Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Mice, Inbred C3HImmunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred CBAReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Inbred DBAImmunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell SeparationHepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.

Rituximab therapy in hematologic malignancy patients with circulating blood tumor cells: association with increased infusion-related side effects and rapid blood tumor clearance. (1/2033)

PURPOSE: Rituximab was recently approved for use in relapsed, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, few data exist regarding the safety of this agent in patients with a high number of tumor cells in the blood. METHODS AND RESULTS: After the observation at our institution of a rapid reduction of peripheral-blood tumor cells with associated severe pulmonary infusion-related toxicity in two patients with refractory hematologic malignancies, data on three additional cases were collected from physician-submitted reports of adverse events related to rituximab treatment. Five patients with hematologic malignancies possessing a high number of blood tumor cells were treated with rituximab and developed rapid tumor clearance. The median age was 68 years (range, 26 to 78 years). Patients were diagnosed with B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), or transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1). All of these patients had bulky adenopathy or organomegaly. All five patients developed a unique syndrome of severe infusion-related reactions, thrombocytopenia, rapid decrement in circulating tumor cell load, and mild electrolyte evidence of tumor lysis, and all required hospitalization. In addition, one patient developed ascites. These events resolved, and four patients were subsequently treated with rituximab without significant complications. CONCLUSION: Rituximab administration in patients who have a high number of tumor cells in the blood may have an increased likelihood of severe initial infusion-related reactions. These data also suggest that rituximab may have activity in a variety of other lymphoid neoplasms, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.  (+info)

Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression. (2/2033)

Rituximab is a chimeric antibody with human gamma-1 and kappa constant regions and murine variable regions. It recognizes the CD20 antigen, a pan B-cell marker. Therapeutic trials in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have shown significant efficacy with a primary response rate of 50%, and a secondary response rate of 44% after repeat treatments in prior responders. The selection for proliferating tumor cells that no longer express CD20 may compromise repeated treatment. We have identified a patient who developed a transformed NHL that lost CD20 protein expression after two courses of therapy with rituximab. In a pretreatment lymph node biopsy, 83% of B cells (as defined by CD19 and surface immunoglobulin) expressed surface CD20. A biopsy from the recurrent tumor after two courses of rituximab revealed a diffuse large cell NHL where 0% of B cells expressed CD20 with no evidence of bound rituximab. Cytoplasmic staining showed no CD20 protein. Sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain cDNA identified identical variable sequences in the initial and recurrent lymphomas, confirming the association between the two tumors. Literature and database review suggests that approximately 98% of diffuse large cell lymphomas express CD20, which suggests that these tumors rarely survive without CD20. This is the first identified case of loss of CD20 expression in a lymphoma that has relapsed after rituximab therapy, although several other cases have since been identified. Considering the significant number of patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies, this may occur only rarely and is unlikely to preclude recurrent therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies in the majority of patients. However, because many patients have relapsed after anti-CD20 antibody therapy and have not been biopsied to identify clones with down-regulated CD20 antigen, we do not currently know the true frequency of this phenomenon. When possible, patients should undergo evaluation for CD20 expression before repeated courses of anti-CD20 therapy.  (+info)

Extended Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) therapy for relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (3/2033)

BACKGROUND: Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell CD20 antigen which has been utilized for therapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A previous clinical trial demonstrated that treatment with four weekly doses of 375 mg/m2 of Rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was well tolerated and had significant clinical activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To assess the safety and efficacy of Rituximab treatment, an open-label, single-arm, multi-center, phase II study of eight consecutive weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 Rituximab in patients with low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL who had relapsed or had failed primary therapy was conducted. Thirty-seven patients with a median age of 55 years were treated. RESULTS: Grade 1 or 2 adverse events were the majority of reported toxicities and occurred most frequently with the first infusion, decreasing with subsequent infusions. No patients developed a host antibody response (HACA) to Rituximab. The mean serum immunoglobulin levels for IgG, IgA, and IgM stayed within the normal range throughout the study. The majority of patients who were bcl-2 positive at baseline in peripheral blood became bcl-2 negative during treatment and remained negative at the time of B-cell recovery. In the 37 intent-to-treat patients, 5 (14%) had a complete response and 16 (43%) had a partial response for an overall response rate of 57%. Of 35 evaluable patients, 21 (60%) responded to treatment (14% CR and 46% PR). In responders, the median time to progression (TTP) and the median response duration have not been reached after 19.4+ months and 13.4+ months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile and efficacy achieved in this pilot study of extended treatment with Rituximab compares favorably with those seen with four weekly doses. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether this or other extended Rituximab schedules will result in increased efficacy in all or in certain subgroups of patients with low-grade or follicular NHL.  (+info)

Use of Sulesomab, a radiolabeled antibody fragment, to detect osteomyelitis in diabetic patients with foot ulcers by leukoscintigraphy. (4/2033)

Diabetic patients suspected of having osteomyelitis secondary to foot ulcers underwent scintigraphic imaging with Sulesomab, an anti-granulocyte antibody Fab' fragment labeled with technetium-99m. Among 122 patients who had osteomyelitis confirmed or excluded by histopathologic and/or microbiologic techniques, Sulesomab had a 91% sensitivity, a 56% specificity, and an accuracy of 80%. One planar imaging session was usually sufficient for diagnosis, typically requiring 20-30 minutes of camera time 1-2 hours after injection. Compared with ex vivo autologous white blood cell (WBC) scans, Sulesomab performed comparably but with significantly greater sensitivity (92% vs. 79%; P < .05). Sulesomab results were more sensitive than radiography (90% vs. 62%; P < .05) and more specific than bone scans (50% vs. 21%; P < .05) and would have altered management plans in most patients. No related adverse events occurred, and there was no induction of human anti-mouse antibody. Sulesomab is an effective and rapid imaging agent that is diagnostically comparable or superior to WBC scans in this setting, with significant advantages in safety and ease of use.  (+info)

Treatment of patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma with the combination of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and CHOP chemotherapy. (5/2033)

PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of the combination of the chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, Rituxan (Rituximab, IDEC-C2B8; IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corporation, San Diego, CA), and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients with low-grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma received six infusions of Rituxan (375 mg/m2 per dose) in combination with six doses of CHOP chemotherapy. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 95% (38 of 40 patients). Twenty-two patients experienced a complete response (55%), 16 patients had a partial response (40%), and two patients, who received no treatment, were classified as nonresponders. Medians for duration of response and time to progression had not been reached after a median observation time of 29 + months. Twenty-eight of 38 assessable patients (74%) continued in remission during this median follow-up period. The most frequent adverse events attributable to CHOP were alopecia (38 patients), neutropenia (31 patients), and fever (23 patients). The most frequent events attributed to Rituxan were fever and chills, observed primarily with the first infusion. No quantifiable immune response to the chimeric antibody was detected. In a subset of 18 patients, the bcl-2 [t(14;18)] translocation was positive in eight patients; seven of these patients had complete remissions and converted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity by completion of therapy. CONCLUSION: This is the first report demonstrating the safety and efficacy of Rituxan anti-CD20 chimeric antibody in combination with standard-dose systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of indolent B-cell lymphoma. The clinical responses suggest an additive therapeutic benefit for the combination with no significant added toxicity. The conversion of bcl-2 from positive to negative by PCR in blood and/or marrow suggests possible clearing of minimal residual disease not previously demonstrated by CHOP chemotherapy alone.  (+info)

Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) therapy for progressive intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after high-dose therapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. (6/2033)

We evaluated the response and toxicity of rituximab in the setting of progressive intermediate grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). Seven patients with a median age of 59 years (45-62), ECOG performance status 0-1, and CD20-positive diffuse large cell lymphoma with progression after PSCT were treated. All patients initially received 4-weekly infusions of rituximab (375 mg/m2). The maximum response was three CR and four PR. Median progression-free survival was 197 days (range 60-282). With a median follow-up of 204 (115-299) days, the patients' disease status is classified as two CR, one PR, and four PD. Four of five patients with ECOG performance status of 1 prior to treatment showed improvement to status 0 after treatment with rituximab. While follow-up is short, these results suggest that rituximab has significant activity in intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that has relapsed after PSCT.  (+info)

Cytokine-release syndrome in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and high lymphocyte counts after treatment with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab, IDEC-C2B8). (7/2033)

Eleven patients with relapsed fludarabine-resistant B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or leukemic variants of low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were treated with the chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (IDEC-C2B8). Peripheral lymphocyte counts at baseline varied from 0.2 to 294.3 x 10(9)/L. During the first rituximab infusion, patients with lymphocyte counts exceeding 50.0 x 10(9)/L experienced a severe cytokine-release syndrome. Ninety minutes after onset of the infusion, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) peaked in all patients. Elevated cytokine levels during treatment were associated with clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and dyspnea. Lymphocyte and platelet counts dropped to 50% to 75% of baseline values within 12 hours after the onset of the infusion. Simultaneously, there was a 5-fold to 10-fold increase of liver enzymes, d-dimers, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as a prolongation of the prothrombin time. Frequency and severity of first-dose adverse events were dependent on the number of circulating tumor cells at baseline: patients with lymphocyte counts greater than 50.0 x 10(9)/L experienced significantly more adverse events of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grade III/IV toxicity than patients with less than 50.0 x 10(9)/L peripheral tumor cells (P = .0017). Due to massive side effects in the first patient treated with 375 mg/m(2) in 1 day, a fractionated dosing schedule was used in all subsequent patients with application of 50 mg rituximab on day 1, 150 mg on day 2, and the rest of the 375 mg/m(2) dose on day 3. While the patient with the leukemic variant of the mantle-cell NHL achieved a complete remission (9 months+) after treatment with 4 x 375 mg/m(2) rituximab, efficacy in patients with relapsed fludarabine-resistant B-CLL was poor: 1 partial remission, 7 cases of stable disease, and 1 progressive disease were observed in 9 evaluable patients with CLL. On the basis of these data, different infusion schedules and/or combination regimens with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce tumor burden before treatment with rituximab will have to be evaluated.  (+info)

Single-agent monoclonal antibody efficacy in bulky non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a phase II trial of rituximab. (8/2033)

PURPOSE: A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in patients with bulky (> 10-cm lesion) relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients received intravenous infusions of rituximab 375 mg/m(2) weekly for four doses. All patients had at least one prior therapy (median, three; range, one to 13) and had progressive disease at study entry. Patients were a median of 4 years from diagnosis. RESULTS: No patient had treatment discontinued because of an adverse event. No patient developed human antichimeric antibody. The overall response rate in 28 assessable patients was 43% with a median time to progression of 8.1 months (range, 4.5 to 18.6+ months) and median duration of response of 5.9 months (range, 2.8 to 12.1+ months). The average decrease in lesion size in patients who achieved a partial response was 76%, and patients with stable disease had a decrease in average lesion size of 26%. Median serum antibody concentration was higher in responders compared with nonresponders, and a negative correlation was shown between antibody concentration and tumor bulk at baseline. CONCLUSION: Rituximab single-agent outpatient therapy is safe and shows significant clinical activity in patients with bulky relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL.  (+info)

*Band of Parents

... mouse-derived) monoclonal antibody called 3F8. Given intravenously, 3F8 binds specifically to neuroblastoma cells and triggers ... However, its use is limited by the body's eventual development of human anti-murine antibody, which neutralizes the effects. ... "Humanized 3F8 Monoclonal Antibody (Hu3F8) in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma and GD2-Positive Tumors - Full Text View - ... 3 million to fund the genetic engineering of the murine cell line that produces 3F8 so that it would produce a new antibody, ...

*Monoclonal antibody

As of November 2016, thirteen of the nineteen "fully" human monoclonal antibody therapeutics on the market were derived from ... the differences between them were sufficient to invoke an immune response when murine monoclonal antibodies were injected into ... mechanism List of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibody therapy Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies ... "Proprietary antibody platform". "Naturally optimized human antibodies". "Proprietary antibody platform". "Proprietary antibody ...

*Lamina propria

"Evaluation of lymphatic invasion in primary gastric cancer by a new monoclonal antibody, D2-40". Human Pathology. 37 (9): 1193- ... Induced by the IL-6/Soluble-IL-6 Receptor Derived from Lamina Propria Macrophages, on the Development of Colitis-Associated ... Premalignant Cancer in a Murine Model". The Journal of Immunology. 184 (3): 1543-51. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0801217. PMID ...

*CD47

Blockade of CD47 with a monoclonal antibody results in macrophage engulfment of bladder cancer cells in vitro. CD47 is also ... CD47 also functions as a marker of self on murine red blood cells which allows RBC to avoid phagocytosis. Red blood cells that ... prostate cancer and ovarian cancer-derived cells. In a mouse model of multiple myeloma, tumor metastasis to bone was decreased ... Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) incubated with the monoclonal antibody Ad22 results in apoptosis ...

*Immune checkpoint

Anti-OX40 monoclonal antibodies have been shown to have clinical utility in advanced cancer. The pharma company AstraZeneca has ... IDO is known to suppress T and NK cells, generate and activate Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and promote tumour ... "LAG-3 regulates CD8+ T cell accumulation and effector function in murine self- and tumor-tolerance systems". J Clin Invest. 117 ... "CDX-1127 - Monoclonal Antibody Targeting CD27". Celldex Therapeutics. He LZ, Prostak N, Thomas LJ, Vitale L, Weidlick J, ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

... only the complementarity determining regions of the variable regions are derived from murine sources. Human antibodies have ... Naked monoclonal antibodies are antibodies without added elements. Most antibody therapies use this antibody type. Conjugated ... Antibodies are also referred to as murine, chimeric, humanized and human. Murine antibodies are from a different species and ... Chimeric antibodies attempt to reduce murine antibodies' immunogenicity by replacing part of the antibody with the ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... "Delayed treatment of Ebola virus infection with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies provides protection in rhesus macaques". ... Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to ... To reduce murine antibody immunogenicity (attacks by the immune system against the antibody), murine molecules were engineered ...

*Interleukin 13

Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody IL-13 and IL-4 modulator that targets the shared receptor of IL-4 and IL-13, IL4Rα. Since IL ... murine studies demonstrated that IL-13 was both necessary and sufficient to generate asthma-like Th2 responses in the mouse ... IL-13Rα2 (which is labelled as a decoy receptor) is derived from Th2 cells and is a pleotropic immune regulatory cytokine. IL- ... a T-cell-derived cytokine that regulates human monocyte and B-cell function". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...

*ANGPTL4

Monoclonal antibodies targeting the nANGPTL4 and cANGPTL4 have been developed to distinguish their functions. ANGPTL4 plays an ... Murine influenza infection of the lungs stimulated the expression of ANGPTL4 via a STAT3-mediated mechanism. ANGPTL4 enhanced ... ANGPTL4 in nonexercising muscle presumably leads to reduced local uptake of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids and their ... The treatment of infected mice with neutralizing anti-ANGPTL4 antibodies significantly accelerated pulmonary recovery and ...

*Human Endogenous Retrovirus-W

Using monoclonal fluorescently labeled antibodies the Frendo Lab was able to visualize the Env-W expression at the apical ... The HERV-W derived element of chromosome 12p11.21 and 7q21.2 had 42 hits from the env gene in pancreatic islet tissues and 224 ... One study found 10 out of 35 individuals with recent onset schizophrenia had retroviral pol gene HERV-W transcripts and murine ... A humanized monoclonal antibody called GNbAc1 of the IgG4 class binds with high specificity and affinity to the extracellular ...

*NS0 cell

... s are a model cell line derived from the nonsecreting murine myeloma used in biomedical research and commercially in ... Galfrè, G; Milstein, C (1981). "Preparation of monoclonal antibodies: strategies and procedures". Methods in Enzymology. 73 (Pt ... Development of murine neoplasms started with work with the BALB/c mice to isolate the IgG1 secreting MOPC21 tumor. From this ... Several therapeutic antibody products are produced using the NS0 cell line including daclizumab and eculizumab. Barnes, LM; ...

*Sphingosine-1-phosphate

Sonepcizumab is an experimental anti-S1P monoclonal antibody that has had a phase II clinical trial for renal cell carcinoma. ... In fact, S1P even activates fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix protein production. Administration of S1P has been shown to ... "Molecular requirements for doxorubicin-mediated death in murine oocytes". Cell Death and Differentiation. 13 (9): 1466-74. doi: ... Lpath Inc has produced and optimized a monoclonal anti-S1P antibody (Sphingomab). Sphingomab can absorb S1P from the ...

*Tenascin C

... pre-mRNA splicing patterns and localization of the epitopes recognized by two monoclonal antibodies". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (3 ... Akhurst RJ, Lehnert SA, Faissner A, Duffie E (1990). "TGF beta in murine morphogenetic processes: the early embryo and ... Rettig WJ, Triche TJ, Garin-Chesa P (1989). "Stimulation of human neuronectin secretion by brain-derived growth factors". Brain ... Also, tenascin-C antibodies have been used to diagnose and create therapies for many different types of cancers. Tenascin ...

*DNA vaccination

"The production and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies to a DNA receptor on human leukocytes". The Journal of ... These peptides are derived from endogenous cytosolic proteins that are degraded and delivered to the nascent MHC class I ... Antibody responses generated by DNA are useful as a preparative tool. For example, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be ... Antibody-secreting cells migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise there ...

*Cajal-Retzius cell

"Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein recognized by the CR-50 monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Neuroscience. 17 (1): 23-31. ... Soriano E, Del Río JA, Martínez A, Supèr H (April 1994). "Organization of the embryonic and early postnatal murine hippocampus ... Borrell V, Marín O (October 2006). "Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 ... García-Moreno F, López-Mascaraque L, De Carlos JA (January 2007). "Origins and migratory routes of murine Cajal-Retzius cells ...

*CD34

1985). "A novel monoclonal antibody BI-3C5 recognises myeloblasts and non-B, non-T lymphoblasts in acute leukaemia and CGL ... Ogawa M, Tajima F, Ito T, Sato T, Laver JH, Deguchi T (Jun 2001). "CD34 expression by murine hematopoietic stem cells. ... Bellini A, Mattoli S (Sep 2007). "The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ...

*TsIV

November 2005). "Molecular characterization of a neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody against Tityus serrulatus scorpion ... These antivenoms are obtained by the immunisation of horses with a mix of venoms derived from T.Serrulatus and T.Bahiensis. ...

*Natural killer cell

To determine the ADCC contribution of monoclonal antibodies, NK-92 cells (a "pure" NK cell line) has been transfected with the ... Most of our current knowledge is derived from investigations of mouse splenic and human peripheral blood NK cells. However, in ... In mice, the majority of research was carried out with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and in models of hapten-hypersensitivity ... This is a major killing mechanism of some monoclonal antibodies like rituximab (Rituxan), ofatumumab (Azzera), and others. The ...

*Cell encapsulation

The use of monoclonal antibodies for therapy is now widespread for treatment of cancers and inflammatory diseases. Using ... Cellulose sulphate is derived from cotton and, once processed appropriately, can be used as a biocompatible base in which to ... In 1998, a murine model of pancreatic cancer was used to study the effect of implanting genetically modified cytochrome P450 ... "Immunotherapy of a viral disease by in vivo production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies". Human gene therapy. 11 (10): 1407 ...

*Merkel cell polyomavirus

It belongs to the murine polyomavirus group, one of the three main clades of polyomaviruses. (The group is named for murine ... Antibodies have been developed to stain for T antigen in tumor tissues and appear to be specific for MCV-infected tumor cells. ... This was quickly confirmed by studies of MCC patients from around the world, including evidence for monoclonal integration of ... The cancer may derive from the microscopic Merkel cell nervous organ in the skin and viscera which is responsible for touch and ...

*Thymopoietin

... discrimination from splenin by monoclonal antibodies". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 228 (1): 292-8. doi:10.1016/ ... TMPO beta is a human homolog of the murine protein LAP2. LAP2 plays a role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding ... "Three distinct human thymopoietins are derived from alternatively spliced mRNAs". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...

*CD90

Some of the common monoclonal antibodies used to detect this protein are clones OX7, 5E10, K117 and L127. There have been some ... It is probably the most abundant glycoprotein of murine thymocytes, with about One million copies per cell covering up to 10-20 ... and fetal liver-derived hemopoietic cells. Thy-1 is present on a fraction of brain cells and a fraction of fibroblasts of most ... Single tail vein intravenous injection of antibody (OX7 mouse monoclonal IgG) against Thy1.1 in rats is used as a standard ...

*IL17A

Other than the monoclonal antibodies, highly specific and potent inhibitors targeting Th17 specific transcription factor RORγt ... in 1993 from a rodent T-cell hybridoma, derived from the fusion of a mouse cytotoxic T cell clone and a rat T cell lymphoma. ... In murine models, treatment with dexamethasone inhibits the release of Th2-related cytokines but does not affect IL-17A ... a human anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody, for moderate to severe Crohn's disease: unexpected results of a randomised, double- ...

*Polyomaviridae

The viral load as before is also measure by PCR.[citation needed] Tissue staining using a monoclonal antibody against MCV T ... Murine polyomavirus was the first polyomavirus discovered, having been reported by Ludwik Gross in 1953 as an extract of mouse ... The name Papovaviridae derived from three abbreviations: Pa for Papillomavirus, Po for Polyomavirus, and Va for "vacuolating ... Antibody assays are commonly used to detect presence of antibodies against individual viruses. Competition assays are ...

*Gamma delta T cell

This table refers to variable chain Vγ gene segments and to monoclonal antibodies that detect the corresponding Vγ protein ... IMGT website Heilig, JS; Tonegawa, S (1986). "Diversity of murine gamma genes and expression in fetal and adult T lymphocytes ... the stimuli that trigger Vd1 expansion are not derived from pathogens but instead correspond to endogenous gene products ... This table summarizes the nomenclature of mouse Vγ chains and indicates monoclonal antibodies often used to identify these ...

*TENM3

also identified Ten-m in Drosophila by screening for tyrosine phosphorylation on cDNA using monoclonal antibodies. However, ... Zhou XH, Brandau O, Feng K, Oohashi T, Ninomiya Y, Rauch U, Fässler R (August 2003). "The murine Ten-m/Odz genes show distinct ... The embryonic Drosophila cDNA library was screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a primer derived from the EGF-like ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone immunochemotherapy followed by yttrium-90- ibritumomab tiuxetan in untreated mantle-cell lymphoma. T2 - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1499. AU - Smith, Mitchell R.. AU - Li, Hailun. AU - Gordon, Leo. AU - Gascoyne, Randy D.. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth. AU - Forero-Torres, Andres. AU - Kahl, Brad S.. AU - Advani, Ranjana. AU - Hong, Fangxin. AU - Horning, Sandra J.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Purpose: To test the hypothesis that consolidation therapy with yttrium-90 ( 90Y) -ibritumomab tiuxetan after brief initial therapy with four cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in patients with previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma would be a well-tolerated regimen that would improve outcomes compared with historical R-CHOP data. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years old with histologically confirmed mantle-cell ...
This was a multi-center, parallel, active comparator controlled, open-label, randomized (1:1) phase III study of single agent ofatumumab compared to single agent rituximab in subjects with rituximab-sensitive indolent B-cell non hodgkin lymphoma that has relapsed at least 6 months after completing treatment with single agent rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. Subjects must have attained a Complete Response or Partial Response to their last prior rituximab containing therapy lasting at least six months beyond the end of rituximab therapy. Subjects were to receive four weekly doses of single agent ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2), followed by ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2) every 2 months for four additional doses. Therefore, subjects were to receive a total of eight doses of anti-CD20 antibody over 9 months. Subjects were evaluated for response after completion of the first four doses of therapy, after six doses of therapy, and after completion of study ...
This is a multi-center, parallel, active comparator controlled, open-label, randomized (1:1) phase III study of single agent ofatumumab compared to single agent rituximab in subjects with rituximab-sensitive indolent B-cell non hodgkin lymphoma that has relapsed at least 6 months after completing treatment with single agent rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. Subjects must have attained a Complete Response or Partial Response to their last prior rituximab containing therapy lasting at least six months beyond the end of rituximab therapy. Subjects will receive four weekly doses of single agent ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2), followed by ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2) every 2 months for four additional doses. Therefore, subjects will receive a total of eight doses of anti-CD20 antibody over 9 months. Subjects will be evaluated for response after completion of the first four doses of therapy, after six doses of therapy, and after completion of study therapy. ...
The treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients has been recently informed by several important studies, which were discussed at the Best of ASCO Boston meeting by Michael E. Williams, MD, of the University of Virginia Cancer Center in Charlottesville.. Bendamustine Outperforms R-CHOP in NHL In a presentation at this years ASCO Annual Meeting Plenary Session, German investigators reported that in the phase III Study Group Indolent Lymphomas (StiL) NHL1 trial, the combination of bendamustine (Treanda) plus rituximab (Rituxan), or BR, more than doubled the median progression-free survival vs standard treatment with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and proved more tolerable as well in patients with NHL.1 While B-R has been a recommended treatment option by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network since the initial study data were announced in 2009, many U.S. oncologists have not yet utilized the regimen.. The updated StiL NHL1 results will likely ...
We thank Dr Wallace et al for their response to our recently published article Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis prevents severe/life-threatening infections following rituximab in antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis, highlighting some methodological limitations of our study.1 2 One of the limitations mentioned by Wallace and colleagues is the inclusion of incident and prevalent cases and since only 15 out of 192 patients were incident cases, generalisability of our findings for this subset of patients may not be possible. We agree that the use of immunosuppression prior to initiation of rituximab likely confers a risk to develop infectious complications after rituximab administration. Cyclophosphamide was used to control disease in 62 patients the year before rituximab was initiated. Among these, 53 patients had no severe infection (median cyclophosphamide exposure 7 g, range 0.66-45 g), while 9 patients receiving cyclophosphamide the index year before had a severe ...
Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Rituxan Hycela™ (rituximab and hyaluronidase human) for subcutaneous (under the skin) injection, for the treatment of adults with the following blood cancers: previously untreated and relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and previously untreated and previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). This new treatment includes the same monoclonal antibody as intravenous Rituxan® (rituximab) in combination with hyaluronidase human, an enzyme that helps to deliver rituximab under the skin.. "With todays approval of Rituxan Hycela, people with three of the most common blood cancers now have a new treatment option which provides efficacy comparable with intravenous Rituxan and can be delivered under the skin in minutes instead of hours through IV infusion," said Sandra Horning, MD, Roches Chief Medical Officer and Head ...
Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is characterized by high inflammatory activity. No disease modifying treatment has been approved for POMS. The objective of this report was to report the use of rituximab, a B cell depleting monoclonal anti-CD20-antibody, in POMS. This is a retrospective case series at four specialized MS centres in Sweden. Participants were identified through the Swedish MS-registry and our own patient stocks. Data were collected through medical charts review. We identified 14 POMS patients treated with i.v. rituximab 500-1000 mg every 6th to 12th months. Median age at disease onset was 14.7 years, median age at rituximab treatment initiation was 16.5 years, and median treatment duration was 23.6 months. No relapses were reported, and the EDSS scores remained stable or decreased in 13 of 14 cases during rituximab treatment. Beyond 6 months from initiating rituximab treatment, only one new lesion was detected on MRI. No serious AEs were reported. The drug survival was ...
The treatment of patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) may be complicated by concomitant chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recent data suggest that HCV may also be a contributing factor to the development of this disease. Although antiviral treatment has occasionally been reported to result in the regression of lymphoma in patients with HCV infection, the importance of the control of this infection on the prognosis of lymphoma needs to be defined. Here we report a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who presented with a mass in her left breast. She had had HCV-related liver cirrhosis for 6 years. She was given rituximab monotherapy for three consecutive weeks, but treatment had to be discontinued as a result of hematological toxicity. HCV viral load also increased, but then decreased gradually after rituximab was stopped. She could be given no further therapy. Six months later she presented with spinal involvement with infiltration of the cauda equina. Though cranial-spinal ...
Treatment with the chimerical monoclonal antibody rituximab results in CD20-directed B cell depletion. Although this depletion is almost complete in the peripheral blood of nearly all patients with...
In the clinic, BCDT can markedly ameliorate the course of autoimmune diseases in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are poorly understood, as they are thought, in many cases, to operate irrespective of autoantibody levels. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 production is the major mechanism of B cell-mediated pathogenesis during EAE, and we show that this inflammatory pathway is markedly increased in RR-MS patients. Autoantibody levels were unaffected by IL-6 production by B cells. This is the first demonstration of a nonantibody-mediated mechanism of B cell pathogenesis in EAE and MS. Remarkably, the elevated production of IL-6 by B cells from MS patients was effectively normalized by Rituximab treatment. In both patients and mice the reduced disease severity after B cell depletion was accompanied by a decrease in the autoreactive Th17 response, and so we believe that B cells are making an all-important contribution to the IL-6-dependent promotion of pathogenic Th17 ...
The present study showed that, in patients with HIV-related DLBCL, immunochemotherapy with R-CHOP with concomitant administration of HAART is feasible, safe and effective. The main prognostic factors were related to the lymphoma itself. In addition, this is the first study to confirm the favourable impact of virological response to HAART in the survival of patients treated with rituximab-based CHT.. The design of this study took into account the promising results observed with standard CHOP CHT in patients with ARL in the HAART era (Coiffier et al, 2002; Pfreundschuh et al, 2006). As immunochemotherapy with rituximab in combination with CHOP-based or infusional regimens has shown good results in non-immunosuppressed patients with DLBCL, we developed the present phase II trial of R-CHOP in this particular subtype of lymphoma in patients with HIV infection, in whom the safety and efficacy were unknown. In fact, to date, only two phase II studies with immunochemotherapy (Spina et al, 2005; Boue et ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rituximab plus CHOP as an initial chemotherapy for patients with disseminated MALT lymphoma [4]. AU - Ennishi, Daisuke. AU - Yokoyama, Masahiro. AU - Mishima, Yuko. AU - Watanabe, Chie. AU - Terui, Yasuhito. AU - Takahashi, Shunji. AU - Takeuchi, Kengo. AU - Ikeda, Kazuma. AU - Tanimoto, Mitsune. AU - Hatake, Kiyohiko. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=36048934446&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=36048934446&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1080/10428190701636476. DO - 10.1080/10428190701636476. M3 - Article. C2 - 17990181. AN - SCOPUS:36048934446. VL - 48. SP - 2241. EP - 2243. JO - Leukemia and Lymphoma. JF - Leukemia and Lymphoma. SN - 1042-8194. IS - 11. ER - ...
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
This 2 stage study will compare the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of subcutaneous and intravenous MabThera (rituximab) in patients with follicular
More than 160 key abstracts confirm MabThera/Rituxan as the standard of care in hematological cancers, , , , Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced today that updated results of the pivotal phase II...
Whether my decisions ultimately are proved wise will be written in these pages. I began using single-agent rituximab (Rituxan) in 2004, adding the steroid methylprednisolone in March 2007 to combat AIHA. In October 2007, after a severe AIHA relapse that left me steroid refractory, I was treated with Rituxan + cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednsione (R-CVP). In January 2009, when AIHA and hemolysis of red blood cells returned, I had Rituxan + cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (R-CD). I used this a few times to control the condition, with shorter and shorter periods until AIHA relapse. Starting in February 2010 I used Arzerra (ofatumumab) and Revlimid (lenalidomide), and then for a year and a half maintained control of the disease -- and the AIHA -- with Revlimid alone. Alas, the Revlimid came at a high price in terms of blood clotting issues, and as of 2012 I was treated with bendamustine and rituximab, which gave me a CR in the marrow and blood, leaving some swollen lymph nodes behind ...
After three months of Chemo, the Fludarabine/Mitoxantrone is really kicking his bone marrow but its not doing a whole lot to the cancerous lymphocytes, so the new plan is to add Rituxan. Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody which specifically targets mature B Lymphocytes (as opposed to ordinary chemo which kills a lot of "innocent bystander" cells.) This is good news, in my opinion - I was hoping they would try Rituxan soon. But of course, Rituxan has its own sticky wickets, and the first one comes up tomorrow when Dave gets his first dose of Rituxan ...
This finding is in contrast to the more pronounced effect in patients who were RF/anti-CCP seropositive observed in a previous study.11 However, the superior response of patients who were seropositive strengthened over time, as shown by greater decreases in disease activity and enhanced ACR responses at week 48 in rituximab-treated patients who were seropositive compared with patients who were seronegative ...
This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, randomized trial will evaluate the effect of rituximab on disease progression in subjects with SSc-PAH receiving concurrent stable-dose standard medical therapy with a prostanoid, endothelin receptor antagonist, and/or phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor. The study will focus on assessment of clinical response and safety measures longitudinally. In addition, the effects of treatment with rituximab on the underlying immune mechanisms associated with B-cell dysregulation and pathogenic autoantibody response in this disease will be investigated. 1000 mg of rituximab or placebo will be administered as two IV infusions given two weeks apart. Clinical assessments and sample collection will occur at monthly visits through Week 48. If a participant has not recovered B cells by Week 48, B cell studies will be conducted quarterly until reconstitution is documented or for 2 years after initial treatment. Five patients will be recruited ...
Cost regulators are looking favourably on the use of Roches MabThera on the National Health Service to treat patients with relapsed/refractory forms chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the most common form of the blood disease. - News - PharmaTimes
Rituximab is a therapy no used in both indolent and aggressive B cell lymphomas. What is the mechanism of action of Rituximab? List the major disorders for which Rituximab is approved for use.. Recall that CD20 is expressed on over 90% of B cells and is a protein that is not shed or internalized.. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody that on contact to CD20 on the surface of a B cell causes cytotoxicity mediated by compliment and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.. Indications for Rituximab use:. ...
D02994 Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN ...
Bulgular: Rituksimab tedavisinin ba lad s rada ortalama ya ( SD) 46,6 11,3 y ld r. Rituksimab tedavisi ncesinde ortalama trombosit say s ( SD) 17,400 8878/mm3 d r. Erken ve ge yan t edilen olgularda rituksimab ba lang c ile yan ta kadar ge en ortalama s re ( SD) s ras yla 1,8 1,3 hafta ve 10 2,8 hafta olarak saptanm t r. EY ve GY elde edilen olgularda ortalama yan t s resi s ras yla 51 47,2 ay ve 6 4,2 ayd r. On be olgunun 7 sinde (%46,7) rituximab tedavisine ba lang ta yan t elde edilmi tir (5 EY, 2 GY). SY oran %26,7 dir (4/15). Rituksimab tedavisine yan t veren olgular aras nda 3 (3/7, %42,9) yan t n bir y ldan fazla ve 2 si (2/7, %28,6) yan t n 5 y ldan fazla s rd rm t r. Yedi olgunun ikisi (%28,6) rituksimab ba lang c ndan 98 ay sonra halen yan t n korumaktad r. Ba lang ta yan t veren 5 olgunun hepsi relaps sonras nda ard k tedavilere yan t vermi tir (3 TY, 2 PY ...
Bulgular: Rituksimab tedavisinin ba lad s rada ortalama ya ( SD) 46,6 11,3 y ld r. Rituksimab tedavisi ncesinde ortalama trombosit say s ( SD) 17,400 8878/mm3 d r. Erken ve ge yan t edilen olgularda rituksimab ba lang c ile yan ta kadar ge en ortalama s re ( SD) s ras yla 1,8 1,3 hafta ve 10 2,8 hafta olarak saptanm t r. EY ve GY elde edilen olgularda ortalama yan t s resi s ras yla 51 47,2 ay ve 6 4,2 ayd r. On be olgunun 7 sinde (%46,7) rituximab tedavisine ba lang ta yan t elde edilmi tir (5 EY, 2 GY). SY oran %26,7 dir (4/15). Rituksimab tedavisine yan t veren olgular aras nda 3 (3/7, %42,9) yan t n bir y ldan fazla ve 2 si (2/7, %28,6) yan t n 5 y ldan fazla s rd rm t r. Yedi olgunun ikisi (%28,6) rituksimab ba lang c ndan 98 ay sonra halen yan t n korumaktad r. Ba lang ta yan t veren 5 olgunun hepsi relaps sonras nda ard k tedavilere yan t vermi tir (3 TY, 2 PY ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine whether interleukin-2 given 3 times weekly for 8 weeks in combination with rituximab is effective and safe w
Rituximab Coupon- Get your Free Rituximab coupon & Discount Drug Card. Access thousands of free medicine coupons for instant savings.
Pharmaceutical Division: Roches pharmaceuticals division posted a 4% rise in sales to CHF19.5 billion, driven by oncology and immunology medicines, in H1 FY16 at constant exchange rates. U.S. sales grew 4%, led by immunology treatments Xolair and Esbriet, as well as Herceptin and Perjeta against HER2-positive breast cancer. There was robust demand for Alecensa, which was recently launched in the U.S. for a specific type of lung cancer. Sales of Lucentis and Tarceva declined due to competition. In Europe, the 5% sales growth was driven by Perjeta, MabThera/Rituxan and Actemra/RoActemra especially in Germany and France. In the International region, the sales growth of 4% was driven by HER2 medicines, Avastin, and MabThera/Rituxan, partly offset by lower Pegasys sales due to competition from a new generation of hepatitis C treatments. In Japan, sales rose 2% driven by HER2 medicines, Alecensa, and Actemra/RoActemra.. Diagnostics Division: Roches Diagnostics division posted a 6% rise in sales to ...
rituximab: mouse/human chimeric mAB; a genetically engineered anti-CD20 antibody for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma; has immunosuppressive activity
We thank Yamamoto and colleagues1 for their response to our paper2 and their description of their experience with rituximab (RTX) in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in three patients. Their letter raises a number of important points pertaining to the management of IgG4-RD, in general, and to the use of B-cell-depletion strategies, specifically.. First, their patients are exemplary of the fact a sizeable subset of IgG4-RD patients has a propensity to disease relapse over time. This point has been underappreciated from early reports of the use of glucocorticoids to treat IgG4-RD because those reports were characterised by short follow-up periods. Although the great majority of patients respond to glucocorticoids initially, repeated disease flares are the rule for many.. Second, patients with IgG4-RD endure substantial morbidity from the requirement for repeated courses (or continuous on treatment) with glucocorticoids. The three patients described by Yamamoto and colleagues are reported to have ...
Genentech has been searching for years to find a way to improve upon rituximab (Rituxan), which set a gold standard 15 years ago as part of the first gener
Despite a faster time to complete remission, the addition of rituximab (Rituxan) to ibrutinib (Imbruvica) did not improve PFS or overall survival OS compared with ibrutinib alone in patients with CLL. 
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This month I had my first two infusions of Rituxan to treat my RRMS and I am wondering how long before I feel better? Should it be immediate - once the B cells are targeted/depleted? Or is there a delay ...
I know the side effects to look for while infusing Rituxan. My question is how does it effect the red count (H&H) after the infusion? Does it lower it as much as some other chemotherapy drugs or
1 Answer - Posted in: rituxan, skin, infusion - Answer: I develop raised hives, used lotion, ice, 2 Benadryl, hydrocortisone cream.
Access important resources on REVLIMID® + rituximab for you and yourpatients. Please see full Prescribing Information, including BoxedWARNINGS on fetal tox, hem tox & blood clots.
Rituximab Helps in Sjgrens Syndrome By Nancy Walsh, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Published: April 06, 2010 Reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD;...
maybe its important to test and treat active infections before one starts rituximab and knocks out part of the immune system. active infections would...
CaliReader, thanks. The article reinforces, in part, my thinking as concerns the EBV/MS connection, but also raises new questions. The researchers looked for antibodies. Is it possible to carry the EB virus and not develop antibodies? If so, could whatever ...
Apart from the hair-loss, Im feeling OK although Ive just had a very rough night with tummy issues, which I wont go into here. The new R-Chop regime is easier on me overall, but still comes with its ups and downs ... but overall, Im pleased with the progress and compared to how I was with AVDB treatment and to how rough I felt when I was recovering from my operation, I cannot complain ...
LINTHICUM, MD, October 6, 2016 - The American Urological Association (AUA) and the Urology Care Foundation, together with the Bladder Health Alliance - a coalition of groups representing physicians, patients and veterans - today applauded Sen. Mark Kirk (R-IL) for introducing Senate Resolution 604, a measure supporting the designation of November 2016 as "National Bladder Health Month" in the United States. "The introduction of this resolution by Sen. Kirk is an important step in increasing awareness of bladder conditions," said Dr. Jim Ulchaker, chair of the AUAs Legislative Affairs Committee. "Awareness is one of the first steps toward reducing the stigma associated with bladder conditions and empowering providers and patients to discuss bladder health." Millions of Americans suffer from a variety of bladder health conditions, including urinary incontinence, overactive and underactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, urinary tract infections, nocturia, bladder cancer, urotrauma and neurogenic ...
MZL is a rare type of malignant B-cell lymphoma. Because of the paucity of large clinical trials, the standard treatment for MZL is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of prognostic markers, treatments, and outcomes in a large cohort of 144 patients with MZL who were diagnosed at our institution between 2003 and 2010. Most of our patients (67%) were diagnosed with extranodal MZL, whereas splenic MZL (11%) was the rarest type. Patient with localized disease received radiotherapy and achieved high response rates (CR, 76%). Like in other indolent lymphomas,19 rituximab has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of MZL.20-22 However, a prospective randomized trial on this issue is still missing. In our cohort, among those who chose systemic therapy, 79% of patients with nodal MZL and 87% of patients with extranodal MZL received rituximab with or without chemotherapy. Because of the lack of prospective, randomized studies in MZL, the optimal ...
This open-label, randomized study will compare the efficacy of GDC-0199 plus rituximab (GDC-0199+R) with bendamustine plus MabThera/Rituxan (Rituximab) (B+R) in patients with relapsed or resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients will be randomized 1:1 into the two arms. Patients randomized to GDC-0199+R will be given GDC-0199 daily (oral, target dose 400 mg) and will receive 6 cycles of rituximab infused intravenously (IV) on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2).. Patients randomized to B+R will receive 6 cycles of treatment consisting of a rituximab infusion (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2) on Day 1 and bendamustine infusions (70 mg/m2) on Days 1 and 2 of each 28-day cycle.. Patients in the GDC-0199+R arm will continue GDC-0199 treatment until disease progression or 2 years since treatment start, whichever comes first. Anticipated time on study is up to 5 years.. ...
Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody frequently used for the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. In addition, rituximab has recently been increasingly used as an off-label treatment in a number of inflammatory and systemic autoimmune diseases. It is advised that rituximab infusion may cause infusion reactions and adverse cardiac effects including arrhythmia and angina, especially in patients with prior history of cardiovascular diseases. However, its detailed cardiotoxicity profile and effects on cardiac function were not well described. We report a 51-year-old man who developed non-ischemic cardiomyopathy after rituximab treatment for membranous nephropathy. The patient experienced reduced cardiac functions within 48 hours after the initial infusion, which remained markedly reduced at 9-month follow-up. As the utility of rituximab expands, physicians must be
Incorporating lymphopenia into the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) can improve prognostication, according to researchers.
Evidence-based recommendations on rituximab (MabThera) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory stage III or IV follicular non-Hodgkins lymphoma
In a recent issue of Arthritis, Research & Therapy, Nakou and colleagues [1] present an interesting study of the effects of rituximab treatment on B cell subsets in both peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, Edwards and Cambridge [2] successfully performed the first pilot trial evaluating B cell depletive therapy in five patients with RA. The beneficial effect of treatment with the B cell depleting chimerical antibody rituximab was confirmed in various placebo-controlled clinical trials and approval followed in 2006 in both the EU and US.. The critical role of B cells in the pathogenesis of RA had previously been suggested by the association with auto-antibodies (rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies), which can be found already in the preclinical phase of the disease; the presence of lymphocyte aggregates containing B cells, which are often surrounded by large numbers of plasma cells, in the inflamed synovium; and ...
In this study, a retrospective analysis was done to evaluate the influence of TP53 Arg72Pro on the prognosis of 425 Chinese DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or R-CHOP therapy. Patients with genotype GG (Arg/Arg) and GC (Arg/Pro) of SNP rs1042522 had a lower positive rate for β2-MG and higher CR and OR rates for treatment than those with genotype CC (Pro/Pro). In the subgroup treated without rituximab, a significant higher CR rate and higher 5-year OS and PFS rates were achieved in patients with Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro than in those with Pro/Pro. Multivariate analysis revealed TP53 Arg72 as a favorable prognostic factor in this group. As the integration of rituximab in treatment significantly increased the CR, 5-year OS and PFS rates in the subgroup treated with R-CHOP therapy these significant differences vanished between two genotype groups.. The previous study in European Caucasians demonstrated no influence of TP53 Arg72Pro on survival of DLBCL patients [15]. However, we observed better survival ...
Open in a separate window Table 2. Baseline patients features according to maintenance rituximab. Open in another window With a median follow-up of 11.4 years (range 2.2C14.6) in living sufferers treated with R-CHOP and 7.1 years (range 3.1C10.7) in sufferers treated with R-CHOP-MR, there have been 21 (49%) and 17 (31%) relapses, respectively (DIS ( em P /em =0.274). In the subgroup of sufferers with FL (23 R-CHOP, 44 R-CHOP+MR), the addition of MR didnt influence PFS ( em P /em =0.602), FFP ( em P /em =0.526), or OS ( em P /em =0.771). Open in another window Figure 1. Outcomes according to maintenance rituximab. Progression-free of charge survival: (A) composite lymphoma (COM), (B) discordant lymphoma (DIS); independence from progression: (C) COM, (D) DIS; overall survival: (Electronic) COM, (F) DIS. Age over 60 years was the just variable connected with even worse PFS and FFP in uni- and multivariate analyses. Elevated LDH and poor efficiency status had been associated with even worse FFP in ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ibrutinib (Imbruvica) plus rituximab (Rituxan) for the treatment of adult patients with Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (WM). With this approval, the ibrutinib prescribing information now includes combination use with rituximab, representing the first and only chemotherapy-free combination treatment specifically indicated for the disease. Ibrutinib- a first-in-class Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor-was first approved as a single agent therapy for WM in January 2015.. WM is a rare, slow-growing and incurable form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with limited treatment options. WM typically affects older adults and is primarily found in the bone marrow, although lymph nodes and the spleen also may be affected. In the United States, there are about 2,800 new cases of WM each year.. iNNOVATE Trial. The approval is supported by data from the phase III iNNOVATE trial, which evaluated ibrutinib in combination with rituximab vs rituximab alone in ...
Brad S. Kahl, MD, on the evidence for maintenance rituximab as a front-line treatment option in FLL. Dr. Kahl elaborates on the evidence for using rituximab maintenance as a front-line treatment option with bendamustine-rituxan in follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. Dr. Kahl elaborates on the evidence for using rituximab maintenance as a front-line treatment option with bendamustine-rituxan in follicular lymphoma .... ...
WALTHAM, Mass., Nov. 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Decision Resources, one of the worlds leading research and advisory firms focusing on pharmaceutical and healthcare issues, finds that surveyed U.S. rheumatologists anticipate using Bristol-Myers Squibbs Orencia and Biogen Idec/Genentech/ Chugai/Zenyaku Kogyos Rituxan, also marketed as Roches MabThera, more frequently in first- and second-line biologic therapy through 2010 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. "Currently, surveyed rheumatologists prescribe Orencia in earlier lines of therapy than Rituxan - 78 percent of them most commonly prescribe Orencia as a third-line biologic, whereas 51 percent of them use Rituxan as a fourth-line biologic," stated Madhuri Borde, Ph.D., analyst at Decision Resources. "Surveyed rheumatologists contend that physician familiarity, concern about the long-term effects of B-cell depletion with Rituxan and preference for Orencias mechanism of action influences physicians to prescribe Orencia instead of ...
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Neutropenia occurred after a median period of 4.5 months (ranging 3-6.5 months), following the last RTX infusion in the RA patients and five months (ranging 3-6.5 months) in OAIDs patients. One RA patient had neutrophils ,500/mm3, seven RA patients had neutrophils between 500 and 1,000/mm3, and 17 RA patients had neutrophils between 1,000 and 1,500/mm3. The OAID patients who developed LON were: seven patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, seven patients with vasculitis and one patient with myositis.. Nineteen patients who developed neutropenia after RTX treatment were retreated with RTX. Of those 19, three developed neutropenia again. No patients developed infections or needed growth factor treatment. In the RA patients who developed LON, no baseline risk factors were identified, except age and female gender. LON in RA occurred, but cases were relatively mild. The authors recommend monitoring blood counts following each cycle of RTX.. ...
Abstract:. Traditional administration of rituximab requires careful titration and may involve many hours to minimize the risk of reactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of rapid infusions of rituximab in a pilot group of children with hematologic, oncologic, and rheumatologic disorders, and to determine the incidence of rate-related infusion reactions. Twenty patients enrolled in the study. All patients tolerated the rapid infusion of rituximab and no patient had an infusion-related reaction. We conclude that rapid infusions of rituximab are well tolerated and safe in our pilot group of patients.. ...
Significant peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion has been observed after a first cycle of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, which is currently used in rheumatoid arthritis. Of note, an absence of CD4+ T-cell decrease has been observed in non-responders. Herein, we describe CD4+ T-cell changes over repeated cycles of rituximab and their relationship with clinical outcomes.. METHODS ...
MD Anderson News Release 05/31/2011. Landmark study of personalized therapy may lead to a "flood of new agents". MD Anderson News Release 05/31/11. A lymphoma vaccine uniquely tailored for each patient extends disease-free survival by 14 months, with signs of an even better response for patients with a specific biological marker, a team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today in the online version of Journal of Clinical Oncology.. "The study continues to show that the vaccine increases the usual time until relapse for follicular lymphoma by about 14 months. Thats significant because most cancer drugs are approved on the basis of extending survival only a few months," said Larry Kwak, M.D., Ph.D., corresponding author of the study. Kwak, who invented the vaccine while at the National Cancer Institute, chairs MD Andersons Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma.. "These results have the potential to usher in a new age of cancer vaccines," he said. "I ...
Those suffering from follicular lymphoma have become accustomed to bone marrow biopsies throughout their treatment so that doctors can monitor their responses.
In some HBV carrier cases, there have been reports of HBV reactivation and liver damage occurring during rituximab combination chemotherapy. Recently, with regard to the use of rituximab combination chemotherapy to treat non-Hodgkins lymphoma in people infected with HCV.
Monoclonal human IgG1 antibody against human CD20 Anti-hCD20-hIgG1 features the constant region of the human IgG1 isotype and the variable region of rituximab. Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen found on the surface of malignant and normal B lymphoc
Rituximab can prove to be an effective form of treatment when it comes to providing relief to patients suffering from membranous nephropathy, a kidney disorder.. This finding appeared in an issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN).. The beneficial effect of Rituximab was compared against nephropathy in terms of benefits during a systematic review conducted by Andrew Bomback, MD (University of North Carolina Kidney Center), and his colleagues.. It was remarked by Dr. Bomback that future studies would be crucial in ascertaining the true value of this drug and use of the drug must be made in research settings only till new studies are drawn.. ...
Full Title A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Multicenter Study of Intravenous PI3K Inhibitor Copanlisib in Combination with Standard Immunochemotherapy versus Standard Immunochemotherapy in Patients with Relapsed Indolent Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (iNHL) - CHRONOS-4 Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare treatment with copanlisib plus standard immunochemotherapy with immunochemotherapy alone in patients with slow-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that has come back despite prior therapy.
Rituximab - Get up-to-date information on Rituximab side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Rituximab
This is a retrospective observational study of a randomized controlled trial. Sound confusing? Its really not, and although its a small study it does offer some fresh insight into pathogenesis and treatment of complicated nephrotic syndrome. Source: Kamei K, Ishikura K, Sako M, et al. Long-term outcome of childhood-onset complicated nephrotic syndrome after a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rituximab. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017;32(11):2071-2078; doi:10.1007/s00467-017-3718-0. See AAP Grand Rounds commentary by Dr. Pamela Singer (subscription required). Its not hard to imagine how a randomized controlled trial (RCT) morphed into an observational study. In this report on rituximab use for complicated (frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent) nephrotic syndrome, the initial study was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in 52 (mostly) children with these conditions. Results of a preplanned interim analysis showed superiority of rituximab over ...
Most adverse experiences (AEs) were transient grade 1 or 2 events occurring during the treatment period. Clinically significant myelosuppression was not observed; hematologic toxicity was generally mild and reversible. No patient developed human antichimeric antibodies after treatment. The type, frequency, and severity of AEs in this study were not apparently different from those reported in the phase III trial of rituximab. The overall response rate in 57 assessable patients was 40% (11% complete response and 30% partial responses). Median time to progression (TTP) in responders and median duration of response (DR) have not been reached, but Kaplan-Meier estimated medians are 17.8 months (range, 5.4+ to 26.6 months) and 16.3 months (range, 3.7+ to 25.1 months), respectively. These estimated medians are longer than the medians achieved in the patients prior course of rituximab (TTP and DR of 12.4 and 9.8 months, respectively, P: ,.1) and in a previously reported phase III trial (TTP in ...
Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is recently described and there is a lack of detailed reports on the treatment of relapsing or refractory cases and long-term outcomes. Two case reports are presented. Both cases had faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) and received rituximab after relapsing or refractory disease. Both cases achieved sustained clinical remission of up to 15 and 56 months respectively. Rituximab use allowed withdrawal of corticosteroids and was well tolerated. Randomized clinical trials are needed in LGI1 encephalitis and other autoimmune encephalitides.
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Bei mehr als 4% der Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis können pulmonale Rheumaknoten nachgewiesen werden. Diagnostisch müssen diese Knoten von malignen und infektiösen Prozessen abgegrenzt werden. In vorliegendem Fall wird ein gutes Ansprechen eines pulmonalen Rheumaknotens auf Rituximab beschrieben. Pulmonary rheumatoid nodules can be found in over 4% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnostically they have to be differentiated from malignant and infectious processes. The present article describes a case of pulmonary rheumatoid nodule which responded well to Rituximab therapy.
In multiple sclerosis (MS), B cell-depleting therapy using monoclonal anti-CD20 Abs, including rituximab (RTX) and ocrelizumab, effectively reduces disease activity. Based on indirect evidence, it is generally believed that elimination of the Ag-presenting capabilities and Ag nonspecific immune functions of B cells underlie the therapeutic efficacy. However, a small subset of T lymphocytes (T cells) was shown to also express CD20, but controversy prevails surrounding the true existence of this T cell subpopulation. Using single-cell imaging flow cytometry and expression profiling of sorted lymphocyte subsets, we unequivocally demonstrate the existence of CD3+CD20dim T cells. We show that in MS patients, increased levels of CD3+CD20dim T cells are effectively depleted by RTX. The pathological relevance of this T cell subset in MS remains to be determined. However, given their potential proinflammatory functionality, depletion of CD20-expressing T cells may also contribute to the therapeutic ...
The FDA has approved use of rituximab (Rituxan) as maintenance therapy for advanced follicular lymphoma in patients with an initial response to induction therapy with the drug plus chemotherapy, its m
In this report, we present our results of the biochemotherapy combination of rituximab (Rituxan), a monoclonal antibody against CD20, with fludarabine (Fludara) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar). 1
Professor Paul Emery from the University of Leeds in the UK led the DANCER study (Double blind placebo controlled dose ranging study), designed to confirm the efficacy of rituximab for the treatment of patients with active RA who have failed to improve on one or more disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Rituximab targets a specific type of immune cell and helps to control inflammation and pain ...
A total of 33 CLL/SLL patients were enrolled; only one patient discontinued therapy because of infusion-related toxicity. Thirteen patients developed transient hypoxemia, hypotension, or dyspnea that were associated with significant changes in baseline interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma compared with those not experiencing such reactions. Infusion-related toxicity occurred more commonly in older (median age 73 v 62 years; P =.02) patients with no other pretreatment clinical or laboratory features predicting occurrence of these events. The overall response rate was 45% (3% CR, 42% PR; 95% CI 28% to 64%). Median response duration for these 15 patients was 10 months (95% CI, 6.8-13.2; range, 3 to 17+). Conclusion: ...
ATLANTA -- An intensive immunochemotherapy regimen may be curative for some patients with mantle cell lymphoma, a Nordic research team said here.
Rituximab (Rituxan) therapy is successfully used to treat many B-cell malignancies. Absent or diminished CD20 expression on certain B-cell tumors may limit the efficacy of CD20-directed serotherapies 1
Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated efficacy in patients with various lymphoid malignancies, including indolent and aggressive forms of B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (N
Results: Within a mean period of observation of 11 (1-37) months, 21 (58 %) pemphigus patients showed complete, 13 (36 %) partial, and 2 (6 %) no response to rituximab treatment. This correlates with a mean improvement of the visual analog scale for well-being of 34 (20-60) at baseline to 75 (40-95) at the last control visit. In 4 (11 %) patients, severe adverse events were recorded including 1 (3 %) serious infection.. ...
A new study looking at the uses and side effects of Actemra, Enbrel and Rituxan suggests that observational studies may be a better predictor of drug effectiveness and safety than clinical trials.
Pescovitz MD, Torgerson TR, Ochs HD, Ocheltree E, McGee P, Krause-Steinrauf H, Lachin JM, Canniff J, Greenbaum C, Herold KC, Skyler JS, Weinberg A, Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group.: Effect of rituximab on human in vivo antibody immune responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Dec; 2011 Sep 9. PMID: 21908031 Akirav EM, Lebastchi J, Galvan EM, Henegariu O, Akirav M, Ablamunits V, Lizardi PM, Herold KC: Detection of β cell death in diabetes using differentially methylated circulating DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 22; 2011 Nov 9. PMID: 22074781 Herold KC, Pescovitz MD, McGee P, Krause-Steinrauf H, Spain LM, Bourcier K, Asare A, Liu Z, Lachin JM, Dosch HM, Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Anti-CD20 Study Group.: Increased T cell proliferative responses to islet antigens identify clinical responders to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) therapy in type 1 diabetes. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15; 2011 Jul 20. PMID: 21775681 Herold KC, Bluestone JA: Type 1 diabetes immunotherapy: is the glass half ...
Detailed drug Information for rituximab Intravenous. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
LONDON (Reuters) - European regulators confirmed on Friday that Roches blockbuster cancer drug MabThera, also known as Rituxan, was safe to use, following a...
Artrita juvenilă idiopatică cuprinde un grup heterogen de boli cu debut în copilărie care afectează structura ţesutului conjunctiv. Add 20 g of NaOH to the hatching cone. Other videos from alyn_ 9212 Boala Parkinson. Inhalare de polen etc. Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is an autoimmune disease where the body attacks the lining tissue of joints, causing chronic joint inflammation. Terapii care implică limfocitul B RITUXIMAB ( MABTHERA) Este un anticorp monoclonal antiCD20 ...
Patients with a type of leukemia that had relapsed who received the new drug Venclexta in combination with Rituxan went significantly longer without the disease worsening than those treated with Rituxan and Treanda, according to interim results from a pivotal late stage study released on Tuesday.
Gilead announced Phase 2 results for idelalisib, an oral inhibitor of PI3K delta in combination with rituximab for older patients with treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
And so a period of relative freedom draws to a close. Tomorrow I go in firstly for an echocardiogram to check my heart is still looking OK, then upstairs to my good friends in Ward 11 to start Cycle 4. This is the same as Cycle 2 - 1 day of Rituximab, which takes about…
Primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL) is a rare kind of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rituximab combined with high-dose methotrexate, cytarabine and dexamethasone (R-MAD regimen) were reported effective for PCNSL patients. Rituximab can cause several side effects, including fever, chills and rigors. In this case report, we demonstrate rituximab-induced interstitial pneumonitis in a PCNSL patient who has been treated with R-MAD regimen. The patient recovered after treatment and she remains complete remission after following consolidation chemotherapy. Here is no report of potential fatal complications of Rituximab like interstitial pneumonitis nowadays in PCNSL patients. As Rituximab is widely used, physicians should raise their awareness of this rare complication and detect RTX-ILD in early stage.
article{8038961, author = {BONROY, CAROLIEN and Smith, Vanessa and Deschepper, Ellen and De Keyser, Filip and Devreese, Katrien}, issn = {0315-162X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {247--249}, title = {Specific antinuclear antibody level changes after B cell depletion therapy in systemic sclerosis are associated with improvement of skin thickening}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.150105}, volume = {43}, year = {2016 ...
In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, first-line treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; salvage with cisplatin-based regimens for relapsing patients; and autologous stem cell therapy are standards of care. Treatment approaches are less clear for patients who are refractory or who are not candidates for autologous stem cell therapy. Options may include palliative regimens or clinical trial enrollment. One therapy under investigation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic activity. We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had an early relapse after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. He then had a subsequent early relapse after cisplatin-based salvage consolidated with autologous stem cell therapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin-rituximab was limited to five months, followed by
1 of 2 NCCN QUICK GUIDE tm Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma, 2017 This NCCNQUICK GUIDE tm sheet summarizes key points from the complet e NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma . T hese guidelines explain which tests and treatments are recommended by experts in cancer. To view and download the guidelines, visit NCC N.or g/patients or, to order printed copies, visit Amazon.com What is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)? Lymphoma is a cancer of white blood cells called lymphocytes that are within the lymphatic system. This system transports fluids to the bloodstream and fights germs. DLBCL is a cancer of B-cells that are from within or have been released by germinal centers of lymphatic organs. 9 How is DLBCL diagnosed? Tissue from the tumor will likely be removed with an incisional or excisional biopsy. A doctor will test the tissue to look for a pattern of proteins on the cells surface that is common to DLBCL. 10 What health care is needed before treatment? A report of ...
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody approved for treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that targets CD20, an antigen expressed by mature B cells. Single-agent rituximab treatment elicits clinical responses in many patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas such as follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but few treatment options are available for patients who relapse or are refractory to rituximab. Another B-cell antigen, CD22, which is expressed by the vast majority of B-cell cancers but not by lymphocyte precursors or memory B cells, also represents an attractive target for non-Hodgkin lymphoma therapy. Inotuzumab ozogamicin (INO) is a CD22-targeted therapy in which a humanized CD22 antibody is conjugated to calicheamicin, a cytotoxic antibiotic. In a multicenter open-label phase I/II study, Fayad and colleagues evaluated the combination of rituximab and inotuzumab ozogamicin (R-INO) in patients with relapsed FL, relapsed DLBCL, or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas. A ...
In this study we assessed the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count and elected the best cut-off value at diagnosis, in a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were retrieved for therapy-naive patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma followed in Israel and Italy during1993-2010. A final cohort of 1017 patients was analyzed with a median follow up of 48 months and a 5 year overall survival rate of 68%. The best absolute monocyte count cut-off level was, 630/mm3and the 5 years overall survival for these patients was 71% and 59% for those with ,630mm3 (p=0.0002). Of the 1017 patients, 521 (51%) were treated with chemo-immunotherapy, and in this cohort, using multivariate analysis, elevated monocyte counte retained a negative prognostic value even when adjusted for IPI (HR 1.54, P=0.009). This large study shows that a simple parameter like absolute monocyte count (,630 /mm3) can easily be used routinely in the evaluation of newly diagnosed diffuse large ...
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) in the head and neck region are malignant lymphoid neoplasms that usually originate from B-lymphocytic cell lines. Primary extranodal manifestations of this hematolymphoid tumor in the oral cavity are rare and involve the maxillary jaw including the palatal soft tissues, the mandible, and gingival tissues in patients between 60 and 70 years of age without sex predilection. This case report of an extra nodal NHL in the palate of a 75-year-old patient emphasizes the importance of accurate clinical, radiographic, and histologic diagnostic procedures to avoid delayed diagnosis or inappropriate treatment strategies. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of the two with a regular clinical and hemic follow-up is recommended. (Quintessence Int 2010;41:93 97 ...
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Direct s, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2015, provides...
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RnRMarketResearch.com adds report "B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014" to its store.. B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014. Summary. GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014″ provides data on the B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma clinical trial scenario. This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. It includes an overview of the trial numbers and their recruitment status as per the site of trial conduction across the globe. The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis ...
Radioimmunotherapy treatment with Zevalin® (ibritumomab tiuxetan) is safe and effective in high-risk elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, according to the results of a study published in Clinical Cancer Research. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) refers to a group of cancers that originate in different cells of the immune system. Diffuse large B-cell NHL is a common type of NHL that affects immune cells called B-cells; it is considered an aggressive type of NHL.. Standard treatment for DLBCL typically includes R-CHOP, which refers to treatment with the monoclonal antibody Rituxan® (rituxamab) plus cyclophosphamide/Adriamycin/vincristine/prednisone (CHOP). Although this regimen has led to improved outcomes, there is a group of poor-risk patients who need an alternative treatment strategy.. Zevalin is a type of radioimmunotherapy treatment (RIT) that combines the monoclonal antibody Rituxan with Zevalin, which is comprised of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and Yttrium-90, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic value of FDG-PET prior to autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. AU - Sauter, Craig S.. AU - Matasar, Matthew J.. AU - Meikle, Jessica. AU - Schoder, Heiko. AU - Ulaner, Gary A.. AU - Migliacci, Jocelyn C.. AU - Hilden, Patrick. AU - Devlin, Sean M.. AU - Zelenetz, Andrew D.. AU - Moskowitz, Craig. PY - 2015/4/16. Y1 - 2015/4/16. N2 - High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) plus autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for chemosensitive relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (rel/ref DLBCL). Interim restaging with functional imaging by positron emission tomography using 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) has not been established after salvage chemotherapy (ST) and before HDT-ASCT by modern criteria. Herein, we evaluated 129 patients with rel/ref DLBCL proceeding to HDT-ASCT, with ST response assessment by FDG-PET according to the contemporary Deauville 5-point scale. At 3 years, patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase 2 trial of CHOP chemotherapy followed by tositumomab/iodine I 131 tositumomab for previously untreated follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. T2 - Southwest Oncology Group Protocol S9911. AU - Press, Oliver W.. AU - Unger, Joseph M.. AU - Braziel, Rita M.. AU - Maloney, David G.. AU - Miller, Thomas P. AU - LeBlanc, Michael. AU - Gaynor, Ellen R.. AU - Rivkin, Saul E.. AU - Fisher, Richard I.. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - Advanced follicular lymphoma is incurable with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) conducted a phase 2 trial (S9911) of a novel regimen consisting of 6 cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy followed 4 to 8 weeks later by tositumomab/iodine I 131 tositumomab (anti-CD20 antibody) in 90 eligible patients with previously untreated, advanced stage follicular lymphoma. Treatment was well tolerated. Reversible myelosuppression was the main adverse event and was more ...
Title: Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as an Anterior Chest Wall Mass: A Case Report and Literature Review. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Chrissy A. Navejar and Michael J. Morris. Affiliation:Department of Medicine (MCHE-MD), Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, FT SAM Houston, TX 78234-0709, USA.. Abstract: The association of malignant lymphoma with subsequent development of a solitary chest wall mass is uncommon. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a subcategory of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that commonly affects the stomach, thyroid, parotid glands, and lungs. There is a defined association between preexisting inflammation and the development of these lymphomas. It is also well known to have a predilection to disseminate to extranodal sites in a noncontiguous manner and has been previously reported to affect the chest wall in less than 100 cases. We present the case of an enlarging chest wall mass with an associated lymphomatous pleural effusion found to be an unusual ...
Mixed warm and cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia runs a chronic course with severe intermittent exacerbations. Therapeutic options for the treatment of hemolysis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia are limited. There have been only two reported cases of the effective use of rituximab in the treatment of patients with mixed autoimmune hemolytic anemia. We report a case of severe mixed autoimmune hemolytic anemia that did not respond to steroids and responded to four weekly doses of rituximab (one cycle). A 62-year-old Caucasian man presented with dyspnea, jaundice and splenomegaly. His blood work revealed severe anemia (hemoglobin, 4.9 g/dL) with biochemical evidence of hemolysis. Exposure to cold led to worsening of the patients hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. A direct antiglobulin test was positive for immunoglobulin G and complement C3d, and cold agglutinins of immunoglobulin M type were detected. A bone marrow biopsy revealed erythroid hyperplasia. A positron emission tomographic scan showed no

Characterization of monoclonal antibodys binding kinetics using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference approach.  - PubMed ...Characterization of monoclonal antibody's binding kinetics using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference approach. - PubMed ...

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/chemistry*. *Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/immunology. *Antibody Affinity* ... Characterization of monoclonal antibodys binding kinetics using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference approach.. Liu S1, ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human proteins are the primary protein capture reagents for basic research, diagnosis, and ... Characterization of monoclonal antibodys binding kinetics using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference approach ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25530170

CCKBR | Cancer Genetics WebCCKBR | Cancer Genetics Web

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. *Liver Cancer. *Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. *Introns. *Thyroid Cancer ... The role of αv integrin on gastrin-induced cell adhesion was examined using blocking anti-αv integrin monoclonal antibodies. ... The use of blocking anti-αv integrin monoclonal antibodies completely reversed the increase in cell-substrate adhesion induced ... BACKGROUND: Administration of trastuzumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody targeted to the human epidermal growth factor ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CCKBR.htm

MEDLINE - Resultado de la b squeda |p gina  1|
	MEDLINE - Resultado de la b squeda |p gina 1|

0 (AIDS Vaccines); 0 (Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived); 0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (HIV Antibodies); 0 (HIV ... Each of the 852 mutants was expressed in human cells and screened for antigenicity using four different monoclonal antibodies ( ... Anticuerpos Monoclonales de Origen Murino/inmunolog a. Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunolog a. C lulas HEK293. Anticuerpos Anti ... The parental protein target, the clade B strain B41 SOSIP.664 gp140, does not bind the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT151 and ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&base=MEDLINE&lang=e&nextAction=lnk&isisFrom=1&count=10&exprSearch=sida%20or%20vih

The point on the ongoing B-cell depleting trials currently in progress over the world in primary Sjögrens syndrome.The point on the ongoing B-cell depleting trials currently in progress over the world in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / drug ... 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0/hLL2 agent; 0/rituximab ... will include 100 patients having anti-Ro/La antibodies, reduced basal secretion but an increased salivary flow with stimulation ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/point-ongoing-B-cell-depleting/20452466.html

Use and monitoring of low dose rituximab in myasthenia gravis.Use and monitoring of low dose rituximab in myasthenia gravis.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived (therapeutic use) *Autoantibodies (blood) *B-Lymphocytes (drug effects) ... Rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody to CD20, leads to B lymphocyte depletion and has been used in some autoimmune disorders ... Patients were monitored by serial clinical assessments, flow cytometry of peripheral blood B lymphocytes and antibody testing. ... or muscle specific kinase antibody (MuSK) positive myasthenia gravis (three subjects), who had been treated with RTX in ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed21071753.do

Serum interleukin-18 level is associated with the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP or R...Serum interleukin-18 level is associated with the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP or R...

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived (therapeutic use) *Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (therapeutic use) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed21575062.do

Empirical ROC curve using IL threshold values.a) IL-10  | Open-iEmpirical ROC curve using IL threshold values.a) IL-10 | Open-i

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/pharmacology*. *Aqueous Humor/drug effects*/metabolism*. *Interleukin-10/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3672178_pone.0065627.g001&req=4

Characterization of transgenic mice expressing OvPrP-A1 | Open-iCharacterization of transgenic mice expressing OvPrP-A1 | Open-i

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/chemistry/pharmacology. *Cattle. *Humans. *Mice. *Mice, Transgenic. *Sheep ... Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb) PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed ... Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb) PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3814339_ppat.1003692.g001&req=4

peripheral t cell lymphoma stage ii drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineperipheral t cell lymphoma stage ii drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antineoplastic ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=peripheral+t+cell+lymphoma+stage+ii+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

basaloid skin squamous cell carcinoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginebasaloid skin squamous cell carcinoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40 ... Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, ... NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .. *. [Email] Email this result item ... NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .. *[Source] The source of this record ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=basaloid+skin+squamous+cell+carcinoma+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

B-cell depletion - A frontier in monoclonal antibodies for multiple sclerosis<...B-cell depletion - A frontier in monoclonal antibodies for multiple sclerosis<...

Murine-Derived Monoclonal Antibodies CD20 Antigens Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized Multiple Sclerosis B-Lymphocytes ... Calabresi, Peter A./ B-cell depletion - A frontier in monoclonal antibodies for multiple sclerosis. In: New England Journal of ... Calabresi, P. A. (2017). B-cell depletion - A frontier in monoclonal antibodies for multiple sclerosis. New England Journal of ... Calabresi, PA 2017, B-cell depletion - A frontier in monoclonal antibodies for multiple sclerosis New England Journal of ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/b-cell-depletion-a-frontier-in-monoclonal-antibodies-for-multiple

Medical Sciences | Free Full-Text | Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as  Antigen-Binding DomainsMedical Sciences | Free Full-Text | Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv), often derived from murine monoclonal ... antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted ... often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2076-3271/2/1/23

Stephen Maxted Ansell, MD, PhD - Research Output
     - Mayo ClinicStephen Maxted Ansell, MD, PhD - Research Output - Mayo Clinic

Murine-Derived Monoclonal Antibodies Watchful Waiting Follicular Lymphoma Antineoplastic Agents 83 Citations (Scopus) ... Elevated monoclonal and polyclonal serum immunoglobulin free light chain as prognostic factors in B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin ... MR elastography derived shear stiffness - A new imaging biomarker for the assessment of early tumor response to chemotherapy. ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/stephen-maxted-ansell/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=publicationYearThenTitle&descending=false&page=4

MedGen for PubMed (Select 18096313) - MedGen - NCBIMedGen for PubMed (Select 18096313) - MedGen - NCBI

A murine-derived monoclonal antibody and ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT that binds specifically to the CD20 ANTIGEN and is used in the ... A humanized monoclonal antibody against the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR (HER2). As an ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT, it is used to treat BREAST ... and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen?LinkName=pubmed_medgen&from_uid=18096313

DGIdb - MUROMONAB-CD3 Drug RecordDGIdb - MUROMONAB-CD3 Drug Record

antibodies, monoclonal, murine-derived. Drug Categories. antibodies, monoclonal. Drug Categories. antibodies. Drug Categories. ...
more infohttp://www.dgidb.org/drugs/MUROMONAB-CD3

Vascular NeoplasmsVascular Neoplasms

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. 6. + 120. Niacinamide. 6. + 121. DNA. 6. + 122. DNA-Binding Proteins. 6. + ...
more infohttps://lookfordiagnosis.com/results.php?symptoms=Vascular+Neoplasms&lang=1&parent=%2F&mode=F&therapy_ap=1

sg:pub.10.1007/s00262-002-0347-6 - Springer Nature SciGraphsg:pub.10.1007/s00262-002-0347-6 - Springer Nature SciGraph

": "Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived", "type": "DefinedTerm" }, { "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", " ... Human/mouse chimeric antibodies show low reactivity with human anti-murine antibodies (HAMA) in BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER ... Tumor targeting with monoclonal antibody B72.3: Experimental and clinical results in CANCER IMAGING WITH RADIOLABELED ... Radioimmunotherapy for model B cell malignancies using 90Y-labeled anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in LEUKEMIA ...
more infohttps://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00262-002-0347-6

Outcome of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP: results from the UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 trial...Outcome of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP: results from the UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 trial...

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cyclophosphamide. ...
more infohttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/623

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse - pathology , Skin Neoplasms - therapy , Rituximab , ... BORRELIA-BURGDORFERI INFECTION , MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY RITUXIMAB , COMPLETE REMISSION , PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS , HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ... Antibodies, Monoclonal - administration & dosage , Lymphoma, B-Cell - pathology ... Full Text Infection-associated lymphomas derived from marginal zone B cells: A model of antigen-driven lymphoproliferation ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Lymphoma,%20B-Cell,%20Marginal%20Zone%20-%20complications

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

antibodies, monoclonal, murine-derived (165) 165 Filter by. Remove filter. graft rejection - prevention & control (162) 162 ... antibodies, monoclonal, humanized - administration & dosage (114) 114 Filter by. Remove filter. graft vs host disease - ... antibodies, monoclonal, humanized - adverse effects (105) 105 Filter by. Remove filter. immunosuppressive agents - adverse ... TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES , ANTI-CD40 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY , METASTATIC MALIGNANT-MELANOMA , PHASE-II TRIAL , CELL-LUNG- ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Alemtuzumab%20-%20therapeutic%20use

HypothesisHypothesis

A monoclonal antibody The spec only refers to murine (mouse derived) monoclonal antibodies. ... 2. The antibody of claim 1 which is a murine monoclonal antibody. ... 6. The antibody of claim 5 which is a murine monoclonal antibody. ... 6. The antibody of claim 5 which is a murine monoclonal antibody. This is an intentional duplicate of https://hyp.is/ ...
more infohttps://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3AElement_01

Shah, S.<...Shah, S.<...

Murine-Derived Monoclonal Antibodies Medicine & Life Sciences Atrial Fibrillation Medicine & Life Sciences ... Calciphylaxis in catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Shah, S., Larson, A. & Datta, Y., Jun 6 2015, In : Blood ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/persons/surbhi-shah
  • The chimeric antibodies and their derivatives are used for clinical purposes in vitro and in vivo, especially for the diagnosis of cancer, for localization and in vivo imaging of tumors, for therapy, e.g. site-directed delivery of cytotoxins, and similar purposes. (google.com)
  • Engineering of antibody constructs with optimal blood clearance and tumor-targeting kinetics, and selecting the radionuclide that may deliver sufficient radiation energy to kill the more radio-resistant carcinomas, are discussed. (springernature.com)
  • The non-overlapping toxicities of naked antibodies and chemotherapy, together with their potential synergy, which is based on unique and complementary mechanisms of action, have contributed to the creation of new standards of care in cancer therapy and management. (springernature.com)
  • In addition to surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, many neuroblastoma patients at MSKCC were treated with a murine (mouse-derived) monoclonal antibody called 3F8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the antibody also binds to peripheral nerve cells, the treatment is painful, but it is generally without long-term complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • and an insert coding for said light chain variable region and said heavy chain murine variable region. (google.com)
  • First, using quantitative COS cell adhesion assays, we demonstrated that Ly-49C B6 bound to D d , D b , K b , or K k as well as to murine leukemic cell lines GM979 (H-2 s ) and IC-21 (H-2 b ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cabilly et al "Generation of Antibody Activity from Immunoglobulin Polypeptide Chains Produced in Escherichia Coli"0 Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • C ) OIRD sensorgrams of 9 antigen-antibody interactions obtained simultaneously in a single reaction chamber. (nih.gov)
  • Several monoclonal antibody technologies had been developed recently, such as phage display, single B cell culture, single cell amplification from various B cell populations and single plasma cell interrogation technologies. (wikipedia.org)