investigational vaccine induced up to 100-fold higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in mice compared with previous vaccine designs by using structure-based design to precisely target the cell-binding site on gp350, the vulnerable part of the virus. (healthcanal.com)
  • These antibodies can neutralize a wide range of genetically variable HIV isolates in laboratory tests, and studies show that some bnAbs can protect monkeys against a virus similar to HIV. (iavi.org)
  • A new Duke-NUS-led study has identified a super-potent antibody which requires a minute amount to neutralize the dengue virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies (bNAbs) are neutralizing antibodies which neutralize multiple HIV-1 viral strains. (natap.org)
  • PGT 128, the antibody described in the new report, can neutralize about 70 percent of globally circulating HIV strains by blocking their ability to infect cells. (medindia.net)
  • Although rare human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exist that broadly neutralize HIV-1, HIV-1 envelope immunogens do not induce these antibody specificities. (sciencemag.org)
  • These extended loops help to penetrate sugar molecules on the surface of HIV, enabling the high performing antibodies to reach and recognize concealed regions of HIV proteins and neutralize the virus. (nih.gov)
  • The team examined the structural features to see how the monoclonal antibodies recognize the virus capsid and neutralize it. (brightsurf.com)
  • By utilizing our selection of in-house manufactured proteins, we are able to leverage our bioassay expertise to ensure that our antibodies block/neutralize the appropriate cellular function. (rndsystems.com)
  • This antibody has been selected for its ability to efficiently neutralize the biological activity of hIL-29. (invivogen.com)
  • Five monoclonal antibodies effectively neutralize Junin virus. (ovid.com)
  • Theo Verrips in Utrecht perfected the technique of high throughput screening for llama single-chain mAb fragments (VHH) to neutralize HIV by binding to clefts in the HIV envelope that other antibodies cannot always reach. (cavd.org)
  • One of the neutralizing human mAbs isolated by Davide Corti in Lanzavecchia's laboratory was found by Ruth Ruprecht of Harvard to neutralize a SHIV. (cavd.org)
  • However, these antibodies were able to neutralize human H3N2 strains that circulated between 1995 and 2005, indicating that these strains are highly related to H3N2v. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Antibodies that target the highly conserved stem region of HA neutralize diverse influenza viruses and can be elicited through vaccination in animals and humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • HIV researchers, using new methods developed by two biotechnology companies, discovered two new antibodies with the ability to neutralize many strains of HIV. (hivresearch.org)
  • In 2006, IAVI launched Protocol G-an international collaborative study searching for antibodies that can neutralize the strains of HIV that circulate in the developing world. (hivresearch.org)
  • Passive administration of HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can protect macaques from hard-to-neutralize (tier 2) chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. (mit.edu)
  • Therefore, Env protein-based vaccination strategies can protect against hard-to-neutralize SHIV challenge in rhesus macaques by inducing tier 2 nAbs, provided appropriate neutralizing titers can be reached and maintained. (mit.edu)
  • Overview of the combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) under investigation in early clinical studies for HIV prevention. (avac.org)
  • The IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center is a principal source of innovation worldwide in the study of bnAbs and the design of immunogens that could elicit HIV bnAbs in the human body. (iavi.org)
  • IAVI's Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC) was established in 2002, and today, is a leading source of innovation in the study of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and the design of immunogens to elicit these antibodies through vaccination. (iavi.org)
  • As with antiretroviral combinations used in treatment, passive immunization of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention may require two or more bNAbs that target different parts of the virus. (avac.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bNAbs) can recognize carbohydrate-dependent epitopes on gp120. (pnas.org)
  • These are referred to as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). (sciencemag.org)
  • The early phase clinical trial will evaluate whether periodic infusions of two highly potent, HIV-specific, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)-3BNC117 and 10-1074-are safe in people living with HIV. (natap.org)
  • Our group hypothesized that a combination approach to infusions of broadly neutralizing antibodies might also help avoid the development of resistance that has been observed following treatment with individual bNAbs. (natap.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may also activate other immune cells to help destroy HIV-infected cells. (natap.org)
  • Finally, modified antibody variants with substantially increased half-lives facilitate infrequent dosing of antibodies, and improved formulations will allow for alternatives to i.v. application that will be of particular interest for the use of bNAbs in prevention. (natap.org)
  • Two genetically modified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) protected rhesus macaques from an HIV-like virus, report scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Over time more bNAbs were isolated, while single cell antibody cloning made it possible to produce large quantities of the antibodies for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • bNAbs evolve over years, accumulating some three times as many mutations as other antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2006, researchers had identified a few so-called "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bNAbs) that worked on multiple HIV strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most other bNAbs, these antibodies do not bind to known epitopes, on Env or on Env's subunits (gp120 or gp41). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health have achieved a significant step forward, eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV by immunizing calves. (nih.gov)
  • B roadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) hold the potential of being a component of an HIV functional cure regimen, an HIV treatment, and even a prevention therapy to protect against the virus. (aumag.org)
  • At CROI 2017, Michel Nussenzweig from Rockefeller University presented evidence that early administration of a short course of two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) -- 3BNC117 and 10-1074 -- led to prolonged immunological control of SHIV viral load in macaques. (thebodypro.com)
  • Mutations in the framework regions of such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been reported to play a role in determining their properties. (osti.gov)
  • If germline B cells that initiate affinity maturation have high affinity for the conserved residues of the targeted epitope, framework mutations increase antibody rigidity as affinity maturation progresses to evolve bnAbs. (osti.gov)
  • The tests, in rabbits, showed that these "broadly neutralizing" antibodies, or bnAbs, targeted at least two critical sites on the virus. (brightsurf.com)
  • A critical step in this process is the activation of naive B cells expressing germline (gl) antibody precursors that have the potential to evolve into bNAbs. (osti.gov)
  • However, the exact features of antibody responses that govern COVID-19 disease outcomes remain unclear. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed humoral immune responses in 229 patients with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 over time to probe the nature of antibody responses in disease severity and mortality. (nature.com)
  • However, information about how antibody responses affect the course of COVID-19 trajectory, and how they correlate with additional host factors, viral titers and clinical outcome, is still missing. (nature.com)
  • BNT162b2 elicited strong antibody responses: at one week after the boost, SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean 50% neutralizing titres were up to 3.3-fold above those observed in samples from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the scientists discovered that versions of Rfv3 that fail to make antibody responses correlate with a natural defect in Apobec3. (emaxhealth.com)
  • We knew that Apobec3 had very interesting antiviral properties, but this new discovery that it affects antibody responses will generate even greater interest in both Apobec3 and Vif. (emaxhealth.com)
  • These results may have important implications for generating effective neutralizing antibody responses by using HIV-1 vaccines. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Known to activate the nutrient-sensing kinase GCN2, HF promoted phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α in immune cells, increased germinal center formation, and increased neutralizing antibody responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The increased abundance of IL-10 in HF-preconditioned mice correlated with enhanced GC responses and may promote the establishment of long-lived plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific, high-affinity antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neutralizing antibody is a correlate of protection and data on kinetics of virus neutralizing antibody responses are needed. (las.ac.cn)
  • Age did not appear to compromise antibody responses, even after accounting for severity. (las.ac.cn)
  • This task may be complex to pursue as potential immunotherapy approaches aimed at improving B cell responses may have the important caveat of broadening the process of antibody production towards an autoimmune phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • While enormous progress has been made in the activation of VRC01-class antibody precursors by immunization, challenges remain in understanding how to drive such responses towards the neutralization breadth characteristic of this family of antibodies. (ssrn.com)
  • Recent cross-sectional analyses of HIV-1+ plasmas have indicated that broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses are developed by 10%-30% of HIV-1+ subjects. (harvard.edu)
  • It is also unknown whether the emergence of these responses coincides with the appearance of antibody specificities to a single or multiple regions of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). (harvard.edu)
  • Our results indicate a potential link between the development of cross-neutralizing antibody responses and specific activation markers on T cells, and with plasma viremia levels. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast, the neutralizing activities of plasmas from subjects that did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses target epitopes on monomeric gp120 other than the CD4-BS. (harvard.edu)
  • The Env proteins in the booster shots also were mixes based on different strains of HIV, to generally promote antibody responses against Env structures that do not vary among these strains. (brightsurf.com)
  • At the 100 ug dose level, anti-S1-RBD and viral neutralizing antibody responses compared favorably to responses observed in hospitalized patients who had recovered from COVID-19. (biospace.com)
  • We show here that prime-boost immunization can induce broadly neutralizing antibody responses in influenza-immune mice and ferrets that were previously infected or vaccinated. (sciencemag.org)
  • The analysis of gp120-specific CTL proliferation, INF-gamma induction, and prevalence of anti-gp120 IgG2 subclass antibodies indicated that nasal vaccination in NE also induced systemic, Th1-polarized cellular immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and Université de Paris conducted a pilot study to evaluate the reliability of several laboratory tests with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the profile of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and how the virus is spreading among the population. (pasteur.fr)
  • Antibody-mediated resistance to viral disease is often attributed solely to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) despite a body of evidence -- more than 30 years in the making -- to show that other populations of antibodies (protective non-neutralizing antibodies, PnNAbs) can also contribute and are sometimes pivotal in host resistance to viruses. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This search includes the use of the viral RNA, DNA, vaccines introduced into the host by viral vectors, recombinant subunits that stimulate antibodies to the virus, and the inactivated virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Antibodies are key to warding off viral infections, and most vaccines against viral diseases stimulate the body to make antibodies against the target virus. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Our results show how different factors boost the formation of antibodies that broadly combat different viral strains. (the-scientist.com)
  • Further analysis revealed that the viral load in the body, the diversity of viruses found in that individual, and how long the patient went without treatment were key factors in determining which patients produced these antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • They described the exact viral component, or epitope that triggered the antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, some of the antibodies developed for those have been shown to cross-react with the current viral spike protein, although this is by no means a universal property. (sciencemag.org)
  • this innovation process is proceeding rapidly and if not too costly, the administration of cocktails of highly effective HIV neutralizing antibodies to infected patients for the purpose of controlling viral disseminations may become a reality within short term. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current vaccines are highly effective at generating antibodies against the viral spike protein when administered as recommended. (businesswire.com)
  • With seroconversion, antibodies to viral envelope proteins appeared first and were correlated with development of neutralizing antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • Affinity purified gp120, the major envelope glycoprotein of HTLV-III, blocked viral infectivity and absorbed neutralizing antibody activity from a positive serum. (jimmunol.org)
  • Protective immunity against influenza virus in humans arises primarily from neutralizing antibodies directed at the major viral surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA). (sciencemag.org)
  • In a new BioSpace interview on May 21 with Ji and Brunswick, Ji emphasized the stringent process the company went through in identifying STI-1499, noting that in the antibacterial and antiviral space, the laboratory testing to prove antibody efficacy is generally higher than for vaccines and oncology-with 100% elimination of the virus in human cells required. (biospace.com)
  • ROCHESTER, Minn - Minnesota-based Mayo Clinic and its research partners have launched a new type of antibody test designed to help develop therapies and vaccines for COVID-19. (kare11.com)
  • A family of broadly neutralizing antibodies from a chronically infected donor provides a schematic for designing vaccines and treatments that target multiple strains of the virus. (the-scientist.com)
  • Researchers hope to use the knowledge of these antibodies' binding sites on HIV to develop vaccines that stimulate a long-term perhaps lifetime protective antibody response against those same vulnerable sites. (medindia.net)
  • Thus, current HIV-1 vaccines may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • These developments are a direct fallout of the innumerable cases of low antibodies level even after two doses of the vaccines. (financialexpress.com)
  • The few trials conducted with candidate HIV vaccines showed that it is difficult to elicit high titers of HIV neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated individuals and that the low levels of antibodies mounted against HIV vaccines soon declined. (frontiersin.org)
  • This means that, if the new insight into neutralizing mAbs can be translated into the design of effective immunogens, vaccines covering the vast majority of HIV-1 strains will be feasible. (cavd.org)
  • These findings suggest that broadly neutralizing antibodies against the conserved stem region of HA can be elicited through vaccination despite previous influenza exposure, which supports the feasibility of developing stem-directed universal influenza vaccines for humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vaccines that elicit strong neutralizing antibodies should provide robust protection against the virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cell-based assays mimic the mechanism by which the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) exert their effect in vivo and are the regulatory authorities' preferred method to detect NAb presence. (intertek.com)
  • Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • This is a cross sectional Phase 4, multicenter, study of AVONEX® and JUMTAB® to determine the frequency of IFN induced Neutralizing Antibodies (Nabs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These data indicate that COVID-19 mortality does not correlate with the cross-sectional antiviral antibody levels per se but, rather, with the delayed kinetics of NAb production. (nature.com)
  • Here, I briefly review some of the historical precedents with many viruses other than HIV, along with the emergence of data over the course of some four decades, pointing emphatically to the importance of subsets of antiviral antibodies that operate by mechanisms other than classical virus neutralization. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The in vivo antiviral experiment of neutralizing antibodies has recently been completed, using hACE2 transgenic mice model developed by Dr. Chuan Qin's lab at ILAS. (eurekalert.org)
  • This trial is a phase 1/2a first-in-human clinical trial to evaluate the safety , pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of the monoclonal SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody DZIF-10c administered by inhalation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The potent neutralizing antibody could be used to develop drugs for both therapeutic intervention and prophylactic protection against SARS-CoV-2. (eurekalert.org)
  • These findings indicate that the application of Fc domain engineering is a feasible strategy to enhance toxin-neutralizing activity and suggest that engineered antitoxin antibodies will have improved therapeutic efficacy. (jci.org)
  • We therefore propose to generate humanized ant-PBEFmonoclonal antibodies (P- BEFizumab) that can be used as both prophylactic and therapeutic agents in patients with ALI/VILI. (sbir.gov)
  • We have shown PBEF as a major contributing factor, and propose to generate therapeutic humanized neutralizing anti-PBEF monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with acute lung injury. (sbir.gov)
  • 9. Neutralizing antibodies are more applicable to be catered as the advanced Diagnostic and therapeutic marker to address the resurgence of COVID infections in the country and how many positive individuals have remained asymptomatic. (financialexpress.com)
  • He has most recently served as the medical leader for Lilly's work during the COVID pandemic that lead to emergency authorization for a therapeutic neutralizing antibody. (eventbrite.com)
  • Currently in the US, therapeutic antibodies claimed merely by the antigen to which it binds are not patentable for lack of written description. (bereskinparr.com)
  • Memo Therapeutics CSO Dr Christoph Esslinger said: "We are also extremely pleased to see that our DROPZYLLA antibody discovery platform and the established workflow appear to be perfectly suited for a rapid pandemic response, and we believe that patient-derived antibodies are the most straightforward, safe and reliable therapeutic option for such a situation. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Cell-based neutralizing antibody assays can be difficult to develop as the selection of the most suitable assay type (indirect or direct) and format depends on thorough understanding of the drug's mechanism of action. (intertek.com)
  • Through the intelligent and experienced application of cell-based neutralizing antibody assays, Intertek is the ideal partner for your biologic drug development or pharmacovigilance requirements for immunogenicity testing . (intertek.com)
  • But there was a surprise: assays (biolayer interferometry, for the specialists) showed that the antibody did not keep the Spike protein from binding to the ACE2 protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also tested all human mAbs against the human epithelial HEp-2 cell line that is used in clinical antinuclear antibody assays ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Antibody detection assays, which show whether an individual has developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 proteins and therefore previously contracted the virus. (pasteur.fr)
  • Neutralization assays, which determine whether an individual has neutralizing antibodies and is therefore immunized against the virus. (pasteur.fr)
  • Several teams from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and Université de Paris therefore set out to develop serological assays, conducting a pilot study to evaluate the reliability of four detection assays by measuring levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. (pasteur.fr)
  • The research teams designed four laboratory assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in human serum. (pasteur.fr)
  • We performed luciferase-based virus neutralization assays and calculated 90% neutralizing titers as previously described ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • A major conundrum has been that HIV-1 envelopes that express membrane-proximal epitopes fail to induce equivalent antibodies in animal models or humans ( 5 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Class 2 contained four neutralizing antibodies with epitopes that bridged RBDs, including a VH3-53 antibody that used a long CDRH3 with a hydrophobic tip to bridge between adjacent down RBDs, thereby locking the spike into a closed conformation. (las.ac.cn)
  • The earliest cross-neutralizing antibody response targets a limited number of Env regions, primarily the CD4-binding site and epitopes that are not present on monomeric Env, but on the virion-associated trimeric Env form. (harvard.edu)
  • Since antibodies to complex epitopes that are present on the virion-associated envelope spike appear to be key components of earliest cross-neutralizing activities of HIV-1+ plasmas, then emphasis should be made to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, the S protein is a target for neutralizing antibody induction because it harbors virus-neutralizing epitopes and is the principle antigenic determinant ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The CO-26K-equivalent epitope (COE epitope) is one of the various neutralizing epitopes on the S protein of PEDV which have been recognized ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Vaccination with Glycan-Modified HIV NFL Envelope Trimer-Liposomes Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Multiple Sites of Vulnerability , Immunity. (iavi.org)
  • The PGT151 epitope is comprised of residues and glycans at the interface of gp41 and gp120 within a single protomer and glycans from both subunits of a second protomer and represents a neutralizing epitope that is dependent on both gp120 and gp41. (rcsb.org)
  • This antibody attached to a "conserved" portion of gp120 that outlasts many of its mutations, affecting 17/24 tested strains at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over a year, he repeatedly donated blood, which researchers used to create a timeline of changes in his virus' gp120, his antibody response and the ultimate emergence of a bNAb. (wikipedia.org)
  • A screen of massive gp120 libraries led to one that strongly bound both an original antibody and the mature bNAb that evolved from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giving patients a modified gp120 that contains little more than the epitope that both antibodies target could act to "prime" the immune system, followed by a booster that contains trimer spikes in the most natural configuration possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody binds to gp120 in a way that presumably disrupts its ability to lock onto human cells and infect them. (medindia.net)
  • Yet it doesn't bind to gp120 many times more tightly than other anti-HIV antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists also spotted a hurdle they will have to overcome as they engineer their own antibodies: The teenage VRC01 has a slightly longer amino acid chain at one site than the mature version, and this chain clashes with part of the glycoprotein shield (gp120) on HIV and prevents the antibody from effectively neutralizing the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • Neutralizing antibody titers mirrored antibody titers to gp120 by RIP. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antibody to gp120 sometimes occurred in the absence of neutralizing antibody, although the reverse was not true. (jimmunol.org)
  • One thalassemia patient who exhibited antibody to gp120 for 3 yr post-seroconversion failed to develop neutralizing antibody, acquired the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with central nervous system involvement and lymphoma, and subsequently died. (jimmunol.org)
  • The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. (nih.gov)
  • While the female monkey showed anti-S1 IgG antibodies only in the female monkey on day 9, both monkeys developed strong titers of this isotype by day 16. (news-medical.net)
  • This timeline is probably longer in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, and the antibody titers (concentration) are probably lower. (pasteur.fr)
  • We assessed neutralizing antibody titers to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and six rare adenovirus serotypes, serotypes 11, 35, 50, 26, 48, and 49, in pediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa. (asm.org)
  • We observed a clear age dependence of Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. (asm.org)
  • Laboratory studies have shown that the antibody used in this study (VRC01) stops up to 90 percent of HIV strains, and thus it is considered a broadly neutralizing antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we used the Rosetta software suite to design variants of the PG9 antibody HCDR3 loop with the goal of identifying variants with increased potency and breadth of neutralization for diverse HIV strains. (jci.org)
  • Since the 1990s, Burton, Wilson, and other researchers have been searching for such "broadly neutralizing" antibodies against HIV antibodies that work against many of the various strains of the fast-mutating virus and by now have found more than a dozen. (medindia.net)
  • Both of these glycans appear in most HIV strains, which helps explain why PGT 128 is so broadly neutralizing," said Katie J. Doores, a research associate in the Burton lab who was one of the report's lead authors. (medindia.net)
  • Genetically, the antibody found in this donor resembled members of the VRC01 class of antibodies, which are "broadly neutralizing antibodies," named for their ability to target a key site of vulnerability on many strains of the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • The antibodies involved can stop a wide variety of HIV strains from infecting human cells and thus are described as "broadly neutralizing. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, when blood samples from people who had experimentally received VRC01LS were exposed to HIV in the laboratory, the altered antibody was just as effective as VRC01 at neutralizing multiple virus strains throughout the 48-week study. (nih.gov)
  • A technology, called the Immune Repertoire Capture (IRC) platform was used to sequence antibodies taken from the blood and antibody-producing cells in the bone marrow of elite neutralizers, individuals with HIV who are capable of producing antibodies effective against numerous HIV strains. (aumag.org)
  • Eliciting antibodies that are cross reactive with surface proteins of diverse strains of highly mutable pathogens (e.g. (osti.gov)
  • At the start of the CAVD in 2006, only five neutralizing mAbs that broadly cross-neutralized multiple HIV-1 strains were known. (cavd.org)
  • While these antibodies effectively neutralized H3N2v, they were not effective against currently circulating human H3N2 strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • One naturally occurring, broadly neutralizing HIV antibody currently under study in passive immunization for HIV prevention is named VRC01. (nih.gov)
  • These characteristics could reduce the cost and increase the convenience of passive immunization against HIV because fewer doses of the antibody could achieve the same protective effect. (nih.gov)
  • Now that it's clear the LS alteration helps broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies last longer while counteracting the virus just as well in the laboratory, scientists at NIAID and elsewhere are testing this change in other broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies to develop additional candidates for passive immunization. (nih.gov)
  • The test is a fast and effective way to understand the presence of potentially neutralizing antibodies in a person's immune system, providing important information to help guide immunization decisions. (businesswire.com)
  • Here, a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were isolated through immunization with DNA and screening against glycoprotein complex (GPC). (ovid.com)
  • HIGHLIGHTS Monoclonal antibodies were obtained based on DNA immunization and intact GPC screening. (ovid.com)
  • Another important finding from this consortium is that immunization of animals (guinea-pigs rabbits, llamas) with HIV-1 envelope proteins can elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, something not previously achieved by experimental immunization. (cavd.org)
  • Immunization experiments in knock-in mice expressing gl-VRC01 or gl-PGT121 show that this trimer activates B cells in vivo, resulting in the secretion of specific antibodies into the sera. (osti.gov)
  • On day 14, rabbits displayed strong neutralizing activity against the virus when immunized with a pseudovirus neutralization assay. (news-medical.net)
  • Neutralization potency of BD-368-2 antibody against pseudovirus and authentic virus, IC50 reached 8pM and 100pM respectively. (eurekalert.org)
  • The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Virus neutralization is the gold standard for finding antibody efficacy. (financialexpress.com)
  • To identify the structural correlates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we solved eight new structures of distinct COVID-19 human neutralizing antibodies5 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer or RBD. (las.ac.cn)
  • With over 1,400 antibodies that have been validated, our selection of neutralization and blocking antibodies is unmatched. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cell Adhesion Mediated by Osteopontin/OPN and Neutralization by Human Osteopontin/OPN Antibody. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemotaxis Induced by CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 and Neutralization by Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Antibody. (rndsystems.com)
  • The webinar will present data comparing the cPass SARS CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody test to the gold standard live cell virus neutralization tests. (businesswire.com)
  • PCIN63 monoclonal antibodies have the hallmark VRC01-class features and demonstrate neutralization breadth similar to the prototype VRC01 antibody but are 3 to 4-fold less mutated. (ssrn.com)
  • Serum specimens were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Fort Collins, CO, USA) by IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) for detection of Zika virus and dengue virus IgM and by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to detect Zika virus and dengue virus neutralizing antibodies (5,6,22). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In syngeneic mouse GL261 glioma and human U87 glioma xenograft models, we evaluated the efficacy of systemic CCL2 blockade by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting mouse and/or human CCL2. (springer.com)
  • To test the efficacy of the antibody, the researchers started with a virus dose of one nanogram, which was enough to infect the majority of the mice who received it. (healthcanal.com)
  • A secondary component is the long term retrospective observational evaluation conducted to measure efficacy, adherence to therapy, tolerability, and safety in subjects with relapsing MS related to antibody status and treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The method described here, termed trans-sialidase inhibition assay (TIA), enables the detection of TS-neutralizing antibodies in serum samples of different mammalian species, without the use of conjugated secondary reagents. (nih.gov)
  • gray squares indicate dog serum samples with virus neutralizing activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Convalescent serum contains a variety of antibodies, but because each patient has a different immune response, the antibody-rich plasma used to treat one patient may be vastly different from the plasma given to another, with varying concentrations and strengths of neutralizing antibodies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Serum samples collected from feral and domestic swine ( Sus scrofa ) in Florida and feral swine in Georgia and Texas were assayed by plaque reduction for their virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies against the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGE). (bioone.org)
  • In contrast, antibodies to the DII-fl were detected in all human serum samples and encompassed a significant percentage of the anti-E protein response. (asm.org)
  • We first evaluated Ad5 seroprevalence in 42 paired mother-infant serum samples from Liberia to assess the magnitude of passively acquired maternal antibodies. (asm.org)
  • The researchers in the current study cloned the S1 protein into a cell line chosen for its proven performance in making human antibody preparations, and its ability to ensure the right glycosylation of the S1 antigen. (news-medical.net)
  • In this recent study, researchers isolated 5J7 from 200 different candidate antibody molecules by studying blood samples from a dengue infected patient. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • By using their expertise in single-cell genomics, Sunney Xie's team at ICG, PKU in collaboration with researchers of Beijing YouAn Hospital collected blood samples from over 60 convalescent patients, among which 14 highly potent neutralizing antibodies were selected from 8,558 antigen-binding IgG1+ clonotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The neutralizing antibody test adds that next level of detail for researchers and clinicians by providing an accurate estimate of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity," said John Mills, Ph.D., co-director of the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory, in a statement . (kare11.com)
  • Mayo Clinic developed the neutralizing antibody test in partnership with researchers at Regeneron and fellow Rochester, Minnesota-based companies Vyriad, Inc. and Imanis Life Sciences . (kare11.com)
  • Now, thanks to work out of the University of Zurich and University Hospital Zurich (UZH) in Switzerland, researchers have a few clues as to who makes these broadly neutralizing antibodies and when. (the-scientist.com)
  • Subtype B viruses, the researchers found, tend to elicit antibodies that bind to CD4 binding sites on the virus, while other subtypes tend to elicit antibodies that bind to V2 glycan, a sugar element of HIV's conserved spikes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Researchers track the evolution of HIV in a single patient to understand what drives the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • In 1990, researchers identified the first HIV bNAb, far more powerful than any antibody seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute have uncovered the surprising details of how a powerful anti-HIV antibody grabs hold of the virus. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers from the current team recently isolated the new antibody and 16 others from the blood of HIV-infected volunteers, in work they reported online in the journal Nature on August 17, 2011. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers studied samples taken from the patient over five years, starting in 2006 when Zhu said the antibody was a "toddler. (scripps.edu)
  • The researchers managed to tweak the immature antibody to make it into a broadly neutralizing antibody. (scripps.edu)
  • The researchers also noted that this is the first time a VRC01-like antibody has been isolated from a patient of Asian descent-the other VRC01s had come from African or Caucasian patients. (scripps.edu)
  • This type of change to an antibody was first described in 2010 by researchers at Xencor Inc. in Monrovia, California. (nih.gov)
  • While cattle do not naturally acquire the human virus HIV, their immune systems have unique features that the researchers thought would allow them to produce potent antibodies when injected with HIV immunogens, or proteins designed to mimic proteins on the surface of HIV. (nih.gov)
  • However, researchers from the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine along with researchers at Harvard and a biotechnology company called Atreca, recently identified monoclonal antibodies that appear capable of a broadly neutralizing effect on a diverse range of HIV subtypes. (aumag.org)
  • The researchers analyzed the antibodies of the rabbit that had responded most strongly, and identified two distinct types of bnAb. (brightsurf.com)
  • Researchers have successfully crystallized several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, determined their structures down to the atomic level, and used this information to get a handle on how each disables HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • Researchers at Columbia University Irving Medical Center have isolated antibodies from several COVID-19 patients that, to date, are among the most potent in neutralizing the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Similarly, survival was modestly prolonged in severe combined immunodeficiency mice bearing intracranial human U87 glioma xenografts treated with both anti-human CCL2 mAb and anti-mouse CCL2 antibodies (2 mg/kg/dose for each, twice a week) compared to mice treated with control IgG ( P = 0.0159). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, i.p. administration of anti-mouse CCL2 antibody in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) significantly prolonged the survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing GL261 glioma with 8 of 10 treated mice surviving longer than 70 days, while only 3 of 10 mice treated with TMZ and isotype IgG survived longer than 70 days ( P = 0.0359). (springer.com)
  • This was then tested in mice, rabbits, and monkeys, and the antibodies formed were analyzed. (news-medical.net)
  • In this report, we used mice expressing only human FcγRs to evaluate the contribution of FcγR-mediated pathways to the neutralizing activity of an anti-anthrax toxin chimeric mAb. (jci.org)
  • These weren't just any mice, naturally - they were H2L2 animals , a trademark of Harbour Antibodies for a strain that has a partially humanized immune system. (sciencemag.org)
  • B cells from the mice (spleen and lymph) were fused with myeloma cells in the classic " hybridoma " technique that produces new immortal antibody-producing cell lines. (sciencemag.org)
  • The AAV was injected into the leg muscle of mice, and the muscle cells then put broadly neutralizing antibodies into the animals' circulatory systems. (healthcanal.com)
  • After just a single AAV injection, the mice produced high concentrations of these antibodies for the rest of their lives, as shown by intermittent sampling of their blood. (healthcanal.com)
  • We expected that at some dose, the antibodies would fail to protect the mice, but it never did-even when we gave mice 100 times more HIV than would be needed to infect 7 out of 8 mice," says Balazs. (healthcanal.com)
  • He points out that this outcome likely had more to do with the properties of the antibody that was tested than the method, but adds that VIP is what enabled the large amount of this powerful antibody to circulate through the mice and fight the virus. (healthcanal.com)
  • Covid-19 neutralizing antibody test detects neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. (financialexpress.com)
  • A new study reports the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing the current pandemic of COVID-19. (news-medical.net)
  • In other words, this protein antigen is a highly immunogenic molecule and stimulates the production of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it is often time-consuming to develop neutralizing antibodies suitable for clinical use, taking months or even years. (eurekalert.org)
  • A clinical trial testing infusions of combination antibodies in people living with HIV has begun at the National Institutes of Health. (natap.org)
  • NIAID Launches First Clinical Trial to Test Antibody-Drug Combination for Long-Acting HIV Treatment - (01/27/20). (natap.org)
  • Pre-clinical results have encouraged the evaluation of these antibodies in healthy and HIV-1-infected humans. (natap.org)
  • Led by NIAID scientists, the first clinical trial of VRC01LS has now demonstrated that the antibody is safe for people and persists in the human body more than four times longer than VRC01, according to a new report published in the journal PLOS Medicine . (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, several early-phase NIAID clinical trials of VRC01LS for HIV prevention and treatment, as well as other antibodies with the LS change, are planned or underway. (nih.gov)
  • However, clinical reports using the B cell-depleting antibody rituximab in chronically infected patients showed that HCV viremia rose between 10- and 100-fold after rituximab treatment and returned to baseline after reappearance of B cells (13, 14). (natap.org)
  • The relationship seen here between neutralizing antibody and better clinical outcome needs to be verified by additional studies. (jimmunol.org)
  • Clinical grade human IgG (huIgG) served as a negative control for CNTO888, whereas C1322 rat/mouse chimeric nonspecific antibody (provided by Centocor) served as a negative control for C1142. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There was plenty of clinical material, and that allowed us to select the best cases from which to isolate these antibodies," Ho says. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The highest proposed dose (200 mg per patient) in the phase 1 trial is a lower dose than currently being tested for other known SARS-CoV-2 targeted antibodies or antibody cocktails in active clinical studies. (tmcnet.com)
  • Sorrento is a clinical stage, antibody-centric, biopharmaceutical company developing new therapies to treat cancers. (tmcnet.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In conclusion, GP-SCIT suppresses Th2 inflammation and induced neutralizing antibodies, while GP-SLIT suppresses the clinically relevant lung function parameters in an asthma mouse model, indicating that the two application routes depend on partially divergent mechanisms of tolerance induction. (rug.nl)
  • In sera from infected humans, DIII-lr antibodies were detected at low levels and did not correlate with clinical outcome. (asm.org)
  • The selection criteria was for patients who had a clinical course of the disease indicative of a potent antibody response. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Among these antibodies, the most potent will advance into clinical development as passive immunotherapy for Covid-19. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Here, we define and structurally characterize a unique epitope on Env that is recognized by a recently discovered family of human monoclonal antibodies (PGT151-PGT158). (rcsb.org)
  • Epitope and paratope mapping revealed few interactions with host-derived N-glycans and minor contributions of antibody somatic hypermutations to epitope contacts. (las.ac.cn)
  • This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and may offer potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. (las.ac.cn)
  • Epitope mapping revealed that they targeted loop 3 of GP1, and Tyr122 and Asp123 in loop 3 were identified as their common binding sites, which may account for their neutralizing activity. (ovid.com)
  • The neutralizing epitope region of COE contains 139 amino acids within the S1 domain extending from amino acid 499-638 ( 10 , 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have established that an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (E) protein is recognized by strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, an epitope against the fusion loop in domain II (DII-fl) is recognized by flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies with less neutralizing potential. (asm.org)
  • Introduction of mutations at the core residues of the DIII-lr epitope (residues S306, K307, T330, and T332) reduced or abrogated binding of not only E16 but also all other DIII-specific, strongly neutralizing MAbs ( 4 , 44 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Prior to the Amgen decision, the written description requirement for an antibody could be satisfied by disclosing the structure of a new antigen (or epitope) if the level of skill in the art was such that producing an antibody against such an antigen was conventional or routine at the time. (bereskinparr.com)
  • This antibody does indeed bind the RBD of the Spike protein, and it binds to both the SARS coronavirus and to the current one (although it's even more potent for the earlier variety). (sciencemag.org)
  • One of these antibodies is particularly potent, and binds to a key site that HIV uses to attach to and infect immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • A blocking antibody binds its target and directly interferes with its function, such as blocking cell adhesion or receptor-ligand binding. (rndsystems.com)
  • A neutralizing antibody binds its target and negates its downstream cellular effects, such as cell proliferation or chemotaxis. (rndsystems.com)
  • In Amgen v Sanofi , 872 F.3d 1367, the Federal Circuit ruled that claiming an antibody by the antigen it binds is insufficient to meet the written description requirement. (bereskinparr.com)
  • We have the ability to generate new antibodies by using our full length recombinant proteins as well as offer panels of antibodies from our hybridomas so you can screen multiple clones at once. (rndsystems.com)
  • By having the ability to create recombinant antibodies in-house, we can also immortalize your antibody by converting your existing clone to a recombinant antibody or modifying your current antibody to meet your needs. (rndsystems.com)
  • HEK-Blue™ IFN-α/β cells were incubated with 10 ng/ml recombinant hIL-28a, hIL28b, hIL-29 and increasing concentrations of their cognate antibody. (invivogen.com)
  • The platform is designed to allow the production of complete recombinant human antibody repertoires. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Given that Apobec3 seems to help the immune system make neutralizing antibodies against retroviruses, the destruction of Apobec3 proteins by Vif might help explain why most people do not make neutralizing antibodies against HIV. (emaxhealth.com)
  • By examining the virus-antibody complex structure at very high magnification, they showed that each arm of the antibody is surprisingly effective in grabbing three surface proteins on the surface of the virus at the same time. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The movement of virus surface proteins is highly essential for invading cells - you can think of antibody 5J7 locking the virus surface proteins, thus strapping the virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • There are two antibodies and subjects either get a placebo or they get a combination of antibodies that bind to the proteins on the surface of the virus so that it can no longer enter into the cells. (nbc12.com)
  • For reference, here's a background post on some of the proteins that the virus makes and the mutations that have been spotted in them, here's my post on the basics of antibodies and immunology as relating to the epidemic, with an update here , and here's my earlier post on monoclonal antibodies as a treatment, now updated with some new items. (sciencemag.org)
  • We now also have several reports of antibodies that have been raised to such proteins - some of them isolated directly from patients , and other monoclonal ones made by techniques that are more directly amenable to protein scale-up. (sciencemag.org)
  • Subsequent booster immunizations over 48 weeks used Env proteins with restored glycans, to select for antibodies that target the CD4 binding site but can also get through this shield. (brightsurf.com)
  • In mutating to evade immune detection, HIV becomes susceptible to detection by different antibodies, suggesting new strategies for vaccination. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Covid-19 Neutralizing Antibody Microlisa test is critical and crucial to India's fight against the corona pandemic because it showcases how effective the vaccination has been for creating neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (financialexpress.com)
  • The possibility of inducing HIV neutralizing antibodies in vivo through therapeutical vaccination should be considered and highly innovative approaches need to be applied to this field. (frontiersin.org)
  • But the test conducted by Wyatt and his team confirms that vaccination can elicit the kinds of antibodies that are needed to provide broad protection against HIV. (brightsurf.com)
  • Similarly, gene-based vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus 28 (rAd28) and 5 (rAd5) vectors encoding 1999 NC HA elicited stem-directed neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against unmatched 1934 and 2007 H1N1 virus challenge in influenza-immune ferrets. (sciencemag.org)
  • Robust concentrations of S1-binding immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing titres against a SARS-CoV-2 strain with the wild-type (Wuhan-Hu-1) S sequence were elicited. (nature.com)
  • You do not want to be giving people low concentrations of antibodies,' Vyriad's Russell told the Star Tribune. (newsmax.com)
  • It also can do so much more potently in other words, in smaller concentrations of antibody molecules than any previously reported broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody. (medindia.net)
  • Therefore, we set out to investigate the conformational flexibility of antigenic site Ø, as well as the ability of the human immune system to recognize alternative conformations of this site, by determining crystal structures of prefusion RSV F bound to neutralizing human-derived antibodies AM22 and RSD5. (rcsb.org)
  • A high concentration of such antibodies implies strong immune resistance to the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Generated by human immune system, neutralizing antibodies can effectively prevent viruses from infecting cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • But with the neutralizing antibody test, I would view this as another step, another tool that we can use to better understand our immune response to [the virus]. (newsmax.com)
  • LA, JOLLA, CA - April 5, 2016 - Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and collaborating institutions have described the first-ever immature or "teenage" antibody found in a powerful class of immune molecules effective against HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • The antibody in the new study came from a patient in China who was what scientists call an "elite" controller, meaning the patient's immune system had managed to create antibodies with some ability to fight the disease. (scripps.edu)
  • Zhu called the antibody a "teenager" and said it gives scientists a unique view of the steps needed to prompt the immune system to effectively target HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • From the early days of the epidemic, we have recognized that HIV is very good at evading immunity, so exceptional immune systems that naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV are of great interest - whether they belong to humans or cattle," said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., NIAID Director. (nih.gov)
  • In previous experiments, the TSRI team and their collaborators observed that cattle produce antibodies with long HCDR3 loops at a much higher frequency than humans, that these HCDR3 loops are ultra-long, and that bovine immune cells may produce antibodies with effective immunogen binding through a fundamentally different mechanism than takes place in human immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, you put an antigen or killed bacteria or something into the body, and the immune system figures out how to make an antibody against it. (healthcanal.com)
  • We discovered that these powerful antibodies are not too difficult for the immune system to generate. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There are still many unknowns about what the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may tell us about potential immunity, but today's authorization gives us another tool to evaluate those antibodies as we continue to research and study this virus," Dr. Tim Stenzel, director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health in the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, said in a statement. (cnn.com)
  • Rapid and Focused Maturation of a VRC01-Class HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Lineage Involves Both Binding and Accommodation of the N276-Glycan , Immunity. (iavi.org)
  • When a patient is infected by one serotype - this stimulates the production of a variety of antibodies that kills that serotype and that patient will have life-time immunity towards that particular serotype. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies can result in lifelong immunity to certain infections. (financialexpress.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies develop shortly after IgM, persist for many years, and may confer lifelong immunity (13,14). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The broader impact/commercial potential of this STTR project will lead to the development of engineered antibodies for that can be used to provide passive immunity and treatment to patients infected with COVID-19. (sbir.gov)
  • however, the concern has been raised that previous influenza immunity may abrogate the induction of such broadly protective antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, because the globular head of HA undergoes continuous mutations driven by selective pressure, antibodies targeting this region are typically strain-specific and generally do not confer broad protective immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • A joint research team led by Sunney Xie, Director of Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics (ICG) at Peking University (PKU) has successfully identified multiple highly potent neutralizing antibodies against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of the respiratory disease COVID-19, from convalescent plasma by high-throughput single-cell sequencing. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new test measures neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the strain of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. (kare11.com)
  • There's a lot of work being done on antibodies for the coronavirus and on the protein domains they recognize. (sciencemag.org)
  • So you'll see from that last link that what we're after are neutralizing antibodies, not ones that just bind to the coronavirus without interfering with it enough to be useful. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here's a report from a team in China that isolated monoclonal antibodies by finding memory B cells from recovered coronavirus patient blood samples. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human neutralizing antibodies that target the host ACE2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein1,2,3,4,5 show promise therapeutically and are being evaluated clinically6,7,8. (las.ac.cn)
  • These findings add a new and quite unexpected dimension to our understanding of Apobec3 biology that might help us attack the HIV neutralizing antibody problem, an area where scientific progress has been slow," says Warner C. Greene M.D., Ph.D., director of the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology and the study's principal investigator. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Discovered and developed by Dr. Michel Nussenzweig , head of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Zanvil A. Cohn and Ralph M. Steinman Professor of The Rockefeller University , as well as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, 3BNC117 is one of the most effective broad-spectrum HIV neutralizing antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • This is a reconstructed visual of dengue virus serotype 3 bound with antigen-binding fragments of super-potent antibody 5J7. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • While antibody 5J7 has been found to be effective against DENV-3, the remaining two serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-2 and DENV-4) have to be considered. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Cross-reactivity between Zika virus and other flaviviruses occurs both with IgM and neutralizing antibodies and makes distinguishing Zika virus from dengue virus infections especially challenging. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A type of antibody that can recognize and block many types of HIV from entering healthy cells. (natap.org)
  • Other research is also starting to suggest that you can grab onto two glycans and a beta strand and get very potent and broad neutralizing antibodies against HIV," Wilson said. (medindia.net)
  • Thirdly, different virus subtypes appeared more or less likely to trigger the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • Structural basis of a public antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 , bioRxiv: 2020 Jun 9;2020.06.08.141267. (iavi.org)
  • In these preclinical studies, the antibody has been 100% effective against the highly contagious D614G variant strain at similar doses to those observed in experiments with the USA-WA1/2020 strain. (tmcnet.com)
  • Unlike human antibodies, cattle antibodies are more likely to bear unique features and gain an edge over complicated HIV immunogens. (nih.gov)
  • Sampling locations for study of Ebola virus neutralizing antibodies in dogs, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • R. D. Woods , E. C. Pirtle , J. M. Sacks , and E. P. J. Gibbs "Serologic Survey for Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Selected Feral and Domestic Swine Sera in the Southern United States," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26(3), 420-422, (1 July 1990). (bioone.org)
  • We determined that Fc domain variants that were capable of selectively engaging activating FcγRs substantially enhanced the in vitro and in vivo activity of anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibodies. (jci.org)
  • Enhanced antibody half-life improves in vivo activity. (nih.gov)
  • Reverting in vivo the damage which HIV exerts on B cells could result in increased production of HIV neutralizing antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using neutralizing antibodies to human CCL2 (CNTO888) and the mouse homologue CCL2/JE (C1142), we show that treatment with anti-CCL2/JE antibody (2 mg/kg, twice weekly i.p.) attenuated PC-3 Luc -mediated overall tumor burden in our in vivo model of prostate cancer metastasis by 96% at 5 weeks postintracardiac injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is significant because it suggests that all individuals may have the capability to generate antibodies that can neutralise a very diverse spectrum of HIV viruses. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • The human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 2F5 and 4E10 represent rare antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity made from B cells of HIV-1-infected humans, which react with conserved membrane-proximal amino acids in HIV-1 gp41 ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mAbs 2F5 and 4E10, two additional rare broadly reactive neutralizing mAbs (2G12 and IgG1b12) ( 11 - 13 ), and 31 common human mAbs to HIV-1 Env were tested for reactivity with cardiolipin ( 14 ) ( Table 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Analysis of the rearranged H chain V region genes of mAbs isolated from seven of these women, as well as previously isolated broadly neutralizing Abs from other donors, provided evidence that at least eight novel or non-IMGT alleles contributed to functional Abs. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • Specific amino acid residues have been defined that are critical for the binding of DII- and DIII-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against WNV ( 4 , 10 , 44 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • These data suggest that antigenic site Ø exists as an ensemble of conformations, with individual antibodies recognizing discrete states. (rcsb.org)
  • This bNAb mixture, administered at a three-fold lower concentration than the individual antibodies infused intravenously, protected this group of monkeys for a median of 20 weeks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings suggest that thermodynamic stabilization of the long HCDR3 in its active conformation is responsible for the increased potency of PG9_N100 F Y, and strategies aimed at stabilizing this region in other HIV antibodies could become an important approach to in silico optimization of antibodies. (jci.org)
  • The potentially high potency of STI-1499 antibody may allow for rapid scaling up of manufacturing operations. (tmcnet.com)
  • Both antibodies bound with high affinity and were specific for the prefusion conformation of RSV F. Crystal structures of the complexes revealed that the antibodies recognized distinct conformations of antigenic site Ø, each diverging at a conserved proline residue located in the middle of an α-helix. (rcsb.org)
  • We isolated the B-cell clone encoding PGT121, which segregates into PGT121-like and 10-1074-like groups distinguished by sequence, binding affinity, carbohydrate recognition, and neutralizing activity. (pnas.org)
  • This work will be laser-focused on discovering a number of high-affinity antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein through the combination of yeast-display, high-throughput FACS sorting and next-generation-sequencing. (sbir.gov)
  • IAVI and partners are expanding their antibody discovery, optimization, and manufacturing expertise to develop antibody products for prevention and therapy of multiple diseases. (iavi.org)
  • At the same time that discovery and development of these potential products are occurring, IAVI is working to ensure that future antibody treatments and preventives will be affordable and accessible to the people who need them. (iavi.org)
  • Additionally, IAVI and partners are applying antibody discovery and development technologies to other diseases, such as snakebite envenoming . (iavi.org)
  • To inform these strategies, we describe here the rapid development of a VRC01-class antibody lineage in the subtype C infected IAVI Protocol C neutralizer PC063. (ssrn.com)
  • This new center will link to an expanded international scientific consortium, which was created and is currently project managed by IAVI and known as the Neutralizing Antibody Consortium (NAC). (scripps.edu)
  • IAVI is establishing the Neutralizing Antibody Center at The Scripps Research Institute and expanding our consortium to ensure that the best minds and institutions are dedicated to solving this problem,' said Seth Berkley, M.D., president and CEO of IAVI. (scripps.edu)
  • J Mitra & Company, an Indian biotechnology company and the global leader in the IVD space, has launched India's first Covid-19 Neutralizing Antibody Microlisa Elisa Test as part of its ongoing fight against the corona pandemic. (financialexpress.com)
  • Sera collected in New York in 1984 from 77 patients with homozygous beta-thalassemia were assayed for antibodies to HTLV-III by ELISA and Western blot techniques. (jimmunol.org)
  • Günthard and colleagues also found host-specific factors-including ethnicity-that influenced the probability that a patient would produce broadly neutralizing antibodies: black patients with HIV produce the antibodies more frequently, even when controlling for other factors. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, in this process, the patient will also produce antibodies that will bind the other three if they are infected by them. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • and (4) previously described antibodies that do not block ACE2 and bind only up RBDs9. (las.ac.cn)
  • Cryo-EM reconstructions show how two different antibodies (blue) bind to the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The majority of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bind to the spike glycoprotein-a feature that gives the virus its corona-on the virus's surface. (medicalxpress.com)